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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 324)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 240)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Toxicological Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.538
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1096-6080 - ISSN (Online) 1096-0929
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [419 journals]
  • In Memoriam: Donald J. Reed (1930–2022)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac048
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • ToxPoint: Copper Is the New Showstopper

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      Pages: 3 - 4
      Abstract: coppercuproptosismitochondriananotoxicologytrace element
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac071
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • New Drug Modalities Demand a Refined Preclinical Safety Assessment: A Call
           for Patient-Relevant Tissue Models

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      Pages: 5 - 6
      Abstract: Engaging a patient’s own immune system to fight cancer has been a continuously emerging approach over the last decade and increasing data reported superior efficacy in a number of cases over eg, traditional chemotherapeutic interventions (Yang, 2015). Cancer immunotherapy is making use of a variety of different modalities ranging from engineered large molecules to cell-based therapies, and among these different approaches and modalities, dual targeting antibodies—so-called “bi-specifics”—hold high promise to effectively activate T cells and move them to the site of action at the tumor by virtue of binding sites for both T cells, (CD3) and a tumor-enriched target. Thus, these types of molecules are designed to overcome cancer cells’ evasion of the immune system by engaging patients’ own T cells to directly target cancer cells (Arvedson et al., 2022).
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac069
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in Toxicological Sciences

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      Pages: 7 - 19
      Abstract: AbstractMachine learning and artificial intelligence approaches have revolutionized multiple disciplines, including toxicology. This review summarizes representative recent applications of machine learning and artificial intelligence approaches in different areas of toxicology, including physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling for toxicity prediction, adverse outcome pathway analysis, high-throughput screening, toxicogenomics, big data, and toxicological databases. By leveraging machine learning and artificial intelligence approaches, now it is possible to develop PBPK models for hundreds of chemicals efficiently, to create in silico models to predict toxicity for a large number of chemicals with similar accuracies compared with in vivo animal experiments, and to analyze a large amount of different types of data (toxicogenomics, high-content image data, etc.) to generate new insights into toxicity mechanisms rapidly, which was impossible by manual approaches in the past. To continue advancing the field of toxicological sciences, several challenges should be considered: (1) not all machine learning models are equally useful for a particular type of toxicology data, and thus it is important to test different methods to determine the optimal approach; (2) current toxicity prediction is mainly on bioactivity classification (yes/no), so additional studies are needed to predict the intensity of effect or dose-response relationship; (3) as more data become available, it is crucial to perform rigorous data quality check and develop infrastructure to store, share, analyze, evaluate, and manage big data; and (4) it is important to convert machine learning models to user-friendly interfaces to facilitate their applications by both computational and bench scientists.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac075
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Potential Biomarker Identification by RNA-Seq Analysis in
           Antibiotic-Related Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms
           (DRESS): A Pilot Study

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      Pages: 20 - 31
      Abstract: AbstractOne of the most severe forms of cutaneous adverse drug reactions is “drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms” (DRESS), hence subsequent avoidance of the causal drug is imperative. However, attribution of drug culpability in DRESS is challenging and standard skin allergy tests are not recommended due to patient safety reasons. Whilst incidence of DRESS is relatively low, between 1:1000 and 1:10 000 drug exposures, antibiotics are a commoner cause of DRESS and absence of confirmatory diagnostic test can result in unnecessary avoidance of efficacious treatment. We therefore sought to identify potential biomarkers for development of a diagnostic test in antibiotic-associated DRESS. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a “discovery” cohort (n = 5) challenged to causative antibiotic or control were analyzed for transcriptomic profile. A panel of genes was then tested in a validation cohort (n = 6) and compared with tolerant controls and other inflammatory conditions which can clinically mimic DRESS. A scoring system to identify presence of drug hypersensitivity was developed based on gene expression alterations of this panel. The DRESS transcriptomic panel identified antibiotic-DRESS cases in a validation cohort but was not altered in other inflammatory conditions. Machine learning or differential expression selection of a biomarker panel consisting of 6 genes (STAC, GPR183, CD40, CISH, CD4, and CCL8) showed high sensitivity and specificity (100% and 85.7%–100%, respectively) for identification of the culprit drug in these cohorts of antibiotic-associated DRESS. Further work is required to determine whether the same panel can be repeated for larger cohorts, different medications, and other T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac062
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Characterization of an Anti-CD70 Half-Life Extended Bispecific T-Cell
           Engager (HLE-BiTE) and Associated On-Target Toxicity in Cynomolgus Monkeys
           

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      Pages: 32 - 50
      Abstract: AbstractBispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) molecules have great potential to treat cancer. Nevertheless, dependent on the targeted tumor antigen, the mechanism of action that drives efficacy may also contribute to on-target/off-tumor toxicities. In this study, we characterize an anti-CD70 half-life extended BiTE molecule (termed N6P) which targets CD70, a TNF family protein detected in several cancers. First, the therapeutic potential of N6P was demonstrated using in vitro cytotoxicity assays and an orthotopic xenograft mouse study resulting in potent killing of CD70+ cancer cells. Next, in vitro characterization demonstrated specificity for CD70 and equipotent activity against human and cynomolgus monkey CD70+ cells. To understand the potential for on-target toxicity, a tissue expression analysis was performed and indicated CD70 is primarily restricted to lymphocytes in normal healthy tissues and cells. Therefore, no on-target toxicity was expected to be associated with N6P. However, in a repeat-dose toxicology study using cynomolgus monkeys, adverse N6P-mediated inflammation was identified in multiple tissues frequently involving the mesothelium and epithelium. Follow-up immunohistochemistry analysis revealed CD70 expression in mesothelial and epithelial cells in some tissues with N6P-mediated injury, but not in control tissues or those without injury. Collectively, the data indicate that for some target antigens such as CD70, BiTE molecules may exhibit activity in tissues with very low antigen expression or the antigen may be upregulated under stress enabling molecule activity. This work illustrates how a thorough understanding of expression and upregulation is needed to fully address putative liabilities associated with on-target/off-tumor activity of CD3 bispecific molecules.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac052
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Persistent γ-H2AX Formation and Expression of Stem Cell Markers in
           N-Butyl-N-(4-Hydroxybutyl)Nitrosamine-Induced Bladder Carcinogenesis in
           Rats

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      Pages: 51 - 61
      Abstract: AbstractWe investigated γ-H2AX formation, a biomarker of DNA damage, and expression of stem cell markers (SCMs), including cytokeratin 14, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), and CD44, in the development of rat bladder tumors induced by short-term administration of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN). Histopathological examination showed that diffuse simple hyperplasia of the bladder urothelium induced by BBN recovered to the normal-appearing urothelium after withdrawal, whereas focal proliferative lesions were newly developed and subsequently progressed to benign papilloma and carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that BBN-induced γ-H2AX formation and ALDH1A1 and CD44 expression persisted at higher levels in the normal-appearing urothelium than those in the control group for long periods after withdrawal. Since persistent chronic inflammation was observed even after withdrawal, targeted gene expression analysis of inflammation-related factors revealed 101 genes, including Stat3 and Myc, that showed persistent high expression. Pathway analysis suggested that Stat3 and/or Myc activation may be associated with SCM expression. We focused on hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf), one of the genes predicted in relation to Stat3/Myc, and confirmed that HGF-positive cells increased by BBN persisted in the normal-appearing urothelium after withdrawal and colocalized with γ-H2AX and SCMs. These results suggested that the long-term persistence of γ-H2AX formation and SCM expression, which occurred during the early stages of bladder tumorigenesis, is not a transient response to exposure and might contribute to bladder tumorigenesis. Although further studies are needed, BBN-induced rat bladder tumors may originate from focal hyperplasia arising from SCM-positive cells via activation of the STAT3/MYC pathway after DNA damage involving γ-H2AX formation.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac064
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Increased Renal Expression of Complement Components in Patients With Liver
           Diseases: Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis, Alcohol-Associated, Viral
           Hepatitis, and Alcohol-Viral Combination

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      Pages: 62 - 72
      Abstract: AbstractInflammatory liver diseases, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and ALD/HCV, account for nearly 2 million deaths annually. Despite increasing evidence that liver dysfunction impacts renal physiology, there is limited supportive clinical information, due to limited diagnosis of liver disease, complexity in liver disease etiology, and inadequacy of renal function tests. Human kidney biopsies with liver and renal pathology were obtained from patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), NASH, ALD, HCV, and ALD/HCV (n = 5–7). Each liver disease showed renal pathology with at least 50% interstitial nephritis, 50% interstitial fibrosis, and renal dysfunction by estimated glomerular filtration rate (NAFLD 36.7 ± 21.4; NASH 32.7 ± 15.0; ALD 16.0 ± 11.0; HCV 27.6 ± 11.5; ALD/HCV 21.0 ± 11.2 ml/min/1.73 m2). Transcriptomic analysis identified 55 genes with expression changes in a conserved direction in response to liver disease. Considering association with immune regulation, protein levels of alpha-2-macroglobulin, clusterin, complement C1q C chain (C1QC), CD163, and joining chain of multimeric IgA and IgM (JCHAIN) were further quantified by LC-MS/MS. C1QC demonstrated an increase in NASH, ALD, HCV, and ALD/HCV (42.9 ± 16.6; 38.8 ± 18.4; 39.0 ± 13.5; 40.1 ± 20.1 pmol/mg protein) relative to control (19.2 ± 10.4 pmol/mg protein; p ≤ 0.08). Renal expression changes identified in inflammatory liver diseases with interstitial pathology suggest the pathogenesis of liver associated renal dysfunction. This unique cohort overcomes diagnostic discrepancies and sample availability to provide insight for mechanistic investigations on the impact of liver dysfunction on renal physiology.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac070
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Adrenal Stress Hormone Regulation of Hepatic Homeostatic Function After an
           Acute Ozone Exposure in Wistar-Kyoto Male Rats

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      Pages: 73 - 90
      Abstract: AbstractOzone-induced lung injury, inflammation, and pulmonary/hypothalamus gene expression changes are diminished in adrenalectomized (AD) rats. Acute ozone exposure induces metabolic alterations concomitant with increases in epinephrine and corticosterone. We hypothesized that adrenal hormones are responsible for observed hepatic ozone effects, and in AD rats, these changes would be diminished. In total, 5–7 days after sham (SH) or AD surgeries, male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to air or 0.8-ppm ozone for 4 h. Serum samples were analyzed for metabolites and liver for transcriptional changes immediately post-exposure. Ozone increased circulating triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty-acids, and leptin in SH but not AD rats. Ozone-induced inhibition of glucose-mediated insulin release was absent in AD rats. Unlike diminution of ozone-induced hypothalamus and lung mRNA expression changes, AD in air-exposed rats (AD-air/SH-air) caused differential hepatic expression of ∼1000 genes. Likewise, ozone in AD rats caused differential expression of ∼1000 genes (AD-ozone/AD-air). Ozone-induced hepatic changes in SH rats reflected enrichment for pathways involving metabolic processes, including acetyl-CoA biosynthesis, TCA cycle, and sirtuins. Upstream predictor analysis identified similarity to responses produced by glucocorticoids and pathways involving forskolin. These changes were absent in AD rats exposed to ozone. However, ozone caused unique changes in AD liver mRNA reflecting activation of synaptogenesis, neurovascular coupling, neuroinflammation, and insulin signaling with inhibition of senescence pathways. In these rats, upstream predictor analysis identified numerous microRNAs likely involved in glucocorticoid insufficiency. These data demonstrate the critical role of adrenal stress hormones in ozone-induced hepatic homeostasis and necessitate further research elucidating their role in propagating environmentally driven diseases.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac065
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Multigenerational Effects of an Environmentally Relevant Phthalate Mixture
           on Reproductive Parameters and Ovarian miRNA Expression in Female Rats

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      Pages: 91 - 106
      Abstract: AbstractPhthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals used in many consumer products. Our laboratory previously developed an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture consisting of 6 phthalates and found that it disrupted female fertility in mice. However, it was unknown if maternal exposure to the mixture affects reproductive parameters and ovarian post-transcription in the F1 and F2 generation of female rats. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to the phthalate mixture affects folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, and ovarian microRNA (miRNA) in the F1 and F2 generations of female rats. Pregnant female rats were divided into 4 groups and orally dosed daily from gestational day 10 to postnatal day 21 with corn oil (control group), 20 μg/kg/day, 200 μg/kg/day, or 200 mg/kg/day of the phthalate mixture. Maternal exposure to the phthalate mixture impaired folliculogenesis in the F1 and F2 generations of female rats and affected steroidogenesis in the F1 generation of female rats compared to control. Further, the phthalate mixture altered ovarian expression of some genes related to the cell cycle and steroidogenesis compared to control in the F1 and F2 generations of female rats. The mixture also increased ovarian expression of rno-mir-184 that is involved with the oocyte maturation process. Collectively, our data show that maternal exposure to the phthalate mixture affects folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in the F1 and F2 generations of female rats and alters ovarian miRNA expression in the F1 generation of female rats.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac066
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Parenchymal and Inflammatory Cell Responses to Single and Repeated Ozone
           Exposure in Healthy and Surfactant Protein-C Mutant Lung

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      Pages: 107 - 123
      Abstract: AbstractMutations in the alveolar epithelial-specific gene encoding for surfactant protein C (SP-C) are linked to pulmonary disease. Ozone (O3) is a ubiquitous pollutant known to exacerbate stress through oxidative injury and inflammation. To comprehend the structural, functional, and immunological impact of single and repeated O3 exposure, SP-CWT and surfactant protein-C I73T mutant (SP-CI73T) mice were exposed to air or O3 (0.8 ppm, 3 h, up to ×4 consecutive days). O3 was associated with mitochondrial and autophagic activation (PINK1, LC3B, and p62), focal remodeling, and inflammation localized at the terminal bronchiole-to-alveolar junctions. Histological damage was exacerbated by repeated exposure. Single O3 challenge resulted in transient elastin fiber loss, whereas repeated exposure resulted in marked increases in elastance in SP-CI73T mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed increases in classical monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages recruitment in conditions of repeated exposure, which peaked earlier (24 h) in SP-CI73T mice. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed clustering of Arg-1+ and CD206+ activated cells within regions of remodeled lung. Lymphoid cell analysis identified CX3CR1-B220+ B cells accumulating after single (24/72 h). Repeated exposure produces a switch in the phenotype of these B cells CX3CR1+ (72 h) only in SP-CWT mice. SP-CI73T mutants also displayed depletion in NK1.1+ NKp46+ natural killer cells in lung, as well as bone marrow, blood, and spleen. These results illustrate the cumulative impact of O3 on lung structure and function in healthy lung, and aberrant myeloid and lymphoid recruitment in SP-C mutants responding to challenge. Together, this work highlights the significance of modeling environmental exposure across the spectrum of genetic susceptibility, consistent with human disease.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac074
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Are Non-animal Systemic Safety Assessments Protective' A Toolbox and
           Workflow

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      Pages: 124 - 147
      Abstract: AbstractAn important question in toxicological risk assessment is whether non-animal new approach methodologies (NAMs) can be used to make safety decisions that are protective of human health, without being overly conservative. In this work, we propose a core NAM toolbox and workflow for conducting systemic safety assessments for adult consumers. We also present an approach for evaluating how protective and useful the toolbox and workflow are by benchmarking against historical safety decisions. The toolbox includes physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models to estimate systemic Cmax levels in humans, and 3 bioactivity platforms, comprising high-throughput transcriptomics, a cell stress panel, and in vitro pharmacological profiling, from which points of departure are estimated. A Bayesian model was developed to quantify the uncertainty in the Cmax estimates depending on how the PBK models were parameterized. The feasibility of the evaluation approach was tested using 24 exposure scenarios from 10 chemicals, some of which would be considered high risk from a consumer goods perspective (eg, drugs that are systemically bioactive) and some low risk (eg, existing food or cosmetic ingredients). Using novel protectiveness and utility metrics, it was shown that up to 69% (9/13) of the low risk scenarios could be identified as such using the toolbox, whilst being protective against all (5/5) the high-risk ones. The results demonstrated how robust safety decisions could be made without using animal data. This work will enable a full evaluation to assess how protective and useful the toolbox and workflow are across a broader range of chemical-exposure scenarios.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac068
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Decision-Making with New Approach Methodologies: Time to Replace Default
           Uncertainty Factors with Data

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      Pages: 148 - 149
      Abstract: Dourson et al. (2022) provide an informative summary of the debate on “The Future of Uncertainty Factors with in Vitro Studies Using Human Cells” that was held at the 2021 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting. We are pleased to see a robust discourse regarding the use of the data from new approach methodologies pivoting from the questions of “if'” to considerations of “how'” Indeed, collaborations and discussions between the regulators and researchers are needed to make use of in vitro bioactivity data and pivot from priority setting of chemical inventories to risk-based decisions (Dourson et al., 2022). We believe that the time is right to have substantive discussions about the utility of new approach methodologies data in the current general framework for deriving safe exposure levels. We disagree, however, with the apparent proposal to invent new default uncertainty factors for the data from new approach methodologies as a path forward. We reason that new approach methodologies offer the opportunity to derive chemical-specific adjustment factors, not to move “back to the future” of over-reliance on default assumptions. In this respect, we offer three points of criticism of Dourson et al. (2022).
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac033
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Response to Decision-Making with New Approach Methodologies: Time to
           Replace Default Uncertainty Factors with Data

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      Pages: 150 - 151
      Abstract: We appreciate the opportunity to respond to Drs Rusyn and Chiu (Rusyn and Chiu, 2022) and agree with their basic premise that default uncertainty factors should be replaced with data whenever possible. Information from new assessment methods is one likely source of such data. Notwithstanding our general agreement, however, we were somewhat surprised at several statements:
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfac034
      Issue No: Vol. 189, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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