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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 83)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Pharmacology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.502
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0031-7012 - ISSN (Online) 1423-0313
Published by Karger Homepage  [121 journals]
  • Osimertinib in the Treatment of EGFR Mutation-Positive Advanced Non-Small
           Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

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      Abstract: Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of generally reported lung cancer patients. Objectives: This is a systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of osimertinib in treating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive advanced NSCLC. Methods: A network search was completed for clinical research literature (from inception of each database to May 30, 2020) on osimertinib for EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were formulated to screen the literature. After data extraction, RevMan 5.3 software was utilized for quality evaluation and meta-analysis. The primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events of grades 3 and 4. Results: Finally, 6 eligible articles and a total of 1,848 patients containing 1,123 in experimental groups and 725 in control groups were included. Meta-analysis indicated that ORR (odds ratio [OR] = 3.40, 95% CI 1.64∼7.01, p = 0.0009), DCR (OR = 4.36, 95% CI 3.09∼6.15, p #x3c; 0.00001), PFS (HR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.27∼0.47, p #x3c; 0.00001), and OS (OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.46∼0.72, p #x3c; 0.00001) of the experimental group were prominently better than the control group. Adverse events of grades 3 and 4 mainly incorporated decreased nausea, rash, stomatitis, and vomiting, which were dramatically relieved compared with the control group. Conclusion: Osimertinib is currently an appreciably effective and well-tolerated therapeutic avenue for EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Dec 2022 12:17:24 +010
       
  • High On-Treatment Platelet Reactivity: Aspirin versus Clopidogrel

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      Abstract: Background: Antithrombotic regimen in patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC) post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is challenging. At least, one antiplatelet agent in combination with OAC is recommended after PCI for 6–12 months. Clopidogrel is used most frequently in this setting. However, data comparing P2Y12 inhibition with clopidogrel versus cyclooxygenase inhibition by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) is missing. It is well known that the antiplatelet effects of ASA and clopidogrel are frequently impaired (high on-treatment platelet reactivity [HTPR]). In this pilot investigation, we compared the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel versus ASA. Methods: In this retrospective single-center database analysis, we investigated platelet reactivity by light transmission aggregometry in patients under different antiplatelet regimes. Results were presented as maximum of aggregation (MoA). HTPR to ASA and to clopidogrel were assessed. Results: 755 patients were enrolled. 677 were on ASA, 521 were on clopidogrel, and 198 had OAC. Overall mean age was 73 ± 13.4 years, and 458 (60.7%) were male. HTPR to ASA occurred in 94/677 patients (13.9%), and mean arachidonic acid-induced MoA was 14.15 ± 19.04%. HTPR to clopidogrel occurred in 241/521 patients (46.3%), and mean adenosine diphosphate-induced MoA was 50.06 ± 20.42%. HTPR to clopidogrel was significantly more frequent than HTPR to ASA; single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT)-mono ASA: 27/199 (13.6%) versus mono clopidogrel: 6/18 (33.3%); p = 0.037; SAPT with OAC-OAC with ASA: 8/35 (22.9%) versus OAC with clopidogrel: 27/60 (45%); p = 0.046. Same difference in HTPR contingency could be shown in subgroups of dual antiplatelet therapy and ASA + clopidogrel + OAC therapy. Conclusion: Impaired pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel was more frequent as HTPR to ASA. Hence, ASA should be tested in combination with OAC post-PCI.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Dec 2022 15:08:25 +010
       
  • Novel Treatment Options in Metastatic Esophageal Carcinoma: Checkpoint
           Inhibitors in Combination Therapies

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      Abstract: Background: Metastatic esophageal carcinoma (EC) has a poor prognosis and only limited treatment options. While immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved the treatment of a broad spectrum of cancers, patients with EC mostly fail to respond to this treatment. For that reason, it is crucial to understand the immune phenotype of each cancer patient and moreover, to understand how different therapies modulate the cancer microenvironment and sensitize the tumors to the treatment with ICIs. Summary: We have conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the potential of ICI therapy in combination with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and/or biologic therapy in EC patients. In our review, we have discussed the effects of diverse treatment approaches on the tumor microenvironment of EC. In addition, we have reviewed the current phase II and III clinical trials in EC patients to provide a rationale for immunotherapy application in combination settings with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and/or biologic therapy. Key Messages: A great effort is already underway in clinical trials evaluating the combinatorial administration of ICIs and other treatment modalities in metastatic EC patients. PD-L1 expression status was shown to be higher in the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as compared to adenocarcinoma. Thus, ICIs plus chemotherapy are being discussed as a particularly feasible option for patients with SCC. Radiation was shown to induce the expression of immune checkpoint molecules and to promote the priming and activation of cytotoxic T cells which provides a rationale for ICI administration in a combination with radiotherapy. The combination of ICIs with biologic therapy was shown to be safe; however, the impact on the clinical outcomes of EC patients varied among studies.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Dec 2022 11:32:01 +010
       
  • Contents Vol. 107, 2022

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      Abstract:
      Pharmacology 2022;107:I–VI
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Dec 2022 08:18:41 +010
       
  • Acknowledgement to Referees

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      Abstract:
      Pharmacology 2022;107:629–630
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Dec 2022 08:18:24 +010
       
  • Factors Associated with Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing in Patients
           on Peritoneal Dialysis

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      Abstract: Introduction: Inappropriate prescribing is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease, especially in those over 65 years of age. Our study aimed to reveal potentially inappropriate drug prescribing in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and explore factors associated with this phenomenon. Methods: The research was designed as an observational, cross-sectional study on a convenient sample of 145 consecutive patients with PD who attended the four tertiary-care hospitals in Serbia. The main outcome was the extent of inappropriate prescribing, as assessed by the medication appropriateness index, and potential predictors were tested by multiple linear regression. Results: Inappropriate prescribing was a widespread phenomenon among patients on PD. The main factors that promote inappropriate prescribing in this subgroup of patients on kidney replacement therapy are comorbidities (p = 0.000), increased body weight (p = 0.022), a number of prescribed drugs (p = 0.000), and arterial hypertension on examination (p = 0.030). On the other hand, drinking alcohol and higher systolic blood pressure were associated with a lower inappropriate prescribing. Conclusion: In order to prevent the occurrence of inappropriate prescribing and its severe health or economic consequences, clinicians should pay special attention when prescribing new drugs to high-risk patients.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Nov 2022 10:45:50 +010
       
  • Protective Effects and Mechanisms of Flavonoids in Renal
           Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

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      Abstract: Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and potentially fatal complication encountered during a variety of kidney surgeries. Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the predominant mechanism of AKI in this setting. Hence, controlling I/R injury is a key research imperative as it is directly related to the prognosis of patients. Summary: In the last decade, studies in vitro and in animal models have demonstrated that flavonoids can significantly alleviate I/R-induced AKI through a variety of pathways, including anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, anti-cell death, inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and alleviation of mitochondrial dysfunction. Based on the extensive role of flavonoids in ischemia-reperfusion injury, the lack of drugs entering the clinic so far is a question worthy of consideration. Key Messages: This review summarizes the available evidence pertaining to the protective effect of flavonoids against renal I/R injury and discusses their potential clinical application in renal I/R injury.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Nov 2022 10:45:22 +010
       
  • Astragaloside IV Alleviates Atorvastatin-Induced Hepatotoxicity via
           AMPK/SIRT1 Pathway

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      Abstract: Introduction: Atorvastatin (ATO) is often used to reduce blood lipids and prevent atherosclerosis, but excessive use of ATO will lead to hepatotoxicity. This paper investigated the effects of astragaloside IV (AS IV), which has multiple biological functions, on ATO-induced hepatotoxicity and the underlying mechanism. Methods: ATO treatment induced a rat model of hepatotoxicity, followed by AS IV treatment. Colorimetric kits were used to detect rat liver function indexes including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was determined by 2′, 7′-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate kit. The liver fibrosis and F4/80 expression were detected by Sirius red staining and immunochemistry. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I and complex IV activities were examined. The level of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected by JC-1 staining. The inflammatory factor levels were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blot detected apoptosis-related proteins and AMPK/SIRT1-related proteins. Results: ATO increased ALT, AST, MDA, and ROS levels and decreased GSH content but was subsequently reversed by AS IV. AS IV alleviated liver tissue damage caused by ATO. AS IV elevated complex I and complex IV activity and promoted MMP levels in ATO rats. ATO promoted inflammatory factor release in SD rats but was then suppressed by AS IV. AS IV inhibited Bax, cleaved caspase-3 but up-regulated Bcl-2 in ATO-induced rats. ATO inhibited SIRT1 expression and AMPK phosphorylation, which was subsequently promoted by AS IV. Conclusion: AS IV inhibits ATO-induced hepatotoxicity by activating the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Nov 2022 15:36:27 +010
       
  • Luteolin Attenuates Diabetic Myocardial Hypertrophy by Inhibiting
           Proteasome Activity

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      Abstract: Introduction: Luteolin is a flavonoid polyphenolic compound exerting broad pharmacological and medicinal properties. Diabetes-related obesity increases the total blood volume and cardiac output and may increase the myocardial hypertrophy progression. However, the mechanism of luteolin in diabetic myocardial hypertrophy remains uncertain. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether luteolin improved diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) by inhibiting the proteasome activity. Methods: Cardiomyopathy was induced in streptozotocin-treated diabetes mellitus (DM) and db/db mice. Luteolin (20 mg kg−1·day−1) was administrated via gavage for 12 weeks. In vitro, high glucose and high insulin (HGI, glucose at 25.5 mM and insulin at 0.1 µM) inducing primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) were treated with or without luteolin for 48 h. Echocardiography, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, histology, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting were conducted. Proteasome activities were also detected using a fluorescent peptide substrate. Results: Luteolin administration significantly prevented the onset of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction in type 1 DM (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM). Compared with DCM mice, luteolin groups showed lower serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Furthermore, luteolin attenuated HGI-induced myocardial hypertrophy and reduced atrial natriuretic factor mRNA level in NRCMs. Proteasome activities were inhibited by luteolin in vitro. Luteolin also reduces the proteasome subunit levels (PSMB) 1, PSMB2, and PSMB5 of the 20S proteasome, as well as proteasome-regulated particles (Rpt) 1 and Rpt4 levels of 19S proteasome. Furthermore, luteolin treatment increased protein kinase B (AKT) and GSK-3α/β (inactivation of GSK-3) phosphorylation. The phosphorylation level of AMPK activity was also reversed after the treatment with luteolin in comparison with the HGI-treated group. Conclusion: This study indicates that luteolin protected against DCM in mice, including T1DM and T2DM, by upregulating phosphorylated protein AMPK and AKT/GSK-3 pathways while decreasing the proteasome activity. These findings suggest that luteolin may be a potential therapeutic agent for DCM.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Nov 2022 10:21:00 +010
       
  • Radioprotective Effect of Zinc Nanoparticles on Ionizing Radiation-Induced
           Nephrotoxicity in Miceds

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      Abstract: Introduction: Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress in kidneys and subsequently disrupts renal function. The use of green synthesized zinc nanoparticles (Zn NPs) with antioxidant properties may reduce the damage caused by IR. Methods: Thirty-six mice were kept in a standard situation and divided into 6 groups: 1: Control; 2–4: receiving 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 25 mg/kg of Zn NPs with IR; 5: receiving 5 mg/kg of ZnSO4 with IR; and 6: IR. After 15 days, half of the animals in each group were sacrificed and their blood samples isolated to evaluate the plasma urea and creatinine levels. The kidneys were kept for evaluating the glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels; on 21st day, the rest of the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys removed for histological assessments. Results: IR decreased GSH content, increased MDA level, and reduced SOD and CAT activity. On the other hand, Zn NPs at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses increased GSH, decreased MDA, and enhanced SOD and CAT activities. Zn NPs treatment at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses decreased the plasma urea and creatinine levels induced by IR. Moreover, Zn NPs significantly decreased the level of urea and creatinine in irradiated mice in comparison with IR alone (p #x3c; 0.05). The main histopathological results were tubular and glomerular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis in irradiated mice, while tubular degeneration and atrophy were less frequent in Zn NPs + IR group than in IR group alone. Conclusion: Zn NPs treatment, especially at 25 mg/kg dose, attenuates the side effect of IR on kidneys through reducing oxidative stress factors, biochemical, and histopathological changes.
      Pharmacology
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Nov 2022 10:20:11 +010
       
 
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