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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 318)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 6)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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Pharmaceutical Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.077
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 97  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-904X - ISSN (Online) 0724-8741
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Applications of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) in Drug
           Development for NAFLD and NASH and Its Regulatory Application

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      Abstract: Abstract Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a widely prevalent disease, but approved pharmaceutical treatments are not available. As such, there is great activity within the pharmaceutical industry to accelerate drug development in this area and improve the quality of life and reduce mortality for NASH patients. The use of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) can help make this overall process more efficient. This mechanism-based mathematical modeling approach describes both the pathophysiology of a disease and how pharmacological interventions can modify pathophysiologic mechanisms. Multiple capabilities are provided by QSP modeling, including the use of model predictions to optimize clinical studies. The use of this approach has grown over the last 20 years, motivating discussions between modelers and regulators to agree upon methodologic standards. These include model transparency, documentation, and inclusion of clinical pharmacodynamic biomarkers. Several QSP models have been developed that describe NASH pathophysiology to varying extents. One specific application of NAFLDsym, a QSP model of NASH, is described in this manuscript. Simulations were performed to help understand if patient behaviors could help explain the relatively high rate of fibrosis stage reductions in placebo cohorts. Simulated food intake and body weight fluctuated periodically over time. The relatively slow turnover of liver collagen allowed persistent reductions in predicted fibrosis stage despite return to baseline for liver fat, plasma ALT, and the NAFLD activity score. Mechanistic insights such as this that have been derived from QSP models can help expedite the development of safe and effective treatments for NASH patients.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • Editorial of Special Issue “Cytoplasmic Delivery of
           Bioactives”

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      PubDate: 2022-05-23
       
  • Drug Distribution in Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluids in Relation to IC50
           Values in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease, Using the Physiologically Based
           LeiCNS-PK3.0 Model

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      Abstract: Background Very little knowledge exists on the impact of Alzheimer’s disease on the CNS target site pharmacokinetics (PK). Aim To predict the CNS PK of cognitively healthy young and elderly and of Alzheimer’s patients using the physiologically based LeiCNS-PK3.0 model. Methods LeiCNS-PK3.0 was used to predict the PK profiles in brain extracellular (brainECF) and intracellular (brainICF) fluids and cerebrospinal fluid of the subarachnoid space (CSFSAS) of donepezil, galantamine, memantine, rivastigmine, and semagacestat in young, elderly, and Alzheimer’s patients. The physiological parameters of LeiCNS-PK3.0 were adapted for aging and Alzheimer’s based on an extensive literature search. The CNS PK profiles at plateau for clinical dose regimens were related to in vitro IC50 values of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, N-methyl-D-aspartate, or gamma-secretase. Results The PK profiles of all drugs differed between the CNS compartments regarding plateau levels and fluctuation. BrainECF, brainICF and CSFSAS PK profile relationships were different between the drugs. Aging and Alzheimer’s had little to no impact on CNS PK. Rivastigmine acetylcholinesterase IC50 values were not reached. Semagacestat brain PK plateau levels were below the IC50 of gamma-secretase for half of the interdose interval, unlike CSFSAS PK profiles that were consistently above IC50. Conclusion This study provides insights into the relations between CNS compartments PK profiles, including target sites. CSFSAS PK appears to be an unreliable predictor of brain PK. Also, despite extensive changes in blood-brain barrier and brain properties in Alzheimer’s, this study shows that the impact of aging and Alzheimer’s pathology on CNS distribution of the five drugs is insignificant.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
       
  • The Use of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Analyses—in
           Biopharmaceutics Applications -Regulatory and Industry Perspectives

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      Abstract: Abstract The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to support the drug product quality attributes, also known as physiologically based biopharmaceutics modeling (PBBM) is an evolving field and the interest in using PBBM is increasing. The US-FDA has emphasized on the use of patient centric quality standards and clinically relevant drug product specifications over the years. Establishing an in vitro in vivo link is an important step towards achieving the goal of patient centric quality standard. Such a link can aid in constructing a bioequivalence safe space and establishing clinically relevant drug product specifications. PBBM is an important tool to construct a safe space which can be used during the drug product development and lifecycle management. There are several advantages of using the PBBM approach, though there are also a few challenges, both with in vitro methods and in vivo understanding of drug absorption and disposition, that preclude using this approach and therefore further improvements are needed. In this review we have provided an overview of experience gained so far and the current perspective from regulatory and industry point of view. Collaboration between scientists from regulatory, industry and academic fields can further help to advance this field and deliver on promises that PBBM can offer towards establishing patient centric quality standards.
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
       
  • Shedding Light on the Blood–Brain Barrier Transport with Two-Photon
           Microscopy In Vivo

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      Abstract: Abstract Treatment of brain disorders relies on efficient delivery of therapeutics to the brain, which is hindered by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The work of Prof. Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes was instrumental in understanding the principles of drug delivery to the brain and developing new tools to study it. Here, we show how some of the concepts developed in her research can be translated to in vivo 2-photon microscopy (2PM) studies of the BBB. We primarily focus on the methods developed in our laboratory to characterize the paracellular diffusion, adsorptive-mediated transcytosis, and receptor-mediated transcytosis of drug nanocarriers at the microscale, illustrating how 2PM can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of drug delivery to the brain.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Understanding Formulation and Temperature Effects on Dermal Transport
           Kinetics by IVPT and Multiphysics Simulation

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      Abstract: Purpose It is often unclear how complex topical product formulation factors influence the transport kinetics through skin tissue layers, because of multiple confounding attributes. Environmental factors such as temperature effect are also poorly understood. In vitro permeation testing (IVPT) is frequently used to evaluate drug absorption across skin, but the flux results from these studies are from a combination of mechanistic processes. Method Two different commercially available formulations of oxybenzone-containing sunscreen cream and continuous spray were evaluated by IVPT in human skin. Temperature influence between typical skin surface temperature (32°C) and an elevated 37°C was also assessed. Furthermore, a multiphysics-based simulation model was developed and utilized to compute the flux of modeled formulations. Results Drug transport kinetics differed significantly between the two drug products. Flux was greatly influenced by the environmental temperature. The multiphysical simulation results could reproduce the experimental observations. The computation further indicated that the drug diffusion coefficient plays a dominant role in drug transport kinetics, influenced by the water content which is also affected by temperature. Conclusion The in vitro testing and bottom-up simulation shed insight into the mechanism of dermal absorption kinetics from dissimilar topical products.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Impact of Select Geometric and Operational Parameters on Hydrodynamics in
           Dissolution Apparatus 2 (Paddle Apparatus): A Design of Experiments
           Analysis Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

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      Abstract: Purpose A Design of Experiments (DOE) analysis driven by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations was used to evaluate individual and two-factor interaction effects of varying select geometric and operational parameters on the hydrodynamics in dissolution apparatus 2 (paddle apparatus). Methods Simulations were run with meshing controls and solution strategies retained from a mesh-independent validated baseline model. Distance between vessel and impeller bottom surfaces, impeller offset, vessel radius and impeller rotation speed were considered as input parameters. The velocity magnitudes at four locations near the vessel bottom surface were considered as output parameters. Response surfaces and Pareto charts were generated to understand individual and two-factor interaction effects of input parameters on the output parameters. Results Impeller offset has a dominating influence of a linear and quadratic nature on the output parameters and affects overall hydrodynamics. Changes to other input parameters have limited influence on velocity magnitudes at locations closest to the vessel axis and on overall hydrodynamics. However, these parameters have important influences of varying degrees on velocity magnitudes at locations away from the vessel axis. Conclusions The hydrodynamics in Apparatus 2 is influenced differently by different parameters and their combinations. Impeller offset has a stronger influence when compared to parameters that do not alter apparatus symmetry.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Transcriptome Profiling Analysis Identifies LCP1 as a Contributor for
           Chidamide Resistance in Gastric Cancer

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      Abstract: Background Gastric cancer (GC) remains a significant health problem and carries with it substantial morbidity and mortality. Chidamide is a novel and orally administered histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been demonstrated its anti-tumor efficacy on different kinds of hematological and solid tumors. However, the underlying mechanism of chidamide resistance is still poorly characterized. Methods We established chidamide resistant GC cell lines, AGS ChiR and MGC803 ChiR and investigated the toxicologic effects through cell survival, colony formation and flow cytometry assays in vitro, and a subcutaneous xenograft model in vivo. RNA-sequence was then performed to screen chidamide resistance-associated genes between AGS and AGS ChiR cells. The role of Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (LCP1) in chidamide resistance was explored by gain- and loss-of-function analyses. Results We found that chidamide significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced the apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in wild-type GC cell lines as compared to chidamide resistant cell lines. The transcriptomic profiling, quantitative RT-PCR, and western blot data revealed that LCP1 was upregulated in AGS ChiR cells compared with parental cells. Overexpression of LCP1 conferred and knockdown of LCP1 attenuated the chidamide resistance of GC cells. Epigenetic derepression of LCP1 by chidamide may be a possible reason for the contribution of LCP1 to chidamide resistance. Conclusions These findings illustrated that LCP1 may play a chidamide resistance role in GC, suggesting that LCP1 could be a potential target for the therapy of GC combined with chidamide.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Applications, Challenges, and Outlook for PBPK Modeling and Simulation: A
           Regulatory, Industrial and Academic Perspective

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      Abstract: Abstract Several regulatory guidances on the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) analyses and physiologically based biopharmaceutics model(s) (PBBM(s)) have been issued. Workshops are routinely held, demonstrating substantial interest in applying these modeling approaches to address scientific questions in drug development. PBPK models and PBBMs have remarkably contributed to model-informed drug development (MIDD) such as anticipating clinical PK outcomes affected by extrinsic and intrinsic factors in general and specific populations. In this review, we proposed practical considerations for a “base” PBPK model construction and development, summarized current status, challenges including model validation and gaps in system models, and future perspectives in PBPK evaluation to assess a) drug metabolizing enzyme(s)- or drug transporter(s)- mediated drug-drug interactions b) dosing regimen prediction, sampling timepoint selection and dose validation in pediatric patients from newborns to adolescents, c) drug exposure in patients with renal and/or and hepatic organ impairment, d) maternal–fetal drug disposition during pregnancy, and e) pH-mediated drug-drug interactions in patients treated with proton pump inhibitors/acid-reducing agents (PPIs/ARAs) intended for gastric protection. Since PBPK can simulate outcomes in clinical studies with enrollment challenges or ethical issues, the impact of PBPK models on waivers and how to strengthen study waiver is discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Development and Use of an Ex-Vivo In-Vivo Correlation to Predict
           Antiepileptic Drug Clearance in Patients Undergoing Continuous Renal
           Replacement Therapy

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      Abstract: Objectives Results from previous ex-vivo continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) models have successfully demonstrated similar extraction coefficients (EC) identified from in-vivo clinical trials. The objectives of this study are to develop an ex-vivo in-vivo correlation (EVIVC) model to predict drug clearance for commonly used antiepileptics and to evaluate similarity in drug extraction across different CRRT modalities to extrapolate dosing recommendations. Methods Levetiracetam, lacosamide, and phenytoin CRRT clearance was evaluated using the Prismaflex CRRT system and M150 hemodiafilters using an albumin containing normal saline (ALB-NS) vehicle with 3 different albumin concentrations (2 g/dL, 3 g/dL, and 4 g/dL) and a human plasma vehicle at 3 different effluent flow rates (1 L/hr, 2 L/hr, and 3 L/hr). Blood and effluent/dialysate concentrations were collected after circuit priming. ECs were calculated for each drug, modality, vehicle, and experimental arm combination. Results The calculated average EC for levetiracetam and lacosamide was approximated to the fraction unbound from plasma protein. Human plasma and ALB-NS vehicles demonstrated adequate prediction of in-vivo CRRT clearance. Geometric mean ratios indicated similarity in extraction coefficients when comparing between hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration modalities and between filtration and dialysis modalities at effluent flow rates ≤ 2L/hr. Evaluation of phenytoin provided inconsistent findings with regards to extraction coefficient similarity across different CRRT modalities. Conclusion The findings indicate that an ex-vivo study can be used as a surrogate to predict in-vivo levetiracetam and lacosamide clearance in patients receiving CRRT.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Review: Role of Model-Informed Drug Development Approaches in the
           Lifecycle of Drug Development and Regulatory Decision-Making

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      Abstract: Abstract Model-informed drug development (MIDD) is a powerful approach to support drug development and regulatory review. There is a rich history of MIDD applications at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). MIDD applications span across the life cycle of the development of new drugs, generics, and biologic products. In new drug development, MIDD approaches are often applied to inform clinical trial design including dose selection/optimization, aid in the evaluation of critical regulatory review questions such as evidence of effectiveness, and development of policy. In the biopharmaceutics space, we see a trend for increasing role of computational modeling to inform formulation development and help strategize future in vivo studies or lifecycle plans in the post approval setting. As more information and knowledge becomes available pre-approval, quantitative mathematical models are becoming indispensable in supporting generic drug development and approval including complex generic drug products and are expected to help reduce overall time and cost. While the application of MIDD to inform the development of cell and gene therapy products is at an early stage, the potential for future application of MIDD include understanding and quantitative evaluation of information related to biological activity/pharmacodynamics, cell expansion/persistence, transgene expression, immune response, safety, and efficacy. With exciting innovations on the horizon, broader adoption of MIDD is poised to revolutionize drug development for greater patient and societal benefit.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
  • Combination of co-crystal and nanocrystal techniques to improve the
           solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs

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      Abstract: Purpose Solubility and dissolution rate are essential for the oral absorption and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to prepare nano-co-crystals by combination of nanocrystal and co-crystal technologies, and investigate its effect, in situ, on increased kinetic solubility and dissolution rate. Methods Co-crystals of itraconazole-fumaric acid, itraconazole-succinic acid, indomethacin-saccharin and indomethacin-nicotinamide were prepared and nano-sized by wet milling. The particle size and solid state of the co-crystals were characterized by optical microscope, LD, PCS, DSC and XRPD before and after milling. Results 300-450 nm sized nano-co-crystals with a stable physical solid state were successfully prepared. Nano-co-crystals exhibited a lower crystallinity reduction than nanocrystals after wet milling. The particle size effect on the kinetic solubility of co-crystals was analysed for macro-, micro- and nano-co-crystals with in situ kinetic solubility studies. The maximum kinetic solubility of nano-co-crystals increased with excess conditions until a plateau. The highest increase was obtained with itraconazole-succinic acid nano-co-crystals with a kinetic solubility of 263.5 ± 3.9 μg/mL which was 51.5 and 6.6 times higher than the solubility of raw itraconazole and itraconazole-succinic acid co-crystal. Conclusions The synergistic effect of nanocrystals and co-crystals with regard to increased kinetic solubility and dissolution rate was proven. The combination of the advantages of nanocrystals and co-crystals is a promising formulation strategy to increase both the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
  • Nanotechnology-Assisted Metered-Dose Inhalers (MDIs) for High-Performance
           Pulmonary Drug Delivery Applications

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      Abstract: Purpose Respiratory disorders pose a major threat to the morbidity and mortality to public health. Here we reviewed the nanotechnology based pulmonary drug delivery using metered dose inhalers. Methods Major respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), asthma, acute lower respiratory tract infections, tuberculosis (TB) and lung cancer. At present, common treatments for respiratory disorders include surgery, radiation, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy or a combination. The major challenge is development of systemic delivery of the chemotherapeutic agents to the respiratory system. Conventional delivery of chemotherapy has various limitation and adverse side effected. Hence, targeted, and systemic delivery need to be developed. Towards this direction nanotechnology, based controlled, targeted, and systemic drug delivery systems are potential candidate to enhance therapeutic efficacy with minimum side effect. Among different route of administration, pulmonary delivery has unique benefits such as circumvents first pass hepatic metabolism and reduces dose and side effects. Results Respiratory disorders pose a major threat to the morbidity and mortality to public health globally. Pulmonary delivery can be achieved through various drug delivery devices such as nebulizers, dry powder inhalers, and metered dose inhalers. Among them, metered dose inhalers are the most interesting and first choice of clinician over others. This review focused on nanotechnology based pulmonary drug delivery using metered dose inhalers. This report focused on delivery of various types of therapeutics using nanocarriers such as polymeric nanoparticles and micelles, dendrimers, lipid nanocarriers such as liposomes, solid lipid nanostructures and nanostructured lipid carriers, and other using metered dose inhalers discussed comprehensively. This report provides insight about the effect of parameters of MDI such as co-solvent, propellants, actuators shape, nozzle diameters, and jet lengths, and respiratory flow rate, and particle size of co-suspension of drug on aerodynamics and lung deposition of formulation. This review also provided the insight about various metered dose inhalers market scenario and digital metered dose inhalers. Conclusion This report concluded the clinical potential of metered dose inhalers, summary of current progress and future perspectives towards the smart digital metered dose inhalers development.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
  • Transferrin Receptor Binding BBB-Shuttle Facilitates Brain Delivery of
           Anti-Aβ-Affibodies

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      Abstract: Abstract Affibodies targeting amyloid-beta (Aβ) could potentially be used as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Affibodies display suitable characteristics for imaging applications such as high stability and a short biological half-life. The aim of this study was to explore brain delivery and retention of Aβ protofibril-targeted affibodies in wild-type (WT) and AD transgenic mice and to evaluate their potential as imaging agents. Two affibodies, Z5 and Z1, were fused with the blood–brain barrier (BBB) shuttle single-chain variable fragment scFv8D3. In vitro binding of 125I-labeled affibodies with and without scFv8D3 was evaluated by ELISA and autoradiography. Brain uptake and retention of the affibodies at 2 h and 24 h post injection was studied ex vivo in WT and transgenic (tg-Swe and tg-ArcSwe) mice. At 2 h post injection, [125I]I-Z5 and [125I]I-Z1 displayed brain concentrations of 0.37 ± 0.09% and 0.46 ± 0.08% ID/g brain, respectively. [125I]I-scFv8D3-Z5 and [125I]I-scFv8D3-Z1 showed increased brain concentrations of 0.53 ± 0.16% and 1.20 ± 0.35%ID/g brain. At 24 h post injection, brain retention of [125I]I-Z1 and [125I]I-Z5 was low, while [125I]I-scFv8D3-Z1 and [125I]I-scFv8D3-Z5 showed moderate brain retention, with a tendency towards higher retention of [125I]I-scFv8D3-Z5 in AD transgenic mice. Nuclear track emulsion autoradiography showed greater parenchymal distribution of [125I]I-scFv8D3-Z5 and [125I]I-scFv8D3-Z1 compared with the affibodies without scFv8D3, but could not confirm specific affibody accumulation around Aβ deposits. Affibody-scFv8D3 fusions displayed increased brain and parenchymal delivery compared with the non-fused affibodies. However, fast brain washout and a suboptimal balance between Aβ and mTfR1 affinity resulted in low intrabrain retention around Aβ deposits.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Use of Flory–Huggins Interaction Parameter and Contact Angle Values to
           Predict the Suitability of the Drug-Polymer System for the Production and
           Stability of Nanosuspensions

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      Abstract: Purpose Use of Flory–Huggins interaction parameter and contact angle values to predict the suitability of the drug-polymer system for the production and stability of nanosuspensions. Material and Methods Melting point depression of the drug was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. Interaction parameter, χ, was calculated using the melting point depression data to elucidate the drug-polymer interaction strength to predict the suitability of the drug-polymer system for the production and stability of nanosuspensions. Contact angle of the drug films were measured with purified water and 0.1%w/w polymer solutions to predict polymer’s suitability for the production and stability of nanosuspension. Nanosuspensions were manufactured to validate the application of the melting point depression approach along with surface property information. Results All three polymers, HPMC, Soluplus®, and poloxamer exhibited a negative interaction parameter with naproxen and budesonide. Higher negative interaction parameter values for the naproxen-polymer system indicated stronger drug-polymer interactions, while smaller negative interaction parameter values for the budesonide-polymer system indicated weaker drug-polymer interactions. Interaction parameter was not obtained for fenofibrate with HPMC and Soluplus®, and similarly, no interaction parameter was obtained for carvedilol with HPMC, most likely due to weaker drug-polymer interactions. All three polymers provided lower equilibrium contact angle values when compared to purified water, indicating an affinity for polymers. Conclusions Successful production and stability of several nanosuspensions were correlated with Flory–Huggins’s interaction parameter and contact angle values. In the absence of melting point depression, contact angle values can also be used predict the agglomeration tendencies as we have shown for this study.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Liposomal Formulation for Oral Delivery of Cyclosporine A: Usefulness as a
           Semisolid-Dispersion System

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      Abstract: Purpose This study aims to understand the process and mechanism of oral drug absorption from liposomes and to verify the usefulness of liposomal formulation for poorly soluble drugs. Methods Cyclosporine A (CsA) was used as a model drug and entrapped into Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) liposomes. Molecular state of CsA in the liposomes was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and polarized light microscopy (PLM). Release profiles of CsA from liposomes were observed in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF). Oral absorption of CsA from liposomal formulations were investigated in rats. Results PXRD and PLM analyses suggested that CsA exists in the lipid layer of liposomes as a molecular dispersed state. Although both liposomes retained CsA stably in the simple buffer, DPPC liposomes quickly released CsA within 10 min in FaSSIF due to the interaction with bile acid. In contrast, effect of bile acid was negligible in DSPC, indicating a high resistivity to membrane perturbation. Oral bioavailability of CsA from liposomal formulations were almost comparable with that from a marketed product (Neoral). However, the absorption profiles were clearly different. CsA was absorbed quickly from DPPC liposomes and Neoral, while sustained absorption profile was observed from DSPC liposomes. Further study in which ritonavir was co-entrapped in the liposomes with CsA showed the higher efficacy of ritonavir to increase oral bioavailability of CsA. Conclusion Liposomes allows the appropriate formulation design for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs, not only to increase the extent but also to control the rate of absorption.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • PET Imaging in Preclinical Anti-Aβ Drug Development

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      Abstract: Abstract Positron emission tomography (PET), a medical imaging technique allowing for studies of the living human brain, has gained an important role in clinical trials of novel drugs against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). For example, PET data contributed to the conditional approval in 2021 of aducanumab, an antibody directed towards amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregates, by showing a dose-dependent reduction in brain amyloid after treatment. In parallel to clinical studies, preclinical studies in animal models of Aβ pathology may also benefit from PET as a tool to detect target engagement and treatment effects of anti-Aβ drug candidates. PET is associated with a high level of translatability between species as similar, non-invasive protocols allow for longitudinal rather than cross-sectional studies and can be used both in a preclinical and clinical setting. This review focuses on the use of preclinical PET imaging in genetically modified animals that express human Aβ, and its present and potential future role in the development of drugs aimed at reducing brain Aβ levels as a therapeutic strategy to halt disease progression in AD.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
       
  • Seeing Is Believing: Time-Lapse Macro-Imaging of Morphological Changes of
           Solid Dosages as a Teaching and Research Tool

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      Abstract: Purpose Disintegration kinetics and behaviors are critical for the quality and performance of oral solid dosages. Instead of performing standard disintegration tests, herein, we aim to visualize these kinetic processes in real time. Method A visual acquisition system is developed to capture the morphological changes of tablets under static conditions via time-lapse macro-imaging. The system consists of: i) a customized quartz chamber, ii) a metal sieve with pore sizes ranging from 1 to 2 mm in diameter to allow rapid settling of the disintegrated particles, and iii) a temperature-controlled water bath. A typical workflow consists of the following steps: i) planning of the experiment to consider the type of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug release mechanism; ii) acquisition of photo-imaging data from at least two cameras arranged at different angles over a predetermined time period; iii) post-processing of the image data; iv) production of video clips and image analysis. Results Representative works are shown to demonstrate the disintegration phenomenon or the morphological changes of solid drug products of various controlled- and extended-release mechanisms. Conclusion These video clips are used as teaching materials for students majoring in pharmacy or pharmaceutical chemistry, which also provide an insightful unique perspective of the microprocess during tablet fragmentation, disintegration or drug release.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Regional Differences in the Absolute Abundance of Transporters, Receptors
           and Tight Junction Molecules at the Blood-Arachnoid Barrier and
           Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier among Cervical, Thoracic and Lumbar Spines in
           Dogs

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      Abstract: Purpose The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively determine the expression of transporters, receptors and tight junction molecules at the blood-arachnoid barrier (BAB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spines from dogs. Methods The expression levels of 31 transporters, 3 receptors, 1 tight junction protein, and 3 marker proteins in leptomeninges and capillaries isolated from spines (3 male and 2 female dogs) were determined by quantitative Targeted Absolute Proteomics (qTAP). The units were converted from fmol/μg protein to pmol/cm (absolute abundance at the BAB and the BSCB in a 1 cm section of spine). Results The expression of MDR1 and BCRP were greater at the BSCB compared to the BAB (especially in the cervical cord), and the expressions at the lumbar BSCB were lower than that for the cervical BSCB. Among the organic anionic and cationic drug transporters, OAT1, OAT3, MRP1, OCT2 and MATE1/2 were detected only in the BAB, and not at the BSCB). The expression of these transporters was higher in the order: lumbar > thoracic > cervical BAB. The expressions of GLUT1, 4F2hc, EAAT1, 2, PEPT2, CTL1, and MCT1 at the BSCB of the cervical cord were higher than the corresponding values for the cervical BAB, and these values decreased in going down the spinal cord. Conclusion These results provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the concentration gradients of drugs and endogenous substances in the cerebrospinal fluid and parenchyma of the spinal cord.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • In Vitro ADME and Preclinical Pharmacokinetics of Ulotaront, a
           TAAR1/5-HT1A Receptor Agonist for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

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      Abstract: Purpose Ulotaront (SEP-363856) is a TAAR1 agonist with 5-HT1A agonist activity currently in clinical development for the treatment of schizophrenia. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the in vitro ADME properties, preclinical PK, and to evaluate the DDI potential of ulotaront and its major metabolite SEP-383103. Methods Solubility, permeability, plasma protein binding, CYP inhibition and induction, transporter inhibition and uptake studies were conducted in vitro. Phenotyping studies were conducted using recombinant human CYPs and FMOs, human liver microsomes and human liver homogenates. Preclinical plasma and brain pharmacokinetics were determined after a single intraperitoneal, intravenous, and oral administration of ulotaront. Results Ulotaront is a compound of high solubility, high permeability, and low binding to plasma proteins. Ulotaront metabolism is mediated via both NADPH-dependent and NADPH-independent pathways, with CYP2D6 as the major metabolizing enzyme. Ulotaront is an inducer of CYP2B6, and an inhibitor of CYP2D6, OCT1 and OCT2, while SEP-383103 is neither a CYP inducer nor a potent inhibitor of CYPs and human transporters. Ulotaront exhibits rapid absorption, greater than 70% bioavailability, approximately 3.5 L/kg volume of distribution, 1.5-4 h half-life, 12-43 ml/min/kg clearance, and good penetration across the blood–brain barrier in preclinical species. Conclusions Ulotaront has been designated as a BCS1 compound by US FDA. The ability of ulotaront to penetrate the blood–brain barrier for CNS targeting has been demonstrated in mice and rats. The potential for ulotaront and SEP-383103 to act as perpetrators of CYP and transporter-mediated DDIs is predicted to be remote.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
 
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