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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Toxicology and Industrial Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.371
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0748-2337 - ISSN (Online) 1477-0393
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Cytotoxic effects of crystalline silica in form of micro and nanoparticles
           on the human lung cell line A549

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Athena Rafieepour, Mansour R Azari, Fariba Khodagholi
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Airborne crystalline silica (SiO2) particles are one of the most common pollutants in stone industries. Limited studies have investigated the health effects of crystalline SiO2 nanoparticles. Hence, the objective of this study was to study the cytotoxicity of SiO2 in nano and micron sizes. A mineral quartz sample in the range of 0.2–0.8 mm sizes was purchased. These particles were ground at about 5 and 0.1 microns. Human cell line A549 was exposed to micro and nanometer particles at concentrations of 10, 50, 100, and 250 μg/ml for 24 and 72 h. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of exposed cells was investigated by measuring cell survival, ROS generation, mitochondrial permeability, and intracellular glutathione content. The results showed that crystalline SiO2 nano and microparticles decreased cell survival, increased ROS generation, damaged the mitochondrial membrane, and lowered the antioxidant content of these cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The toxicity of crystalline SiO2 microparticles at concentrations ≤50 μg/mL was greater than for nanoparticles, which was the opposite at concentrations ≥100 μg/mL. Exposure time and concentration were crucial factors for the cytotoxicity of exposed A549 cells to crystalline SiO2 particles, which can affect the severity of the effect of particle size. Due to the limitation of exposure concentration and test durations in this study, further studies on the parameters of nanoparticle toxicity and underlying mechanisms could advance our knowledge.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-26T11:50:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221140644
       
  • Analysis of dermal exposure assessment in the US Environmental Protection
           Agency Toxic Substances Control Act risk evaluations of chemical
           manufacturing

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      Authors: Heather N Lynch, Lauren E Gloekler, Laura H Allen, Joshua R Maskrey, Christopher Bevan, Andrew Maier
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates chemical manufacture, import, processing, distribution, use, and disposal under the 2016 amended Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for the purposes of protecting the public and sensitive populations—including workers—from chemical exposure risk. The publication of several TSCA risk evaluations provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the evolving regulatory approach for assessing the dermal exposure pathway in occupational settings. In this analysis, the occupational dermal exposure assessment methods employed in several TSCA risk evaluations were assessed. Specifically, a methodology review was conducted for the occupational dermal scenarios of manufacturing and feedstock use in the risk evaluations of three chlorinated organic chemicals: trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, and perchloroethylene. Additionally, alternative exposure estimates were generated using the exposure model IH SkinPermTM. The review and alternative exposure analyses indicate that the current TSCA modeling approach may generate total dermal absorbed doses for chlorinated chemical manufacturing and feedstock use scenarios that are 2- to 20-fold higher than those generated by IH SkinPerm. Best-practice recommendations developed in the methodology review support a tiered, integrated approach to dermal exposure assessment that emphasizes collecting qualitative data, employing validated, peer-reviewed models that align with current industrial practices, and gathering empirical sampling data where needed. Collaboration among industry, EPA, and other stakeholders to share information and develop a standard approach to exposure assessment under TSCA would improve the methodological rigor of, and increase confidence in, the risk evaluation results.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T12:21:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221140946
       
  • Oxidative damage induced by combined exposure of titanium dioxide
           nanoparticles and cypermethrin in rats for 90 days

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      Authors: Mingqing Zhong, Ruoyu Zhang, Xianzhi He, Yu Fu, Yuqing Cao, Yuanyuan Li, Qingfeng Zhai
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) and cypermethrin (CPM) are widely used in various fields, and they can enter the environment in different ways. Combined exposure of TiO2NPs and CPM may increase the accumulation of pollutants in organisms and affect human health. This study was undertaken to evaluate the oxidative and inflammatory parameters associated with the combined exposure of TiO2NPs and CPM in rats. Twenty-four healthy male adult SD rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group served as the control, while groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated with TiO2NPs (450 mg/m3); CPM (6.67 mg/m3) or combined exposure of TiO2NPs and CPM by inhalation for 90 days. We investigated the oxidative damage induced through combined exposure of TiO2NPs and CPM in rats by evaluating hematology of the rats and determining the blood biochemical index. Our results demonstrated that inhalation of TiO2NPs and CPM increased the levels of oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde and alkaline phosphatase in the serum of rats. These were accompanied by a decreased glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase levels. Furthermore, the level of glutathione peroxidase was further decreased while malondialdehyde was increased in the combined exposure of TiO2NPs and CPM. Interestingly, pathological sections showed that different degrees of tissue injury could be seen in the liver and lung tissues of each exposure group. In summary, the combined exposure of TiO2NPs and CPM can cause increased oxidative damage in rats and damage the tissue structure of the liver and lung.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-18T12:53:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221138949
       
  • The effects of long-term prenatal exposure to 900, 1800, and 2100 MHz
           electromagnetic field radiation on myocardial tissue of rats

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      Authors: Sahin Bozok, Erturk Karaagac, Dila Sener, Dilek Akakin, Levent Tumkaya
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      It is well-known that wireless communication technologies facilitate human life. However, the harmful effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation on the human body should not be ignored. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of long-term, prenatal exposure to EMF radiation on the myocardium of rats at varying durations. Overall, 18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into six groups (n = 3 in each group). In all groups other than the control group, three pregnant rats were exposed to EMF radiation (900, 1800 and 2100 MHz) for 6, 12 and 24 h over 20 days. After delivery, the newborn male pups were identified and six newborn male pups from each group were randomly selected. Then, histopathological and biochemical analysis of myocardial samples were performed. When 24-h/day prenatal exposures to 900, 1800, 2100 MHz EMF radiation were evaluated, myocardial damage was greater in the 2100 MHz EMF-24h group than the other groups. In addition, when malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels associated with reactive oxidative species (ROS) were evaluated, the MDA level was higher in the 2100 MHz EMF-24h group compared with the other groups. The GSH level was also lower in the 2100 MHz EMF-24h group. When the 6, 12 and 24 h/day prenatal exposures to 1800 MHz EMF radiation were evaluated, myocardial damage was greater in 1800 MHz EMF-24h group than the remaining groups (p < 0.0001). Also, MDA level was greater in the 1800 MHz EMF-24h group compared with the other groups while the GSH level was lower in this group. It was shown that myocardial tissue was affected more by long-term exposure to EMF radiation at high frequencies. The data raise concerns that the harmful effects of non-ionizing radiation exposure on cardiac tissue will increase with 5G technology.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T03:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221139586
       
  • Neurotoxicity associated with oxidative stress and inflammasome gene
           expression induced by allethrin in SH-SY5Y cells

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      Authors: Giovana Castillo, Luis Barrios-Arpi, Mariella Ramos-Gonzalez, Paola Vidal, Alejandro Gonzales-Irribarren, Norma Ramos-Cevallos, José-Luis Rodríguez
      First page: 777
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Pyrethroids, including allethrin, have largely been used as commercial insecticides. The toxicity of allethrin is little known, but it is assumed that, as occurs with other pyrethroids, it could cause alterations of the nervous system and pose both occupational and non-occupational health hazards. To evaluate the neurotoxicity of allethrin we used the MTT assay of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to determine cell viability. Dose-dependent reductions of cell viability served to compare the vehicle-group and the IC50 for allethrin, which was 49.19 μM. ROS production increased significantly at concentrations of 10–200 μM of allethrin, and NO levels were significantly increased by the effect of allethrin at a minimum concentration of 50 μM. Lipid peroxidation increased by the effect of allethrin at concentrations of 25, 50, 100, and 200 μM. Caspase 3/7 activity was induced by allethrin concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 μM. Here, we suggest that allethrin might affect the inflammasome complex (Caspase-1, NLRP3, and PYDC1) and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl-2) gene expression by mRNA fold change expression levels shown in Caspase-1 (2.46-fold), NLRP3 (1.57-fold), PYDC1 (1.48-fold), and Bax (2.1-fold). These results demonstrated that allethrin induced neurotoxicity effects on SH-SY5Y cells through activation of inflammasome pathways, cell death, and oxidative stress.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T02:50:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221089585
       
  • On the toxicity of gold nanoparticles: Histological, histochemical and
           ultrastructural alterations

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      Authors: Qais Jarrar, Amin Al-Doaiss, Bashir M. Jarrar, Mohammed Alshehri
      First page: 789
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications together with a variety of industrial purposes and in many biomedical sectors with potential risks to human health. The present study aimed to the histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural alterations induced by Au NPS in vital organs. Healthy male Wistar Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were subjected to 20 injections of 10-nm Au NPs at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg. Liver, kidney, heart, and lung biopsies from control and Au NPs-treated rats under study were subjected to histological and histochemical examinations. In comparison with the control rats, the renal tissue of Au NPs-treated rats demonstrated glomerular congestion, interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, renal tubular hydropic degeneration, cloudy swelling, necrosis, and hyaline cast precipitation. In addition, Au NPs induced the following hepatic alterations: hepatocyte cytolysis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, hydropic degeneration, and nuclear alterations together with sinusoidal dilatation. Moreover, the hearts of the treated rats demonstrated myocarditis, cardiac congestion, hyalinosis, cardiomyocyte hydropic degeneration, myofiber disarray and cardiac congestion. The lungs of Au NPs-treated rats also exhibited the following pulmonary alterations: alectasis, emphysema, inflammatory cell inflammation, thickened alveolar walls, pulmonary interstitial edema, congestion, hypersensitivity, fibrocyte proliferation, and honeycombing. In conclusion, exposure to Au NPs induced histological, histochemical and ultrastructural alterations in the vital organs that may alter the function of these organs. Additional efforts are needed for better understanding the potential risks of Au NPs to human health.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-10-18T02:17:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221133881
       
  • Exhaled breath condensate markers of oxidative stress in male storekeepers
           of chemical stores in the Ariaria international market Aba Abia state
           Nigeria

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      Authors: Francis Ugochukwu Madu, Eni-yimini Solomon Agoro, Miracle Chinwenmeri Madu
      First page: 801
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      In most developing countries, stores, where chemical substances are sold, are poorly ventilated, and best practices are not followed. This can result in the contamination of the ambient air inside the stores with toxicological implications for the lungs. This work aimed at determining the risk of pulmonary disease in chemical storekeepers in the Ariaria international market Aba by the evaluation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) biomarkers of oxidative stress. A gas monitor was used for gas sampling while an Aerocet analyzer was used for particulate matter determinations. Exposed filter paper was used for the sampling of heavy metals in the air, and the determination was done using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The exhaled breath condensate was collected with a refrigerated condenser, and the markers of oxidative stress were determined spectrophotometrically. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM7, PM10) were elevated in all the chemical stores studied. Our findings also showed that the indoor air of the chemical stores studied was polluted with SO2, NO2, NH3 and H2S, as their concentrations were respectively higher than the WHO standard values. Concentrations of all the heavy metals present in the ambient air of the chemical stores were also higher than the Nigerian Environmental Standard and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) standard values. Chemical storekeepers at the Ariaria international market exhaled increased concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), H2O2, and lower concentrations of glutathione (GSH). The pH values of the exhaled breath condensates were decreased and slightly acidic. It therefore means that the storekeepers were exposed to polluted ambient air inside the stores. This resulted to airway oxidative stress in the storekeepers as reported herein. Therefore, storekeepers of chemical stores in the Ariaria international market, Aba Nigeria were at risk of pulmonary disease(s).
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T02:30:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221133885
       
  • Altered M1/M2 polarization of alveolar macrophages is involved in the
           pathological responses of acute silicosis in rats in vivo

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      Authors: Zhaoqiang Zhang, Xiao Wu, Guizhi Han, Bo Shao, Li Lin, Shunli Jiang
      First page: 810
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Alveolar macrophages play a vital role in the development of acute silicosis, but the dynamic changes of M1 and/or M2 phenotypes have not been elucidated. In this study, acute silicosis models of rat were established by a one-time dusting method, and the rats were sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. The polarity states of macrophages were assessed by measuring the M1/M2 marker genes of alveolar macrophages and the M1/M2 marker proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The pathological changes of lung tissues were examined with hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining. Our results showed that in the early stages, alveolar macrophages were mainly polarized into M1; with time, the polarization of M2 gradually became dominant. Microscopic sections showed significant pathological responses of inflammation and fibrosis. This work suggested that the alteration of alveolar macrophage polarization was involved in the lung pathologic responses to acute silicosis.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-03T06:57:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221136949
       
  • Derivation of the toxicological threshold of silicon element in the
           extractables and leachables from the pharmaceutical packaging and process
           components

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      Authors: Pengchao Hao, Yingying Wang, Xiongfei Sun, Jinhui Wang, Leshuai W. Zhang
      First page: 819
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Silicon is one of the most monitored elements in extractables and leachables studies of pharmaceutical packaging systems and related components. There is a need to review and evaluate toxicological thresholds of silicon because of its direct contact with drug products (DP) especially a liquid form of DP with the widely used pharmaceutical packaging systems made of silicon materials like glass and silicone. It is required by regulatory authorities to test silicon content in DP; however, there are no official guidelines on the toxicology of silicon that are currently available, yet the knowledge of toxicological thresholds of silicon is critical to justify the analytical limit of quantification (LOQ). Therefore, we reviewed the toxicity of silicon to derive a toxicological threshold by literature review of toxicity studies of both inorganic and organic silicon compounds. Oral toxicity is low for inorganic silicon like silicon dioxide or organic silicon polymers such as silicone tube/silicone oil (polydimethylsiloxane, or namely, PDMS as the major ingredient). In comparison, inhalational toxicity of silicon dioxide leads to pulmonary silicosis or even lung cancer. When orally administered, the toxicity of silicon dioxide, glass, polymers, or PDMS oligomers varies depending on their morphology, molecular weight (MW), and degrees of polymerization. PDMS with high MW has minimal toxic symptoms with non-detectable degradation/elimination by both intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration routes, while exposure to either PDMS or small molecule dimethyl silicone compounds by the intravenous administration route may lead to death. We here determined a general parenteral permitted daily exposure (PDE) of 93 μg/day for inorganic silicon element and 100 μg/day for organic silicon element by reviewing toxicological data of both forms of silicon. In conclusion, this work provides evidence for pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies on the PDEs of silicon elements in pharmaceutical packaging and process components through a variety of administration routes.
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-11-12T01:00:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221123368
       
  • Are cosmetics based on alpha hydroxy acids safe to use when purchased over
           the internet'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Veljko Krstonošić, Dejan Ćirin
      First page: 835
      Abstract: Toxicology and Industrial Health, Ahead of Print.
      Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) are used in dermatology for topical treatment of skin disorders. Some regulatory bodies, including Food and Drug Administration (FDA), recommended labeling cosmetic products with sunburn alerts and proposed limitations regarding concentrations of AHAs in cosmetic products. In addition, The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel recommended 10% of AHAs in products as the maximal safe concentration. With a rapidly increasing trend of online purchasing of cosmetic products, it is important that their labels convey the necessary warnings and that they be harmonized with regulatory bodies regarding the recommended concentrations of AHAs. The aim of this report was to investigate whether or not the sunburn alert, as well as AHA recommendations mostly used for exfoliating cosmetic products, was visible to consumers during the online purchasing. The compliance with FDA and CIR Expert Panel standards was analyzed in the first 50 cosmetic products obtained after the conducted investigation on the Amazon.com e-commerce company website using the search term “AHA anti-aging.” It was found that exfoliating cosmetic products contained AHAs in a broad range of concentrations, from 2.5 up to 70%. Nineteen out of 50 products contained a concentration of AHAs greater than recommended. Twelve products did not contain any data at all regarding the concentration of AHAs. Sunburn alerts were present in 16 out of 50 analyzed product pages. In conclusion, more efforts should be made in providing users with information and the necessity of protection from potential complications after topical AHAs product treatments
      Citation: Toxicology and Industrial Health
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T07:40:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/07482337221126771
       
 
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