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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 333)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 84)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Psychopharmacology
Number of Followers: 15  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-2072 - ISSN (Online) 0033-3158
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Special issue on conditioned determinants of reward seeking: a tribute to
           Dr. Nadia Chaudhri

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      PubDate: 2023-02-04
       
  • Inhibition of mGluR5 alters BDNF/TrkB and GLT-1 expression in the
           prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and ameliorates PTSD-like behavior in
           rats

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      Abstract: Rationale and objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and debilitating psychiatric disorder. However, its specific etiological mechanism remains unclear. Previous studies have shown that traumatic stress changes metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) expression in the hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). More importantly, mGluR5 expression is often accompanied by alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Furthermore, BDNF/tropomyosin-associated kinase B (TrkB) signaling plays multiple roles, including roles in neuroplasticity and antidepressant activity, by regulating glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) expression. This study aims to explore the effects of inhibiting mGluR5 on PTSD-like behaviors and BDNF, TrkB, and GLT-1 expression in the HIP and PFC of inevitable foot shock (IFS)-treated rats. Methods Seven-day IFS was used to establish a PTSD rat model, and 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) was used to inhibit the activity of mGluR5 during IFS in rats. After modeling, behavioral changes and mGluR5, BDNF, TrkB, and GLT-1 expression in the PFC and HIP were examined. Results First, the IFS procedure induced PTSD-like behavior. Second, IFS increased the expression of mGluR5 and decreased BDNF, TrkB, and GLT-1 expression in the PFC and HIP. Third, the mGluR5 antagonist blocked the above behavioral and molecular alterations. Conclusions mGluR5 was involved in IFS-induced PTSD-like behavior by changing BDNF, TrkB, and GLT-1 expression.
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
       
  • Reconsidering “dissociation” as a predictor of antidepressant
           efficacy for esketamine

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      Abstract: Rationale The relationship between subjective drug experience and antidepressant outcomes for ketamine derivatives is poorly understood but of high clinical relevance. Esketamine is the patented (S)-enantiomer of ketamine and has regulatory approval for psychiatric applications. Objectives We examined the relationship between acute dissociation, as measured by the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS), and antidepressant efficacy, as measured by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), for esketamine across the 4-week induction phase of treatment. Methods This post hoc analysis combined data (N = 576) from the TRANSFORM-1 and TRANSFORM-2 clinical trials of esketamine for treatment-resistant depression. Linear mixed models were performed using total MADRS score as the outcome variable with the following independent variables: baseline MADRS score, treatment condition × time interaction, and CADSS × time interaction. To assess whether initial dissociation predicted rapid antidepressant benefit with esketamine, a separately planned regression was performed with day 2 MADRS as the outcome variable with the following dependent variables: baseline MADRS, treatment condition, and day 1 CADSS. Results The linear mixed model did not show any effect of a CADSS × time interaction (p = 0.7). Looking solely at the effect of day 1 CADSS on day 2 MADRS revealed that each additional CADSS point was associated with a − .04 [95% CI − .08, − .002] (p = .04) decrease in MADRS score. Conclusions We found no evidence of a clinically significant positive or negative association between dissociation and antidepressant effect for esketamine. Our findings suggest that subsequent inquiry in this area will benefit from improved characterization of drug experiences relevant to therapeutic outcomes.
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
       
  • Policosanol protects against Alzheimer’s disease-associated spatial
           cognitive decline in male rats: possible involved mechanisms

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      Abstract: Rationale Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline and synaptic failure. Objective The present study was designed to explore the possible protective effects of policosanol (PCO) on spatial cognitive capacity, long-term potentiation (LTP) induction, oxidant/antioxidant status, and Aβ plaques formation in an AD rat model induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ1–40. Methods Healthy adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, sham (ICV injection of 5 µl phosphate-buffered saline), AG (50 mg/kg; P.O., as PCO vehicle), PCO (50 mg/kg; P.O.), AD model (ICV injection of 5 µl Aβ), AD + AG (50 mg/kg; P.O.), and AD + PCO (50 mg/kg; P.O.). Treatments were performed for eight consecutive weeks. At the end of the treatment course, spatial learning and memory functions, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induction, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total thiol group (TTG) levels, as well as the formation of Aβ plaques, were examined. Results The results showed that injection of Aβ reduced spatial learning and memory abilities in the Barnes maze test, which was accompanied by decreases in field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) slope, population spike (PS) amplitude, and TTG level and increases in Aβ plaque accumulation and MDA content. In contrast, PCO treatment improved all the above-mentioned changes in the Aβ-infused rats. Conclusions The results suggest that amelioration of hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairment, modulation of oxidant/antioxidant status, and inhibition of Aβ plaque formation by PCO may be the mechanisms behind its protective effect against AD-associated spatial cognitive decline.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Association between iron accumulation in the dorsal striatum and
           compulsive drinking in alcohol use disorder

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      Abstract: Rationale Brain iron accumulation has been observed in neuropsychiatric disorders and shown to be related to neurodegeneration. Objectives In this study, we used quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), an emerging MRI technique developed for quantifying tissue magnetic susceptibility, to examine brain iron accumulation in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its relation to compulsive drinking. Methods Based on our previous projects, QSM was performed as a secondary analysis with gradient echo sequence images, in 186 individuals with AUD and 274 healthy participants. Whole-brain susceptibility values were calculated with morphology-enabled dipole inversion and referenced to the cerebrospinal fluid. Then, the susceptibility maps were compared between AUD individuals and healthy participants. The relationship between drinking patterns and susceptibility was explored. Results Whole-brain analyses showed that the susceptibility in the dorsal striatum (putamen and caudate) among AUD individuals was higher than healthy participants and was positively related to the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores and the amount of drinking in the past three months. Conclusions Increased susceptibility suggests higher iron accumulation in the dorsal striatum in AUD. This surrogate for the brain iron level was linearly associated with the compulsive drinking pattern and the recent amount of drinking, which provides us a new clinical perspective in relation to brain iron accumulation, and also might indicate an association of AUD with neuroinflammation as a consequence of brain iron accumulation. The iron accumulation in the striatum is further relevant for functional imaging studies in AUD by potentially producing signal dropout and artefacts in fMRI images.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • Chronic restraint stress–induced depression-like behavior is mediated by
           upregulation of melanopsin expression in C57BL/6 mice retina

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      Abstract: Background Depression is associated with circadian disturbances in which melanopsin was a key mechanism. Further studies have demonstrated that melanopsin gene variations are associated with some depressive disorders and aberrant light can impair mood through melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs). The goal of this study was to explore the direct relationship between depression and melanopsin. Methods Adult C57BL/6 male mice were physically restrained for 16 h in a 50-ml polypropylene centrifuge tube and all behavioral tests were performed after CRS treatment. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence were used to detect melanopsin expression in the retina of C57BL/6 mice. And we observed the change of the electrophysiological function and release of glutamate of mRGCs. Results The melanopsin expression upregulate in mRGCs of chronic restraint stress (CRS)-treating mice which exhibit depression-like behavior. The frequency of blue light-induced action potentials and light-induced glutamate release mediated by melanopsin also increase significantly. This change of melanopsin is mediated by the CRS-induced glucocorticoid. Conclusions CRS may induce the depression-like behavior in mice via glucocorticoid-melanopsin pathway. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic link between CRS-induced depression and melanopsin in mice.
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
       
  • The interaction between first-episode drug-naïve schizophrenia and age
           based on gray matter volume and its molecular analysis: a multimodal
           magnetic resonance imaging study

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      Abstract: Objectives Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by progressive and widespread gray matter (GM) atrophy. Studies have shown that normal brain development has an impact on schizophrenia-induced GM alterations. However, the neuropathology and underlying molecular mechanisms of interaction between age and schizophrenia are unclear. Methods This study enrolled 66/84 first-episode drug-naïve patients with early-onset/adult-onset schizophrenia ((EOS)/(AOS)) and matched normal controls (NC) (46 adolescents/73 adults), undergoing T1-weighted high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Gray matter volume (GMV) in four groups was detected using 2-way analyses of variance with diagnosis and age as factors. Then, factors-related volume maps and neurotransmitter maps were spatially correlated using JuSpace to determine the relationship to molecular structure. Results Compared to AOS, EOS and adult NC had larger GMV in right middle frontal gyrus. Compared to adolescent NC, EOS and adult NC had smaller GMV in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, and right cerebellum_6. Disease-induced GMV reductions were mainly distributed in frontal, parietal, thalamus, visual, motor cortex, and medial temporal lobe structures. Age-induced GMV alterations were mainly distributed in visual and motor cortex. The changed GMV induced by schizophrenia, age, and their interaction was related to dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors. Age is also related to glutamate receptors, and schizophrenia is also associated with GABAaergic and noradrenergic receptors. Conclusions Our results revealed the multimodal neural mechanism of interaction between disease and age. We emphasized age-related GM abnormalities of ventral stream of visual perceptual pathways and high-level cognitive brain in EOS, which may be affected by imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
       
  • N-Acetylcysteine normalizes brain oxidative stress and neuroinflammation
           observed after protracted ethanol abstinence: a preclinical study in
           long-term ethanol-experienced male rats

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      Abstract: Rationale Using a preclinical model based on the Alcohol Deprivation Effect (ADE), we have reported that N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) can prevent the relapse-like drinking behaviour in long-term ethanol-experienced male rats. Objectives To investigate if chronic ethanol intake and protracted abstinence affect several glutamate transporters and whether NAC, administered during the withdrawal period, could restore the ethanol-induced brain potential dysfunctions. Furthermore, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of NAC during abstinence in rats under the ADE paradigm were also explored. Methods The expression of GLT1, GLAST and xCT in nucleus accumbens (Nacc) and dorsal striatum (DS) of male Wistar was analysed after water and chronic ethanol intake. We used the model based on the ADE within another cohort of male Wistar rats. During the fourth abstinence period, rats were treated for 9 days with vehicle or NAC (60, 100 mg/kg; s.c.). The effects of NAC treatment on (i) glutamate transporters expression in the Nacc and DS, (ii) the oxidative status in the hippocampus (Hip) and amygdala (AMG) and (iii) some neuroinflammatory markers in prefrontal cortex (PFC) were tested. Results NAC chronic administration during protracted abstinence restored oxidative stress markers (GSSG and GGSH/GSH) in the Hip. Furthermore, NAC was able to normalize some neuroinflammation markers in PFC without normalizing the observed downregulation of GLT1 and GLAST in Nacc. Conclusions NAC restores brain oxidative stress and neuroinflammation that we previously observed after protracted ethanol abstinence in long-term ethanol-experienced male rats. This NAC effect could be a plausible mechanism for its anti-relapse effect. Also, brain oxidative stress and neuroinflammation could represent and identify plausible targets for searching new anti-relapse pharmacotherapies.
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
       
  • Dantrolene sodium fails to reverse robust brain hyperthermia induced by
           MDMA and methamphetamine in rats

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      Abstract: Rationale Hyperthermia induced by psychomotor stimulants may cause leakage of the blood-brain barrier, vasogenic edema, and lethality in extreme cases. Current treatments such as whole-body cooling are only symptomatic and a clear need to develop pharmacological interventions exists. Dantrolene sodium, a peripheral muscle relaxant used in the treatment of malignant hyperthermia, has been proposed as potentially effective to treat MDMA-hyperthermia in emergency rooms. However, debate around its efficacy for this indication persists. Objectives To investigate dantrolene as a treatment for illicit hyperthermia induced by psychomotor stimulant drugs, we examined how Ryanodex®, a concentrated formulation of dantrolene sodium produced by Eagle Pharmaceuticals, influences 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)- and methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperthermia in awake freely moving rats. We injected rats with moderate doses of MDMA (9 mg/kg) and METH (9 mg/kg) and administered Ryanodex® intravenously (6 mg/kg) after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C) mimicking clinical acute intoxication. We conducted simultaneous temperature recordings in the brain, temporal muscle, and skin to determine the basic mechanisms underlying temperature responses. To assess the efficacy of dantrolene in attenuating severe hyperthermia, we administered MDMA to rats maintained in a warm ambient environment (29 °C), conditions which produce robust brain and body hyperthermia (>40 °C) and lethality. Results Dantrolene failed to attenuate MDMA- and METH-induced hyperthermia, though locomotor activity was significantly reduced. All animals maintained at warm ambient temperatures that received dantrolene during severe drug-induced hyperthermia died within or soon after the recording session. Conclusions Our results suggest that dantrolene sodium formulations are not mechanistically suited to treat MDMA- and METH-induced hyperthermia.
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
       
  • Subjective response to alcohol in young adults with bipolar disorder and
           recent alcohol use: a within-subject randomized placebo-controlled alcohol
           administration study

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      Abstract: Abstract Limited data exists on mechanisms contributing to elevated risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in bipolar disorder. Variation in subjective response to alcohol may relate to alcohol use and risk for AUD. This study used a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, within-subjects design to investigate differences in subjective response to alcohol in 50 euthymic young adults (n = 24 with and n = 26 without bipolar disorder type I). Eighty-three percent of participants with bipolar disorder were medicated. Participants completed assessments of clinical history, alcohol expectancies, and recent alcohol use. Participants were dosed to a .08 g% breath alcohol concentration. The placebo condition occurred on a separate counter-balanced day. Subjective response to alcohol was investigated at similar time points during both conditions. Group, condition, and group-by-condition interactions were modeled, with condition and time of subjective response assessment as repeated within-subject variables, and subjective response to alcohol as the dependent variable. Greater stimulating effects and liking of alcohol were reported in people with bipolar disorder (group-by-condition interactions, p < .05) than healthy young adults. While young adults with bipolar disorder reported anticipating feeling less “mellow/relaxed” when drinking (p = .02), during both beverage conditions they reported feeling more “mellow/relaxed” (main effect of group, p = .006). Feeling more “mellow/relaxed” during the alcohol condition related to greater recent alcohol use in bipolar disorder (p = .001). Exploratory analyses suggested anticonvulsants and sedatives/antihistamines may relate to differences in subjective response to alcohol in bipolar disorder. Results suggest young adults with bipolar disorder may differ in alcohol expectancies and experience alcohol intoxication differently—with distinct relations between subjective response to alcohol and alcohol use—compared to healthy young adults.
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
       
  • Does alcohol automatically capture drinkers’ attention' Exploration
           through an eye-tracking saccadic choice task

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      Abstract: Rationale Dominant theoretical models postulate the presence of an automatic attentional bias (AB) towards alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol use disorder, such AB constituting a core feature of this disorder. An early alcohol AB has been documented in subclinical populations such as binge drinking (i.e., a drinking pattern prevalent in youth and characterized by repeated alternation between alcohol intoxications and withdrawals, generating cerebral consequences). However, the automatic nature of AB remains to be established. Objectives We investigated the automatic nature of AB in binge drinkers through the saccadic choice task. This eye-tracking paradigm consistently highlights the extremely fast and involuntary saccadic responses elicited by faces in humans, relative to other object categories. Through an alcohol-related adaptation of the saccadic choice task, we tested whether the early and automatic capture of attentional resources elicited by faces can also be found for alcohol-related stimuli in binge drinkers, as predicted by theoretical models. Methods Forty-three binge drinkers and 44 control participants performed two versions of the saccadic choice task. In the original version, two images (a face, a vehicle) were displayed on the left and right side of the screen respectively. Participants had to perform a saccade as fast as possible towards the target stimulus (either face or vehicle). In the alcohol-related version, the task was identical, but the images were an alcoholic beverage and a non-alcoholic stimulus. Results We replicated the automatic attraction towards faces in both groups, as faces generated higher saccadic accuracy, speed, and amplitude than vehicles, as well as higher corrective saccade proportion. Concerning the alcohol-related adaptation of the task, groups did not differ for the accuracy, speed, and amplitude of the first saccade towards alcohol. However, binge drinkers differed from controls regarding the proportion of corrective saccade towards non-alcoholic stimuli after an error saccade towards alcohol, suggesting the presence of an alcohol disengagement bias specific to binge drinkers. Conclusions Alcohol-related AB in binge drinkers is not characterized by an early and automatic hijacking of attention towards alcohol. This AB rather relies on later and more controlled processing stages, namely a difficulty to disengage attentional resources from alcohol-related stimuli.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
       
  • Place conditioning in humans: opportunities for translational research

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      Abstract: Rationale Translational research, especially research that bridges studies with humans and nonhuman species, is critical to advancing our understanding of human disorders such as addiction. This advancement requires reliable and rigorous models to study the underlying constructs contributing to the maladaptive behavior. Objective In this commentary, we address some of the challenges of conducting translational research by examining a single procedure, place conditioning. Place conditioning is commonly used with laboratory animals to study the conditioned rewarding effects of drugs, and recent studies indicate that a similar procedure can be used in humans. Results We discuss the opportunities and challenges of making the procedure comparable across species, as well as discuss the benefits of more systematically applying the procedure to humans. Conclusion We argue that the capacity of humans to report verbally on their internal experiences (perceptions, affective states, likes and dislikes) add an important dimension to the understanding of the procedures used in laboratory animals.
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
       
  • Unravelling the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter NMDA receptors relevance
           in the nitric oxide-mediated panic‑like behaviour and defensive
           antinociception organised by the anterior hypothalamus of male mice

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      Abstract: Rationale Previous studies suggested that the dorsal column of the periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG) can be a target of neural pathways from hypothalamic nuclei involved in triggering fear-related defensive responses. In turn, evidence is provided suggesting that microinjection of the nitric oxide (NO) donor SIN-1 into the anterior hypothalamus (AH) of mice evokes panic-like behaviours and fear-induced antinociception. However, it is unknown whether the dPAG of mice mediates these latter defensive responses organised by AH neurons. Objectives This study was designed to examine the role of dPAG in mediating SIN-1-evoked fear-induced defensive behavioural and antinociceptive responses organised in the AH of mice. Methods First, neural tract tracing was performed to characterise the AH-dPAG pathways. Then, using neuropharmacological approaches, we evaluated the effects of dPAG pretreatment with either the non-selective synaptic blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl2; 1 mM/0.1 μL) or the competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist LY235959 (0.1 nmol/0.1 μL) on defensive behaviours and antinociception induced by microinjections of SIN-1 in the AH of male C57BL/6 mice. Results AlexaFluor488-conjugated dextran-labelled axonal fibres from AH neurons were identified in both dorsomedial and dorsolateral PAG columns. Furthermore, we showed that pre-treatment of the dPAG with either CoCl2 or LY235959 inhibited freezing and impaired oriented escape and antinociception induced by infusions of SIN-1 into the AH. Conclusions These findings suggest that the panic-like freezing and oriented escape defensive behaviours, and fear-induced antinociception elicited by intra-AH microinjections of SIN-1 depend on the activation of dPAG NMDA receptors.
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
       
  • Involvement of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant-like effect
           of 1-(phenylselanyl)-2-(p-tolyl)indolizine in mice

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      Abstract: Rationale Depression is a mental disorder that affects approximately 280 million people worldwide. In the search for new treatments for mood disorders, compounds containing selenium and indolizine derivatives show promising results. Objectives and methods To evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of 1-(phenylselanyl)-2-(p-tolyl)indolizine (MeSeI) (0.5–50 mg/kg, intragastric—i.g.) on the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swim test (FST) in adult male Swiss mice and to elucidate the role of the serotonergic system in this effect through pharmacological and in silico approaches, as well to evaluate acute oral toxicity at a high dose (300 mg/kg). Results MeSeI administered 30 min before the FST and the TST reduced immobility time at doses from 1 mg/kg and at 50 mg/kg and increased the latency time for the first episode of immobility, demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. In the open field test (OFT), MeSeI did not change the locomotor activity. The antidepressant-like effect of MeSeI (50 mg/kg, i.g.) was prevented by the pre-treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA), a selective tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally—i.p. for 4 days), with ketanserin, a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and with GR113808, a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), but not with WAY100635, a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (0.1 mg/kg, subcutaneous—s.c.) and ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (1 mg/kg, i.p.). MeSeI showed a binding affinity with 5-HT2A, 5 -HT2C, and 5-HT4 receptors by molecular docking. MeSeI (300 mg/kg, i.g.) demonstrated low potential to cause acute toxicity in adult female Swiss mice. Conclusion In summary, MeSeI exhibits an antidepressant-like effect mediated by the serotonergic system and could be considered for the development of new treatment strategies for depression.
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
       
  • Melatonin alleviates PTSD-like behaviors and restores serum GABA and
           cortisol levels in mice

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      Abstract: Rationale Melatonin is an endogenous hormone which modulates sleep-wake cycles. Previous studies have found a close correlation between melatonin and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a trauma- and stress-related psychiatric disorder with symptoms of sleep disturbance. However, it is still unclear if melatonin can have a therapeutic effect on PTSD. Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin on foot shocks induced PTSD-like behaviors and abnormal neuroendocrine levels in mice. Results As compared to no-shock controls, PTSD-like mice spent significantly more time freezing and displayed less rearing in a contextual fear test, spent significantly less time in and had fewer entries into open arms in an elevated maze test, and spent significantly less time in and had fewer entries into a light box in a light-dark transition task. In addition, serum GABA and cortisol levels were both found to be significantly decreased, whereas epinephrine levels were significantly increased in the PTSD-like mice. Our results showed that intraperitoneal injections of melatonin (2 mM, but not 0.2 nor 20 mM, 0.1 ml/day for two consecutive weeks) alleviated PTSD-like behaviors and restored serum GABA and cortisol levels. Further, it was found that melatonin receptor 1/2 antagonist luzindole significantly blocked the beneficial effects of melatonin for PTSD-like behaviors and serum GABA and cortisol levels, whereas melatonin receptor 2 antagonist 4-P-PDOT slightly blocked these effects. Conclusions These results indicate that melatonin has a potential therapeutic effect on PTSD-like symptoms in mice, and melatonin receptor 1 mediated the effect.
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
       
  • Serotonin transporter availability in physically aggressive personality
           disordered patients: associations with trait and state aggression, and
           response to fluoxetine

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      Abstract: Rationale Characterizing the neuroanatomical basis of serotonergic abnormalities in severe, chronic, impulsive aggression will allow for rational treatment selection, development of novel therapeutics, and biomarkers to identify at-risk individuals. Objectives The aim of this study is to identify associations between regional serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability and trait and state aggression, as well as response to the anti-aggressive effects of fluoxetine. Methods We examined 5-HTT availability using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [11C]DASB in personality disordered patients with current physical intermittent explosive disorder (IED; n = 18), and healthy comparison participants (HC; n = 11), in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala (AMY), ventral striatum (VST), and midbrain (MID). After PET imaging, IED patients were treated with fluoxetine 20 mg daily (n = 9) or placebo (n = 6) for 12 weeks. Trait and state aggression, trait callousness, and childhood trauma were assessed. Results In IED patients, trait aggression was positively associated with [11C]DASB binding in the ACC and VST; covarying for trait callousness and childhood trauma enhanced these correlations. Baseline state aggression was positively correlated with ACC [11C]DASB in IED patients. Greater baseline VST [11C]DASB binding predicted greater decreases in state aggression with fluoxetine treatment. Conclusions Consistent with prior reports, ACC 5-HTT is related to trait aggression, and adjusting for factors related to proactive (callousness) and reactive (childhood trauma) aggression subtypes further resolves this relationship. Novel findings of the study include a better understanding of the association between regional 5-HTT availability and state aggression, and the involvement of VST 5-HTT with trait aggression, and with the anti-aggressive effects of fluoxetine.
      PubDate: 2023-01-14
       
  • Sex-differences in anxiety, neuroinflammatory markers, and enhanced fear
           learning following chronic heroin withdrawal

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      Abstract: Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and opioid use disorder (OUD) are comorbid in clinical populations. However, both pre-clinical and clinical studies of these co-occurring disorders have disproportionately represented male subjects, limiting the applicability of these findings. Our previous work has identified chronic escalating heroin administration and withdrawal can produce enhanced fear learning. This behavior is associated with an increase in dorsal hippocampal (DH) interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity. Further, we have shown that these increases in IL-1β and TNF-α are mechanistically necessary for the development of enhanced fear learning. Although these are exciting findings, this paradigm has only been studied in males. The current studies aim to examine sex differences in the behavioral and neuroimmune effects of chronic heroin withdrawal and future enhanced fear learning. In turn, we determined that chronic escalating heroin administration can produce withdrawal in female rats comparable to male rats. Subsequently, we examined the consequence of heroin withdrawal on future enhanced fear learning and IL-1β, TNF-α, and GFAP immunoreactivity. Strikingly, we identified sex differences in these neuroimmune measures, as chronic heroin administration and withdrawal does not produce enhanced fear learning or immunoreactivity changes in females. Moreover, we determined whether heroin withdrawal produces short-term and long-term anxiety behaviors in both female and males. Collectively, these novel experiments are the first to test whether heroin withdrawal can sensitize future fear learning, produce neurobiological changes, and cause short-term and long-term anxiety behaviors in female rats.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
       
  • The BDNF Val68Met polymorphism causes a sex specific alcohol preference
           over social interaction and also acute tolerance to the anxiolytic effects
           of alcohol, a phenotype driven by malfunction of BDNF in the ventral
           hippocampus of male mice

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      Abstract: Background The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Valine 66 to Methionine human polymorphism results in impaired activity-dependent BDNF release and has been linked to psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety. We previously showed that male knock-in mice carrying the mouse Methionine homolog (Met68BDNF) exhibit excessive and compulsive alcohol drinking behaviors as compared to the wild-type Val68BDNF mice. Objective Here, we set out to determine the potential mechanism for the heightened and compulsive alcohol drinking phenotypes detected in Met68BDNF mice. Results We found that male, but not female Met68BDNF mice exhibit social anxiety-like behaviors. We further show that male Met68BDNF mice exhibit a preference for alcohol over social interaction. In contrast, alcohol place preference without an alternative social reward, is similar in male Met68BDNF and Val68BDNF mice. Since the Met68BDNF mice show social anxiety phenotypes, we tested whether alcohol reliefs anxiety similarly in Met68BDNF and Val68BDNF mice and found that male, but not female Met68BDNF mice are insensitive to the acute anxiolytic action of alcohol. Finally, we show that this acute tolerance to alcohol-dependent anxiolysis can be restored by overexpressing wild-type Val68BDNF in the ventral hippocampus (vHC) of Met68BDNF mice. Conclusions Together, our results suggest that excessive alcohol drinking in the Met68BDNF may be attributed, in part, to heighted social anxiety and a lack of alcohol-dependent anxiolysis, a phenotype that is associated with malfunction of BDNF signaling in the vHC of male Met68BDNF mice.
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
       
  • PT150 blocks the rewarding properties of ethanol and attenuates
           ethanol-induced reduction of egg laying in Coturnix quail

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      Abstract: Rationale Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been shown to be associated with a dysregulated stress system. Reducing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), that binds to glucocorticoid receptors, may attenuate the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse. However, the effect of blocking corticosterone receptors on ethanol reward has yet to be investigated. Objectives The current study investigated whether the stress hormone receptor antagonist, PT150, would block the rewarding properties of ethanol via the glucocorticoid receptor system and attenuate other ethanol-induced effects. Methods A conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure was used to examine the rewarding properties of ethanol in an avian preclinical model. Ethanol was paired with the least preferred chamber. On alternate days, water was paired with the preferred chamber. After eight pairings, a place preference test was given that allowed subjects to have access to both chambers. Half of the subjects received PT150 prior to ethanol administration. The other half received vehicle. Time spent in each chamber during the preference tests, locomotor activity during the pairings, and egg production in female birds was recorded. Results Ethanol treatment resulted in a CPP and pretreatment of PT150 blocked the acquisition of the ethanol-induced place preference. Neither ethanol nor PT150 altered locomotor activity. Pretreatment of PT150 also increased egg production in female quail treated with ethanol. Conclusions These findings suggest repeated ethanol pairings with visual cues can produce a CPP. Furthermore, pretreatment of PT150 may be a potential pharmacotherapy for blocking the rewarding properties of ethanol and may enhance egg production in female quail treated with ethanol.
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
       
  • Effect of four-week cannabidiol treatment on cognitive function: secondary
           outcomes from a randomised clinical trial for the treatment of cannabis
           use disorder

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      Abstract: Rationale Chronic cannabis use is associated with impaired cognitive function. Evidence indicates cannabidiol (CBD) might be beneficial for treating cannabis use disorder. CBD may also have pro-cognitive effects; however, its effect on cognition in people with cannabis use disorder is currently unclear. Objectives We aimed to assess whether a 4-week CBD treatment impacted cognitive function. We hypothesised that CBD treatment would improve cognition from baseline to week 4, compared to placebo. Methods Cognition was assessed as a secondary outcome in a phase 2a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group and placebo-controlled clinical trial of 4-week daily 200 mg, 400 mg and 800 mg CBD for the treatment of cannabis use disorder. Participants had moderate or severe DSM-5 cannabis use disorder and intended to quit cannabis use. Our pre-registered primary cognitive outcome was delayed prose recall. Secondary cognitive outcomes were immediate prose recall, stop signal reaction time, trail-making task performance, verbal fluency and digit span. Results Seventy participants were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 23), 400 mg CBD (n = 24) and 800 mg CBD (n = 23). A 200 mg group was eliminated from the trial because it was an inefficacious dose at interim analysis (n = 12) and was not analysed here. For the primary cognitive outcome, there was no effect of CBD compared to placebo, evidenced by a lack of dose-by-time interaction at 400 mg (0.46, 95%CIs: − 1.41, 2.54) and 800 mg (0.89, 95%CIs: − 0.99, 2.81). There was no effect of CBD compared to placebo on secondary cognitive outcomes, except backwards digit span which increased following 800 mg CBD (0.30, 95%CIs: 0.02, 0.58). Conclusions In this clinical trial for cannabis use disorder, CBD did not influence delayed verbal memory. CBD did not have broad cognitive effects but 800 mg daily treatment may improve working memory manipulation. Clinical trial registration The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02044809) and the EU Clinical Trials Register (2013–000,361-36).
      PubDate: 2023-01-04
       
 
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