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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 319)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Toxicology and Industrial Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.371
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0748-2337 - ISSN (Online) 1477-0393
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Toluene diisocyanate occupational exposure data in the polyurethane
           industry (2005–2020): A descriptive summary from an industrial hygiene
           perspective

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      Authors: Catherine Sayles, Natalie Finnegan, Timothy Pike, Mark W Spence
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      This article provides an overview of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) workplace air concentration data. Data were collected between 2005-2020 in workplaces across the United States, Canada, and the European Union by a number of different organizations, primarily using the sampling procedures published in OSHA Methods 42 and 5002. The data were then collated and organized by the International Isocyanate Institute. Air samples were collected from several market segments, with a large portion of the data (87%) from the flexible foam industry. The air samples (2534 in total) were categorized into “area” or “personal,” and the personal samples were subcategorized into “task,” “short term,” and “long term.” Most of the air sample concentrations (87%) were less than 5 ppb. However, the presence of airborne TDI greater than 5 ppb indicated the importance of respiratory protection in some situations; therefore, respirator use patterns were studied and summarized. Additionally, this article provides a summary of air sample concentrations at different flexible foam manufacturing job roles. The information on air sampling concentrations and respiratory protection during TDI applications collected in this paper could be useful for product stewardship and industrial hygiene purposes in the industries studied.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T07:39:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221112225
       
  • Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate lysine conjugates in the urine of workers
           exposed to methylenediphenyl diisocyanate

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      Authors: Kenneth C Nwoko, Laura Kenny, Kate Jones
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Diisocyanates have long been a leading cause of occupational asthma. As control often relies on personal protective equipment and there is the potential for skin uptake, biological monitoring is often used to assess worker exposure. Current routine biological monitoring methods do not distinguish between a diisocyanate and the corresponding diamine exposure in urine samples; therefore, a specific urinary biomarker is desirable. Urine samples were obtained from a group of workers exposed to methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) where aerosol generation was unlikely. Lysine conjugates of MDI were extracted from urine by solid phase extraction; analysis was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Acetylated MDI-lysine (acMDI-Lys) conjugates were detected in 73% of samples tested from persons with exposure to MDI compared to 93% of samples that were positive for methylene dianiline (MDA) in hydrolysed urine. There was a weak but significant positive correlation between the two biomarkers (r2 = 0.377). This is the first report detecting and quantifying acMDI-Lys in the urine of workers exposed to MDI, and acMDI-Lys may be a useful non-invasive biomarker in discriminating between MDI and MDA exposures.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-05T05:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221115510
       
  • Bidirectional regulation of BDE-47 on 3T3-L1 cell differentiation based on
           a restricted cubic spline model

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      Authors: Zaoling Liu, Menglin Wang, Yong Fan, Jiasui Wang, Shurui Jiang, Haiqiemuhan Abudureman
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      BDE-47 (2,2,4,4-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) is a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener, which has the characteristics of high biological detection rate, the highest content and strong biological toxicity, and is widely distributed in organisms. Many studies have found that BDE-47 may also be an environmental risk factor for metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. However, the way that PBDEs influence adipocyte differentiation remains unclear. The methylisobutylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin method was used to study the effect of BDE-47 on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. The 3T3-L1 cells were exposed by different concentrations of BDE-47, and the effect of cell viability was detected at different stages. In addition, the lipid droplet aggregation of adipocytes was observed and the triglyceride (TG) levels in the cytoplasm were detected after differentiation. The relative mRNA expression levels of leptin, adiponectin, and PPARγ in cells were determined by RT-PCR, and differentially expressed genes were preliminarily screened by digital gene expression profile. Our study found that BDE-47 promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Restriction cubic spline analysis showed that BDE-47 bidirectionally. regulated the mRNA synthesis of TG, PPARγ, and leptin genes and the aggregation of lipid droplets. BDE-47 may induce adipocyte differentiation by activating PPARγ, resulting in the differential expression of genes related to the AMPK signaling pathway, insulin resistance, and other metabolic pathways. The highest and lowest-dose BDE-47 exposure groups had the greatest impact on adipocyte differentiation.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T06:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221100488
       
  • (E)-1,2-Difluoroethylene (HFO-1132E)

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      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      (E)-1,2-Difluoroethylene (HFO-1132E) is a colorless gas used as a refrigerant. HFO-1132E has low acute toxicity following inhalation exposure in rats and dogs. HFO-1132E caused neither cardiac sensitization in dogs nor reproductive or developmental toxicity in rats following repeated inhalation exposure. Repeated inhalation exposure for up to 13 weeks in rats resulted in degeneration of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) at all exposure levels. However, the VNO is poorly developed or absent in humans. HFO-1132E was not genotoxic in either an in vitro chromosome aberration study or in vivo (rat) or in vitro micronucleus assays although the substance was mutagenic in 4 of 5 Salmonella and E. coli strains with and without S9. In an in vivo comet assay in rats, statistically significant increases in DNA strand breaks were observed in the kidney at concentrations ≥60,000 ppm and in the liver, bladder, and lung at 120,000 ppm. An increase in hedgehog cells was also noted at these concentrations that confounded the comet response. The point of departure for the WEEL was 15,000 ppm from the 13-week inhalation study. After application of appropriate adjustment factors, an 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) WEEL value of 350 ppm was derived. This exposure limit is expected to provide a significant margin of safety against any potential adverse health effects in workers. A short-term exposure level (STEL) or skin notation is not applicable for this WEEL.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T04:17:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221111674
       
  • Study of lead-induced neurotoxicity in cholinergic cells differentiated
           from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

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      Authors: Emad Jafarzadeh, Maliheh Soodi, Taki Tiraihi, Mohammadhadi Zarei, Mehdi Qasemian‐Lemraski
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      The developing brain is susceptible to the neurotoxic effects of lead. Exposure to lead has main effects on the cholinergic system and causes reduction of cholinergic neuron function during brain development. Disruption of the cholinergic system by chemicals, which play important roles during brain development, causes of neurodevelopmental toxicity. Differentiation of stem cells to neural cells is recently considered a promising tool for neurodevelopmental toxicity studies. This study evaluated the toxicity of lead acetate exposure during the differentiation of bone marrow–derived mesenchyme stem cells (bone marrow stem cells, BMSCs) to cholinergic neurons. Following institutional animal care review board approval, BMSCs were obtained from adult rats. The differentiating protocol included two stages that were pre-induction with β-mercaptoethanol (BME) for 24 h and differentiation to cholinergic neurons with nerve growth factor (NGF) over 5 days. The cells were exposed to different lead acetate concentrations (0.1–100 μm) during three stages, including undifferentiated, pre-induction, and neuronal differentiation stages; cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Lead exposure (0.01–100 μg/ml) had no cytotoxic effect on BMSCs but could significantly reduce cell viability at 50 and 100 μm concentrations during pre-induction and neuronal differentiation stages. MAP2 and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) protein expression were investigated by immunocytochemistry. Although cells treated with 100 μm lead concentration expressed MAP2 protein in the differentiation stages, they had no neuronal cell morphology. The ChAT expression was negative in cells treated with lead. The present study showed that differentiated neuronal BMSCs are sensitive to lead toxicity during differentiation, and it is suggested that these cells be used to study neurodevelopmental toxicity.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T10:07:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221115514
       
  • Editorial

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      Authors: Patrick M Plehiers, Robert Skoglund, Mark W Spence, Anthony L Kiorpes
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T03:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221110408
       
  • Occupational exposure to pesticides in farmworkers and the oxidative
           markers

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      Authors: Ali Samareh, Gholamreza Asadikaram, MojtabaAbbasi-Jorjandi, Danial Abdollahdokht, Moslem Abolhassani, Narges Khanjani, Mohammad H Nematollahi
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Organophosphate (OPPs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are the two predominant forms of pesticides extensively used all around the world and are being reconsidered as environmental pollutants. The current study sought to assess the role of socioeconomic factors on the level of pesticides residues and the oxidative effects of exposure to OPPs and OCPs among the farmworkers of southeast Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 192 farmworkers and 74 non-farmworkers (controls) were involved. Gas chromatography (GC) was performed to measure the serum levels of organochlorine chemicals (2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH). Furthermore, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, arylesterase activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), and several oxidative stress (OS) markers were assessed. In addition, the impact of several parameters such as home to farm distance, education level, ventilation status, and personal protective equipment (PPE) on pesticide levels was analyzed. The levels of OCPs in the farmworkers were significantly higher than the control subjects. In addition, AChE activity, arylesterase activity of PON-1, and total antioxidant capacity in farmworkers were significantly less, and MDA levels were higher than the controls. Education level was associated with farmworkers’ protective behavior. The current findings suggested that some phased out OCPs can still be measured in human samples in the southeast of Iran. Furthermore, the current study demonstrated that exposure to OCPs and OPPs was accompanied by adverse consequences regarding OS parameters and subsequent health problems. In addition, the findings of the present study suggest that improving farmworkers’ education might be associated with reduced exposure to pesticides and less adverse health effects.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T05:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221106754
       
  • Effects of dibutyl phthalate and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on hepatic
           structure and function of adult male mice

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      Authors: Saira Batool, Sajida Batool, Sitara Shameem, Tahira Batool, Saima Batool
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of the present research was to determine if dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) alone and combined exposure induced pathological alterations in laboratory reared albino mice. Adult male mice were equally divided (n = 10) into Control, corn oil (CO), DBP, DEHP, and DBP+DEHP treated groups. Dibutyl phthalate (250 mg/kg), DEHP (300 mg/kg), and DBP+DEHP (250+300 mg/kg), respectively, were administered by oral gavage mixed in corn oil (0.2 mL) for 28 days. All animals were sacrificed following 28 days of treatment and blood was collected for serum lipid profiles and liver function tests. Liver samples were also collected for observation of histological changes. Microphotographs of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were used for computer-based micrometry. CO, DBP, DEHP, and DBP+DEHP treatment resulted in a significant increase in the mean body and liver weights as compared with the Control group. Histological examination of the livers with DBP and/or DEHP treatment showed marked alterations leading to hepatic hypertrophy. In the treated groups, a significant increase in the mean number of mononucleated, binucleated cells, and oval cells per unit area was noticed with disorganized trabecular arrangement as compared with the Control group. Treatment with DBP and/or DEHP resulted in large regeneration zones in the liver and an increased relative nucleo-cytoplasmic index of mononuclear shepatocytes when compared with the Control group. All treatments caused a significant increases in the liver enzymes and proteins as well as altered serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and VLDL levels. The histopathological and serological findings confirmed the toxic potentials to hepatic tissue of DBP and DEHP either given alone or in combination.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T04:58:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221108578
       
  • Assessment of personal inhalation and skin exposures to polymeric
           methylene diphenyl diisocyanate during polyurethane fabric coating

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      Authors: Homero Harari, Dhimiter Bello, Susan Woskie, Carrie A Redlich
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) monomers and polymeric MDI (pMDI) are aromatic isocyanates widely used in the production of polyurethanes. These isocyanates can cause occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, as well as contact dermatitis. Skin exposure likely contributes toward initial sensitization but is challenging to monitor and quantitate. In this work, we characterized workers’ personal inhalation and skin exposures to pMDI in a polyurethane fabric coating factory for subsequent health effect studies. Full-shift personal and area air samples were collected from eleven workers in representative job areas daily for 1–2 weeks. Skin exposure to hands was evaluated concomitantly with a newly developed reagent-impregnated cotton glove dosimeter. Samples were analyzed for pMDI by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In personal airborne samples, the concentration of 4,4′-MDI isomer, expressed as total NCO, had a geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 5.1 and 3.3 ng NCO/m3, respectively (range: 0.5–1862 ng NCO/m3). Other MDI isomers were found at much lower concentrations. Analysis of 4,4′-MDI in the glove dosimeters exhibited much greater exposures (GM: 10 ng/cm2) and substantial variability (GSD: 20 ng NCO/cm2; range: 0–295 ng NCO/cm2). MDI inhalation exposure was well below occupational limits for MDI for all the job areas. However, MDI skin exposure to hands was substantial. These findings demonstrated the potential for substantial isocyanate skin exposure in work settings with very low airborne levels. This exposure characterization should inform future studies that aim to assess the health effects of work exposures to MDI and the effectiveness of protective measures.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T07:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221107243
       
  • Aniline exposure activates receptor-interacting serine/threonineprotein
           kinase 1 and causes necroptosis of AML12 cells

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      Authors: Shuo Jin, Tong Zhang, Xinyu Fu, Zhongliang Duan, Jianwen Sun, Yue Wang
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      With the increased use of aniline, potential impacts on human health cannot be ignored. The hepatotoxicity of aniline is largely unknown and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatotoxicity of aniline and elucidate the underlying mechanism. AML12 cells were exposed to different concentrations of aniline (0, 5, 10, or 20 mM) to observe changes to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the expression patterns of necroptosis-related proteins (RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL). The potential mechanism underlying aniline-induced hepatotoxicity was explored by knockout of RIPK1. The results showed that aniline induced cytotoxicity in AML12 cells in a dose-dependent manner in addition to the production of ROS and subsequent necroptosis of AML12 cells. Silencing of RIPK1 reversed upregulation of necroptosis-related proteins in AML12 cells exposed to aniline, demonstrating that aniline-induced ROS production was related to necroptosis of AML12. Moreover, aniline promoted intracellular RIPK1 activation, suggesting that the RIPK1/ROS pathway plays an important role in aniline-induced hepatotoxicity. NAC could quench ROS and inhibit necroptosis. These results provide a scientific basis for future studies of aniline-induced hepatotoxicity for the prevention and treatment of aniline-induced cytotoxicity.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T02:49:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221106751
       
  • Exploring structure/property relationships to health and environmental
           hazards of polymeric polyisocyanate prepolymer substances—2. Dermal
           sensitization potential in the mouse local lymph node assay

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      Authors: Robert J West, Stefanie Burleson, Travis Gulledge, Jason W Miller, Anne H Chappelle, Shannon Krieger, Cynthia Graham, Stephanie Snyder, Glenn Simon, Patrick M Plehiers
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      The sensitization potencies of twenty custom-designed monomer-depleted polymeric polyisocyanate prepolymer substances and their associated toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer precursors were investigated by means of the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). These polymeric prepolymers were designed to represent the structural features and physical-chemical properties exhibited by a broad range of commercial polymeric polyisocyanate prepolymers that are produced from the reaction of aromatic and aliphatic diisocyanate monomers with aliphatic polyether and polyester polyols. The normalization of LLNA responses to the applied (15-45-135 mM) concentrations showed that the skin sensitization potency of polymeric polyisocyanate prepolymers is at least 300 times less than that of the diisocyanate monomers from which they are derived. The sensitization potency of the prepolymers was shown to be mainly governed by their hydrophobicity (as expressed by the calculated octanol-water partition coefficient, log Kow) and surfactant properties. Neither hydrophilic (log Kow 25) prepolymers stimulated lymphocyte proliferation beyond that of the dosing vehicle control. The findings of this investigation challenge the generally held assumption that all isocyanate (-N=C=O) bearing substances are potential skin (and respiratory) sensitizers. Further, these findings can guide the future development of isocyanate chemistries and associated polyurethane applications toward reduced exposure and health hazard potentials.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T04:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221089587
       
  • Exploring structure/property relationships to health and environmental
           hazards of polymeric polyisocyanate prepolymer substances-1. Design of
           experiments, aquatic exposure, and acute aquatic toxicity

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      Authors: Robert J West, Lisa Euskirchen, Astrid Neuhahn, Steve Seneker, Mark W Spence
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Polymeric polyisocyanate prepolymer substances are reactive intermediates used in the manufacture of various polyurethane products. Knowledge of their occupational and environmental hazard properties is essential for product stewardship and industrial hygiene purposes. This work reports on the systematic design of a program to explore how structural features (i.e., types of polymeric polyol and diisocyanate reactants, functionality) and physical–chemical properties (i.e., octanol–water partition coefficient [log Kow], viscosity, molecular weight) of a group of 10 toluene diisocyanate (TDI)- and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-based monomer-depleted prepolymer substances can be related to their exposure and hazard potentials. The revelation of trends or thresholds in such relationships could form a basis for regulatory screening of existing or new prepolymer substances, while also informing the design of substances having reduced exposure and/or hazard profiles. As a first step, the aquatic exposure and hazard potentials of these 10 substances were investigated. The results of this investigation showed that yields of dissolved reaction products (derived from non-purgeable organic carbon measurements and carbon contents of the parent prepolymers) were inversely correlated with the calculated log Kow of the substances. For prepolymer loading rates of both 100 and 1000 mg/L in water, the average dissolved reaction product yields ranged from ≤1% to 32% and from ≤0.1% to 25%, respectively, over calculated log Kow values ranging from −4.8 to 45. For both loading rates, dissolved reaction products were not quantifiable where the calculated log Kow value was>10. Yet, none of the 10 prepolymers and tested loading rates exhibited acute adverse effects on the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, in the 48-h acute immobilization test. From a product stewardship perspective, polymeric prepolymers of TDI and MDI within the investigated domain and concentration range are not expected to be hazardous in the aquatic environment.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T08:17:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221097009
       
  • The relationship between toluene diisocyanate exposure and respiratory
           health problems: A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

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      Authors: Evangelia E Antoniou, Maurice P Zeegers
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Human epidemiological studies have shown inconclusive results over the effects of diisocyanates on respiratory health problems. A meta-analysis combined evidence on the association between occupational asthma (OA), respiratory function, and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) inhalation exposure. Sixty-one articles on occupational toluene diisocyanate exposure were identified via two databases. Fourteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of the studies. Odds ratios (ORasthma) for the association between TDI exposure compared to non-exposure and OA were calculated. The difference in mean differences (MD) of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), and the annual mean change differences—in milliliters per year (mL/yr)—in FEV1 and FVC pulmonary function between TDI exposed and non-exposed, were calculated. When applicable, a random effects meta-analysis was performed. The overall summary ORasthma for TDI exposed versus non-exposed was 1.18 (95% CI = 0.78–1.79). The summary of the predicted mean percentage difference (MD%predicted) between exposed versus non-exposed was 2.96% for FEV1 and 3.75% for FVC. A very small decrease of 5 mL/yr for FEV1 and 10 mL/yr for FVC, respectively, was observed between the exposed and the non-exposed groups. There was moderate to low heterogeneity between study results, and most studies were evaluated as high-quality. This meta-analysis found no statistically significant adverse association between TDI occupational exposure and OA. No meaningful differences in lung function were detected between exposed and unexposed groups.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221095386
       
  • Comparative evaluation of three methylene dianiline isomers in the
           bacterial reverse mutation assay, the in vitro gene mutation test, and the
           in vitro chromosomal aberration test

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      Authors: Elif Unterberger-Heni
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      4,4′-MDA is classified as a genotoxic carcinogen based on numerous in vitro and animal data. The consequential assumption that a safe threshold does not exist is not only applied to 4,4′-MDA but also to its structural isomers and impurities 2,2′- and 2,4′-MDA in the absence of substance-specific data. This constitutes a problem in human risk assessments for all three substances as the inherent risks of 2,2′- and 2,4′-MDA and their contribution as impurities to that of 4,4′-MDA are essentially unknown. A comparative in vitro genotoxicity dataset consisting of the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test and the chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes (both performed according to the current OECD Guidelines) was generated for all three isomers. Furthermore, an in vitro gene mutation test in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (HPRT locus assay) was conducted with 2,4′-MDA. The results indicate differences regarding the genotoxic mechanism and potential, respectively, between the three structures and suggest that the no-threshold assumption for 4,4′-MDA may not be appropriate for 2,2′- and 2,4′-MDA.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T11:15:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0748233221091018
       
  • A brief overview of properties and reactions of diisocyanates

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      Authors: Mark W. Spence, Patrick M. Plehiers
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      By way of introduction to the special issue on diisocyanates and their corresponding diamines, this brief overview presents, for the most commonly used diisocyanate monomers, a selection of physical-chemical properties that are relevant to exposure in the workplace and in the general environment, as well as a concise overview of diisocyanate reactions and some of their toxicological implications.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T05:28:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221090709
       
  • Emission of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate and methylene dianiline during
           use of cure-in-place methylene diphenyl diisocyanate-based consumer
           products

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      Authors: Daniel Karlsson, Thomas Merz, Volker Nuthmann
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to provide realistic isocyanate and amine emission data when using different methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-based polyurethane consumer products. Emission testing (air sampling) of diisocyanates and corresponding diamines was performed in a full-scale controlled-environment chamber during different work operations, such as gluing, mixing and foaming. The polyurethane products used were construction glue, one-component foam and two different two-component adhesives used in parquet flooring. Air sampling for isocyanates and amines was performed in the breathing zone of the worker and at different positions inside the controlled-environment chamber while the work operations were performed. Air sampling was also performed after the application, at different positions inside the chamber, to cover the post curing phase. Low air concentrations (0.1–0.7 μg MDI/m3, 0.03–0.2 μg isocyanate group (NCO)/m3) were found in the breathing zone and close to the work operation for some of the gluing applications. No methylene diphenyl diamine (MDA) concentrations above the limit of quantification were found for any of the applications in the breathing zone air. These results indicated that inhalation exposure to MDA or MDI would be expected to be minimal during application of do-it-yourself consumer products containing MDI.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T01:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221079433
       
  • Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of methylene diphenyl
           diisocyanate and toluene diisocyanate: Many similarities and few
           differences

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      Authors: Thomas Schupp, Patrick M Plehiers
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are high production volume chemicals used for the manufacture of polyurethanes. For both substances, the most relevant adverse health effects after overexposure in the workplace are isocyanate-induced asthma, lung function decrement and, to a much lesser extent, skin effects. Over the last two decades many articles have addressed the reactivity of MDI and TDI in biological media and the associated biochemistry, which increased the understanding of their biochemical and physiological behavior. In this review, these new insights with respect to similarities and differences concerning the adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of these two diisocyanates and the implications on their toxicities are summarized. Both TDI and MDI show very similar behavior in reactivity to biological macromolecules, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Evidence suggests that the isocyanate (NCO) group is scavenged at the portal-of-entry and is not systemically available in unbound reactive form. This explains the lack of other than portal-of-entry toxicity observed in repeated-dose inhalation tests.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T11:32:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337211060133
       
  • Evaluation of animal toxicity studies with diisocyanates regarding
           presence of thresholds for induction and elicitation of respiratory
           allergy by quantitative weight of evidence

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      Authors: Wolfgang Dekant, Thomas Colnot
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Animal toxicity studies on diisocyanates were evaluated using quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) to test the hypothesis that the dose-response curve shows a threshold for the induction and/or elicitation of respiratory sensitization. A literature search identified 59 references that included at least two concentration groups of the diisocyanate and a vehicle-exposed concurrent control in the study design. These studies were subjected to a QWoE-assessment applying scoring criteria for quality and relevance/strength of effects relevant to the selected endpoint of respiratory sensitization. Overall, the studies assessing dose/concentration-response for diisocyanates with the endpoint, respiratory sensitization, were heterogenous regarding study design, animal models used, endpoints assessed, and quality. Only a limited number of the studies subjected to the QWoE-assessment allowed drawing conclusions about possible thresholds for respiratory sensitization. Highest quality and relevance/strength of effects scores were obtained by a series of studies specifically designed to investigate a potential threshold for elicitation of respiratory sensitization in the Brown Norway (BN) rat. These studies applied an elaborate study design to optimize induction of respiratory sensitization and reduce interference by respiratory tract irritation. In summary, the available studies provided moderate to good support for the existence of a threshold for elicitation and limited to moderate support for a threshold regarding induction of respiratory allergy by diisocyanates in experimental animals. However, a quantitative extrapolation of threshold values established in rodents to humans remains complex.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T06:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337211069234
       
  • Novel deoxyribonucleic acid methylation perturbations in workers exposed
           to vinyl chloride

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      Authors: Xiaotian Zhao, Yan Hao, Qian Wang, Yongmei Shen, Ying Cheng, Ben Li, Yi Gao, Tong Wang, Yulan Qiu
      First page: 377
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      To explore the epigenetic mechanism of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage induced by vinyl chloride (VC), we studied the micronuclei of peripheral blood lymphocytes in 193 subjects (92 in a VC exposure group employed in a chlorine-alkali plant; 101 in a control group employed in a power plant) and selected three pairs from the subjects (exposed and control) for whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS). The results showed that the rate of micronucleus formation in the VC exposure group was higher than that of control group (6.05 ± 3.28‰ vs. 2.01 ± 1.79‰). A total of 9534 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by WGBS, of which 4816 were hypomethylated and 4718 were hypermethylated. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway and gene ontology (GO) analyses showed the top three KEGG pathways were cancer , neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and axon guidance, and the top three GO-BP pathways enriched were multicellular organismal process, developmental process, and anatomical structure development. In the most enriched DMR pathway (pathways in cancer), we found that BCL2, TJP2, TAOK1, PFKFB3, LIPI, and LIPH were hypermethylated, and the methylation levels of BNIP1 and GRPEL2 were decreased. The methylation of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) mentioned above were verified by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) in 50 pairs of subjects, where the coincidence rate was 60–100%. In conclusion, the epigenetic perturbations of specific DMGs (BCL2, TJP2, TAOK1, PFKFB3, LIPI, LIPH, BNIP1, and GRPEL2) may be associated with DNA damage from vinyl chloride exposure.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T10:39:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221098600
       
  • The effects of coal dust exposure on DNA damage and repair of human
           bronchial epithelial cells

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      Authors: Amin Li, Yinci Zhang, Yongfang Ma, Ruyue Xu, Li Song, Weiya Cao, Xiaolong Tang
      First page: 389
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      To explore the effects of coal dust exposure on DNA damage and repair, human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to coal dust and the cellular response was investigated. It was found that γ-H2AX foci of DNA damage appeared, γ-H2AX protein level increased, and the rate of cell apoptosis was significantly elevated when BEAS-2B cells were exposed to coal dust for a short time. Phagocytized coal dust particles, swollen mitochondria, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential were simultaneously identified. Moreover, Caspase-9, Caspase-3, and DFF45 proteins of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway were activated. After the cells were exposed to coal dust chronically, phosphorylation levels of DNA repair kinases (ATM/ATR, DNA-PKcs) and downstream regulatory protein AKT were significantly upregulated. γ-H2AX foci and tail DNA of the cells following treatment with cisplatin were also reduced, and the colony formation rate was improved. It was concluded that coal dust could induce DNA damage, cause mitochondrial depolarization, and activate mitochondrial apoptosis pathways in BEAS-2B cells. Additionally, activated DNA repair kinases (ATM/ATR and DNA-PKcs) and their regulatory protein AKT increased DNA repair and proliferation of BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to coal dust.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T04:13:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221100483
       
  • Cypermethrin induces apoptosis of Sertoli cells through the endoplasmic
           reticulum pathway

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      Authors: Junyu Shen, Lushan Wang, Xuxu Wang, Jiafei Xie, Tingting Yao, Yue Yu, Qi Wang, Zhen Ding, Jinpeng Zhang, Meirong Zhang, Lichun Xu
      First page: 399
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Cypermethrin, an extensively used pyrethroid pesticide, is regarded as one of many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with anti-androgenic activity to damage male reproductive systems. We previously found cypermethrin-induced apoptosis in mouse Sertoli cells TM4. We hypothesized cypermethrin-induced TM4 apoptosis by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway. This study aimed to explore the roles of the ER pathway in cypermethrin-induced apoptosis in TM4 cells. The cells were treated with cypermethrin for 24 h at various concentrations (0 µM, 10 µM, 20 µM, 40 µM, and 80 µM). Flow cytometry was used to test for apoptosis. Western blot was used to test protein expressions in the ER stress pathway. The results showed that the apoptosis rate of TM4 cells increased with increased concentrations of cypermethrin, and a significant difference was detected in the 80-μM group. The protein expressions of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), protein kinase R (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), p-PERK, α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2α), p-eIF2α, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), caspase-12, caspase-9, and caspase-3 increased with increased concentrations of cypermethrin . The results suggested cypermethrin-induced apoptosis in TM4 cells regulated by the ER pathway involving PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP. The study provides a new insight into cypermethrin-induced apoptosis in Sertoli cells.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T02:29:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221104905
       
  • Consumer knowledge and awareness of the toxicity and handling of household
           products at a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon

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      Authors: Hala Mostafa, Jennifer Rizk, Elie Kanaan, Hani Hamade, Rima Kaddoura, Hani Tamim, Carine Sakr, Tharwat El Zahran
      First page: 408
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Household products intoxication is a common and preventable problem. Household product hazard awareness is lacking among consumers in Lebanon, posing a public health hazard. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center by administering surveys to 176 adult participants. The surveys focused on demographics, awareness of product toxicity, practices used to avoid intoxication, and sources of information. Each participant was given a score for behavior and awareness. Informative brochures were handed to increase awareness among consumers. We surveyed 176 patients, of whom (84.7%) were females with a mean age of 42.2 ± 13.5 years. Most were married (77.3%), had a college education (76.7%), were employed (62.5%), and were in charge of household cleaning (76.7%). Toilet cleaners were the substances most perceived to be toxic (94.0%). Most people (86.4%) had low to medium scores on behavior, while most (77.3%) had high scores on awareness. Male gender and using product labels as sources of information were associated with higher behavior scores, while referring to a friend or a relative as a source of information on product intoxication was associated with a lower behavior score. Greater awareness scores were strongly associated with being married, having a higher monthly income, and referring to warning signs presented on the labels as a source of knowledge. Unsafe handling and storage of household products are common among consumers in our population. Therefore, it may be necessary to launch education campaigns to improve consumer handling of household products.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T12:45:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221106421
       
  • Tattoo inks are toxicological risks to human health: A systematic review
           of its ingredients, fate inside skin, toxicity due to polycyclic aromatic
           hydrocarbons, primary aromatic amines, metals, and overview of regulatory
           frameworks

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      Authors: Sandeep Negi, Lakshmi Bala, Saumya Shukla, Deepti Chopra
      First page: 417
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Today, tattooing has become very popular among people all over the world. Tattooists, with the help of tiny needles, place tattoo ink inside the skin surface and unintentionally introduce a large number of unknown ingredients. These ingredients include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and primary aromatic amines (PAAs), which are either unintentionally introduced along with the ink or produced inside the skin by different types of processes for example cleavage, metabolism and photodecomposition. These could pose toxicological risks to human health, if present beyond permissible limits. PAH such as Benzo(a)pyrene is present in carbon black ink. PAAs could be formed inside the skin as a result of reductive cleavage of organic azo dyes. They are reported to be highly carcinogenic by environmental protection agencies. Heavy metals, namely, cadmium, lead, mercury, antimony, beryllium, and arsenic are responsible for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, lungs, kidneys, liver, endocrine, and bone diseases. Mercury, cobalt sulphate, other soluble cobalt salts, and carbon black are in Group 2B, which means they may cause cancer in humans. Cadmium and compounds of cadmium, on the other hand, are in Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans). The present article addresses the various ingredients of tattoo inks, their metabolic fate inside human skin and unintentionally added impurities that could pose toxicological risk to human health. Public awareness and regulations that are warranted to be implemented globally for improving the safety of tattooing.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T06:59:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221100870
       
 
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