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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 401 - 253 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molekul     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Product Communications     Open Access  
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 318)
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Neuropsychopharmacology Reports     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Drug Design & Delivery     Open Access  
OA Medical Hypothesis     Open Access  
Obesity Facts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access  
Open Pharmacology Journal     Open Access  
OpenNano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Pain and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Pediatric Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pediatric Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Care-La Farmacoterapia     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Pharmaceutical Executive     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Fronts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceutical Historian     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Pharmaceutical Journal of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Pharmaceuticals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacia     Open Access  
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
PharmacoEconomics German Research Articles     Full-text available via subscription  
PharmacoEconomics Spanish Research Articles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacogenomics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Pharmacognosy Communications     Partially Free  
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacognosy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives     Open Access  
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacotherapy The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Pharmactuel     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Pharmacy & Pharmacology     Open Access  
Pharmacy Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacy Practice (Internet)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Pharmakon : Arzneimittel in Wissenschaft und Praxis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
PharmaNutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmaTutor     Open Access  
Pharmazeutische Industrie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmazeutische Zeitung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit (Pharmuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plant Products Research Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica International Open     Open Access  
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
PZ Prisma : Materialien zur Fort- und Weiterbildung     Full-text available via subscription  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Drug Design & Discovery     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmaceutical Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacognosy     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Research Results in Pharmacology     Open Access  
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Farmaceuticas     Open Access  
Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie     Full-text available via subscription  
Safety and Risk of Pharmacotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Scientia Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Separation Science plus (SSC plus)     Hybrid Journal  
Side Effects of Drugs Annual     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Substance Abuse : Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Suchttherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
SynOpen     Open Access  
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Medical Letter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
The Pink Sheet     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
The Pink Sheet Daily     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thérapie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
TheScientist     Free   (Followers: 6)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences     Open Access  
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research     Open Access  
Ukrainian Biopharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
World Mycotoxin Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Yakugaku Zasshi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики     Open Access  
Фармацевтичний часопис     Open Access  

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NeuroMolecular Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.468
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1559-1174 - ISSN (Online) 1535-1084
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Correction to: Receptor-Interacting Protein 140 Enhanced
           Temozolomide-Induced Cellular Apoptosis Through Regulation of E2F1 in
           Human Glioma Cell Lines

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Role of Exosomes in Mediating the Cross-Talk Between Adipose Tissue and
           the Brain

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      Abstract: Abstract Adipose tissue is recognized as the largest endocrine organ by releasing secretory factors to exert systemic function on the brain. Exosomes are one type of extracellular vesicles that transport bioactive molecules between cells and organs. The cargo delivered by exosomes can alter a wide range of cellular responses in recipient cells and play an important pathophysiological role in human diseases. Emerging research showed that adipose tissue-released exosomes could be one of the mechanisms to mediate the function of the brain. Here, we review the modulatory function of adipose tissue-released exosomes in the brain. In particular, we emphasize the role of adipose tissue-released exosomes and their carried miRNAs in neurological disorder diseases. We provide an overview of advances in the understanding of adipose tissues in the regulation of brain function and offer a perspective on the potential therapeutic targets for neurological disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Gastrodin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response and
           Migration via the Notch-1 Signaling Pathway in Activated Microglia

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      Abstract: Abstract Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of different neurological diseases. Gastrodin, a phenolic glucoside, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS); however, the underlying mechanism has remained obscure. The present study aimed to ascertain if Gastrodin would regulate the Notch signaling pathway involved in microglia activation. We show here that LPS increased the expression of various members of the Notch-1 pathway, including intracellular Notch receptor domain (NICD), recombining binding protein suppressor of hairless (RBP-Jκ) and transcription factor hairy and enhancer of split-1 (Hes-1) in microglia in postnatal rat brain and in BV-2 microglia. Remarkably, Gastrodin was found to markedly attenuate the expression of the above various biomarkers both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, increased phosphorylation level of ERK, JNK and P38 induced by LPS was attenuated with pretreatment of Notch-1 signaling inhibitor, N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alany1-Sphenyglycinet-butylester (DAPT) as well as Gastrodin. Gastrodin mimicked the effects of DAPT by inhibiting the LPS-induced expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, TNF-α and NO. Moreover, lentivirus transfection mediated NICD overexpression inhibited the anti-inflammatory effects of Gastrodin. Furthermore, the activation of Notch-1 signaling promoted microglia migration and Gastrodin could inhibit the migration of activated BV-2 microglia by regulating the Notch-1 signaling pathway. In light of the above, our results indicate that Notch-1 signaling pathway is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of Gastrodin against LPS-induced microglia activation. These findings provide a new biological target of Gastrodin for the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Diagnostic Performance of miR-485-3p in Patients with Parkinson’s
           Disease and its Relationship with Neuroinflammation

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      Abstract: Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Some microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the development of many neurological diseases. This study aims to evaluate the clinical significance and biological function of miR-485-3p in the development and progression of PD. The expression of miR-485-3p in serum of PD patients was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). LPS-treated microglia BV2 cells were used to mimic neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of PD. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The diagnosis value of miR-485-3p was evaluated by plotting receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. A luciferase reporter assay was performed to demonstrate the interaction between miR-485-3p and FBXO45. The results showed that miR-485-3p was significantly up-regulated in serum of PD patients compared with that in both Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy cases, and had diagnostic accuracy for PD screening. The activated microglia BV2 cells induced by LPS also had elevated miR-485-3p, and the knockdown of miR-485-3p inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. FBXO protein 45 (FBXO45) served as a potential target of miR-485-3p, which was speculated to mediate the function of miR-485-3p. Our results suggest that the up-regulated expression of miR-485-3p in PD may be a novel diagnostic biomarker for PD. Reducing the expression level of miR-485-3p can inhibit the inflammatory responses of BV2 cells, which indicated that miR-485-3p, as a regulator of neuroinflammation, may have the potential as a therapeutic target in PD.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Butanol Extract of Tinospora cordifolia Alleviates Acute Sleep
           Deprivation-Induced Impairments in Cognitive Functions and Neuromuscular
           Coordination in Middle-Aged Female Rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Sleep deprivation due to present-day lifestyle and late-hours work commitments are associated with a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral complications. Moreover, women, as they age, become prone to the cumulative effects of menopause such as sleep disturbances, adiposity, and inflammation which are attributed to a compromised immuno-neuro-endocrine axis. So far, no effective therapeutic remedy is available to mitigate the adverse effects of SD. The current study was aimed to elucidate the neuroprotective potential of n-Butanol fraction obtained from hydroalcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (B-TCE). Four groups of female rats are (1) Vehicle-undisturbed sleep, (2) Vehicle-sleep deprived (between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.), (3) B-TCE oral feeding for 2 weeks and sleep deprivation, and (4) B-TCE alone undisturbed sleep group. Novel Object Recognition test was used to study cognitive impairments and Rotarod for motor coordination. Rats were then sacrificed to study the expression of various marker proteins in the hippocampus and piriform cortex regions of the brain by western blotting. SD was observed to impair the exploratory behavior and neuromuscular coordination, whereas, B-TCE pre-treatment was observed to ameliorate these behavioral functions’- impairments and further suppressed the changes in the expression of markers for synaptic plasticity, inflammation, cell survival, and apoptosis pathways. The current data suggest that B-TCE may be effective in the management of acute SD-associated impairments in learning and memory functions and neuromuscular coordination.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Long Noncoding RNA LINC01518 Modulates Proliferation and Migration in
           TGF-β1-Treated Human Tenon Capsule Fibroblast Cells Through the
           Regulation of hsa-miR-216b-5p

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we investigated the expression and functions of long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) of LINC01518 in an in vitro model of TGF-β1-treated human Tenon capsule fibroblast (HTF) cells. qRT-PCR was used to examine LINC01518 expression in in situ human glaucoma tissues, and in vitro HTF cells treated with TGF-β1. Lentivirus-mediated LINC01518 knockdown was performed in HTF cells to investigate its effect on TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation, migration and autophagy signaling pathway. The potential ceRNA candidate of LINC01518, hsa-miR-216b-5p, was probed by dual-luciferase assay and qRT-PCR. Hsa-miR-216b-5p was also knocked down in LINC01518-downregulated HTF cells to investigate the function of this lncRNA-miRNA epigenetic axis in TGF-β1-treated HTF cells. LINC01518 was upregulated in human glaucoma tissues and cultured HTF cells. LINC01518 downregulation significantly suppressed TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation, migration and autophagy signaling pathway in HTF cells. Hsa-miR-216b-5p was confirmed to be a ceRNA target of LINC01518. Knocking down hsa-miR-216b-5p reversed the suppressing effects of LINC01518 downregulation in TGF-β1-treated HTF cells. Our study demonstrated that LINC01518 is a functional factor in regulating proliferation and migration in TGF-β1-treated HTF cells, and hsa-miR-216b -5p may also be involved. Targeting the epigenetic axis of LINC01518/hsa-miR-216b-5p may provide new insight into the pathological development of human glaucoma.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Receptor-Interacting Protein 140 Enhanced Temozolomide-Induced Cellular
           Apoptosis Through Regulation of E2F1 in Human Glioma Cell Lines

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      Abstract: Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM), a grade IV glioma, is responsible for the highest years of potential life lost among cancers. The poor prognosis is attributable to its high recurrence rate, caused in part by the development of resistance to chemotherapy. Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a very versatile coregulator of nuclear receptors and transcription factors. Although many of the pathways regulated by RIP140 contribute significantly to cancer progression, the function of RIP140 in GBM remains to be determined. In this study, we found that higher RIP140 expression was associated with prolonged survival in patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Intracellular RIP140 levels were increased after E2F1 activation following temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, which in turn modulated the expression of E2F1-targeted apoptosis-related genes. Overexpression of RIP140 reduced glioma cell proliferation and migration, induced cellular apoptosis, and sensitized GBM cells to TMZ. Conversely, knockdown of RIP140 increased TMZ resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that RIP140 prolongs the survival of patients with GBM both by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and migration and by increasing cellular sensitivity to chemotherapy. This study helps improve our understanding of glioma recurrence and may facilitate the development of more effective treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Influence of Simulated Deep Brain Stimulation on the Expression of
           Inflammatory Mediators by Human Central Nervous System Cells In Vitro

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      Abstract: Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) seems to modulate inflammatory processes. Whether this modulation leads to an induction or suppression of inflammatory mediators is still controversially discussed. Most studies of the influence of electrical stimulation on inflammation were conducted in rodent models with direct current stimulation and/or long impulses, both of which differ from the pattern in DBS. This makes comparisons with the clinical condition difficult. We established an in-vitro model that simulated clinical stimulation patterns to investigate the influence of electrical stimulation on proliferation and survival of human astroglial cells, microglia, and differentiated neurons. We also examined its influence on the expression of the inflammatory mediators C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL)12, CXCL16, CC-chemokin-ligand-2 (CCL)2, CCL20, and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 by these cells using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, protein expression was assessed by immunofluorescence double staining. In our model, electrical stimulation did not affect proliferation or survival of the examined cell lines. There was a significant upregulation of CXCL12 in the astrocyte cell line SVGA, and of IL-1β in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells at both messenger RNA and protein levels. Our model allowed a valid examination of chemokines and cytokines associated with inflammation in human brain cells. With it, we detected the induction of inflammatory mediators by electrical stimulation in astrocytes and neurons.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Altered Expression of miR-575 in Glioma is Related to Tumor Cell
           Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion

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      Abstract: Abstract Glioma is a kind of brain tumor with low overall survival and treatment success rates in the advanced stage. Evidence has shown microRNA-575 (miR-575) plays an important role in the generation and development of various cancers. This study aimed to explore the function of miR-575 in the prognosis and cell biological behavior of glioma. qRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of miR-575 in glioma tissues and cells, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the prognostic value. The proliferation ability of glioma cells was determined by MTT assay; the invasion and migration abilities were determined by transwell assays. Compared with normal brain tissues, the expression of miR-575 in glioma tissue cells was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.001). The survival rate of patients in the miR-575 high expression group was significantly lower than that in the low expression group (P = 0.020). In addition, the overexpression of miR-575 promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. The results of this study suggested that miR-575 may be a new biomarker for the prognosis of glioma.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Hypercapnia Modulates the Activity of Adenosine A1 Receptors and
           mitoK+ATP-Channels in Rat Brain When Exposed to Intermittent Hypoxia

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      Abstract: The mechanisms and signaling pathways of the neuroprotective effects of hypercapnia and its combination with hypoxia are not studied sufficiently. The study aims to test the hypothesis of the potentiating effect of hypercapnia on the systems of adaptation to hypoxia, directly associated with A1-adenosine receptors and mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ -channels (mitoK+ATP-channels). We evaluated the relative number of A1-adenosine receptors and mitoK+ATP-channels in astrocytes obtained from male Wistar rats exposed to various respiratory conditions (15 times of hypoxia and/or hypercapnia). In addition, the relative number of these molecules in astrocytes was evaluated on an in vitro model of chemical hypoxia, as well as in the cerebral cortex after photothrombotic damage. This study indicates an increase in the relative number of A1-adenosine receptors in astrocytes and in cells next to the stroke region of the cerebral cortex in rats exposed to hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia, but not hypercapnia alone. Hypercapnia and hypoxia increase the relative number of mitoK+ATP-channels in astrocytes and in cells of the peri-infarct region of the cerebral cortex in rats. In an in vitro study, hypercapnia mitigates the effects of acute chemical hypoxia observed in astrocytes for A1-adenosine receptors and mitoK+ATP-channels. Hypercapnia, unlike hypoxia, does not affect the relative number of A1 receptors to adenosine. At the same time, both hypercapnia and hypoxia increase the relative number of mitoK+ATP-channels, which can potentiate their protective effects with combined exposure. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Activation of Neuropeptide Y2 Receptor Can Inhibit Global Cerebral
           Ischemia-Induced Brain Injury

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      Abstract: Abstract Cardiopulmonary arrest (CA) can greatly impact a patient’s life, causing long-term disability and death. Although multi-faceted treatment strategies against CA have improved survival rates, the prognosis of CA remains poor. We previously reported asphyxial cardiac arrest (ACA) can cause excessive activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the brain, which contributes to cerebral blood flow (CBF) derangements such as hypoperfusion and, consequently, neurological deficits. Here, we report excessive activation of the SNS can cause enhanced neuropeptide Y levels. In fact, mRNA and protein levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY, a 36-amino acid neuropeptide) in the hippocampus were elevated after ACA-induced SNS activation, resulting in a reduced blood supply to the brain. Post-treatment with peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36), a pre-synaptic NPY2 receptor agonist, after ACA inhibited NPY release and restored brain circulation. Moreover, PYY3-36 decreased neuroinflammatory cytokines, alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction, and improved neuronal survival and neurological outcomes. Overall, NPY is detrimental during/after ACA, but attenuation of NPY release via PYY3-36 affords neuroprotection. The consequences of PYY3-36 inhibit ACA-induced 1) hypoperfusion, 2) neuroinflammation, 3) mitochondrial dysfunction, 4) neuronal cell death, and 5) neurological deficits. The present study provides novel insights to further our understanding of NPY’s role in ischemic brain injury.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Prognostic Value of miR-137 in Children with Medulloblastoma and its
           Regulatory Effect on Tumor Progression

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      Abstract: Abstract Medulloblastoma is a malignant tumor with high incidence and poor prognosis in adolescents and children. MicroRNA-137 (miR-137) has been found to be abnormally expressed in cancers such as pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study is to explore the expression of miR-137 in MB and its role in cell physiological activities to determine the significance of miR-137 in the prognosis of MB. First, the expression of miR-137 in MB tissues and cell lines was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Then the Kaplan–Meier survival curve was used to analyze the significance of miR-137 expression in the prognosis, and the Cox regression model was used to explore the correlation between miR-137 expression and clinical characteristics. The effects of miR-137 on MB cell activities were analyzed by MTT assay, Transwell assays, and flow cytometry. It can be concluded from the results that the expression of miR-137 is down-regulated in MB tissues and cells. The down-regulation of miR-137 was significantly related to the poor prognosis of MB, and significantly related to clinical indicators. Up-regulated miR-137 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle progression, as well as induced cell apoptosis by targeting KDM1A. This study can conclude that miR-137 may be used as a prognostic biomarker of MB.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Emerging Technologies for Non-invasive Monitoring of Treatment Response to
           Immunotherapy for Brain Tumors

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      Abstract: Abstract Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and one of the most aggressive tumors across all cancer types with remarkable resistance to any treatment. While immunotherapy has shown a robust clinical benefit in systemic cancers, its benefit is still under investigation in brain cancers. The broader use of immunotherapy in clinical trials for glioblastoma has highlighted the challenges of traditional methods of monitoring progression via imaging. Development of new guidelines, advanced imaging techniques, and immune profiling have emerged to counter premature diagnoses of progressive disease. However, these approaches do not provide a timely diagnosis and are costly and time consuming. Surgery is currently the standard of care for diagnosis of pseudoprogression in cases where MRI is equivocal. However, it is invasive, risky, and disruptive to patient’s lives and their oncological treatment. With its increased vascularity, glioblastoma is continually shedding tumor components into the vasculature including tumor cells, genetic material, and extracellular vesicles. These elements can be isolated from routine blood draws and provide a real-time non-invasive indicator of tumor progression. Liquid biopsy therefore presents as an attractive alternative to current methods to guide treatment. While the initial evaluation of liquid biopsy for brain tumors via identification of mutations in the plasma was disappointing, novel technologies and use of alternatives to plasma cell-free DNA analytes provide promise for an effective liquid biopsy approach in brain tumors. This review aims to summarize developments in the use of liquid biopsy to monitor glioblastoma, especially in the context of immunotherapy.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Revealing the Modular Similarities and Differences Among Alzheimer’s
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and Parkinson’s disease (PD) exert increasingly lethal or disabling effects on humans, but the associations among these diseases at the molecular level remain unclear. In our research, lists of genes related to these three diseases were acquired from public databases. We constructed gene–gene networks of the lists of disease-related genes using the STRING database and selected the plug-in MCODE as the most suitable method to divide the three disease-associated networks into modules through an entropy calculation. Notably, 1173 AD-related, 203 VD-related, and 722 PD-related genes as well as 72 overlapping genes were observed among the three diseases. By dividing the modules from the gene network, we divided the AD-related gene network into 27 modules, the VD-related gene network into 8 modules, and the PD-related gene network into 17 modules. After the enrichment analysis of each disease-related gene, 146 overlapping biological processes and 32 overlapping pathways were identified. Ultimately, through similarity analysis of the genes, biological processes, and pathways, we found that AD and VD were the most closely related at the biological process and pathway levels, with similarity coefficients of 0.2784 and 0.3626, respectively. After analyzing the overlapping gene network, we found that INS might play an important role in the network and that insulin and its signaling pathways may play a key role in these neurodegenerative diseases. Our research illustrates a new method for in-depth research on the three diseases, which may accelerate the progress of developing new therapeutics and may be applied to prevent neurodegenerative diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Tranilast, a Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 Channel (TRPV2)
           Inhibitor Attenuates Amyloid β-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Possible
           Mechanisms

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      Abstract: Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with the accumulation of β-amyloid and leads to cognitive impairment. Numerous studies have established that neuronal calcium homeostasis is perturbed in AD. Recently, transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channels, a non-selective calcium-permeable channel, have been investigated in several diseases. However, the role of the TRPV2 channel has not been investigated in AD yet. In this study, intracerebroventricular administration of β-amyloid (10 μg) to Sprague Dawley rats resulted in cognitive impairment which was evident from the assessment of cognitive tests. Also, TRPV2 mRNA and protein expression were found to be upregulated, while the expression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (p-CaMKII-Thr-286), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK-3β-Ser-9), cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB-Ser-133), and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) were downregulated in the hippocampus of β-amyloid-treated animals. Even, β-amyloid-treated animals showed upregulation of mRNA level of calcium buffering proteins (parvalbumin and calsequestrin) and calcineurin A (PPP3CA) in the hippocampus. Acetylcholinesterase activity was also increased in the cortex of β-amyloid-treated animals. Three-week treatment with tranilast showed improvement in the cognitive parameters which was associated with a decrease in TRPV2 expression and AChE activity. Additionally, an increase in the protein expression of p-CaMKII, p-GSK-3β, p-CREB and PSD-95 in the hippocampus was found. Downregulation in the mRNA level of calcium buffering proteins (parvalbumin and calsequestrin) and calcineurin A in the hippocampus was also seen. These results reveal the importance of TRPV2 channels in the β-amyloid-induced cognitive deficits and suggest TRPV2 as a potential target for AD.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Irisin-Associated Neuroprotective and Rehabilitative Strategies for Stroke

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      Abstract: Abstract Irisin, a newly discovered protein hormone that is secreted in response to low frequency whole body vibration (LFV), could be a promising post-stroke rehabilitation therapy for patients who are frail and cannot comply with regular rehabilitation therapy. Irisin is generated from a membrane-bound precursor protein fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). Aside from being highly expressed in muscle, FNDC5 is highly expressed in the brain. The cleaved form of FNDC5 was found in the cerebrospinal fluid as well as in various regions of the brain. Numerous studies suggest that irisin plays a key role in brain metabolism and inflammation regulation. Both the metabolism and inflammation govern stroke outcome, and in a published study, we demonstrated that LFV therapy following middle cerebral artery occlusion significantly reduced innate immune response, improved motor function and infarct volume in reproductively senescent female rats. The observed effect of LFV therapy could be working via irisin, therefore, the current review focuses to understand various aspects of irisin including its mechanism of action on the brain.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Neural Stem Cells Secretome Increased Neurogenesis and Behavioral
           Performance and the Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in
           Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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      Abstract: Abstract Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive and age-related neurodegenerative disorder that is manifested by neuropathological changes and clinical symptoms. Recently, cell-based therapeutic interventions have been considered as the promising and effective strategies in this field. Herein, we investigated therapeutic effects of neural stem cell secretome on Alzheimer’s disease-like model by triggering of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, mice were randomly allocated into three different groups as follows: Control, AD + Vehicle, and AD + NSCs-CM groups. To induce mouse model of AD, Aβ1-42 was injected into intracerebroventricular region. Following AD-like confirmation through thioflavin S staining and Passive avoidance test, about 5 µl mouse NSCs-CM was injected into the target areas 21 days after AD induction. For evaluation of endogenous proliferation rate (BrdU/Nestin+ cells), 50 µg/kbW BrdU was intraperitoneally injected for 5 consecutive days. To track NSC differentiation, percent of BrdU/NeuN+ cells were monitored via immunofluorescence staining. Histological Nissl staining was done to neurotoxicity and cell death in AD mice after NSCs-CM injection. Morris Water maze test was performed to assess learning and memory performance. Data showed that NSCs-CM could reverse the learning and memory deficits associated with Aβ pathology. The reduced expression of Wnt/β-catenin-related genes such as PI3K, Akt, MAPK, and ERK in AD mice was increased. Along with these changes, NSCs-CM suppressed overactivity of GSK3β activity induced by Aβ deposition. Besides, NSCs increased BrdU/Nestin+ and BrdU/NeuN+ cells in a paracrine manner, indicating proliferation and neural differentiation of NSCs. Moreover, neurotoxicity rate and cell loss were deceased after NSCs-CM injection. In summary, NSCs can regulate adult neurogenesis through modulating of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and enhance the behavioral performance in the AD mice. These data present the alternative and effective approach in the management of AD and other cognitive impairments.
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
       
  • Effect of GNE Mutations on Cytoskeletal Network Proteins: Potential
           Gateway to Understand Pathomechanism of GNEM

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      Abstract: Abstract GNE myopathy is an inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in GNE (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetyl mannosamine kinase) gene catalyzing the sialic acid biosynthesis pathway. The characteristic features include muscle weakness in upper and lower extremities, skeletal muscle wasting, and rimmed vacuole formation. More than 200 GNE mutations in either epimerase or kinase domain have been reported worldwide. In Indian subcontinent, several GNE mutations have been recently identified with unknown functional correlation. Alternate role of GNE in various cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, apoptosis, protein aggregation, and cytoskeletal organization have been proposed in recent studies. We aim to understand and compare the effect of various GNE mutations from Indian origin on regulation of the cytoskeletal network. In particular, F-actin dynamics was determined quantitatively by determining F/G-actin ratios in immunoblots for specific proteins. The extent of F-actin polymerization was visualized by immunostaining with Phalloidin using confocal microscopy. The proteins regulating F-actin dynamics such as RhoA, cofilin, Arp2, and alpha-actinin were studied in various GNE mutants. The altered level of cytoskeletal organization network proteins affected cell migration of GNE mutant proteins as measured by wound healing assay. The functional comparison of GNE mutations will help in better understanding of the genotypic severity of the disease in the Indian population. Our study offers a potential for identification of therapeutic molecules regulating actin dynamics in GNE specific mutations.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Prostaglandin A2 Interacts with Nurr1 and Ameliorates Behavioral Deficits
           in Parkinson’s Disease Fly Model

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      Abstract: Abstract The orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 is critical for the development, maintenance, and protection of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Recently, we demonstrated that prostaglandins E1 (PGE1) and PGA1 directly bind to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of Nurr1 and stimulate its transcriptional activation function. In this direction, here we report the transcriptional activation of Nurr1 by PGA2, a dehydrated metabolite of PGE2, through physical binding ably supported by NMR titration and crystal structure. The co-crystal structure of Nurr1-LBD bound to PGA2 revealed the covalent coupling of PGA2 with Nurr1-LBD through Cys566. PGA2 binding also induces a 21° shift of the activation function 2 (AF-2) helix H12 away from the protein core, similar to that observed in the Nurr1-LBD-PGA1 complex. We also show that PGA2 can rescue the locomotor deficits and neuronal degeneration in LRRK2 G2019S transgenic fly models.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • ACE2, Circumventricular Organs and the Hypothalamus, and COVID-19

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      Abstract: Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 virus gains entry to cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Since circumventricular organs and parts of the hypothalamus lack a blood–brain barrier, and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that ACE2 is highly expressed in circumventricular organs which are intimately connected to the hypothalamus, and the hypothalamus itself, these might be easy entry points for SARS-CoV-2 into the brain via the circulation. High ACE2 protein expression is found in the subfornical organ, area postrema, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). The subfornical organ and PVH are parts of a circuit to regulate osmolarity in the blood, through the secretion of anti-diuretic hormone into the posterior pituitary. The PVH is also the stress response centre in the brain. It controls not only pre-ganglionic sympathetic neurons, but is also a source of corticotropin-releasing hormone, that induces the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary. It is proposed that the function of ACE2 in the circumventricular organs and the PVH could be diminished by binding with SARS-CoV-2, thus leading to a reduction in the ACE2/Ang (1–7)/Mas receptor (MasR) signalling axis, that modulates ACE/Ang II/AT1R signalling. This could result in increased presympathetic activity/neuroendocrine secretion from the PVH, and effects on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Besides the bloodstream, the hypothalamus might also be affected by SARS-CoV-2 via transneuronal spread along the olfactory/limbic pathways. Exploring potential therapeutic pathways to prevent or attenuate neurological symptoms of COVID-19, including drugs which modulate ACE signalling, remains an important area of unmet medical need.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
       
 
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