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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 310)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
Pharmaciana     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 5)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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AAPS PharmSciTech
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.752
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1530-9932
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Mucus-Penetrating Alginate-Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with Berberine
           Hydrochloride for Oral Delivery to the Inflammation Site of Ulcerative
           Colitis

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      Abstract: The rectal enemas of berberine hydrochloride (BH) have emerged as one of the most effective strategies in the clinical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, oral dosages of BH exhibit a poor anti-inflammatory effect of UC, which may attribute to premature absorption of BH by the upper gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, the thick colonic mucus layer obstructs the penetration of the drug, resulting in low bioavailability to the inflammatory site of the colon. The aim of this study was to develop the mucus-penetrating sodium alginate-chitosan nanoparticles (SA-CS NPs) for oral delivery of BH to the site of colonic ulcer lesions. BH-loaded SA-CS NPs were developed through the ionic gelation method and analyzed for physicochemical characteristics, release performance, penetrability, site retention, and therapeutic efficacy. The results showed that the NPs have a particle size of 257 nm with a negative charge, presenting desired pH-dependent release behavior. The permeation studies elucidated that negatively charged SA-CS NPs had 2.9 times higher mucus penetration ability than positively charged CS NPs. An ex vivo retention study indicated the high retention of BH-SA-CS NPs at the colon site for more than 16 h. In vivo therapeutic effectiveness demonstrated that the prepared NPs could not only alleviate colonic injury by decreasing the disease activity index and colon mucosa damage index, but also improve the immunologic function by decreasing the spleen index. In conclusion, the BH-SA-CS NPs could enhance the mucus permeability and deliver drugs to the colonic inflammation site, providing new insights into improving the therapeutic effect of UC. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
       
  • Convective Solvent Transport Pathways for Absorption of Drugs from Topical
           Formulation

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      Abstract: Abstract Physicochemical and formulation factors influencing penetration of drugs from topical products into the skin and mechanisms of drug permeation are well investigated and reported in the literature. However, mechanisms of drug absorption during short-term exposure have not been given sufficient importance. In this project, the extent of absorption of drug molecules into the skin from aqueous and ethanolic solutions following a 5-min application period was investigated. The experiments demonstrated measurable magnitude of absorption into the skin for all the molecules tested despite the duration of exposure being only few minutes. Among the two solvents used, absorption was greater from aqueous than ethanolic solution. The results suggest that an alternative penetration pathway, herein referred to as the convective transport pathway, is likely responsible for the rapid, significant uptake of drug molecules during initial few minutes of exposure. Additionally, absorption through the convective transport pathways is a function of the physicochemical nature of the formulation vehicle rather than the API.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
       
  • Construction and Biological Evaluation of Multiple Modification Hollow
           Mesoporous Silicone Doxorubicin Nanodrug Delivery System

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      Abstract: . The combination of functionalized nanoparticles and chemotherapy drugs can effectively target tumor tissue, which can improve efficacy and reduce toxicity. In this article, pPeptide-PDA@HMONs-DOX nanoparticles (phosphopeptide-modified polydopamine encapsulates doxorubicin-loaded hollow mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles) were constructed that based on multiple modification hollow mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (HMONs). The pPeptide-PDA@HMONs-DOX nanoparticles retain the biological functions of phosphorylated peptide while exhibiting biological safety that are suitable for effective drug delivery and stimulus responsive release. The degradation behaviors showed that pPeptide-PDA@HMONs-DOX has dual-responsive to drug release characteristics of pH and glutathione (GSH). In addition, the prepared pPeptide-PDA@HMONs-DOX nanoparticles have good biological safety, and their anti-tumor efficacy was significantly better than doxorubicin (DOX). This provided new research ideas for the construction of targeted nanodrug delivery systems based on mesoporous silicon. Graphical Scheme 1 The preparation of pPeptide-PDA@HMONs-DOX and the process of drug release under multiple responses. (A) Schematic diagram of the synthesis process of pPeptide-PDA@HMONs-DOX. (B) The process in which nanoparticles enter the cell and decompose and release DOX in response to pH and GSH
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
       
  • ASD Formation Prior to Material Characterization as Key Parameter for
           Accurate Measurements and Subsequent Process Simulation for Hot-Melt
           Extrusion

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      Abstract: Abstract Process simulation facilitates scale-up of hot-melt extrusion (HME) and enhances proper understanding of the underlying critical process parameters. However, performing numeric simulations requires profound knowledge of the employed materials’ properties. For example, an accurate description of the compounds’ melt rheology is paramount for proper simulations. Hence, sample preparation needs to be optimized to yield results as predictive as possible. To identify the optimal preparation method for small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) rheological measurements, binary mixtures of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate or methacrylic acid ethyl acrylate copolymer (Eudragit L100-55) together with the model drugs celecoxib and ketoconazole were prepared. The physical powder mixtures were introduced into the SAOS as a compressed tablet or a disk prepared via vacuum compression molding (VCM). Simulations with the derived parameters were conducted and compared to lab-scale extrusion trials. VCM was identified as the ideal preparation method resulting in the highest similarity between simulated and experimental values, while simulation based on conventional powder-based methods insufficiently described the HME process.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Improvement in Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of
           

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      Abstract: Efavirenz (EFV) with a booster dose of ritonavir (RTV) (EFV-RTV) inhibits the metabolism of EFV and improves its bioavailability. However, inadequate organ perfusion with surface permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux sustains the viable HIV. Hence, the present investigations were aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution efficiency of EFV by encapsulating it into PEGyalated PAMAM (polyamidoamine) G4 dendrimers with a booster dose of RTV (PPG4ER). The entrapment efficiency of PEGylated PAMAM G4 dendrimers was found to be 94% and 92.12% for EFV and RTV respectively with a zeta potential of 0.277 mV. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution behavior of EFV within PPG4ER was determined by developing and validating a simple, sensitive, and reliable bioanalytical method of RP-HPLC. The developed bioanalytical method was very sensitive with a quantification limit of 18.5 ng/ml and 139.2 ng/ml for EFV and RTV, respectively. The comparative noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters of EFV were determined by administrating a single intraperitoneal dose of EFV, EFV-RTV, and PPG4ER to Wistar rats. The PPG4ER produced prolonged release of EFV with a mean residential time (MRT) of 24 h with Cmax 7.68 µg/ml in plasma against EFV-RTV with MRT 11 h and Cmax 3.633 µg/ml. The PPG4ER was also detected in viral reservoir tissues (lymph node and spleen) for 3–4 days, whereas free EFV and EFV-RTV were cleared within 72 h. The pharmacokinetic data including Cmax, t1/2, AUCtot, and MRT were significantly improved in PPG4ER as compared with single EFV and EFV-RTV. This reveals that the PPG4ER has great potential to target the virus harbors tissues and improve bioavailability. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
       
  • Luliconazole Nail Lacquer for the Treatment of Onychomycosis: Formulation,
           Characterization and In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

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      Abstract: Onychomycosis is the most common fungal infection of the nail affecting the skin under the fingertips and the toes. Currently, available therapy for onychomycosis includes oral and topical therapies, either alone or in combination. Oral antifungal medication has been associated with poor drug bioavailability and potential gastrointestinal and systemic side effects. The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate the luliconazole nail lacquer (LCZ-NL) for the effective treatment of onychomycosis. In the current work, LCZ-NL was formulated in combination with penetration enhancers to overcome poor penetration. A 32 full factorial formulation design of experiment (DOE) was applied for optimization of batches with consideration of dependent (drying time, viscosity, and rate of drug diffusion) and independent (solvent ratio and film former ratio) variables. The optimized formulation was selected based on drying time, viscosity, and rate of drug diffusion. The optimized formulation was further evaluated for % non-volatile content assay, smoothness of flow, water resistance, drug content, scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in vitro drug release, ex vivo transungual permeation, antifungal efficacy, and stability study. The optimized LCZ-NL contained 70:30 solvent ratio and 1:1 film former ratio and was found to have ~ 1.79-fold higher rate of drug diffusion in comparison with LULY™. DSC and XRD studies confirmed that luliconazole retains its crystalline property in the prepared formulation. Antifungal study against Trichophyton spp. showed that LCZ-NL has comparatively higher growth inhibition than LULY™. Hence, developed LCZ-NL can be a promising topical drug delivery system for treating onychomycosis. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
       
  • Implementation of Dynamic and Static Moisture Control in Fluidized Bed
           Granulation

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      Abstract: Abstract The application of process analysis and control is essential to enhance process understanding and ensure output material quality. The present study focuses on the stability of the feedback control system for a fluidized bed granulation process. Two strategies of dynamic moisture control (DMC) and static moisture control (SMC) were established based on the in-line moisture value obtained from the near-infrared sensor and control algorithm. The performance of these strategies on quality consistency control was examined using process moisture similarity analysis and principal component analysis. The stable moisture control performance and low batch-to-batch variability indicated that the DMC method was significantly better than other granulation methods. In addition, the investigation of robustness further showed that the implemented DMC method was able to produce predetermined target moisture values by varying process parameters. This study provides an advanced and simple control method for fluidized bed granulation quality assurance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
       
  • Development of a Microgram Scale Video-Microscopic Method to Investigate
           Dissolution Behavior of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs

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      Abstract: Poor aqueous solubility is a common characteristic of new drug candidates, which leads to low or inconsistent oral bioavailability. This has sparked an interest in material efficient testing of solubility and dissolution rate. The aim was to develop a microgram scale video-microscopic method to screen the dissolution rates of poorly water-soluble drugs. This method was applied to six drugs (carvedilol, diazepam, dipyridamole, felodipine, fenofibrate, and indomethacin) in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF), of indomethacin in buffer with varying pH, and of diazepam and dipyridamole in customized media. An additional aim was to track phase transformations for carbamazepine in FaSSIF. The dissolution rates and particle behavior of the drugs were investigated by tracking particle surface area over time using optical video-microscopy. Applying miniaturized UV spectroscopic dissolution resulted in a similar grouping of dissolution rates and pH effects, as for the video-microscopic setup. Using customized media showed that lysophospholipid enhanced the dissolution rate of diazepam and dipyridamole. The video-microscopic setup allowed for the nucleation of transparent particles on dissolving carbamazepine particles to be tracked over time. The developed setup offers a material efficient screening approach to group drugs according to dissolution rate, where the use of optical microscopy helps to achieve a high sample throughput. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
       
  • Effects of Autoclaving and Freeze-Drying on Physicochemical Properties of
           Plectranthus esculentus Starch Derivatives

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      Abstract: The goal of this research was to assess the effects of autoclaving followed by freeze-drying on acetylated xerogel (AXS) and carboxymethylated (CMS) derivatives of Plectranthus esculentus starch as potential vaccine stabilizers. Starch extracted from tubers of P. esculentus were modified by single (carboxymethylation) and dual (acetylation followed by xerogel formation) methods. The derivatives were formulated into vaccine stabilizer suspensions, autoclaved, and freeze-dried without additives or antigen. The derivatives and freeze-dried products were assessed by physical appearance, titration, moisture content (MC), TGA, DSC, XRD, SEM, and FTIR analyses. The degrees of substitution (DS) of the CMS and AXS derivatives were 0.345 and 0.033, respectively. Modification significantly reduced the MC of the derivatives. Freeze-dried AXS (FAXS) had lower MC than freeze-dried CMS (FCMS). The lower degree of hydrophilicity/MC of AXS and FAXS was confirmed by TGA and FTIR band intensities and shifts. Reduction in DSC water desorption/evaporation enthalpies (ΔH) from − 1168.8 mJ (NaS) to − 407.48 mJ (AXS) confirmed the influence of modification on moisture. FTIR confirmed acetylation and carboxymethylation of the derivatives by the presence of 1702.9 cm−1 and 1593 cm−1 bands, respectively (FTIR). Increasing concentrations of the derivatives yielded uncollapsed/unshrunken lyophilisates. SEM and XRD showed that modification, autoclaving, and freeze-drying yielded beehive-like microstructures of FCMS and FAXS that were completely amorphous. Processing (autoclaving and freeze-drying), therefore, enhanced the amorphousness of the starch derivatives which is required in vaccine stability during processing and storage. These findings indicate that these starch derivatives have potential as novel vaccine stabilizers. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Penetration Enhancement Strategies for Intradermal Delivery of Cromolyn
           Sodium

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      Abstract: This study aimed to explore the use of chemical and physical enhancement strategies for the intradermal delivery of cromolyn sodium (CS) for treatment of atopic dermatitis. CS gels were formulated to individually contain 2.5 and 9% salcaprozate sodium (SNAC) as a potential chemical enhancer. The effect of microneedles, alone and in combination with SNAC, was investigated via in vitro permeation studies. Skin impedance and FTIR evaluation of SNAC-treated stratum corneum (SC) was done and compared to the control. The amount of drug delivered in the dermis after 24 h by the 2.5% and 9% SNAC gels was 23.29 ± 1.89 µg/cm2 and 35.87 ± 2.23 µg/cm2, respectively, which were significantly higher than the control (p < 0.05) but were not remarkably different from each other (p > 0.05). Microneedles enhanced permeation in both the control and 2.5% SNAC groups (p < 0.05); however, no synergistic enhancement was observed when microneedle and SNAC treatments were combined (p > 0.05). Over 24 h of treating the SC with 2.5% SNAC, FTIR evaluation showed stretches on the CH2 asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations observed at 2920.23 cm−1 and 2850.79 cm−1 respectively in untreated SC, which shifted to higher wavenumbers and indicated some lipid fluidizing effect. However, no significant drop in skin impedance was seen with SNAC as compared to the control (p > 0.05). SNAC was concluded to have skin permeation enhancement effect on CS, while microneedles effectively enhanced CS permeation even in the absence of SNAC. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Hesperetin-Based Hydrogels Protect the Skin against UV Radiation-Induced
           Damage

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      Abstract: UV radiation can cause damages, such as erythema, skin photoaging, and carcinogenesis. The adoption of protective measures against sun exposure is essential to prevent these damages, and the interest in using natural substances as an alternative for photoprotection is growing. Thus, hesperetin with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties is a promising substance to be used with photochemopreventive action and to protect the skin from damage induced by UV radiation. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a topical formulation based on AAMVPC gel containing hesperetin and evaluate its photoprotective effect on the skin of rats exposed to UVA-UVB radiation. The animals were submitted to the irradiation protocol UVA-UVB, and at the end, erythema, lipid peroxidation, and activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase and superoxide dismutase were evaluated. Additionally, it evaluated the activity of myeloperoxidase and histological changes. The formulation presented a rheological and spreadability profile suitable for cutaneous application. In vivo results demonstrated that the topical formulation of AAMVPC gel containing hesperetin at a concentration of 10% protected the skin from damage induced by UVA-UVB radiation, with the absence of erythema, lipid lipoperoxidation, and inflammation (low myeloperoxidase activity), and increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. The morphology and architecture of the dermo-epidermal tissue of these animals were like those observed under normal conditions (non-irradiated animals). Thus, the results showed that hesperetin was able to protect the animals’ skin against UV radiation–induced skin damage and the protection mechanisms may be related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of this natural product. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
       
  • Prediction and Construction of Drug-Polymer Binary System Thermodynamic
           Phase Diagram in Amorphous Solid Dispersions (ASDs)

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      Abstract: Abstract Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) has been well known as a potential strategy to improve the bioavailability and dissolution performance of poorly water-soluble drugs. The primary concern of this approach is the long-term stability of the amorphous drug in the solid dispersion. Accurate prediction and detection of the solubility and miscibility of drug in polymeric binary system will be a milestone to the development of ASDs. In this investigation, a method based on Flory–Huggins (F–H) theory was proposed to predict and calculate the solubility and miscibility of the drug in polymeric matrix and construct the phase diagram to identify the relevance between drug loading and temperature for ASDs development. Indomethacin (Indo) was chosen as the model drug, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone vinyl acetate (Kollidon® VA 64) was used as a polymeric carrier for the ASD systems. Physical mixtures were prepared with different drug loadings (10 to 90%) and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The interaction parameter χ was calculated for physical mixtures by the melting point depression and solubility parameter contribution methods. The phase diagram was constructed to investigate the impact of other parameters like drug loading, processing temperature, and Gibbs free energy of mixing (ΔGmix). For further validation, formulations were developed using HME to verify the accuracy of the phase diagram and to guide in the hot-melt extrusion (HME) process design space and optimization.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • Pickering Dry Emulsion System for Improved Oral Delivery of Fenofibrate

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      Abstract: Abstract The current study reports a Pickering dry emulsion (PDE) system for improved oral delivery of fenofibrate, a poorly water-soluble model drug. The silica nanoparticles were modified by surface modifiers and explored as a stabilizer for emulsion. The wetting property of modified silica nanoparticles was evaluated by contact angle study. Emulsion was spray-dried to obtain PDE. PDE was evaluated for particle size analysis, drug loading, TGA, DSC, XRPD, FEG-SEM, in vitro dissolution study, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The particle size of liquid emulsion was found within the range of 0.3–0.6 μm; after spray drying, the particles agglomerated and exhibited an increase in particle size (1.5 μm). The high drug loading (13% w/w) was found in PDE. DSC and XRD study confirmed the amorphous form of fenofibrate. SEM study showed the formation of a spherical porous microcapsule structure. In vitro dissolution exhibited significant enhancement in drug release for the PDE system as compared to plain fenofibrate. The PDE significantly lowered serum lipid level as compared to plain fenofibrate in a Triton-based hypercholesterolemia model in rats, which ultimately confirmed the enhancement in bioavailability. Thus, the PDE system has good potential in the drug delivery area.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • A Hypoxia-Sensitive Drug Delivery System Constructed by Nitroimidazole and
           its Application in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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      Abstract: Hypoxia is an important pathological phenomenon, and it can induce many tumor microenvironment changes, such as accumulations of intracellular lactic acid, decrease of tumor microenvironment pH value, and regulate a series of physiological and pathological processes such as adhesion, metastasis, and immune escape. Hypoxic tumor cells act as a key target for treating tumor. In this research, we designed and prepared PEG-nitroimidazole grafts, PEG-NI, and FA-PEG-NI. We first explored their physical and chemical properties to serve as a drug carrier. Then, the hypoxia-sensitive properties such as particle size changes and drug release were investigated. Finally, the tumor targeting ability was studied in vitro and in vivo, and anti-tumor capacity was determined. Both grafts showed excellent property as a nanodrug carrier and showed favorable drug encapsulation ability of sorafenib with the help of the hydrophobic chain of 6-(BOC-amino) hexyl bromide. The micelles responded to the hypoxic tumor environment with chemical and spatial structure changes leading to sensitive and fast drug release. With the modification of folic acid, FA-PEG-NI gained tumor targeting ability in vivo. FA-PEG-NI graft proved a potential targeting drug delivery system in the treatment of hypoxic hepatocellular carcinoma. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
       
  • Semisolid Extrusion 3D Printing of Propranolol Hydrochloride Gummy
           Chewable Tablets: an Innovative Approach to Prepare Personalized Medicine
           for Pediatrics

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      Abstract: The demand for personalized medicine has received extensive attention, especially in pediatric preparations. An emerging technology, extrusion-based 3D printing, is highly attractive in the field of personalized medicine. In this study, we prepared propranolol hydrochloride (PR) gummy chewable tablets tailored for children by semisolid extrusion (SSE) 3D printing technology to meet personalized medicine needs in pediatrics. In this study, the effects of critical formulation variables on the rheological properties and printability of gum materials were investigated by constructing a full-factorial design. In addition, the masticatory properties, thermal stability, and disintegration time of the preparations were evaluated. Bitterness inhibitors were used to mask the bitterness of the preparations. The results of the full-factorial design showed that the amount of gelatin and carrageenan were the key factors in the formulation. Gelatin can improve printability and masticatory properties, carrageenan can improve thermal stability, and accelerate the disintegration of preparations; therefore, a reasonable combination of both could satisfactorily meet the demand for high-quality 3D printing. γ-Aminobutyric acid can reduce the bitterness of gummy chewable tablets to improve medication compliance and the determined formulation (F7) met the quality requirements. In conclusion, the gum material has excellent potential as an extrusion material for 3D printing. The dosage can be adjusted flexibly by the model shape and size. 3D printing has broad prospects in pediatric preparations. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
       
  • Correction: Oxidative Stability in Lipid Formulations: A Review of the
           Mechanisms, Drivers, and Inhibitors of Oxidation

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      PubDate: 2022-06-14
       
  • Dry Powder Inhalers Based on Chitosan-Mannitol Binary Carriers: Effect of
           the Powder Properties on the Aerosolization Performance

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      Abstract: Carriers play an important role in improving the aerosolization performance of dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Despite that intensive attention had been paid to the establishment of the advanced carriers with controllable physicochemical properties in recent years, the design and optimization of carrier-based DPIs remain an empiricism-based process. DPIs are a powder system of complex multiphase, and thus their physicochemical properties cannot fully explain the powder behavior. A comprehensive exposition of powder properties is demanded to build a bridge between the physicochemical properties of carriers and the aerosolization performance of DPIs. In this study, an FT-4 powder rheometer was employed to explore the powder properties, including dynamic flow energy, aeration, and permeability of the chitosan-mannitol binary carriers (CMBCs). CMBCs were self-designed as an advanced carrier with controllable surface roughness to obtain enhanced aerosolization performance. The specific mechanism of CMBCs to enhance the aerosolization performance of DPIs was elaborated based on the theory of pulmonary delivery processes by introducing powder properties. The results exhibited that CMBCs with appropriate surface roughness had lower special energy, lower aeration energy, and higher permeability. It could be predicted that CMBC-based DPIs had greater tendency to fluidize and disperse in airflow, and the lower adhesion force between particles enabled drugs to be detached from the carrier to achieve higher fine particle fractions. The specific mechanism on how physicochemical properties influenced the aerosolization performance during the pulmonary delivery processes could be figured out with the introduction of powder properties. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
       
  • Chitosan-Coated Liposomes: The Strategy to Reduce Intestinal Toxicity and
           Improve Bioavailability of Oral Vinorelbine

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      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, the oral administration of vinorelbine has gradually replaced intravenous administration in the treatment of several types of tumors. Even though the risk of phlebitis is avoided with oral administration, oral vinorelbine is still not a highly patient-compliant route due to the severe gastrointestinal toxicity. Vinorelbine-loaded liposomes with high encapsulation efficiency and suitable particle size were prepared using the ammonium sulfate gradient method. Chitosan-coated liposomes showed the slowest in vitro release compared to uncoated liposomes and vinorelbine solution. No damage was observed in the intestinal epithelial cells of mice orally administered with coated vinorelbine liposomes due to the low presence of the free drug in the gastrointestinal tract and the LD50 was increased from 129.83 to 182.25 mg/kg compared to oral vinorelbine solution. In addition, the positive surface potential of chitosan-coating endowed liposomes with mucosal adhesive function, delaying the time to reach the peak plasma concentration of vinorelbine from 1 to 4 h after administration. And bioavailability was increased to 2.1-fold compared to vinorelbine solution. In short, a new strategy to address the severe gastrointestinal side effects of oral vinorelbine has been developed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
       
  • Correction to: Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Bioactive Composite
           Scaffolds for Hemostasis and Wound Healing

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      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • Gastroretentive Sustained-Release Tablets Combined with a Solid
           Self-Micro-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System Adsorbed onto Fujicalin®

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      Abstract: Gastroretentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS) get retained in the stomach for a long time, thus facilitating the absorption of drugs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, drugs that are difficult to dissolve or unstable in an acidic environment are not suitable for GRDDS. The current study designs GRDDS combined with a self-micro-emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for drugs with solubility or stability problems in the stomach. The model drug fenofibrate was formulated into the optimized liquid SMEDDS composed of 50 w/w% Capryol® PGMC, 40 w/w% Kolliphor® RH40, and 10 w/w% Transcutol® HP and solidified through adsorption on several porous adsorbents. In a dissolution medium at pH 1.2, the powdered SMEDDS using Fujicalin® dissolved quickly and achieved higher drug dissolution than other adsorbents. Based on these results, a gastroretentive bilayer tablet consisting of a drug release layer and a swelling layer was designed. The drug release layer was formulated with the powdered SMEDDS and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a release modifier. HPMC was also added to the swelling layer as a water-swellable polymer. The dissolution rate depended on the viscosity of the HPMC in the drug release layer. The time for 90% drug release was extended from 3.7 to 12.0 h by increasing the viscosity grade of HPMC from 0.1 to 100 K. Moreover, the tablet swelled and maintained a size comparable to a human pylorus diameter or more for at least 24 h. This GRDDS could apply to a broader range of drug candidates. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
 
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