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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Journal Cover
AAPS PharmSciTech
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.752
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1530-9932
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • In Vitro Evaluation of Nebulized Pharmaceutical Aerosol Delivery to the
           Lungs Using a New Heated Dryer System (HDS)

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to develop a new heated dryer system (HDS) for high efficiency lung delivery of nebulized aerosol and demonstrate performance with realistic in vitro testing for trans-nasal aerosol administration simultaneously with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy and separately for direct oral inhalation (OI) of the aerosol. With the HDS-HFNC and HDS-OI platforms, new active synchronization control routines were developed to sense subject inhalation and coordinate drug aerosol delivery. In vitro experiments were conducted to predict regional drug loss and lung delivery efficiency in systems that included the HDS with various patient interfaces, realistic airway models, and simulated breathing waveforms. For the HDS-HFNC platform and a repeating breathing waveform, total system loss was < 10%, extrathoracic deposition was approximately 6%, and best-case lung delivery efficiency was 75–78% of nebulized dose. Inclusion of randomized breathing with the HFNC system decreased lung delivery efficiency by ~ 10% and had no impact on nasal depositional loss. For the HDS-OI platform and best-case mouthpiece, total system loss was < 8%, extrathoracic deposition was < 1%, and lung delivery efficiency was > 90% of nebulized dose. Normal vs. deep randomized oral inhalation had little impact on performance of the HDS-OI platform and environmental aerosol loss was negligible. In conclusion, both platforms demonstrated the potential for high efficiency lung delivery of the aerosol with the HDS-OI platform having the added advantages of nearly eliminating extrathoracic deposition, being insensitive to breathing waveform, and preventing environmental aerosol loss.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • A New Insight to Silver Sulfadiazine Antibacterial Dressings:
           Nanoparticle-Loaded Nanofibers for Controlled Drug Delivery

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      Abstract: The aim of this study was formulating a new-generation antibacterial dressing in a form of polymer-based hybrid nanofiber-nanoparticles, effective on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria using silver sulfadiazine (SSD), an FDA-approved topical antibiotic. In this study, SSD nanoparticles were prepared with chitosan for taking the advantage of antibacterial and wound healing properties. Chitosan nanoparticles of SSD were prepared by using tripolyphosphate (TPP) or sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) as crosslinkers via ionic gelation method and then loaded to PVP-K30 and PVP-K90 nanofibers to obtain polymer-based nanofiber-nanoparticles. SSD-loaded chitosan nanoparticles prepared with SBE-β-CD had lower particle size (359.6 ± 19.9 nm) and polydispersity index (0.364 ± 0.113) as well, indicating a more desired particle size distribution but lower encapsulation efficiency (56.04% ± 4.33). It was found that loading drug in SBE-β-CD crosslinked nanoparticles and dispersing in nanofiber matrix lowered SSD release compared to  TPP crosslinked nanoparticle-loaded nanofibers. Drug release obtained by both TPP or SBE-β-CD crosslinked nanoparticle-loaded PVP-K30 nanofibers is significantly higher than nanoparticle-loaded PVP-K90 nanofibers, indicating that SSD release was mainly affected by polymer type. SSD nanoparticle-loaded PVP-K30 nanofibers were found to be effective against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis). SSD release was sustained by PVP-K90, resulting in lower antibacterial efficiency especially against Gram-positive bacteria. PVP-K30-based nanofiber-CS nanoparticle hybrids offer a new platform by combining and improving advantages of nanofibers and nanoparticles for obtaining controlled drug release and antibacterial efficacy. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • Best Practices and Guidelines (2022) for Scale-Up and Tech Transfer in
           Freeze-Drying Based on Case Studies. Part 1: Challenges during Scale Up
           and Transfer

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      Abstract: The freeze-drying process scale-up and transfer remain a complicated and non-uniform practice. We summarized inefficient and good practices in these papers and provided some practical advice. It was demonstrated that using the same process set points/times in laboratory and commercial scale dryers may lead to loss of product quality (collapse or vial breakage). The emerging modeling approach demonstrated practical advantages. However, the upfront generation of some input parameters (vial heat transfer coefficient, minimum controllable pressure, and maximum sublimation rate) is essential for model utilization. While the primary drying step can be transferred with a high degree of confidence (e.g., using modeling), and secondary drying is usually fairly straightforward, predicting potential changes in product behavior during freezing remains challenging. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • Biomimetic Antidote Nanoparticles: a Novel Strategy for Chronic Heavy
           Metal Poisoning

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      Abstract: Abstract Chronic lead poisoning has become a major factor in global public health. Chelation therapy is usually used to manage lead poisoning. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is a widely used heavy metal chelation agent. However, DMSA has the characteristics of poor water solubility, low oral bioavailability, and short half-life, which limit its clinical application. Herein, a long-cycle slow-release nanodrug delivery system was constructed. We successfully coated the red blood cell membrane (RBCM) onto the surface of dimercaptosuccinic acid polylactic acid glycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) nanoparticles (RBCM-DMSA-NPs), which have a long cycle and detoxification capabilities. The NPs were characterized and observed by particle size meters and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the particle size of RBCM-DMSA-NPs was approximately 146.66 ± 2.41 nm, and the zeta potential was − 15.34 ± 1.60 mV. The homogeneous spherical shape and clear core–shell structure of the bionic nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy. In the animal tests, the area under the administration time curve of RBCM-DMSA-NPs was 156.52 ± 2.63 (mg/L·h), which was 5.21-fold and 2.36-fold that of free DMSA and DMSA-NPs, respectively. Furthermore, the median survival of the RBCM-DMSA-NP treatment group (47 days) was 3.61-fold, 1.32-fold, and 1.16-fold for the lead poisoning group, free DMSA, and DMSA-NP groups, respectively. The RBCM-DMSA-NP treatment significantly extended the cycle time of the drug in the body and improved the survival rate of mice with chronic lead poisoning. Histological analyses showed that RBCM-DMSA-NPs did not cause significant systemic toxicity. These results indicated that RBCM-DMSA-NPs could be a potential candidate for long-term chronic lead exposure treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • Polymer-Coated Polymeric (PCP) Microneedles for Controlled Dermal Delivery
           of 5-Fluorouracil

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      Abstract: Polymeric microneedles were prepared with Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) K-30 using the mold casting technique. The core microneedles were coated with Eudragit E-100 by dip and spin method. The amount of 5-fluorouracil (FU) loaded in the core microneedles was 604 ± 35.4 µg. The coating thickness was 24.12 ± 1.12 µm. The objective was to deliver the 5-FU gradually in a controlled release manner at the target site in the sub-stratum corneum layer. This approach is anticipated to improve the safety and efficacy of topical melanoma treatment. The release of the drug was prolonged for up to 3 h from the polymer-coated polymeric (PCP) microneedles. The entire amount was found to release within 15 min in uncoated MNs. Likewise, the permeation of the drug from the uncoated microneedles was rapid, whereas the PCP microneedles were able to prolong the permeation up to 420 min. The PCP microneedles were subjected to stability studies at 25°C ± 2°C/60%RH, and 40°C ± 2°C/75%RH condition for 3 months. The formulations were found intact, and the release rate was not significantly different form the fresh formulation. The drug content was found to meet the acceptability criteria as well (98.12 ± 1.8% and 97.8 ± 2.1% at 25 and 40°C respectively after 3 months). Overall, this study demonstrated the feasibility of fabrication of PCP microneedles using Eudragit E100 for intraregional controlled delivery of drugs. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • Combinatorial Approach of Thermosensitive Hydrogels and Solid Microneedles
           to Improve Transdermal Delivery of Valsartan: an In Vivo Proof of Concept
           Study

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      Abstract: Abstract Due to the limitations of oral administration of valsartan, in this study, we aimed to develop thermosensitive hydrogel for sustained transdermal delivery and improved bioavailability of valsartan, which was further improved using solid microneedles. The thermosensitive gel formula was made using Poloxamer 407 and Poloxamer 188 in various ratios. Valsartan thermosensitive gels were evaluated for their gelation temperature, pH values, drug content, spreadability, viscosity, rheological properties, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeation, and ex vivo permeation. Finally, in vivo study was conducted, compared to oral administration. The results presented the formulations showed required characteristic for transdermal administration with desired thermosensitive properties. Based on the permeation test with and without microneedles, it was found that the use of microneedles could affect the permeation of valsartan. Specifically, the increase of microneedles’ needle length also increased valsartan permeation. The combination with the highest permeation was produced by 1.55 mm MNs with the amount of drug permeated of 2.27 ± 0.01 mg. Importantly, the transdermal delivery of valsartan using this combination approach could significantly improve the bioavailability of valsartan in in vivo study. The concentration of poloxamer was able to affect the properties of the hydrogels, and the use of solid microneedles improved the transdermal delivery of valsartan. In vivo studies showed the improvement of the bioavailability of valsartan compared to oral administration, showing the effectiveness of this combination approach.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Pharmaceutical Co-crystal of Antiviral Agent Efavirenz with Nicotinamide
           for the Enhancement of Solubility, Physicochemical Stability, and Oral
           Bioavailability

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      Abstract: Abstract The present research work attempted to improve the oral bioavailability of the antiviral drug Efavirenz (EFV) using a pharmaceutical cocrystallization technique. EFV comes under BCS-II and has extremely low water solubility, and results in low oral bioavailability. EFV and nicotinamide (NICO) were selected in a (1:1) stoichiometric ratio and efavirenz nicotinamide cocrystal (ENCOC) was prepared through the liquid-assisted grinding method (LAG). The confirmation of the formation of a new solid phase was done through spectroscopic techniques like Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR), Raman, and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (13C ssNMR). Thermal techniques like differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and hot stage microscopy (HSM) illustrated the thermal behavior and melting patterns of ENCOC, EFV, and NICO. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) confirms the formation of a new crystalline phase in ENCOC. The Morphology was determined through scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results of saturated solubility studies and in vitro drug release studies exhibited 8.9-fold enhancement in solubility and 2.56-fold enhancement in percentage cumulative drug release. The percentage drug content of ENCOC was found higher than 97% and cocrystal exhibits excellent accelerated stability. The oral bioavailability of EFV (Cmax, 799.08 ng/mL) exhibits significant enhancement after cocrystallization (Cmax, 5597.09 ng/mL) than EFV and Efcure®-200 tablet (2896.21 ng/mL). The current work investigates the scalable and cost-effective method for enhancement of physicochemical stability, solubility, and oral bioavailability of an antiviral agent EFV.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Fabrication of Sustained-Release Dosages Using Powder-Based
           Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing Technology

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      Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D)-printed tablets prepared using powder-based printing techniques like selective laser sintering (SLS) typically disintegrate/dissolve and release the drug within a few minutes because of their inherent porous nature and loose structure. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the suitability of SLS 3DP technology for fabricating sustained-release dosages utilizing Kollidon® SR (KSR), a matrix-forming excipient composed of polyvinyl acetate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (8:2). A physical mixture (PM), comprising 10:85:5 (% w/w) of acetaminophen (ACH), KSR, and Candurin®, was sintered using a benchtop SLS 3D printer equipped with a 2.3-W 455-nm blue visible laser. After optimization of the process parameters and formulation composition, robust 3D-printed tablets were obtained as per the computer-aided design (CAD) model. Advanced solid-state characterizations by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) confirmed that ACH remained in its native crystalline state after sintering. In addition, X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) studies revealed that the tablets contain a total porosity of 57.7% with an average pore diameter of 24.8 μm. Moreover, SEM images exhibited a morphological representation of the ACH sintered tablets’ exterior surface. Furthermore, the KSR matrix 3D-printed tablets showed a sustained-release profile, releasing roughly 90% of the ACH over 12 h as opposed to a burst release from the free drug and PM. Overall, our work shows for the first time that KSR can be used as a suitable polymer matrix to create sustained-release dosage forms utilizing the digitally controllable SLS 3DP technology, showcasing an alternative technique and pharmaceutical excipient. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Quercetin-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle–Based Lyophilized
           Tablets for Enhanced Physicochemical Features and Dissolution Rate:
           Formulation, Optimization, and In Vitro Evaluation

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      Abstract: Abstract Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) have been proposed as a potential approach for stabilizing the amorphous state of poorly water-soluble actives. This study aimed to improve the physiochemical characteristics of poorly water-soluble quercetin (QT) through a novel lyophilized formulation. Various parameters, including solvent polarity, QT-carrier mass ratio, and adsorption time, were studied to improve the loading of QT into MSNPs. The optimized loaded MSNPs were formulated into lyophilized tablets through a freeze-drying process using hydrophilic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K30) as a polymeric stabilizer and water-soluble sucrose as a cryoprotectant. The effect of PVP-K30 and sucrose on the particle size, disintegration time, friability, and time required to release 90% of QT were studied using 32 full factorial design. The optimized formula was characterized using different evaluating techniques; for instance, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, drug content, moisture content, and saturation solubility. The analysis proved that QT was consistently kept in the nanosize range with a narrow size distribution. The loaded silica nanoparticles and the optimized formulation are in an amorphous state devoid of any chemical interaction with the silica matrix or the lyophilization excipients. The optimized formula also featured low friability (less than 1%), fast disintegration (< 30 s), and a pronounced enhancement in saturation solubility and dissolution rate. Briefly, we established that the lyophilized MSNPs-based tablet would be a potential strategy for improving the rate of dissolution and, ultimately, the bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble QT.
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • The Development and Evaluation of Phase Transition Microemulsion for
           Ocular Delivery of Acetazolamide for Glaucoma Treatment

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      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to develop microemulsion (ME) formulation with possible phase transition into liquid crystals upon ocular application to enhance acetazolamide bioavailability. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using olive oil or castor oil (oily phase), Tween 80 (surfactant), and sodium carbonate solution (aqueous phase). Microemulsion and liquid crystal (LC) formulations were selected from the constructed phase diagrams and were evaluated for rheological properties and in vitro drug release. The efficacy of the developed formulations in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) was assessed in vivo. In vitro release study showed slower release rate from LC and ME compared with drug solution with the release from LC being the slowest. Ocular application of acetazolamide ME formulations or aqueous solution resulted in significant reduction in IOP from baseline. The recorded Tmax values indicated faster onset of action for acetazolamide aqueous solution (1 h) compared with ME systems (3 h). However, the duration of action was prolonged and the reduction in IOP continued for up to 10 h in case of MEs, while that of aqueous solution was only for 4–5 h. The study suggested ME formulations for ocular delivery of acetazolamide with enhanced efficacy and prolonged duration of action.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
       
  • Enhanced Nuclear Accumulation of Doxorubicin Delivered by pH-Triggered
           Polydopamine-Shelled Mesoporous Silica for Chemo-Photothermal Therapy

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      Abstract: Adequate delivery of therapeutic agents to their intended molecular targets is crucial in tumor therapy. Versatile drug carriers need to overcome the challenges coming from the systemic circulation, membrane barriers, and endo-lysosomal degradation. Herein, hyaluronic acid-conjugated polydopamine (HA-PDA)-shelled mesoporous silica nanoparticles encapsulated with doxorubicin (MSNs-DOX) were successfully fabricated for targeted tumor therapy. Compared with reported studies focusing on the pH-sensitive release in tumors, we especially revealed the significant role of lysosomal release in DOX nuclear accumulation. After active targeting and CD44-mediated endocytosis in tumor cells, the PDA layer of the nanoparticles would be peeled off to trigger drug release owing to MSNs gatekeeper in acidic lysosomes. Subsequently, DOX molecules passively diffused into nuclei. The intracellular DOX transportation was evidenced by DOX accumulation in nuclei, lysosomal location of nanoparticles, and lysosome acidification inhibition test. After discharging of the cargoes from nanoparticles, PDA shells from residual nanoparticles were able to produce localized hyperthermia under NIR irradiation entrapped in lysosomes, inducing synergistic chemo-photothermal effect. Under NIR treatment, HA-PDA@MSNs-DOX presented a prominent tumor inhibition rate without obvious side effects. This study indicated the potent nuclear delivery and synergetic chemo-photothermal therapy achieved by HA-PDA-shelled MSNs. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
       
  • Formulation, Device, and Clinical Factors Influencing the Targeted
           Delivery of COVID-19 Vaccines to the Lungs

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      Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has proven to be an unprecedented health crisis in the human history with more than 5 million deaths worldwide caused to the SARS-CoV-2 and its variants (https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019). The currently authorized lipid nanoparticle (LNP)–encapsulated mRNA vaccines have been shown to have more than 90% vaccine efficacy at preventing COVID-19 illness (Baden et al. New England J Med 384(5):403–416, 2021; Thomas et al., 2021). In addition to vaccines, other small molecules belonging to the class of anti-viral and anti-inflammatory compounds have also been prescribed to reduce the viral proliferation and the associated cytokine storm. These anti-viral and anti-inflammatory compounds have also been shown to be effective in reducing COVID-19 exacerbations especially in reducing the host inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2. However, all of the currently FDA-authorized vaccines for COVID-19 are meant for intramuscular injection directly into the systemic circulation. Also, most of the small molecules investigated for their anti-COVID-19 efficacy have also been explored using the intravenous route with a few of them explored for the inhalation route (Ramakrishnan et al. Lancet Respir Med 9:763–772, 2021; Horby et al. N Engl J Med 384(8):693–704, 2021). The fact that the SARS-CoV-2 enters the human body mainly via the nasal and airway route resulting in the lungs being the primary organs of infection as characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)–mediated cytokine storm in the alveolar region has made the inhalation route gain significant attention for the purposes of targeting both vaccines and small molecules to the lungs (Mitchell et al., J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 33(4):235–8, 2020). While there have been many studies reporting the safety and efficacy of targeting various therapeutics to the lungs to treat COVID-19, there is still a need to match the choice of inhalation formulation and the delivery device platform itself with the patient-related factors like breathing pattern and respiratory rate as seen in a clinical setting. In that perspective, this review aims to describe the various formulation and patient-related clinical factors that can play an important role in the judicious choice of the inhalation delivery platforms or devices for the development of inhaled COVID-19 vaccines.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
       
  • Enhanced Topical Co-delivery of Acyclovir and Lidocaine Gel Formulation
           Across Dermatomed Human Skin

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      Abstract: Abstract Acyclovir a widely used drug in the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and lidocaine a local anesthetic were combined in a topical gel formulation. The topical gel with Transcutol P (TP) or N-methyl 2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was prepared and tested for in vitro skin permeation across the intact and microneedle-treated human cadaver skin. The topical gels containing 5% each of acyclovir and lidocaine showed optimal pH, spreadability, and 100% drug release. The transdermal flux and skin retention of the gels were significantly higher compared to Generic 5% acyclovir ointment (Zovirax) (p < 0.001), and 5% lidocaine gel (numb gel) (p < 0.05). As expected, topical gels showed a very high increase in the skin permeation across microporated skin versus intact skin. In viral infections, skin is inflamed, and barrier integrity may be disrupted. The results of the present study are significant because the co-delivery formulation showed a very high increase in the skin permeation across intact and microporated skin (versus respective commercial formulations). The results of this study demonstrate enhanced co-delivery of acyclovir and lidocaine in a topical formulation across skin (intact or barrier compromised) for the treatment of herpes virus infections.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Recent Advances on the Biological Study of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals

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      Abstract: As a low-risk, low-cost, but high-reward route, cocrystallization of drugs with appropriate coformers is applied to improve the physiochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of drugs. Currently, most researchers concentrate their efforts on the preparation, characterization, and improvement of physicochemical properties of pharmaceutical cocrystals. On the contrary, the biological study of pharmaceutical cocrystals has not attracted wide attention of researchers. In this review, we have focused on recent advances reporting the biological studies of pharmaceutical cocrystals. The covered areas consist of the solubility and permeability, the pharmacokinetics study, metabolism and distribution, pharmacodynamics research, and the toxicological evaluation of pharmaceutical cocrystals. Besides, discussions have been made on the in vivo–in vitro correlations for pharmaceutical cocrystals, the enhancement of efficiency and reduction of toxicity for pharmaceutical cocrystals, and the interaction between APIs and coformers in pharmaceutical cocrystals and marketed pharmaceutical cocrystals as well as their biological studies. At the same time, some problems such as the amount of animal samples, the number and distribution of blood sampling points, investigation on the pharmacokinetics of physical mixtures containing APIs and coformers, and the consideration of species differences should be taken into account. Although pharmaceutical cocrystals face some challenges in clarifying the characteristics of metabolism and distribution, revealing potential pharmacological mechanism, and evaluating safety, cocrystal engineering is still considered a green and promising approach to developing valuable new drugs. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
       
  • Natural Polymer-Based Graphene Oxide Bio-nanocomposite Hydrogel Beads:
           Superstructures with Advanced Potentials for Drug Delivery

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      Abstract: The current study sought to create graphene oxide-based superstructures for gastrointestinal drug delivery. Graphene oxide has a large surface area that can be used to load anti-cancer drugs via non-covalent methods such as surface adsorption and hydrogen bonding. To enhance the bio-applicability of graphene oxide, nano-hybrids were synthesized by encapsulating the graphene oxide into calcium alginate hydrogel beads through the dripping-extrusion technique. These newly developed bio-nanocomposite hybrid hydrogel beads were evaluated in structural analysis, swelling study, drug release parameters, haemolytic assay, and antibacterial activity. Doxorubicin served as a model drug. The drug entrapment efficiency was determined by UV-spectroscopy analysis and was found to be high at ⁓89% in graphene oxide hybrid hydrogel beads. These fabricated hydrogel beads ensure the drug release from a hybrid polymeric matrix in a more controlled and sustained pattern avoiding the problems associated with a non-hybrid polymeric system. The drug release study of 12 h shows about 83% release at pH 6.8. In vitro drug release kinetics proved that drug release was a Fickian mechanism. The cytotoxic effect of graphene oxide hybrid alginate beads was also determined by evaluating the morphology of bacterial cells and red blood cells after incubation. Additionally, it was determined that the sequential encapsulation of graphene oxide in alginate hydrogel beads hides its uneven edges and lessens the graphene oxide’s negative impacts. Also, the antibacterial study and biocompatibility of fabricated hydrogel beads made them potential candidates for gastrointestinal delivery. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
       
  • Dissolution Improvement of Progesterone and Testosterone via Impregnation
           on Mesoporous Silica Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

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      Abstract:   Progesterone (PRG) and testosterone (TST) were impregnated on mesoporous silica (ExP) particles via supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) processing at various pressures (10–18 MPa), temperatures (308.2–328.2 K), and time (30–360 min). The impact of a co-solvent on the impregnation was also studied at the best determined pressure and temperature. The properties of the drug embedded in silica particles were analysed via gas chromatography (GC), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and nitrogen adsorption. An impregnation of 1 to 82 mg/g for PRG and 0.1 to 16 mg/g for TST was obtained depending on the processing parameters. There was a significant effect of pressure, time, and co-solvent on the impregnation efficiency. Generally, an increase in time and pressure plus the use of co-solvent led to an improvement in drug adsorption. Conversely, a rise in temperature resulted in lower impregnation of both TST and PRG on ExP. There was a substantial increase in the dissolution rate (> 90% drug release within the first 2 min) of both TST and PRG impregnated in silica particles when compared to the unprocessed drugs. This dissolution enhancement was attributed to the amorphisation of both drugs due to their adsorption on mesoporous silica. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
       
  • Development, Quality by Design-Based Optimization, and Stability
           Assessment of Oral Liquid Formulations Containing Baclofen for Hospital
           Use

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      Abstract: The absence of oral liquid pharmaceutical forms appropriate for use in pediatric and adult patients with difficulty swallowing is a public health problem, especially in the hospital context. Baclofen is a muscle relaxant of choice for treating spasticity, generally marketed only in tablet form, highlighting the need for liquid formulations to facilitate dose adjustment, administration, and swallowing. The present study aimed to develop oral liquid formulations containing baclofen, optimize them through the quality by design approach, and evaluate their physicochemical and microbiological stability. Preformulation and preliminary stability studies were carried out for the development of formulations. Experimental screening and optimization designs resulted in eleven experiments for each step that were evaluated for 28 days. A stability-indicating method by high-performance liquid chromatography presented linearity, low limits of detection and quantification, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The experimental design led to two optimized formulations containing baclofen, glycerin, potassium sorbate, citric acid, ultrapure water, flavor, and sucrose syrup or sodium carboxymethylcellulose solution as a vehicle, the last one with sucralose as a sweetener. The formulations were placed in amber glass flasks and subjected to a physicochemical and microbiological stability study. Both formulations showed physicochemical and microbiological stability when stored at room temperature and refrigerated for 84 days. The results of this study may serve as a reference in the preparation of liquid oral formulations containing baclofen in the hospital routine and collaborate with the safety and adherence to the treatment of adult and pediatric patients. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-16
       
  • A Preliminary Pharmacodynamic Study for the Management of Alzheimer’s
           Disease Using Memantine-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles

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      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease is becoming a common disorder of the elderly population due to shrinkage of the brain size with age and many other neurological complications. To provide an effective treatment option, memantine-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles were prepared in the study. The nanoparticles were prepared by using nanoprecipitation followed by homogenization and ultrasonication methods, characterized on the basis of particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential. Further, in vitro release profile, cytotoxicity analysis, and Giemsa staining were conducted. To observe the efficacy of nanoparticles in scopolamine-induced Alzheimer models in vivo studies were also carried out. The results showed that nanoparticles were in the nano range with a particle size of 58.04 nm and − 23 mV zeta potential. The in vitro release was also sustained till 24 h with ~ 100% release in selected media phosphate buffer saline, simulated nasal fluid, and artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The cytotoxicity results with ~ 98 to 100% cell viability and no morphological changes through Giemsa staining indicated that nanoparticles were not leading to cell toxicity. The gamma scintigraphy studies showed higher uptake of the drug in the target site through the intranasal route and pharmacodynamic studies indicated that nanoparticles were able to inhibit the spatial memory impairment significantly as compared to the control group. The findings clearly indicated that the developed memantine nanoparticles could act as an alternative approach for the management of Alzheimer’s disease. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
  • Insights into the Role of Compendial/Biorelevant Media on the
           Supersaturation Behaviour of Drug Combination (Drug-Drug Interaction) and
           Precipitation Inhibition by Polymers

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      Abstract: Combination drug therapy (CDT) plays an immense role in the treatment of various diseases such as malaria, hypertension, cancer, HIV-AIDS, helminthiasis, and many more. However, in vitro drug-drug interaction (DDI) is not well reported for better efficacy of CDT. In DDI one drug may enhance the precipitation of other drugs thereby reducing the advantage of CDT. Herein, we report DDI in terms of in vitro precipitation of drugs with albendazole and mebendazole. This may be the first report to propensate the possibility of either drug precipitation in the combination. These drugs are categorized into BCS class II weak base and hence have tendency to precipitate in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study is to find precipitation of drug combinations in different compendial and biorelevant media (deionized water, phosphate buffer pH 6.8, FaSSIF, and FeSSIF) and screening of the polymers for precipitation inhibition. Nine polymers were investigated at three different concentrations in terms of their drug-polymer solubility, in vitro precipitation behavior, induction time, SHC, and droplet size. Although, all the polymers inhibit the precipitation of drugs, the extent of precipitation inhibition for Soluplus is high. The obtained drug-polymer precipitates were filtered, dried, and analyzed for amorphous/partial amorphous form using polarised light microscopy (PLM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). The drug-polymer interaction was examined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealing the effect of polymers on drug precipitation. These insights may further be used in the formulation of CDT for helminthiasis management. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
  • Colon-Targeted Layer-by-Layer Self-assembled Film: Pharmacokinetic
           Analysis of BCS Class I and Class III Model Drugs

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      Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and moxifloxacin HCl (MF) after oral administration using layer-by-layer assembled film in enteric-coated capsule. The layer-by-layer (LbL) film was prepared by sequential layering of chitosan and sodium alginate polyelectrolytes containing either 5FU or MF. The films were in vitro evaluated for physical characteristics, drug loading and release behaviour. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed in the rat model for three different drug concentrations after oral administration and compared with intravenous administration. The results showed that the thickness of 10-bilayer film was 147 ± 11.66 µm and 212.3 ± 7.19 µm after 5FU and MF loading, respectively. The LbL film with backing layer provided directional release of 5FU and MF, where 63.81 ± 4.52% and 101.38 ± 5.08%, respectively, was released in 24 h. 5FU showed non-linear pharmacokinetics compared with linear pharmacokinetics shown by MF after oral administration. There is a dose-dependent increase in Cmax after oral administration of 5FU and MF LbL film. The Tmax was found to be 720 min and 840 min for 5FU and MF after oral administration. The mean residence time and AUC0–24 at 45 mg/kg were 871.4 ± 6.45 min and 198.6 ± 5.03 × 103 min per ng/mL and 1267 ± 142.4 min and 1590 ± 55.60 103 min per ng/mL for 5FU and MF, respectively. Taken together, colon-targeted LbL film can be developed for oral administration of drugs for local and systemic applications. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
       
 
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