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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 318)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 6)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Pharmacology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.502
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0031-7012 - ISSN (Online) 1423-0313
Published by Karger Homepage  [122 journals]
  • Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Tacrolimus, Cyclosporin A,
           Mycophenolate Mofetil, Cyclophosphamide, and Corticosteroids as Induction
           Therapy for Membranous Lupus Nephritis: A Network Meta-Analysis

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      Abstract: Background: There were limited data on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness and safety of tacrolimus (TAC), cyclosporin A (CSA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclophosphamide (CYC), and corticosteroids as induction agents in membranous lupus nephritis, and they were inconclusive. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the relative efficacy and safety TAC, CSA, MMF, CYC, and corticosteroids as induction therapy for membranous lupus nephritis. Method: RCTs examining the efficacy and safety of TAC, CSA, MMF, CYC, and corticosteroids as induction therapy in patients with membranous lupus nephritis were included. We performed a Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis to combine direct and indirect evidence from the RCTs. Results: Five RCTs comprising 126 patients met the inclusion criteria. TAC and CSA showed a trend toward a higher overall response rate (complete remission plus partial remission) than MMF and CYC. Similarly, MMF and CYC showed a trend toward a higher overall response than corticosteroids. Ranking probability based on the surface under the cumulative ranking curve indicated that TAC had the highest probability of being the best treatment for achieving the overall response, followed by CSA, MMF, CYC, and corticosteroids. In terms of safety, corticosteroids showed the highest probability of decreasing the risk of infections, followed by CSA, CYC, MMF, and TAC. Conclusions: TAC and CSA were the most efficacious induction treatments for patients with membranous lupus nephritis, and corticosteroids had the highest probability of decreasing the risk of infections.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 13:56:42 +020
       
  • Different Doses of Ropivacaine either with Sufentanil or with
           Dexmedetomidine for Labor Epidural Anesthesia regarding Painless
           Childbirth: A Retrospective, Multicenter Study

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      Abstract: Introduction: Sufentanil is used with ropivacaine in labor pain management but it can have respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine is effective to maintain hemodynamic stability in parturient women and allow awake intubation. However, dexmedetomidine is suggested only in patients with major cardiovascular disease that mandates stable hemodynamics (Reference ID: 3987541-USFDA). The objective of the study was to compare different doses of ropivacaine either with sufentanil or with dexmedetomidine for epidural anesthesia regarding labor pain management. Methods: Parturient women have received 0.125% ropivacaine with 0.5-μg/mL sufentanil (SR1 cohort, n = 115), or 0.08% ropivacaine with 0.5-μg/mL sufentanil (SR2 cohort, n = 109), or 0.125% ropivacaine with 0.5-μg/mL dexmedetomidine (DR1 cohort, n = 124), or 0.08% ropivacaine with 0.5-μg/mL dexmedetomidine (DR2 cohort, n = 135) for epidural anesthesia during vaginal delivery or cesarean section. Results: At 2-h postpartum, the visual analog scale score of parturient women of the DR2 cohort was fewer than that of parturient women of the SR1 (p #x3c; 0.0001, q = 4.162) and the SR2 (p #x3c; 0.0001, q = 7.568) cohorts and statistically the same as that of parturient women of the DR1 cohort (p #x3c; 0.0001, q = 3.087). Bradycardia and itching were reported in parturient women of the DR2 and the DR1 cohorts while nausea, vomiting, and urinary retention at 6 h were reported in parturient women of the SR1 and the SR2 cohorts. In the DR2 cohort, there were fewer numbers of parturient women with bradycardia (4 vs. 19, p #x3c; 0.0001, q = 6.613) and hypotension (2% vs. 1%) than those in the DR1 cohort. The child born by women of the DR2 cohort had high partial arterial pressure of oxygen than those born by women of the DR1 (p #x3c; 0.0001, q = 18.663), the SR1 (p #x3c; 0.0001, q = 29.366), and the SR2 (p #x3c; 0.0001, q = 24.039) cohorts. Discussion/Conclusion: Epidural 0.08% ropivacaine with 0.5-μg/mL dexmedetomidine is an effective and safe anesthetic regimen for hypertensive parturient women and their newborns. Level of Evidence: III. Technical Efficacy Stage: 4.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 10:49:06 +020
       
  • Antidepressants Are Poor Inhibitors of Heat-Evoked Ion Currents Mediated
           by TRPM2

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      Abstract: Introduction: The heat and redox-sensitive ion channel TRPM2 was reported to be a causative mechanism for depression in a mouse model and to be upregulated in the hippocampus in patients suffering from depressive disorders. TRPM2 may thus be a novel target for antidepressants, but so far, selective TRPM2-inhibitors have not yet been developed. In this in vitro study, we examined the inhibitory effects of several established antidepressants on heat-evoked inward currents of TRPM2. Methods: Human (h) TRPM2 expressed in HEK293 cells was examined by means of whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Effects of duloxetine, amitriptyline, sertraline, fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, ketamine, pregabalin, lidocaine, and QX-314 were explored on heat-evoked currents in cells pretreated with ADP-ribose (ADPR). Results: While inward currents induced by 1 mM ADPR in the pipette solution displayed a strong rundown hampering pharmacological experiments, heat-evoked currents in cells loaded with 200 μM APDR remained stable upon repetitive activation. Among all substances examined, only inhibition induced by duloxetine displayed a clear concentration-dependency. Thirty micromolar duloxetine was required for 50% inhibition, the same degree of inhibition was also induced by 30 μM amitriptyline, fluoxetine, and paroxetine. While citalopram, escitalopram, ketamine, and pregabalin failed to robustly modify TRPM2, sertraline and low concentrations of lidocaine even potentiated heat-evoked currents. Conclusion: Our data indicate that some, but not all established antidepressants inhibit hTRPM2 when it is activated by heat and ADPR in vitro, e.g., presumably relevant endogenous agonists. However, none of the examined substances exhibited a potent inhibition which is likely to translate into a clinically relevant effect at effective plasma concentrations. Whether or not TRPM2 may be a relevant target for antidepressants cannot be conclusively assessed by a single in vitro study, thus further studies are required along these lines. Nevertheless, future studies may get simplified by the novel approach we developed for in vitro pharmacological analysis of TRPM2.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Wed, 18 May 2022 09:58:59 +020
       
  • Fenretinide Reduces Intestinal Mucin-2-Positive Goblet Cells in Chronic
           Alcohol Abuse

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      Abstract: Introduction: Alcohol-induced thickening of the gut mucosal layer and increased expression of goblet cell gel-forming mucins, such as mucin-2 (MUC2) are associated with disruptions to the gut barrier in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Interest in drugs that can target gut mucins in ALD has grown; however to date, no studies have examined the properties of drugs on expression of gut mucins in models of ALD. We previously demonstrated that at 10 mg/kg/day, the drug fenretinide (N-[4-hydroxyphenyl] retinamide [Fen]), a synthetic retinoid, mitigates alcohol-associated damage to the gut barrier and liver injury in a murine model of ALD. Methods: In this study, we specifically sought to examine the effects of Fen on gut goblet cells, and expression of mucins, including MUC2 using a 25-day Lieber-DeCarli model of chronic alcohol intake. Results: Our results show that chronic alcohol intake increased gut-mucosal thickening, goblet cell numbers, and mRNA and protein expression of MUC2 in both the ileum and colon. Alcohol intake was associated with marked decreases in ileal and colonic Notch signaling, levels of Notch ligands Dll1 and Dll4, and increases in the expression of Notch-associated genes indispensable for goblet cell specification, including Math1 and Spdef. Interestingly, ileal and colonic expression of KLF4, which is involved in terminal differentiation of goblet cells, was reduced in mice chronically fed alcohol. Coadministration of alcohol with Fen at 10 mg/kg/day significantly reduced alcohol-associated increases in ileal and colonic mucosal thickening, ileal Muc2, colonic Muc2, Muc5ac and Muc6 mRNAs, and goblet cell numbers. We also found that Fen strongly prevented alcohol-mediated suppression of the Notch ligand Dll1, Notch signaling, and alcohol-induced increases in expression of Notch-associated goblet cell specification genes in both the ileum and colon. In the absence of alcohol, Fen treatments alone at 10 mg/kg/day had no effects on any of the goblet cell-related endpoints. Conclusion: These data show for the first time that the drug Fen possesses mucosal layer-modulating properties in response to chronic alcohol abuse. These data warrant further preclinical examination of Fen given the need for anti-ALD drugs and emerging evidence of a role for intestinal goblet cell mucins in the progression of ALD.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 10:54:35 +020
       
  • Personalized-Inherent Variability in a Time-Dependent Immune Response: A
           Look into the Fifth Dimension in Biology

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      Abstract: Introduction: Individualized response to the immune triggers influences the course of immune-mediated diseases and the response to immunotherapies. Both inter- and intra-subject variations occur in time-dependent dynamics of biological systems. The present study aimed to establish a model for inherent personalized-time-dependent variability in response to immune triggers. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were administered concanavalin A (ConA) and followed every 2 h for 10 h and at 24 h for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Results: A marked intragroup variability was noted for both the timing of the effect of ConA, the magnitude of the increase in ALT levels, and the time to peak. While in some mice, a peak level was achieved, whereas a continuous increase in liver damage was noted in others. Four mice died at different time points during the study irrespective of their liver damage, further supporting the individualized-based response to the trigger. Conclusions: This feasibility study established a model for determining the personalized-inherent variability in a time-dependent response to the immune triggers. These results highlight the importance of considering both the time and the wide range of individualized variability in immune responses while designing personalized-based immunotherapies.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Tue, 10 May 2022 11:48:47 +020
       
  • Cobimetinib Sensitizes Cervical Cancer to Paclitaxel via Suppressing
           Paclitaxel-Induced ERK Activation

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      Abstract: Introduction: Chemoresistance remains the main cause of treatment failure in cervical cancer and novel therapeutic strategies are required. Cobimetinib, a potent yet selective inhibitor of MEK1 and 2, is currently used to treat melanoma clinically. In this work, we identified cobimetinib as a promising candidate for treating cervical cancer. Methods: The in vitro and in vivo efficacies of cobimetinib were examined using cervical cancer cell cultures and xenograft mouse model. Its combination with paclitaxel was analyzed using the combination index. Immunoblotting was performed on MAPK and ERK pathways. Results: Cobimetinib displays a potent anti-cervical cancer activity in a panel of cell lines regardless of cellular origin and HPV presence, and its combination with paclitaxel is synergistic in inhibiting cervical cancer cells. This is achieved by the growth inhibition and caspase-dependent apoptosis induction, through inhibiting MAPK/ERK activation. In addition, paclitaxel activates ERK in cervical cancer cells, and this can be reversed by cobimetinib. We finally confirm the efficacy of cobimetinib alone and its combination with paclitaxel in the cervical cancer xenograft mouse model. Discussion/Conclusion: Our preclinical findings will accelerate the initialization of clinical trials to use combination of cobimetinib and paclitaxel for treating cervical cancer. Our work also emphasizes the therapeutic value of targeting MAPK/ERK to overcome chemoresistance in cervical cancer.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 09:30:23 +020
       
  • Larotrectinib Response in NTRK3 Fusion-Driven Diffuse High-Grade Glioma

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      Abstract: High-grade glioma (HGG) and glioblastoma are the most common adult malignant brain tumors. The standard treatment consists of surgical resection followed by radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. The prognosis and the therapeutic options of these malignant brain tumors however are limited. Here, we describe a case of a patient with HGG with a previously unknown NTRK3 fusion that showed an extraordinary response to treatment with larotrectinib. This case supports regular testing for NTRK fusion proteins.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 07:03:59 +020
       
  • Mulberry Leaf Extract Alleviates Staphylococcus aureus-Induced
           Conjunctivitis in Rabbits via Downregulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome and
           Upregulation of the Nrf2 System and Suppression of Pro-Inflammatory
           Cytokines

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      Abstract: Introduction: Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-obesity, antidiabetic, antiatherosclerotic, and anticancer properties. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced conjunctivitis (5 × 109 colony-forming units, 0.5 mL/eye) in a rabbit model. Methods: Rabbits were treated with MLE (5 mL/kg·d−1 and 10 mL/kg·d−1), 0.9% saline, pearl bright eye (PBE) drops, or erythromycin eye ointment (EEO) group for 5 days. The ocular infection symptoms, bacterial negative conversion rate, and conjunctival histopathological changes of rabbits in each group were observed. The expression of caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, NOD-like receptor leucine-rich pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), interleukin (IL)-18, IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα, Keap1, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in conjunctival tissue of rabbits were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and/or Western blot analysis. Results: The results showed that MLE treatment significantly reduced the clinical sign scores of conjunctivitis, alleviated clinical signs, and decreased bacterial load, and histological damage in a time- and dose-dependent manner was compared to that in the control group. The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of MLE (10 mL/kg·d−1) were similar to those of the positive control drug PBE and EEO. In addition, MLE significantly decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, downregulated the NLRP3 inflammasome, and upregulated the Nrf2 system. Conclusions: MLE is effective in alleviating S. aureus-induced conjunctivitis in rabbits, and this mechanism is associated with the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome and activation of the Nrf2 system to regulate pro-inflammatory signaling.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 08:18:19 +020
       
  • The Role of Kynurenines Produced by Indolamine-2,3-Dioxygenase 1 in Sepsis

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      Abstract: Background: The enzyme indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway and metabolizes the essential amino acid tryptophan to KYNs. The depletion of tryptophan and the generation of KYNs were shown to be involved in the global downregulation of the immune system during the later stages of sepsis, also referred to as sepsis-associated immunosuppression. Summary: The generation of KYNs by IDO1 leads to a depletion of effector T cells, including increased rate of apoptosis, decreased ability of T-cell proliferation and activation, and the generation of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Furthermore, KYN was shown a potent vasorelaxant during inflammation-induced hypotension. Experimental studies in murine sepsis models and in humans show promising data for using the activation of IDO1 both as a prognostic marker and potential drug target in sepsis.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 13:18:14 +020
       
  • Antibody and Cellular-Based Therapies for Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic
           Leukemia: Mechanisms and Prospects

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      Abstract: Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in children. Despite enormous efforts to treat ALL over the past decade, the intensity of conventional chemotherapeutic strategies has reached the tolerance limit. Among various recently developed therapeutic approaches, antibody and cellular-based therapies showed less toxicity and better curative effect. Summary: Due to advanced mechanistic actions, these innovative therapies have provided durable responses and long-term survival in eradicating pediatric ALL, especially patients with refractory/relapsed ALL. Owing to these aspects, herein, we emphasize the mechanisms of action and application status of antibodies targeting tumor antigens, antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Key Messages: The significant prospects and challenges are discussed, highlighting the innovative immunotherapies to deal with ALL. Together, this review will summarize the progress of antibody and cellular-based therapies for pediatric ALL, which may promote further research on antibody-based biopharmaceutics.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Apr 2022 11:09:48 +020
       
 
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