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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
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Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.697
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1660-5527 - ISSN (Online) 1660-5535
Published by Karger Homepage  [121 journals]
  • Dermal and transdermal macromolecule delivery using enhancer molecules and
           colloidal carrier systems. Part II: Percutaneous administration of heparin
           

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      Abstract: Introduction: Heparin is a commonly used anticoagulant administered either by intravenous or subcutaneous injection for a systemic effect, or topically for the treatment of peripheral vascular disorders. Objective: This study aimed to formulate heparin in non-ionic colloidal carrier systems (CCSs) having enhanced percutaneous absorption for systemic and topical administration. Methods: Five CCSs were developed and characterized for their rheological properties, droplet size and drug loading. The percutaneous absorption of heparin was evaluated in vitro using Franz diffusion cells with rats’ skin and with the aid of a developed HPLC method. Furthermore, the efficacy of two developed heparin CCSs were tested percutaneously in rats by measuring the response against the time in comparison to subcutaneous administration. Results: The rheograms and droplets’ size measurements showed that the developed drug delivery systems have Newtonian properties with a droplet size between 109 and 460 nm. As much as 500 mg of heparin could be loaded in around 5 mL CCS. Furthermore, using Franz diffusion cells, a diffusion rate of 19.216 ± 2.01 USP U/cm2.hr could be achieved for heparin-loaded CCSs. Moreover, the estimated percutaneous in vivo relative bioavailability in comparison to subcutaneous administration could reflect that at least more than 50% of the drug passed through the skin. Conclusion: The developed novel non-toxic CCSs containing heparin can be a good candidate for percutaneous administration as alternative delivery systems for subcutaneous and intravenous invasive administration.

      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2022 08:46:47 +010
       
  • Free fatty acids induce lipid accumulation, autophagy and apoptosis in
           human sebocytes

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      Abstract: Background: A disruption of sebocyte differentiation and lipogenesis has fatal consequences and can cause a wide spectrum of skin diseases, from acne vulgaris to sebaceous carcinoma, however, the relevant molecular mechanisms have not been fully clarified. Objectives: The induction of autophagy and apoptosis in human sebocytes in response to biologically relevant fatty acids was investigated. Methods: Free fatty acids (arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid) and the pan-caspase inhibitor QVD-Oph were added in the supernatant of cultured human SZ95 sebocytes. Individual relevant proteins were analysed by Western blotting. Apoptosis and cell viability were determined, and typical autophagy structures were detected through electron microscopy. To obtain cell growth curves, cell confluence was continuously monitored by real-time cell analysis. Results: Fatty acids induced the development of intracellular lipid droplets with subsequent apoptosis, whereas arachidonic acid caused the most rapid effect. Cleavage products of caspase-3 were only detected in arachidonic acid-induced apoptosis. The high basal apoptotic rate of cultured SZ95 sebocytes was strongly suppressed by QVD-Oph. Fatty acid-induced apoptosis was also markedly inhibited by QVD-Oph, whereas intracellular lipid droplets further accumulated. While cell viability after incubation with linoleic acid, palmitic acid or palmitoleic acid and QVD-Oph was comparable with non-treated controls, arachidonic acid significantly reduced cell viability and cell density despite the concomitant pan-caspase inhibitor treatment. Using electron microscopy, typical autophagy structures were detected, such as autophagosomes and autolysosomes, at the basal level, which became more pronounced after treatment with fatty acids. Conclusions: Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the inflammation-associated mechanisms of lipogenesis and cell death induction in human sebocytes and may help to unveil the effects of fatty acid-rich human nutrition.

      PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2022 16:47:05 +010
       
  • Topically confined enhancement of cutaneous microcirculation by cold
           plasma

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      Abstract: Introduction:We aim to explore potentials and modalities of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) for the subsequent development of therapies targeting an increased perfusion of the lower leg skin tissue. In this study, we addressed the question whether the microcirculation enhancement is restricted to the tissue in direct contact with plasma or if adjacent tissue might also benefit.Methods:A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)-generated CAP device exhibiting an electrode area of 27.5 cm² was used to treat the anterior lower leg of ten healthy subjects for 4.5 minutes. Subsequently, hyperspectral imaging (HIS) was performed to measure tempo-spatially resolved characteristics of microcirculation parameters in superficial (up to 1 mm) and deeper (up to 5 mm) skin layers.Results:In the tissue area covered by the plasma electrode, DBD-CAP treatment enhances most of the perfusion parameters. The maximum oxygen saturation (StO2) increase reached 8 %, the near infrared perfusion index (NIR) increases by a maximum of 4 %, and the maximum tissue hemoglobin (THI) increase equaled 14 %. Tissue water index (TWI) was lower in both the control and the plasma group thus not affected by the DBD-CAP treatment. Yet, our study reveals that adjacent tissue is hardly affected by the enhancements in the electrode area and the effects are locally confined. Conclusion:Application of DBD-CAP to the lower leg resulted in enhancement of cutaneous microcirculation that extended 1 h beyond the treatment period with localization to the tissue area in direct contact with the cold plasma. This suggests the possibility of tailoring application schemes for topically confined enhancement of skin microcirculation, e.g. in the treatment of chronic wounds.

      PubDate: Wed, 09 Nov 2022 11:46:07 +010
       
  • Challenges in noninvasive skin biomarker measurements in daily practice: a
           longitudinal study on skin surface protein detection by the Transdermal
           Analysis Patch in pediatric psoriasis

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      Abstract: Introduction: Skin surface proteins are potential biomarkers in psoriasis and can be measured noninvasively with the Transdermal Analysis Patch (TAP). This study aims to assess markers measured by TAP over time in daily clinical practice, explore their correlation with disease severity in pediatric psoriasis, and compare the TAP and tape stripping detection capability.Methods: In this prospective observational daily clinical practice study, pediatric psoriasis patients (aged>5 to
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Oct 2022 22:48:10 +020
       
  • Direct and Indirect Effects of Blue Light Exposure on Skin: A Review of
           Published Literature

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      Abstract: The growing use of electronic devices and other artificial light sources in recent decades has changed the pattern of exposure to blue light (400–500 nm). Although some progress has been made in the study of the biological effects of blue light on the skin, many questions in this field remain unexplored. The aim of this article was to review the currently available evidence on the deleterious effects of blue light on the skin, as well as the methods and strategies designed to protect from the detrimental effects of blue light. PubMed and ProQuest databases were searched in January 2022. Search results were supplemented by articles considered relevant by the authors. The results of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies show that blue light produces direct and indirect effects on the skin. The most significant direct effects are the excessive generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and hyperpigmentation. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species cause DNA damage and modulate the immune response. Indirect effects of blue light include disruption of the central circadian rhythm regulation via melatonin signaling and local circadian rhythm regulation via direct effects on skin cells. Antioxidants and sunscreens containing titanium dioxide, iron oxides, and zinc oxide can be used to protect against the detrimental effects of blue light as part of a strategy that combines daytime protection and night-time repair. Blue light produces a wide variety of direct and indirect effects on the skin. As exposure to blue light from artificial sources is likely to continue to increase, this area warrants further investigation.

      PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2022 07:43:42 +020
       
  • Sinomenine suppressed keratinocyte proliferation and imiquimod-induced
           psoriasis-like dermatitis by regulating lncRNA XIST

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      Abstract: Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Sinomenine (SIN) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Objective: To confirm the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of SIN in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model and IMQ induced differentiated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells. Methods: BALB/c mice were treated with IMQ to construct a psoriasis-like mice model. PASI score and HE staining was used to observe pathology injury of skin tissue. The secretion of inflammatory factors and the oxidative stress level were detected by ELISA. The differentiated HaCaT cells were treated with IMQ (100 μM) and SIN (10 μg/mL or 50 μg/mL), cell viability, the secretion of inflammatory factors and the oxidative stress level were detected by MTT assay, ELISA, respectively. The expression of lncRNA XIST was detected by RT-qPCR. The relationship between XIST and EIF4G2 protein was detected by RNA Immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay, Ubiquitination experiment. Results: SIN significantly reduced PASI score, epidermal thickness, inflammatory response and oxidative stress levels that increased by IMQ in vivo. SIN inhibited IMQ-induced HaCaT cell proliferation, inflammatory response and oxidative stress levels, decreased the expression of XIST. Overexpression of XIST negated the protective effect of SIN on HaCaT cells. XIST interacted directly with EIF4G2 and regulate EIF4G2 expression via K48 ubiquitin. Knockdown of XIST reduced the half-life of EIF4G2 and decreased EIF4G2 protein stability. In addition, the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase MDM2 interacted with EIF4G2 and down-regulated EIF4G2 expression. XIST reduced the interaction between MDM2 and EIF4G2, which mediated EIF4G2 K48 ubiquitination. Overexpression of XIST negated the protective effect of SIN on the inflammation of HaCaT cells through activating the NF-κB signaling pathway, while NF-κB pathway inhibitor PDTC reversed this result. Conclusion: SIN had a protective effect on psoriasis and could inhibit HaCaT cell proliferation and inflammatory response via XIST/MDM2/EIF4G2/NF-κB axis.

      PubDate: Fri, 12 Aug 2022 15:18:44 +020
       
  • Acidic skin care promotes cutaneous microbiome recovery and skin
           physiology in an acute stratum corneum stress model

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      Abstract: Introduction: Skin microbiome and skin physiology are important indicators of the epidermal homeostasis status. Stress models can reveal pathological conditions and modulating effects. Here we investigated the cutaneous microbiome in relation to skin physiology after mild tape stripping (TS) without treatment compared to two cosmetic leave-on lotions (pH 5.5 vs. pH 9.3) in 25 healthy volunteers.Methods: The microbiome was analyzed by 16S-rRNA-gene amplicon sequencing and put in relation to the following skin physiology parameter: epidermal barrier function (TEWA-Meter TM300), stratum corneum hydration (Corneometer CM 825), surface pH (pH-Meter) and skin erythema (Mexameter). Results: TS reduced the alpha diversity with a recovery over 7 days without treatment. Both lotions significantly accelerated the recovery of the alpha-diversity already after 2 days with a slightly higher rate for the acidic lotion. After TS, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was increased, whereas Actinobacteria were reduced. The relative abundances of typical skin-associated genera were reduced after TS. Taxa compositions returned to normal levels after 7 days in all treatment groups. An accelerated normalization could be observed with both lotions already after two days. A significant difference in skin pH was observed on day2 and day7 with an increased pH for the alkaline lotion. Both lotions induced an increase in stratum corneum hydration. Conclusion: The study proved the suitability of an experimental stress model in the assessment of skin surface microbiome in relation to skin physiology. Stratum corneum hydration increased significantly with both lotions already at day2. Microbiome parameters (alpha-diversity, mean relative taxa, abundance of selected genera) normalized over 2-7 days. The following mechanisms could be responsible for the accelerated normalization of the microbiome: a) optimized hydration during the recovery phase, b) the composition of the lotion c) the induced repair mechanism. Thus, the formulation has a positive effect on the stratum corneum hydration and subsequently on cutaneous microbiome and skin physiology. Furthermore, this has eventually implications in the modulation of exogenous stress-induced epidermal alterations.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jul 2022 16:14:27 +020
       
  • Expression of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 in
           Androgenetic Alopecia: A case control study

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      Abstract: Background: Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 belongs to a group of latent transcription factors phosphorylated and activated by several protein tyrosine kinases, including members of Janus-kinases (JAKs) family. It is has been implicated that the JAK-STAT pathway activation could promote quiescence in the hair cycle, and topical treatment of mouse and human skin with JAK-inhibitors was shown to result in rapid hair growth.Objective: Our aim was to assess the tissue expression of STAT3 in patients with androgenetic alopecia and correlate it with disease severity and clinical parameters.Methods: Twenty five androgenetic alopecia patients who served as both cases and controls were included in this study. Full clinical examination was done and tissue STAT3 gene expression was then measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Scalp tissue affected by androgenetic alopecia show significantly higher STAT3 gene expression levels compared to unaffected (androgen independent) areas. (P
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jun 2022 14:11:07 +020
       
  • Comparison of lipid foam cream and basic cream on epidermal reconstruction
           in mild atopic eczema

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      Abstract: Introduction: Basic therapy is of central importance in the treatment of atopic eczema. Using electron microscopic images, the morphology of epidermal skin barrier and its lipids was investigated after application of a lipid foam cream and basic cream.Methods: Patients with two contralateral comparable atopic eczema (local SCORAD 1-10) on the forearms were tested. Eczema was treated with a lipid foam cream or basic cream twice daily for 28 days. At the beginning, after 14 days and at the end of application, the local SCORAD, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, intercellular lipid length (ICLL) in the intercellular space (ICS) of the stratum corneum (SC) and skin lipids were determined.Results: After application of the foam cream, the epidermal skin barrier could be completely restored and corresponded to skin-healthy skin, while the epiderrmal skin barrier could not reach this state after care with the basic cream. The content of lipids in the SC increases significantly by 31% after basic cream treatment, whereas they are significantly increased by 85% after application of the lipid foam cream. The local SCORAD improved for both treatments to about the same extent, no significant results could be shown for TEWL and skin hydration. Conclusion: In subjects with mild atopic eczema, the lipid foam cream leads to a measurable recovery of the skin barrier which is much more pronounced in comparison to the basic cream

      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 15:06:27 +020
       
  • Evaluation of an efficient and skin-adherent semisolid sunscreen
           nanoformulation

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      Abstract: Introduction: Sunscreens are substances applied on the skin surface to protect the skin from the harmful effects of UV light. Nanoparticles can increase the retention time of the sunscreen on the skin surface and its efficacy, by acting as physical barriers. The present investigation aimed to prepare and characterize benzophenone-3-loaded lipid core nanocapsules coated with chitosan (CH-LNC) and, after obtaining a suitable semisolid formulation for skin application, to evaluate the influence of the nanocapsules chitosan-coating on the skin adhesion and photoprotective effect of the sunscreen. Methods: CH-LNC were obtained by the interfacial deposition of pre-formed polymer. The semisolid formulation was obtained using hydroxyethyl cellulose as gel-forming polymer. Skin adhesion experiments were performed by keeping skin membranes with formulation under water at 32oC for up to 60 minutes. Photoprotective effect was analyzed by the capacity of the formulations to protect a photo unstable substance (resveratrol) from degradation under UV light. Results: CH-LNC presented size of around 150nm, with low polydispersity, positive zeta potential, due to chitosan, and benzophenone-3 encapsulation efficiency of close to 100% (3mg/mL). The proposed gel presented suitable consistence and pH for skin application. Although coated and uncoated LNC increased benzonphenone-3 skin adhesion after 10 minutes of water immersion, only the nanoparticles coated with chitosan were able to do so after 60 minutes. CH-LNC increased the photoprotection of the sunscreen under UVA and UVB light after 60 minutes of exposure, probably due to the bioadhesion and film-forming properties of chitosan. Conclusion: The chitosan coating of benzophenone-3-loaded LNC increased the skin adhesion and the photoprotective effect of the sunscreen.

      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2022 15:02:02 +020
       
 
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