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NeuroMolecular Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.468
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1559-1174 - ISSN (Online) 1535-1084
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • α-Synuclein Induced the Occurrence of RBD via Interaction with OX1R and
           Modulated Its Degradation

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      Abstract: Abstract Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a powerful early sign of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the pathogenetic mechanism involved in RBD remains largely unexplored. α-Synuclein has been verified to form Lewy bodies in the orexin neurons, whose activity and function rely on the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R). Dysfunction of the OX1R may induce the occurrence of RBD. Here, we determined the role of the interaction between α-Synuclein and OX1R in the pathogenesis of RBD, in vitro and in vivo. We found that injection of α-Synuclein into the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) damaged orexin neurons and induced the RBD-like sleep pattern, to further damage dopaminergic neurons and result in locomotor dysfunction in mice. α-Synuclein interacted with OX1R, promoting the degradation of OX1R through proteasomal and lysosomal pathways. In addition, overexpression of α-Synuclein downregulated OX1R-mediated signaling, subsequently leading to orexin neuron damage. We conclude that α-Synuclein induced the occurrence of RBD via interaction with OX1R and modulated its degradation. These findings provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which the association of α-Synuclein with OX1R was attributed to α-Synuclein-induced orexin neuron damage, which may be a new molecular target for an effective therapeutic strategy for RBD pathology.
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
       
  • CD33/TREM2 Signaling Mediates Sleep Deprivation-Induced Memory Impairment
           by Regulating Microglial Phagocytosis

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      Abstract: Abstract Sleep deprivation causes significant memory impairment in healthy adults. Extensive research has focused on identifying the biological mechanisms underlying memory impairment. Microglia-mediated synaptic elimination plays an indispensable role in sleep deprivation. Here, the potential role of the CD33/TREM2 signaling pathway in modulating memory decline during chronic sleep restriction (CSR) was evaluated. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice were sleep-restricted using an automated sleep deprivation apparatus for 20 h per day for 7 days. The Y-maze test revealed that spontaneous alternation was significantly reduced in CSR mice compared with control mice. The percentage of exploratory preference for the novel object in CSR mice was significantly decreased compared with that in control mice. These memory deficits correlated with aberrant microglial activation and increased phagocytic ability. Moreover, in CSR mice, the CD33 protein level in hippocampal tissue was significantly downregulated, but the TREM2 protein level was increased. In BV2 microglial cells, downregulation of CD33 increased TREM2 expression and improved microglial phagocytosis. Then, the sialic ligand monosialo-ganglioside 1 (GM1, 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to mice once a day during CSR. Our results further showed that GM1 activated CD33 and consequently disturbed TREM2-mediated microglial phagocytosis. Finally, GM1 reversed CSR-induced synaptic loss and memory impairment via the CD33/TREM2 signaling pathway in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. This study provides novel evidence that activating CD33 and/or inhibiting TREM2 activity represent potential therapies for sleep loss-induced memory deficits through the modulation of microglial phagocytosis.
      PubDate: 2023-01-14
       
  • Involvement of Microbiome Gut–Brain Axis in Neuroprotective Effect of
           Quercetin in Mouse Model of Repeated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

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      Abstract: Abstract Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) poses adversity in the form of neurological deficits. The ignition of long-term neurological aberrations post-TBI is appended with the microbiota gut–brain axis perturbation. Herein, we examined whether quercetin, which is anti-inflammatory and antioxidant flavonoid, serves as a prebiotic and modifies the compromised microbiome gut–brain axis in rmTBI mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to rmTBI for 7 times. The quercetin (50 mg/kg) was administered peroral from the day1 of first injury till 7 days post-injury. The neurobehavioral assessments were performed using return of righting reflex (ROR), rotarod, forced swimming test (FST), elevated zero maze (EZM), novel object recognition test (NORT), and Y-maze. Mice fecal samples, brains, and intestines were collected for molecular studies. Mice underwent rmTBI showed significant neurological deficits in ROR and rotarod test and also exhibited long-term neuropsychiatric aberrations like anxiety- and depression-like phenotypes, and cognitive deficits in EZM, FST, and Y-maze assays, respectively. Repeated peroral administration of quercetin ameliorated these neuropsychiatric problems. Quercetin treatment also restored the increased expression of GFAP and decreased expression of occludin and doublecortin in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rmTBI mice. The altered levels of acetate and propionate, and microbial phylum abundance in fecal samples were also normalized in the quercetin-treated group. We also noted an improved intestinal permeability indicated by reduced villi rupture, blunting, and mucosal thinning in quercetin-treated mice. We suggest that the neuroprotective effect of quercetin may be mediated via remodeling of the microbiome gut–brain axis in rmTBI mouse model.
      PubDate: 2022-12-08
       
  • G9a/EHMT2 is a Potential Prognostic Biomarker and Molecular Target in SHH
           Medulloblastoma

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      Abstract: Abstract Changes in epigenetic programming are associated with cancer development during childhood. Components of the epigenetic machinery involved in normal embryonic development and hijacked by pediatric cancers include enzymes mediating post-translational modifications of DNA and histones that regulate chromatin structure, such as histone methyltransferases (HMTs). Overexpression of the HMT G9a (euchromatic histone lysine methyltransferase 2, EHMT2) has been described in several cancer types. Medulloblastoma (MB), the main type of malignant brain tumor afflicting children, is currently classified into four molecular subgroups. Here, we show that expression level of the G9a/Ehmt2 gene is higher in MB tumors belonging to the SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 subgroups, compared to Wnt tumors. Remarkably, high G9a expression was significantly associated with shorter overall survival in MB patients. We also present evidence that G9a inhibition dose-dependently reduces MB cell viability. Our findings suggest that higher transcription of G9a may be a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with SHH MB, and that inhibiting G9a activity can display antitumor effects in MB.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • MOG-Specific T Cells Lead to Spontaneous EAE with Multilocular B Cell
           Infiltration in the GF-IL23 Model

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      Abstract: Abstract Although IL-23 and downstream signal transduction play essential roles in neuroinflammation, the local impact of IL-23 in multiple sclerosis is still not fully understood. Our previous study revealed that the central nervous system (CNS)-restricted expression of IL-23 in a mouse model with astrocyte-specific expression of IL-23, called GF-IL23 mice, leads to spontaneous formation of infiltrates in the brain, especially in the cerebellum. To further investigate the impact of CNS-specific IL-23-expression on neuroinflammation, we studied the GF-IL23 model in mice expressing a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific T cell receptor (GF23-2D2 mice). The GF23-2D2 mice developed a chronic progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with myelitis and ataxia without requiring additional immunization. CNS-production of IL-23 alone induced pronounced neuroinflammation in the transgenic MOG-specific T cell receptor model. The GF23-2D2 mice spontaneously developed multilocular infiltrates with a high number of B cells, demyelination and a proinflammatory cytokine milieu indicating that the interaction of encephalitogenic T cells and B cells via co-stimulatory factors seemed to be crucial.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Prostaglandin A2 Interacts with Nurr1 and Ameliorates Behavioral Deficits
           in Parkinson’s Disease Fly Model

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      Abstract: Abstract The orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 is critical for the development, maintenance, and protection of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Recently, we demonstrated that prostaglandins E1 (PGE1) and PGA1 directly bind to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of Nurr1 and stimulate its transcriptional activation function. In this direction, here we report the transcriptional activation of Nurr1 by PGA2, a dehydrated metabolite of PGE2, through physical binding ably supported by NMR titration and crystal structure. The co-crystal structure of Nurr1-LBD bound to PGA2 revealed the covalent coupling of PGA2 with Nurr1-LBD through Cys566. PGA2 binding also induces a 21° shift of the activation function 2 (AF-2) helix H12 away from the protein core, similar to that observed in the Nurr1-LBD-PGA1 complex. We also show that PGA2 can rescue the locomotor deficits and neuronal degeneration in LRRK2 G2019S transgenic fly models.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Bim Deletion Reduces Functional Deficits Following Ischemic Stroke in
           Association with Modulation of Apoptosis and Inflammation

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      Abstract: Abstract Cellular apoptosis is a key pathological mechanism contributing to neuronal death following ischemic stroke. The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, Bim, is an important regulator of apoptosis. In this study we investigated the effect of Bim expression on post-stroke functional outcomes, brain injury and inflammatory mechanisms. Wild type (WT) and Bim-deficient mice underwent 1-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 23 h of reperfusion. At 24-h post-stroke, we assessed functional deficit, infarct volume, immune cell death, as well as the number of infiltrating immune cells in the brain and circulating immune cells. Bim deficiency did not affect infarct volume (P > 0.05), but resulted in less motor impairment (~ threefold greater latency to fall in hanging grip strength test, P < 0.05) and a lower median clinical score than WT mice (P < 0.05). Additionally following MCAO, Bim-deficient mice exhibited fewer myeloid cells (particularly neutrophils) in the ischemic brain hemisphere and less apoptosis of CD3+ T cells in the spleen and thymus compared with WT (all P < 0.05). After MCAO, Bim-deficient mice also tended to have more M2-polarised macrophages in the brain than WT mice. In sham-operated mice, we found that Bim deficiency resulted in greater numbers of circulating total CD45+ leukocytes, Ly6Clo+ monocytes and CD3+ T cells, although MCAO did not affect the number of circulating cells at 24 h in either genotype. Our findings suggest that Bim deficiency modulates post-stroke outcomes, including reductions in motor impairment, brain inflammation and systemic post-stroke leukocyte apoptosis. Bim could therefore serve as a potential therapeutic target for stroke.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Neural Stem Cells Secretome Increased Neurogenesis and Behavioral
           Performance and the Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in
           Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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      Abstract: Abstract Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive and age-related neurodegenerative disorder that is manifested by neuropathological changes and clinical symptoms. Recently, cell-based therapeutic interventions have been considered as the promising and effective strategies in this field. Herein, we investigated therapeutic effects of neural stem cell secretome on Alzheimer’s disease-like model by triggering of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, mice were randomly allocated into three different groups as follows: Control, AD + Vehicle, and AD + NSCs-CM groups. To induce mouse model of AD, Aβ1-42 was injected into intracerebroventricular region. Following AD-like confirmation through thioflavin S staining and Passive avoidance test, about 5 µl mouse NSCs-CM was injected into the target areas 21 days after AD induction. For evaluation of endogenous proliferation rate (BrdU/Nestin+ cells), 50 µg/kbW BrdU was intraperitoneally injected for 5 consecutive days. To track NSC differentiation, percent of BrdU/NeuN+ cells were monitored via immunofluorescence staining. Histological Nissl staining was done to neurotoxicity and cell death in AD mice after NSCs-CM injection. Morris Water maze test was performed to assess learning and memory performance. Data showed that NSCs-CM could reverse the learning and memory deficits associated with Aβ pathology. The reduced expression of Wnt/β-catenin-related genes such as PI3K, Akt, MAPK, and ERK in AD mice was increased. Along with these changes, NSCs-CM suppressed overactivity of GSK3β activity induced by Aβ deposition. Besides, NSCs increased BrdU/Nestin+ and BrdU/NeuN+ cells in a paracrine manner, indicating proliferation and neural differentiation of NSCs. Moreover, neurotoxicity rate and cell loss were deceased after NSCs-CM injection. In summary, NSCs can regulate adult neurogenesis through modulating of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and enhance the behavioral performance in the AD mice. These data present the alternative and effective approach in the management of AD and other cognitive impairments.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • HCAR1-Mediated l-Lactate Signaling Suppresses Microglial Phagocytosis

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      Abstract: Abstract Microglia, the primary brain-resident immune cells, protect the brain from various harmful pathogens, insulting and maintaining its homeostasis by phagocytosing extracellular particles. How microglia are metabolically regulated by their microenvironment remains largely elusive. Here, we investigated how extracellular lactate, which is abundant in the brain and dynamically changes in pathological states, affects microglial phagocytotic ability. We show that l-lactate reduces microglia phagocytic capacity in a Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 1 but not Monocarboxylate transporter 1-dependent manner. Our findings point to a potential role for extracellular lactate in suppressing the phagocytic activity of microglial cells in homeostasis and inflammatory conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • ACE2, Circumventricular Organs and the Hypothalamus, and COVID-19

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      Abstract: Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 virus gains entry to cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Since circumventricular organs and parts of the hypothalamus lack a blood–brain barrier, and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that ACE2 is highly expressed in circumventricular organs which are intimately connected to the hypothalamus, and the hypothalamus itself, these might be easy entry points for SARS-CoV-2 into the brain via the circulation. High ACE2 protein expression is found in the subfornical organ, area postrema, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). The subfornical organ and PVH are parts of a circuit to regulate osmolarity in the blood, through the secretion of anti-diuretic hormone into the posterior pituitary. The PVH is also the stress response centre in the brain. It controls not only pre-ganglionic sympathetic neurons, but is also a source of corticotropin-releasing hormone, that induces the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary. It is proposed that the function of ACE2 in the circumventricular organs and the PVH could be diminished by binding with SARS-CoV-2, thus leading to a reduction in the ACE2/Ang (1–7)/Mas receptor (MasR) signalling axis, that modulates ACE/Ang II/AT1R signalling. This could result in increased presympathetic activity/neuroendocrine secretion from the PVH, and effects on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Besides the bloodstream, the hypothalamus might also be affected by SARS-CoV-2 via transneuronal spread along the olfactory/limbic pathways. Exploring potential therapeutic pathways to prevent or attenuate neurological symptoms of COVID-19, including drugs which modulate ACE signalling, remains an important area of unmet medical need.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Neuroinflammatory Modulation of Extracellular Vesicle Biogenesis and Cargo
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      Abstract: Abstract Increasing evidence suggests neuroinflammation is a highly coordinated response involving multiple cell types and utilising several different forms of cellular communication. In addition to the well documented cytokine and chemokine messengers, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key regulators of the inflammatory response. EVs act as vectors of intercellular communication, capable of travelling between different cells and tissues to deliver selectively packaged protein, miRNA, and lipids from the parent cell. During neuroinflammation, EVs transmit specific inflammatory mediators, particularly from microglia, to promote inflammatory resolution. This mini-review will highlight the novel neuroinflammatory mechanisms contributing to the biogenesis and selective packaging of EVs.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Interleukin-1 Mediates Ischemic Brain Injury via Induction of IL-17A in
           γδ T Cells and CXCL1 in Astrocytes

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      Abstract: Abstract As a prototypical proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1) exacerbates the early post-stroke inflammation, whereas its neutralization is protective. To further investigate the underlying cell-type-specific IL-1 effects, we subjected IL-1 (α/β) knockout (Il1−/−) and wildtype (WT) littermate mice to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and assessed immune cell infiltration and cytokine production in the ischemic hemisphere by flow cytometry 24 h and 72 h after stroke. Il1−/− mice showed smaller infarcts and reduced neutrophil infiltration into the ischemic brain. We identified γδ T cells and astrocytes as target cells of IL-1 signaling-mediated neutrophil recruitment. First, IL-1-induced IL-17A production in γδ T cells in vivo, and IL-17A enhanced the expression of the main neutrophil attracting chemokine CXCL1 by astrocytes in the presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vitro. Second, IL-1 itself was a potent activator of astrocytic CXCL1 production in vitro. By employing a novel FACS sorting strategy for the acute isolation of astrocytes from ischemic brains, we confirmed that IL-1 is pivotal for Cxcl1 upregulation in astrocytes in vivo. Our results underscore the pleiotropic effects of IL-1 on immune and non-immune cells within the CNS to mount and amplify the post-stroke inflammatory response.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Effect of GNE Mutations on Cytoskeletal Network Proteins: Potential
           Gateway to Understand Pathomechanism of GNEM

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      Abstract: Abstract GNE myopathy is an inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in GNE (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetyl mannosamine kinase) gene catalyzing the sialic acid biosynthesis pathway. The characteristic features include muscle weakness in upper and lower extremities, skeletal muscle wasting, and rimmed vacuole formation. More than 200 GNE mutations in either epimerase or kinase domain have been reported worldwide. In Indian subcontinent, several GNE mutations have been recently identified with unknown functional correlation. Alternate role of GNE in various cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, apoptosis, protein aggregation, and cytoskeletal organization have been proposed in recent studies. We aim to understand and compare the effect of various GNE mutations from Indian origin on regulation of the cytoskeletal network. In particular, F-actin dynamics was determined quantitatively by determining F/G-actin ratios in immunoblots for specific proteins. The extent of F-actin polymerization was visualized by immunostaining with Phalloidin using confocal microscopy. The proteins regulating F-actin dynamics such as RhoA, cofilin, Arp2, and alpha-actinin were studied in various GNE mutants. The altered level of cytoskeletal organization network proteins affected cell migration of GNE mutant proteins as measured by wound healing assay. The functional comparison of GNE mutations will help in better understanding of the genotypic severity of the disease in the Indian population. Our study offers a potential for identification of therapeutic molecules regulating actin dynamics in GNE specific mutations.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • The Biological Activity of 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-β-Boswellic Acid in
           Nervous System Diseases

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      Abstract: Abstract Frankincense is a hard gelatinous resin exuded by Boswellia serrata. It contains a complex array of components, of which acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid of the resin class, is the main active component. AKBA has a variety of physiological actions, including anti-infection, anti-tumor, and antioxidant effects. The use of AKBA for the treatment of mental diseases has been documented as early as ancient Greece. Recent studies have found that AKBA has anti-aging and other neurological effects, suggesting its potential for the treatment of neurological diseases. This review focuses on nervous system-related diseases, summarizes the functions and mechanisms of AKBA in promoting nerve repair and regeneration after injury, protecting against ischemic brain injury and aging, inhibiting neuroinflammation, ameliorating memory deficits, and alleviating neurotoxicity, as well as having anti-glioma effects and relieving brain edema. The mechanisms by which AKBA functions in different diseases and the relationships between dosage and biological effects are discussed in depth with the aim of increasing understanding of AKBA and guiding its use for the treatment of nervous system diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Tau and GSK-3β are Critical Contributors to α-Synuclein-Mediated
           Post-Stroke Brain Damage

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      Abstract: Abstract Post-stroke secondary brain damage is significantly influenced by the induction and accumulation of α-Synuclein (α-Syn). α-Syn-positive inclusions are often present in tauopathies and elevated tau levels and phosphorylation promotes neurodegeneration. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is a known promoter of tau phosphorylation. We currently evaluated the interaction of α-Syn with GSK-3β and tau in post-ischemic mouse brain. Transient focal ischemia led to increased cerebral protein–protein interaction of α-Syn with both GSK-3β and tau and elevated tau phosphorylation. Treatment with a GSK-3β inhibitor prevented post-ischemic tau phosphorylation. Furthermore, α-Syn interaction was observed to be crucial for post-ischemic GSK-3β-dependent tau hyperphosphorylation as it was not seen in α-Syn knockout mice. Moreover, tau knockout mice show significantly smaller brain damage after transient focal ischemia. Overall, the present study indicates that GSK-3β catalyzes the α-Syn-dependent tau phosphorylation and preventing this interaction is crucial to limit post-ischemic secondary brain damage.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • The Mood Stabilizer Lithium Slows Down Synaptic Vesicle Cycling at
           Glutamatergic Synapses

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      Abstract: Abstract Lithium is a mood stabilizer broadly used to prevent and treat symptoms of mania and depression in people with bipolar disorder (BD). Little is known, however, about its mode of action. Here, we analyzed the impact of lithium on synaptic vesicle (SV) cycling at presynaptic terminals releasing glutamate, a neurotransmitter previously implicated in BD and other neuropsychiatric conditions. We used the pHluorin-based synaptic tracer vGpH and a fully automated image processing pipeline to quantify the effect of lithium on both SV exocytosis and endocytosis in hippocampal neurons. We found that lithium selectively reduces SV exocytic rates during electrical stimulation, and markedly slows down SV recycling post-stimulation. Analysis of single-bouton responses revealed the existence of functionally distinct excitatory synapses with varying sensitivity to lithium—some terminals show responses similar to untreated cells, while others are markedly impaired in their ability to recycle SVs. While the cause of this heterogeneity is unclear, these data indicate that lithium interacts with the SV machinery and influences glutamate release in a large fraction of excitatory synapses. Together, our findings show that lithium down modulates SV cycling, an effect consistent with clinical reports indicating hyperactivation of glutamate neurotransmission in BD.
      PubDate: 2022-11-27
       
  • SS-31 Improves Cognitive Function in Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy by
           Inhibiting the Drp1-NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

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      Abstract: Abstract Neuroinflammation and microglial activation are involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). Mitochondrial dynamics emerged as a new player in the regulation of immunological processes. In this study, we aimed at exploring the effects of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant peptide SS-31 on cognitive function in mice with SAE. In mice, SS-31 was intraperitoneally administered for seven consecutive days after cecal ligation and puncture surgery. SS-31 improved cognitive performance and survival rate of mice and alleviated hippocampal inflammation, reactive oxygen species production, and excessive mitochondrial fission. The increase of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 3 (NLRP3) and phosphorylated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) ser616 in microglia was attenuated by SS-31. In vitro, the microglial cell line BV-2 was pre-treated with SS-31, followed by lipopolysaccharide/adenosine triphosphate induction. SS-31 effectively decreased the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, mitochondrial translocation of Drp1, excessive mitochondrial fission, and mitochondrial membrane recruitment of gasdermin-D N-terminal (GSDMD-N). Similarly, knockdown of Drp1 inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. SS-31 improved survival rate and cognitive functions of mice with SAE, related to mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 to inhibiting activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-022-08730-1
       
  • Neuroprotective Effects of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibition and Cyclic
           Adenosine Monophosphate Activation in Mouse Model of Transient Global
           Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion

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      Abstract: Abstract Cerebral ischemia is the primary basis of stroke, both sharing common pathogenic origins leading to irreversible brain damage if blood supply is not restored promptly. Existing evidence indicates that carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors (CAIs) may impart therapeutic benefits against ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) pathology via the adenylyl cyclase-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. We hypothesize that CAI and cAMP activation may enhance the therapeutic outcome against I/R conditions. In this investigation, the potential of dichlorphenamide (CAI) and the role of cAMP against ischemia–reperfusion injury were evaluated using a transient global cerebral I/R (tGCI/R) model. Swiss albino mice were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) for 20 min and reperfusion (R) or sham surgery on day 1. Dichlorphenamide (DCPA, 20 mg/kg) and/or forskolin (cAMP agonist, 3 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) after BCCAo/R for 14 days. Results showed that tGCI/R impaired neurocognitive functions and lowered brain levels of cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) that were ameliorated by DCPA and/or forskolin (FSK). DCPA and/or FSK attenuated tGCI/R-induced brain edema, blood–brain barrier dysfunction, oxidative-nitrosative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acetylcholinesterase activity, cell death, and neurotransmitter imbalance (e.g., glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid). The study showed that DCPA improved neurological and biochemical parameters against tGCI/R injury via cAMP-PKA-mediated activation of protective mechanisms. However, DCPA and FSK in combination showed much enhanced therapeutic outcomes against tGCI/R. Therefore, CA and cAMP present novel targets that may retard the progress of a transient ischemic attack to a full-blown stroke.
      PubDate: 2022-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-022-08728-9
       
  • Protective Effect of Ergothioneine Against Stroke in Rodent Models

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      Abstract: Abstract Ergothioneine (ET) is a naturally occurring antioxidant and cytoprotective agent that is synthesized by fungi and certain bacteria. Recent studies have shown a beneficial effect of ET on neurological functions, including cognition and animal models of depression. The aim of this study is to elucidate a possible effect of ET in rodent models of stroke. Post-ischemic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of ET significantly reduced brain infarct volume by as early as 1 day after infusion in rats, as shown by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) assay. There was a dose-dependent increase in protection, from 50 to 200 ng of ET infusion. These results suggest that ET could have a protective effect on CNS neurons. We next elucidated the effect of systemic ET on brain infarct volume in mice after stroke. Daily i.p. injection of 35 mg/kg ET (the first dose being administered 3 h after stroke) had no significant effect on infarct volume. However, daily i.p. injections of 70 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 125 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg ET, with the first dose administered 3 h after stroke, significantly decreased infarct volume at 7 days after vessel occlusion in mice. In order to elucidate at what time interval during the 7 days there could be effective protection, a second set of experiments was carried out in mice, using one of the effective loading protocols, i.e. 125 mg/kg i.p. ET but the brains were analyzed at 1, 4 and 7 days post-stroke by MRI. We found that ET was already protective against neuronal injury and decreased the size of the brain infarct from as early as 1 day post-stroke. Behavioral experiments carried out on a third set of mice (using 125 mg/kg i.p. ET) showed that this was accompanied by significant improvements in certain behaviors (pole test) at 1 day after stroke. Together, results of this study indicate that i.c.v. and systemic ET are effective in reducing brain infarct volume after stroke in rodent models.
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-022-08727-w
       
  • The Promising Epigenetic Regulators for Refractory Epilepsy: An
           Adventurous Road Ahead

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      Abstract: Abstract The attribution of seizure freedom is yet to be achieved for patients suffering from refractory epilepsy, e.g. Dravet Syndrome (DS). The confined ability of mono-chemical entity-based antiseizure drugs (ASDs) to act directly at genomic level is one of the factors, combined with undetermined seizure triggers lead to recurrent seizure (RS) in DS, abominably affecting the sub-genomic architecture of neural cells. Thus, the RS and ASD appear to be responsible for the spectrum of exorbitant clinical pathology. The RS distresses the 5-HT-serotonin pathway, hypomethylates genes of CNS, and modulates the microRNA (miRNA)/long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), eventually leading to frozen molecular alterations. These changes shall be reverted by compatible epigenetic regulators (EGR) like, miRNA and lncRNA from Breast milk (BML) and Bacopa monnieri (BMI). The absence of studious seizure in SCN1A mutation-positive babies for the first 6 months raises the possibility that the consequences of mutation in SCN1A are subsidized by EGRs from BML. EGR-dependent-modifier gene effect is likely imposed by the other members of the SCN family. Therefore, we advocate that miRNA/lncRNA from BML and bacosides/miRNA from BMI buffer the effect of SCN1A mutation by sustainably maintaining modifier gene effect in the aberrant neurons. The presence of miRNA-155-5p, -30b-5p, and -30c-5p family in BML and miR857, miR168, miR156, and miR158 in BMI target at regulating SCN family and CLCN5 as visualized by Cystoscope. Thus, we envisage that the possible effects of EGR might include (a) upregulating the haploinsufficient SCN1A strand, (b) down-regulating seizure-elevated miRNA, (c) suppressing the seizure-induced methyltransferases, and (d) enhancing the GluN2A subunit of NMDA receptor to improve cognition. The potential of these EGRs from BML and BML is to further experimentally strengthen, long-haul step forward in molecular therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-022-08723-0
       
 
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