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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 135)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Similar Journals
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Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.656
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0163-4356 - ISSN (Online) 1536-3694
Published by LWW Wolters Kluwer Homepage  [297 journals]
  • Dose-Related Reference Range as a Tool in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

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      Authors: Haen; Ekkehard
      Abstract: imageBackground: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims to individualize drug therapy. This systematic review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the benefits of adding the dose-related reference range (DRR) as a second reference range to the set of tools used by TDM for measurement and evaluation. It discusses alternative pharmacokinetic approaches for individualization of drug therapy.Methods: Literature was searched in PubMed. Textbooks provided Bateman transformations for calculating expected drug concentrations at various times after drug application in “normal patients,” that is, the population of phase II clinical trials. The review compiles conditions and prerequisites for these transformations to be valid.Results: Relating a measured drug concentration to the orienting therapeutic reference range provides pharmacodynamic information for improving the benefit-to-risk ratio of desired drug effects versus adverse drug effects. The discriminating DRR considers a patient's individual pharmacokinetic situation. DRR is statistically based on the pharmacokinetic parameters total clearance, time to reach maximal concentrations, and elimination half-life. Relating the measured drug concentration to a range rather than a particular value, DRR determines if individual patients do or do not belong to the population of “normal patients.” Once a patient is identified to be outside the population of “normal patients,” the clinical–pharmacological TDM report elaborates the cause. It consists of the measured value, the TDM 9-field-board, the elimination pathways table, and a medication recommendation taking into account clinical information. The internet-based platform KONBEST supports editing of the clinical–pharmacological TDM report. It is personally signed and send to the therapist.Conclusions: The DRR embedded into a clinical–pharmacological TDM report allows adjusting a patient's medication to the patient's individual needs (individualization of drug therapy).
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Acute Intoxications and Fatalities Associated With Benzimidazole Opioid
           (Nitazene Analog) Use: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Montanari; Eva; Madeo, Graziella; Pichini, Simona; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Carlier, Jeremy
      Abstract: imageBackground: Synthetic benzimidazole opioids (BOs) are highly potent µ-opioid receptor agonists with heroin-like effects. Isotonitazene was first available in 2019 in the drug market, although new analogs have multiplied recently. The authors aimed to identify BO use trends and gather toxicological data from BO-related cases to assist in clinical and forensic investigations.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed and Scopus databases were accessed in October 2021 to identify scientific reports of BO-related intoxication and fatalities. Publication dates, case descriptions, symptoms, autopsy findings, and concentrations of BOs and metabolites in biological matrices were compiled.Results: Data from 8 case reports with 93 fatalities involving isotonitazene (n = 65), metonitazene (n = 20), etonitazepyne (N-pyrrolidino etonitazene) (n = 8), flunitazene (n = 4), and/or butonitazene (n = 1), and 1 acute intoxication involving etonitazepyne were collected. Autopsy findings included pulmonary congestion/high lung weight (66%), cardiomegaly/high cardiac weight (39%), cerebral edema (22%), gastric contents in the airways (22%), and organ congestion (22%). Median peripheral blood concentrations were 1.7 ng/mL for isotonitazene (0.4–9.5 ng/mL, n = 13), 5.4 ng/mL for metonitazene (0.52–33 ng/mL, n = 17), 5.4 ng/mL for etonitazepyne (2.4–8.3 ng/mL, n = 2), 1.3 ng/mL for flunitazene (0.58–2.1 ng/mL, n = 2), and 3.2 ng/mL for butonitazene (n = 1). Central nervous system depressants were almost always coadministered.Conclusions: Isotonitazene was predominant in cases from 2019 to mid-2020 and was replaced by metonitazene after scheduling in the United States. Typical findings on opioid overdoses have been reported. Peripheral blood concentrations were consistent with a potency similar to that of fentanyl. These results must be interpreted carefully, considering the scarcity of reports on BO-related cases and drug co-exposures.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Knowledge, Confidence, and Perception Toward Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
           Among Physicians and Pharmacists in Kuwait

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      Authors: Albassam; Abdullah; Alghanem, Sarah S.; Alawadhi, Farah; Alsulaimani, Zainab
      Abstract: imageBackground: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) helps ensure an efficient and safe therapeutic outcome. This study assessed physicians' and pharmacists' knowledge, confidence, and perception regarding clinical pharmacokinetics and TDM.Methods: A cross-sectional survey that used a self-administered questionnaire was used. A stratified random sample of 322 physicians and pharmacists across 3 Kuwait public hospitals was surveyed. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed during data analysis. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with low levels of knowledge and confidence and negative perceptions among the subjects.Results: The response rate was 88%. Overall, the respondents' mean total knowledge score percentage was low (50.3%), with no significant difference between the physicians' and pharmacists' scores (P> 0.5); 60.4% of the participants (95% confidence interval: 54.9–65.6) felt confident when using TDM in their practice. Most participants expressed positive perceptions (90.1%; 95% confidence interval: 86.3–92.9) toward TDM. There was high agreement internally that pharmacists require some knowledge of TDM, should be asked by physicians in general for recommendations on the appropriate use of TDM, and should be able to provide relevant information regarding the appropriate use of TDM.Conclusions: Physicians and pharmacists in this study had high confidence in—and the positive perceptions of—TDM and its clinical implications. The present study's findings indicate an urgent need for professional education and training in clinical pharmacokinetics and TDM and its clinical implications through continuous professional development programs and its integration within the curricula of medical and pharmacy schools.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Everolimus Concentration in Saliva to Predict Stomatitis: A Feasibility
           Study in Patients with Cancer

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      Authors: Molenaar-Kuijsten; Laura; Verheijen, Remy B.; Jacobs, Bart A. W.; Thijssen, Bas; Rosing, Hilde; Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Steeghs, Neeltje; Huitema, Alwin D. R.
      Abstract: imageBackground: Most patients with cancer treated with everolimus experience stomatitis, which seriously affects the quality of life. The salivary concentrations of everolimus may predict the incidence and severity of stomatitis. The authors aimed to examine whether it was feasible to quantify the everolimus concentration in saliva and subsequently use it to predict stomatitis.Methods: Saliva and whole blood samples were taken from patients with cancer, who were treated with everolimus in the dosage of either 10 mg once a day or 5 mg twice a day. Everolimus concentrations in saliva samples were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A published population pharmacokinetic model was extended with the everolimus concentration in saliva to assess any association between everolimus in the blood and saliva. Subsequently, the association between the occurrence of stomatitis and the everolimus concentration in saliva was studied.Results: Eleven patients were included in this study; saliva samples were available from 10 patients, including 3 patients with low-grade stomatitis. Everolimus concentrations were more than 100-fold lower in saliva than in whole blood (accumulation ratio 0.00801 and relative standard error 32.5%). Interindividual variability (67.7%) and residual unexplained variability (84.0%) were high. The salivary concentration of everolimus tended to be higher in patients with stomatitis, 1 hour postdose (P = 0.14).Conclusions: Quantification of the everolimus concentration in saliva was feasible and revealed a nonsignificant correlation between everolimus concentration in the saliva and the occurrence of stomatitis. If future research proves this relationship to be significant, the everolimus concentration in the saliva may be used as an early predictor of stomatitis without invasive sampling. Thereby, in patients with high salivary everolimus concentrations, precautions can be taken to decrease the incidence and severity of stomatitis.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Impact of Glutathione S-Transferase Polymorphisms on Busulfan
           Pharmacokinetics and Outcomes of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

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      Authors: Al-Riyami; Intisar; Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Al Balushi, Khalid; Al-Zadjali, Shoaib; Al-Rawahi, Mohammed; Dennison, David; Al-Hunaini, Mohammed; Al-Rawas, Abdulhakeem; Al-Moundhri, Mansour
      Abstract: imageBackground: Busulfan (Bu) is an alkylating drug used in many preparative regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is conjugated in the liver mainly by glutathione S-transferase isoenzyme A1-1 (GSTA1). Genetic polymorphisms in these isoenzymes may affect the pharmacokinetics of Bu and the clinical outcomes of HSCT. This study aimed to assess the impact of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genetic polymorphisms on the clearance of Bu and the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing HSCT.Methods: This single-center retrospective study included patients who received IV Bu before HSCT at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman from January 2003 to October 2016. Genotyping for polymorphisms was performed for GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTA1, and GSTP1. Each GST polymorphism was analyzed for its impact on Bu clearance and HSCT outcomes.Results: A total of 135 patients were included. The mean Bu clearance was 3.7 ± 0.98 mL/min/kg. Patients with GSTA1 A-513G heterozygosity (AG) were found to have a higher incidence of graft loss (P = 0.006). Homozygous double null of GSTM1 and GSTT1 was associated with a higher incidence of acute graft versus host disease (P = 0.04). Double non-null GSTM1 and GSTT1 and non-null GSTM1 increased the risk of mortality (P = 0.034 and 0.021, respectively).Conclusions: GST genotyping before HSCT may predict HSCT outcomes. The results of this preliminary retrospective study need to be confirmed in a larger prospective study.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Comparison of Ustekinumab Trough Concentrations Measured by 2 ELISA Kits
           and Evaluation of Clinical Response in Crohn’s Disease

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      Authors: Kwon; Yiyoung; Kang, Ben; Kim, Eun Sil; Choe, Yon Ho; Kim, Mi Jin
      Abstract: imageBackground: Ustekinumab is a recently introduced biological agent for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. The clinical use of the trough concentration of ustekinumab is not as standardized as that of infliximab. The authors aimed to introduce a measurement method and the results of trough concentrations of ustekinumab in clinical applications.Methods: Thirty-two blood samples from 10 young adult patients diagnosed with Crohn’s disease were analyzed. During the maintenance treatment, injection intervals were shortened from 12 weeks to 8 weeks in 4 patients who exhibited a loss of response. Ustekinumab trough concentrations were measured using 2 commercial ELISA kits, kit A and kit B.Results: The median trough concentrations measured with kits A and B were 0.26 and 0.38 mcg/mL, respectively. In the case of kit A, low trough concentrations were undetected on many occasions and measured as zero, whereas kit B displayed their relative values even at low concentrations. Poor clinical parameters, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and calprotectin levels were significantly correlated with lower trough concentrations (P < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of kit B (0.921) was greater than that of kit A (0.744). The optimal cutoff values for prediction clinical responses were 0.17 and 0.41 mcg/mL for kit A and kit B, respectively.Conclusions: The trough concentration of ustekinumab measured by the 2 ELISA kits correlated with laboratory results that indicated the activity of Crohn’s disease. Furthermore, kit B detected even minute changes in trough concentrations.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Association of Vancomycin Trough Concentration and Clearance With Febrile
           Neutropenia in Pediatric Patients

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      Authors: Amano; Erino; Tanaka, Ryota; Ono, Hiroyuki; Tatsuta, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Itoh, Hiroki
      Abstract: imageBackground: Febrile neutropenia promotes renal drug excretion. Adult and pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia exhibit a lower vancomycin concentration/dose (relative to bodyweight) ratio than those with other infections. In pediatric patients, renal function relative to bodyweight varies depending on age, and vancomycin clearance is age dependent. This study aimed to analyze the effects of febrile neutropenia on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in age-stratified pediatric patients.Methods: This retrospective, single-center, observational cohort study analyzed 112 hospitalized pediatric patients who met the selection criteria and intravenously received vancomycin at the Department of Pediatrics of the Oita University Hospital between April 2011 and October 2019.Results: The febrile neutropenia (n = 46) cohort exhibited a significantly higher estimated glomerular filtration rate than the nonfebrile neutropenia (n = 66) cohort. Compared with those in the nonfebrile neutropenia cohort, the daily vancomycin dose relative to bodyweight and vancomycin clearance were significantly higher, and the vancomycin trough concentration and vancomycin concentration/dose ratio were significantly lower in the febrile neutropenia cohort. In the age groups of 1–6 and 7–12 years, compared with those in the nonfebrile neutropenia cohort, the vancomycin concentration/dose ratio was significantly lower, and vancomycin clearance was significantly higher in the febrile neutropenia cohort. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified febrile neutropenia as the independent factor influencing vancomycin concentration/dose ratio and clearance only in pediatric patients aged 1–6 years.Conclusions: Increased initial dosage and therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dose optimization are critical for the therapeutic efficacy of vancomycin in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia, especially in those aged 1–6 years.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass
           Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) Assay for the Determination of Total and Unbound
           Ciprofloxacin Concentrations in Human Plasma

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      Authors: de Vroom; Suzanne L.; Pistorius, Marcel C. M.; Bijleveld, Yuma A.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; van Hest, Reinier M.; Jager, Nynke G. L.
      Abstract: imageBackground: Although unbound ciprofloxacin is responsible for antibacterial effects, assays measuring the unbound drug plasma concentrations are scarce. This study aimed to develop and validate a rapid, reproducible, and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of total and unbound ciprofloxacin plasma concentrations.Methods: The determination of total ciprofloxacin concentrations required a 10 μL sample, while for unbound ciprofloxacin concentrations, it was 100 μL. Unbound ciprofloxacin was separated from protein-bound ciprofloxacin through ultrafiltration. A deuterated internal standard was used, and the sample preparation involved protein precipitation. The method was fully validated over a concentration range of 0.02–5.0 mg/L, according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. In addition, its clinical application was demonstrated.Results: The total run time was 1.5 minutes. For total ciprofloxacin plasma concentrations, the mean accuracy ranged from 94.5% to 105.0% across the validated range, the intraday imprecision was ≤7.6%, and the interday imprecision was ≤9.8%. For unbound ciprofloxacin plasma concentrations, the mean accuracy ranged from 92.8% to 102.1% across the validated range, the intraday imprecision was ≤7.0%, and the interday imprecision was ≤9.6%. Ciprofloxacin in plasma and ultrafiltrate remained stable for at least 96 hours at room temperature, at least 4 years at −80°C, and at least 3 freeze/thaw cycles (−80°C), with a minimum interval of 24 hours.Conclusions: The presented method is precise and accurate. It has been implemented in clinical care and research projects at a university hospital, permitting rapid determination of total and unbound ciprofloxacin.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Monitoring Simvastatin Adherence in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease:
           A Proof-of-Concept Study Based on Pharmacokinetic Measurements in Blood
           Plasma

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      Authors: Vethe; Nils Tore; Husebye, Einar; Andersen, Anders M.; Bergan, Stein; Kristiansen, Oscar; Fagerland, Morten W.; Munkhaugen, John
      Abstract: imageBackground: Poor statin adherence remains a public health concern associated with adverse outcomes. We evaluated the use of pharmacokinetic measurements to monitor adherence to simvastatin in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).Methods: Eighteen patients with CHD taking an evening dose of simvastatin 20 mg (n = 7), 40 mg (n = 5), or 80 mg (n = 6) were examined at steady-state pharmacokinetics. Ten patients were instructed to interrupt simvastatin dosing and return for blood sampling for the subsequent 3 days. Dose-normalized plasma concentrations of simvastatin lactone and simvastatin acid and the sum of the 2 were evaluated to discriminate between adherent dosing and dose omission. Bioanalytical quantification was performed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.Results: A simvastatin acid cutoff of 1.0 × 10−2 nmol−1·L−1·mg−1 identified 100% of those omitting 2 doses and 60% of those omitting a single dose. Simvastatin acid showed superior ability to discriminate dose omission, as well as the best agreement between samples handled at ambient and cool temperatures (median deviation 3.5%; interquartile range −2.5% to 13%). The cutoff for a morning dose schedule, with a similar ability to discriminate, was estimated at 2.0 × 10−3 nmol−1·L−1·mg−1.Conclusions: The present method discriminated between adherence and reduced adherence to simvastatin therapy in patients with CHD. Sample handling is feasible for routine practice, and the assessment of adherence can be performed by direct measurement of simvastatin acid in a blood sample, according to defined cutoff values. Further studies validating the cutoff value and utility for clinical application are encouraged.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Development and Validation of a Dried Blood Spot Assay Using UHPLC-MS/MS
           to Identify and Quantify 12 Antihypertensive Drugs and 4 Active
           Metabolites: Clinical Needs and Analytical Limitations

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      Authors: Peeters; Laura E. J.; Bahmany, Soma; Dekker, Tim; Aliawi, Aya; van Domburg, Bart; Versmissen, Jorie; Koch, Birgit C. P.
      Abstract: imagePurpose: As nonadherence to antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) can increase the risk of cardiovascular events, hospitalization, and higher costs, there is a need for a reliable, objective, and easy method to assess nonadherence in patients. The dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method used to measure drug concentrations meets these requirements. For detecting nonadherence, identification is more important than quantification. Owing to their use in clinical practice, it is important to measure multiple AHDs with a single method. Therefore, we developed and validated a single DBS method for 17 commonly used AHDs and 4 active metabolites using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS).Methods: Analytical validation of the DBS assay was performed in accordance with the guidelines on bioanalytical method validation of the European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration as well as the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology guidelines.Results: We validated 12 of the 17 AHDs according to the European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration requirements for bioanalytical method validation. Eleven AHDs were validated for both identification and quantification of drug concentrations, whereas nifedipine was only validated for identification. However, 5 of the 17 AHDs were excluded due to suboptimal validation results. Lercanidipine was excluded due to nonlinearity, and all 4 AHDs measured in the negative mode of UHPLC-MS/MS were not in accordance with one or more of the acceptance criteria and were therefore excluded.Conclusions: The described method accurately measured AHDs in DBS and can be used to determine nonadherence in patients. However, method validation revealed a challenging balance between analytical limitations and clinical needs when analyzing multiple drugs using the same method.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Serum or Plasma for Quantification of Direct Oral Anticoagulants'

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      Authors: Aakerøy; Rachel; Stokes, Charlotte L.; Tomić, Marija; Hegstad, Solfrid; Kristoffersen, Ann Helen; Ellekjær, Hanne; Schjøtt, Jan; Spigset, Olav; Helland, Arne
      Abstract: imageBackground: Direct oral anticoagulants are increasingly replacing vitamin K antagonists for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, partly owing to the lack of a need for routine monitoring. Therapeutic drug monitoring may still be warranted under certain circumstances. It is generally assumed that serum and plasma can be interchangeably used for this purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate possible differences between the serum, citrate-plasma, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma concentrations of apixaban and rivaroxaban in a larger patient group and their relation to factor X measurements.Methods: Plasma and serum samples were drawn during the same venipuncture from patients treated with apixaban or rivaroxaban. Drug levels were measured using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Three sample matrices were obtained from 8 healthy volunteers for measurement of factor X antigen and activity.Results: Mean concentrations of apixaban and rivaroxaban were 16.8% and 36.6% higher in serum than in citrate-plasma, respectively (both P < 0.001). The corresponding differences in serum versus EDTA-plasma were 4.5% for apixaban and 13.1% for rivaroxaban (both P < 0.001). Factor X antigen measurements in citrate-plasma, EDTA-plasma, serum with clot activator, and serum without additives yielded comparable results, and factor X activity was significantly higher in serum than in plasma.Conclusions: Apixaban and rivaroxaban concentrations were significantly higher in serum than in plasma. The difference was more pronounced with rivaroxaban and was larger between serum and citrate-plasma than between serum and EDTA-plasma. Higher factor X activity in serum may explain the observed concentration differences. The choice of matrix is, thus, important when interpreting therapeutic drug monitoring results and in research involving analyses of direct oral anticoagulants. The authors recommend citrate-plasma as the preferred matrix.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Rufinamide in Japanese Patients With
           Epilepsy: Focus on Drug Interactions, Tolerability, and Clinical
           Effectiveness

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      Authors: Yamamoto; Yoshiaki; Inoue, Yushi; Usui, Naotaka; Imai, Katsumi; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Yukitoshi
      Abstract: imageBackground: The purposes of this study were to assess drug interactions between rufinamide and concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and to identify the therapeutic window for rufinamide.Methods: Serum samples (n = 1531) were obtained from 178 patients (aged 2–57 years), and clinical records were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rufinamide (mean observation time, 1073 ± 846 days).Results: Rufinamide exhibited linear pharmacokinetics at doses of up to 60 mg/kg (range, 50–3200 mg/d). Concomitant use of the enzyme-inducing AEDs such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital reduced rufinamide concentrations by 43.4%, 13.2%, and 30.3%, respectively. By contrast, concomitant use of valproate significantly elevated rufinamide concentrations. Clinical response was seen in 41 patients (23.0%), with a median therapeutic concentration (interquartile range) of 20.6 mcg/mL (13.3–27.0). There was no difference in the therapeutic concentrations between seizure types, but patients with tonic/atonic seizures tended to have higher rufinamide concentrations. During the study period, adverse events were reported in 64 patients (35.8%), including somnolence, gastrointestinal disorders, dizziness, and irritability/behavior disorders. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that patients administered a concentration greater than 20 mcg/mL had an 8.6-fold higher incidence of adverse events.Conclusions: Therapeutic drug monitoring for rufinamide is clinically useful for predicting drug interactions between rufinamide and concomitant AEDs. When a patient has tonic/atonic seizures, careful titration is required for concentrations greater than 20 mcg/mL.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Development and Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method to Quantify Gilteritinib
           and Its Clinical Application in Patients With FLT3 Mutation–Positive
           Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

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      Authors: Zhang; Mengyu; Tajima, Soichiro; Suetsugu, Kimitaka; Hirota, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Takuji; Yoshimoto, Goichi; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Egashira, Nobuaki; Akashi, Koichi; Ieiri, Ichiro
      Abstract: imageBackground: Gilteritinib, a novel oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) mutations. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of gilteritinib is important for improving clinical outcomes and ensuring safety. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a simplified method for quantifying gilteritinib in human plasma using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.Methods: Liquid chromatography was performed by using an Acquity BEH C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) and a gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid in water (A) and acetonitrile (B). Detection was performed by using a Shimadzu tandem mass spectrometer through multiple reaction monitoring in the positive-ion mode.Results: The developed method enabled quantification of gilteritinib in 4 minutes and was validated by evaluating selectivity, calibration curve (10–1000 ng/mL, r2> 0.99), a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy (overall bias −4.2% to 1.9%), precision (intraday CV ≤ 7.9%; interday CV ≤ 13.6%), carryover, recovery, matrix effect, dilution integrity, and stability according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. This method was successfully applied to the TDM of gilteritinib trough concentrations in 3 patients with AML.Conclusions: The developed method fulfilled the FDA guideline criteria and can easily be implemented to facilitate TDM in patients receiving gilteritinib in a clinical setting.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • A Patient With Sepsis-Induced Multiorgan Failure and Increasing Serum
           Methadone Concentration: A Case Study: Erratum

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      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
  • Longitudinal Monitoring of Hair Cortisol Using Liquid
           Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry to Prevent Hypercortisolism in Patients
           Undergoing Glucocorticoid Replacement Therapy: Erratum

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      Abstract: No abstract available
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT-
       
 
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