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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted by number of followers
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 325)
International Journal of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Journal of Clinical Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154)
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Pharmaceutical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Controlled Release     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Pharmaceutical Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Seminars in Oncology Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Separation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Additives & Contaminants Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Prescriber     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicinal Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Investigational New Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Planta Medica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pharmaceutical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inpharma Weekly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Inflammation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Physiology International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pain Management & Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Clinical Psychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Drug Targeting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Inflammopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacological Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microencapsulation: Microcapsules, Liposomes, Nanoparticles, Microcells, Microspheres     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Particulate Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Texture Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Liposome Research     Hybrid Journal  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Report     Open Access  
Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription  
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal     Hybrid Journal  
NeuroMolecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal  
Harm Reduction Journal     Open Access  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal  
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  

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Similar Journals
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NeuroMolecular Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.468
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1559-1174 - ISSN (Online) 1535-1084
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The Promising Epigenetic Regulators for Refractory Epilepsy: An
           Adventurous Road Ahead

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      Abstract: Abstract The attribution of seizure freedom is yet to be achieved for patients suffering from refractory epilepsy, e.g. Dravet Syndrome (DS). The confined ability of mono-chemical entity-based antiseizure drugs (ASDs) to act directly at genomic level is one of the factors, combined with undetermined seizure triggers lead to recurrent seizure (RS) in DS, abominably affecting the sub-genomic architecture of neural cells. Thus, the RS and ASD appear to be responsible for the spectrum of exorbitant clinical pathology. The RS distresses the 5-HT-serotonin pathway, hypomethylates genes of CNS, and modulates the microRNA (miRNA)/long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), eventually leading to frozen molecular alterations. These changes shall be reverted by compatible epigenetic regulators (EGR) like, miRNA and lncRNA from Breast milk (BML) and Bacopa monnieri (BMI). The absence of studious seizure in SCN1A mutation-positive babies for the first 6 months raises the possibility that the consequences of mutation in SCN1A are subsidized by EGRs from BML. EGR-dependent-modifier gene effect is likely imposed by the other members of the SCN family. Therefore, we advocate that miRNA/lncRNA from BML and bacosides/miRNA from BMI buffer the effect of SCN1A mutation by sustainably maintaining modifier gene effect in the aberrant neurons. The presence of miRNA-155-5p, -30b-5p, and -30c-5p family in BML and miR857, miR168, miR156, and miR158 in BMI target at regulating SCN family and CLCN5 as visualized by Cystoscope. Thus, we envisage that the possible effects of EGR might include (a) upregulating the haploinsufficient SCN1A strand, (b) down-regulating seizure-elevated miRNA, (c) suppressing the seizure-induced methyltransferases, and (d) enhancing the GluN2A subunit of NMDA receptor to improve cognition. The potential of these EGRs from BML and BML is to further experimentally strengthen, long-haul step forward in molecular therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
       
  • Seeing Is Perceiving (Believing)

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      Abstract: Abstract Our perception of distinct structures in brain cells and understanding of their function has been revised and updated overtime. Past approaches combined with current powerful technologies provide a more complete picture of the brain’s organization, from how the neurons connect with each other to finer details of every corner inside the neurons.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Spider Neurotoxins as Modulators of NMDA Receptor Signaling

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      Abstract: Abstract Molecules that selectively act on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may have a multidirectional effect by modulating the activity of NMDARs, affecting their active sites as well as by changing the composition of their subunits. The results of the clinical trials conducted so far in mood disorders and schizophrenia indicate that such agents may become new effective drugs for the treatment of these diseases. Number of spider neurotoxins e.g. ctenitoxins extracted from Phoneutria sp. venom act as potent and selective NMDAR blockers that do not disturb cortical and hippocampal glutamate signaling, LTP generation and synaptic neurochemistry. Possibly this intriguing kind of promising neuroregulatory peptides and polyamines can be clinically applicable in a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, neurotrauma and ischemic injuries. These novel medications can potentially be helpful in the future treatment of stroke and several neurodegenerative diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Neuroprotective and Proneurogenic Effects of Glucosamine in an Internal
           Carotid Artery Occlusion Model of Ischemia

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      Abstract: Abstract Neuroprotective, antineuroinflammatory, and proneurogenic effects of glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino sugar, have been reported in various animal models of brain injury including cerebral ischemia and hypoxic brain damage. Given that clinical translation of therapeutic candidates identified in animal models of ischemic stroke has remained unsatisfactory in general, possibly due to inadequacy of existing models, we sought to study the effects of glucosamine in a recently developed, clinical condition mimicking mouse model of internal cerebral artery occlusion. In this model of mild to moderate striatal damage, glucosamine ameliorated behavioral dysfunction, rescued ischemia-induced striatal damage, and suppressed ischemia-induced upregulation of proinflammatory genes in striatal tissue. Further, in ex vivo neurosphere assay involving neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells from subventricular zone, glucosamine increased the number of large neurospheres, along with enhancing mRNA levels of the proliferation markers Nestin, NeuroD1, and Sox2. Lastly, coronal brain sections containing the striatal region with subventricular zone showed increased number of BrdU positive cells and DCX positive cells, a marker for newly differentiating and immature neurons, in glucosamine-treated ischemic mice. Cumulatively, the results confirming neuroprotective, antineuroinflammatory, and proneurogenic effects of glucosamine enhance drug repurposing potential of glucosamine in cerebral ischemia.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Overexpression of miR-149-5p Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion
           (I/R) Injury by Targeting Notch2

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      Abstract: Abstract Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Although miR-149-5p downregulation is observed in rats after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, its function and role in ischemic stroke remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the roles of miR-149-5p in I/R injury. The results showed that miR-149-5p was significantly downregulated in brain tissues of rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and primary cortical neurons subject to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). MiR-149-5p overexpression effectively reduced MCAO/R-induced infarct volume, neurological score, and brain water content as well as OGD/R-induced cortical neurons apoptosis and OGD/R-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-1β, and COX-2. Moreover, Notch2 was identified as a target of miR-149-5p and Notch2 overexpression significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of miR-149-5p mimics on inflammation and apoptosis. Taken together, our study revealed that miR-149-5p overexpression protects the rat brain against I/R injury by regulating Notch2-mediated inflammation and apoptosis pathway.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT) Protects Cerebral Neurons from Death During
           Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) Injury by Modulating Drp1 in Mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that increased O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) level could promote cell survival following environmental stresses. This study aimed to explore the role of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mouse model with cerebral I/R injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R). The expression of ogt in brain tissues was detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining assay. Neurological deficit was evaluated using a modified scoring system. The infarct volume was assessed by TTC staining assay. Neuronal apoptosis in brain tissues was evaluated by TUNEL staining assay. The level of cleaved caspase-3 in brain tissues was detected by Western blot and IHC staining assay. The expression of critical proteins involved in mitochondrial fission, including OPA1, Mfn1, and Mfn2, as well as Mff and Drp1 was detected by Western blot and IHC, respectively. The expression of ogt during cerebral I/R injury was significantly upregulated. Ogt knockdown significantly increased neurological score and infarct volume in I/R-induced mice. Meanwhile, ogt knockdown significantly enhanced neuronal apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3 level in brain tissues of I/R-induced mice. In addition, ogt knockdown markedly decreased serine 637 phosphorylation level of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and promoted Drp1 translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Moreover, the specific Drp1 inhibitor mdivi-1 effectively attenuated ogt knockdown-induced brain injury of I/R-stimulated mice in vivo. Our study revealed that OGT protects against cerebral I/R injury by inhibiting the function of Drp1 in mice, suggesting that ogt may be a potential therapeutic target for cerebral I/R injury.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Preventive Effects of Sinigrin Against the Memory Deterioration in the
           Pentylenetetrazole-Kindled Male Wistar Rats: Possible Modulation of NLRP3
           Pathway

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      Abstract: Abstract Mainly found in brussels sprouts, broccoli, and black mustard seeds, sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) has enjoyed some attention currently for its effects on health and disease prevention. The present research design is aimed at investigating the effects of sinigrin on inflammation, oxidative stress (OS) and memory. Randomly, six groups of male Wistar rats were categorized into the control and experimental groups. The experimental groups were treated with sinigrin (10 and 20 mg/kg, orally). The control positive group was given the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) treatment and the control negative one was given normal saline. All groups were kindled by the sub-threshold dose (35 mg/kg, i.p.) of PTZ for 12 times in one month. When the kindling procedure was done, the seizure behaviors and the behavioral function were evaluated. For cognitive parameters, the shuttle box test was employed. When the experiment was terminated, the rats were euthanized and their blood serum as well as brain samples were isolated for respective measuring of OS and gene expression parameters. The treatment with sinigrin significantly delayed the appearance of the seizure symptoms in comparison to that of the PTZ group. It also significantly increased the memory parameters like retention latency and the total time having been spent in the light compartment in the epileptic rats. In addition, sinigrin increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase levels. Treatment with sinigrin suppressed the Il1b and Nlrp3 gene expression at hippocampal level. In sum, sinigrin prevents inflammation, OS and memory impairment against the PTZ-kindling epilepsy in rats.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Deoxysphingolipids Upregulate MMP-1, Downregulate TIMP-1, and Induce
           Cytotoxicity in Human Schwann Cells

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      Abstract: Abstract Sphingolipids are a heterogeneous class of lipids and essential components of the plasma membrane and plasma lipoproteins. Studies have shown that plasma deoxysphingolipid (DSL), a newly identified sphingolipid class, is increased in diabetic patients and associated with diabetic neuropathy. However, it remains unknown if there is a causal relationship between plasma DSL increase and diabetic neuropathy. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in diabetic neuropathy by degrading extracellular matrix in the peripheral nervous system, we investigated the effect of DSLs on the expression of MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMPs), and cytotoxicity in human Schwann cells. We quantified protein secretion, gene expression, and collagenase activity, and performed cytotoxicity assays. Results showed that DSLs upregulated MMP-1, downregulated TIMP-1, and induced cytotoxicity in Schwann cells. Furthermore, we quantified DSLs in VLDL, LDL, HDL2, and HDL3 isolated from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with or without neuropathy. Interestingly, lipidomic analysis showed that only HDL2 isolated from T2DM patients with neuropathy contains significantly higher level of DSLs than that isolated from T2DM patients without neuropathy. Additionally, results showed that HDL2 isolated from T2DM patients with neuropathy was more potent than that isolated from T2DM patients without neuropathy in upregulating MMP-1, downregulating TIMP-1, and stimulating collagenase activity in Schwann cell. Taken together, this study demonstrated for the first time a potential causal relationship between DSLs and diabetic neuropathy and that DSL-containing HDL2 from T2DM patients with neuropathy was more potent than that from T2DM patients without neuropathy in stimulating collagenase activity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Improved Cerebral Infarction via
           Transferring miR-23a-3p to Activate Microglia

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      Abstract: Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells-derived exosome (MSCs-exo) is a potential method for cerebral infarction (CI) treatment. Here, western blot and qRT-PCR were carried out to measure the expression of proteins and genes, respectively. Modified neurological severity score and TTC staining were used to evaluate the brain injury of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of Iba-1, iNOS, and Arg-1 in tissues. Moreover, the rate of M1/M2 microglia was ensured by flow cytometry, and the concentration of pro-inflammatory factors in medium was measured using ELISA. Here, we found that miR-23a-3p is increased in human umbilical cord blood MSCs-exo. Bone marrow MSCs-exo (BMSCs-exo) could improve the injury in neuronal function and reduce the infarct size in vivo. However, the improvement of BMSCs-exo to CI was reversed by miR-23a-3p knockdown. The inhibition of BMSCs-exo to MCAO-induced microglia activation and M1 polarization and the upregulation of pro-inflammatory factors were limited by miR-23a-3p knockdown, which also confirmed in lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia. Overall, our data indicated that MSCs-exo improves CI via transferring miR-23a-3p, thus to induce the deactivation of microglia and M2 polarization. Our study revealed a new regulatory mechanism of CI.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • SIRT3 Regulates Neuronal Excitability of Alzheimer’s Disease Models in
           an Oxidative Stress-Dependent Manner

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      Abstract: Abstract Mitochondrial deacetylase Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) has been shown to regulate metabolic and antioxidant functions. Previous studies have reported that SIRT3 mediates change of neuronal excitability. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that SIRT3 deficiency results in neural hyperactivity, decreased survival rate, and increased oxidative stress of culture neurons, while a superoxide dismutase 2 mimetic reduces oxidative stress and suppresses the neuronal hyperactivity. In culture neurons treated with Aβ, SIRT3 activator reduces level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hyperactivity of neurons while increasing level of ROS restores the neuronal hyperactivity. Utilizing two photon in vivo brain imaging, we show that inhibition of SIRT3 results in elevated neuronal excitatory in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease of early stage, whereas suppression of the ROS level reverses it. These findings demonstrate an oxidative stress-dependent role of SIRT3 in regulation of neuronal excitability in Alzheimer’s disease.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Wnt Signaling Pathways: A Role in Pain Processing

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      Abstract: Abstract The wingless-related integration site (Wnt) signaling pathway plays an essential role in embryonic development and nervous system regulation. It is critically involved in multiple types of neuropathic pain (NP), such as HIV-related NP, cancer pain, diabetic neuralgia, multiple sclerosis-related NP, endometriosis pain, and other painful diseases. Wnt signaling is also implicated in the pain induced by sciatic nerve compression injury and selective spinal nerve ligation. Thus, the Wnt signaling pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for NP.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Exosomes Derived Neuronal Markers: Immunoaffinity Isolation and
           Characterization

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      Abstract: Abstract Neuronal exosomes play a crucial role in intercellular communication in the brain and represent a promising biomarker for neurological diseases, including stroke. However, limited techniques are available for isolating neuronal exosomes due to their small number in the serum exosomes. Thus, the development of efficient tools with brain-specific markers is needed. Here, we show the optimization of an immunoaffinity assay-based isolation protocol for specific exosomes or neuronally derived exosomes (NDE). Our results demonstrated that one-micron functionalized magnetic beads successfully separated CD63+ and L1CAM+ exosomes from serum. The size and shape of exosomes or exosomes pulled by beads were confirmed by Dynamic light scattering and Transmission electron microscopy; also, beads were well resolved in conventional flow cytometry analysis, which revealed that CD63-pulled serum exosomes had 5% expression of L1CAM. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy showed that exosomes eluted from magnetic beads retained their original size, shape, and form without any damage. Furthermore, we showed isolation of NDE using GluR2/3-capturing antibody (α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor) using an optimized immunoaffinity bead assay utilizing 100 µl serum of stroke patients or age-matched healthy group. GluR2/3-captured exosomes were confirmed by western blot analysis. The western blot analysis showed a significant increase in the 35KDa subunit of GluR2/3 receptor protein in the exosomes of stroke patients compared to the healthy group. In addition, the multimeric GluR2/3 receptor protein in exosomes was further validated by the presence of the GluR2 subunit. Thus, our study shows GluR3/2 may be an effective candidate to isolate neuronal exosomes.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Compound 21, a Direct AT2R Agonist, Induces IL-10 and Inhibits
           Inflammation in Mice Following Traumatic Brain Injury

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      Abstract: Abstract Recent studies demonstrated that the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) agonist, compound 21 (C21), provides neuroprotection and enhances recovery in experimental stroke. However, C21 has never been tested in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we aim to examine whether C21 confers protection after TBI. Unilateral cortical impact injury was induced in young adult C57BL/6 mice. C21 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered at 1 h and 3 h post-TBI. After neurological severity score (NSS) assessments, all animals were sacrificed for immunoblotting analysis at 24 h post-TBI. C21 treatment significantly ameliorated NSS and reduced TBI’s biomarkers [high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), aquaporin-4 (AQ4)] and inflammatory markers [interlukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] in the pericontusional areas compared to saline TBI. Further, C21 treatment induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) and phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) after TBI. C21 also attenuated pro-apoptotic activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. These findings support the therapeutic potential of C21 against TBI.
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • The Identification of Blood Biomarkers of Chronic Neuropathic Pain by
           Comparative Transcriptomics

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we recruited 50 chronic pain (neuropathic and nociceptive) and 43 pain-free controls to identify specific blood biomarkers of chronic neuropathic pain (CNP). Affymetrix microarray was carried out on a subset of samples selected 10 CNP and 10 pain-free control participants. The most significant genes were cross-validated using the entire dataset by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In comparative analysis of controls and CNP patients, WLS (P = 4.80 × 10–7), CHPT1 (P = 7.74 × 10–7) and CASP5 (P = 2.30 × 10–5) were highly significant, whilst FGFBP2 (P = 0.00162), STAT1 (P = 0.00223), FCRL6 (P = 0.00335), MYC (P = 0.00335), XCL2 (P = 0.0144) and GZMA (P = 0.0168) were significant in all CNP patients. A three-arm comparative analysis was also carried out with control as the reference group and CNP samples differentiated into two groups of high and low S-LANSS score using a cut-off of 12. STAT1, XCL2 and GZMA were not significant but KIR3DL2 (P = 0.00838), SH2D1B (P = 0.00295) and CXCR31 (P = 0.0136) were significant in CNP high S-LANSS group (S-LANSS score > 12), along with WLS (P = 8.40 × 10–5), CHPT1 (P = 7.89 × 10–4), CASP5 (P = 0.00393), FGFBP2 (P = 8.70 × 10–4) and FCRL6 (P = 0.00199), suggesting involvement of immune pathways in CNP mechanisms. None of the genes was significant in CNP samples with low (< 12) S-LANSS score. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) analysis showed that combination of MYC, STAT1, TLR4, CASP5 and WLS gene expression could be potentially used as a biomarker signature of CNP (AUROC − 0.852, (0.773, 0.931 95% CI)).
      PubDate: 2022-09-01
       
  • Therapeutic Potential of Quercetin and its Derivatives in Epilepsy:
           Evidence from Preclinical Studies

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      Abstract: Abstract Quercetin is a polyphenolic bioactive compound highly enriched in dietary fruits, vegetables, nuts, and berries. Quercetin and its derivatives like rutin and hyperoside are known for their beneficial effects in various neurological conditions including epilepsy. The clinical studies of quercetin and its derivatives in relation to epilepsy are limited. This review provides the evidence of most recent knowledge of anticonvulsant properties of quercetin and its derivatives on preclinical studies. Additionally, the studies demonstrating antiseizure potential of various plants extracts enriched with quercetin and its derivatives has been included in this review. Herein, we have also discussed neuroprotective effect of these bioactive compound and presented underlying mechanisms responsible for anticonvulsant properties in brief. Finally, limitations of quercetin and its derivatives as antiseizure compounds as well as possible strategies to enhance efficacy have also been discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
       
  • Induction of ICAM1 in Brain Vessels is Implicated in an Early AD
           Pathogenesis by Modulating Neprilysin

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      Abstract: Abstract Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) is a vessel adhesion protein induced during brain vascular inflammation, which could be closely linked with the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study investigated the effect of ICAM1 on amyloid-degrading enzymes (ADEs) in endothelial cells and their potential involvement in inflammation and AD progression. TNF-α treatment increased ICAM1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVECs) but decreased the neprilysin (NEP) protein level. Knock-down of ICAM1 using siRNA enhanced NEP, which increased the degradation of amyloid-β. In the brains of 4-month-old AD transgenic mice (APPswe/PSEN1dE9), there were significantly higher levels of ICAM1 expression and amyloid deposits but lower levels of NEP and insulin-degrading enzymes (IDE), demonstrating an inverse correlation of ICAM1 with NEP and IDE expression. Further studies demonstrated significantly increased GFAP protein levels in the brain, specifically localized near blood vessels, of both TNF-α-injected and 4-month-old AD transgenic mice. Taken together, the induction of ICAM1 in endothelial cells suppresses NEP expression, accelerating the accumulation of amyloid-β in blood vessels. It also enhances leukocyte adhesion to blood vessels stimulating the migration of leukocytes into the brain, subsequently triggering brain inflammation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
       
  • Dimethyl Itaconate Reduces Cognitive Impairment and Neuroinflammation in
           APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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      Abstract: Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia characterized by abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neuroinflammation, and neuronal loss. Dimethyl itaconate (DI), a membrane-permeable derivative of itaconate, has been recently reported to limit inflammation. However, the effect of DI in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mouse model of AD remains unclear. We treated APP/PS1 mice with DI or saline. Our results showed that DI ameliorated the cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 mice. Further, DI significantly decreased brain Aβ deposition and Aβ levels, inhibited cell apoptosis, decreased hippocampal and cortical neuronal damage. We also found that DI promoted the expression of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, while inhibited cognitive impairment, cell apoptosis, and the proinflammatory cytokine levels in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. Our results indicated that DI attenuated memory impairment and neuroinflammation via the Nrf2 signaling pathway in APP/PS1 mice, suggesting that DI might be recognized as a promising candidate for the treatment of AD.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
       
  • Protective Effect of Ulinastatin on Cognitive Function After Hypoxia

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      Abstract: Abstract Ulinastatin (UTI) has neuroprotective properties. Neurologic insults, including hypoxia and use of anesthetic agents, cause postoperative cognitive dysfunction and alter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function. This study aimed to assess whether UTI could preserve learning and memory using a zebrafish hypoxic behavior model and biomarkers. Zebrafish (6–8 months of age and 2.5–3.5 cm long) were divided into eight groups as follows: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control, hypoxia + PBS, UTI (10,000, 50,000, and 100,000 units/kg), and hypoxia with UTI (10,000, 50,000, and 100,000 units/kg) groups. The endpoints of the T-maze experiment included total time, distance moved, and frequency in target or opposite compartment. We also measured the degree of brain infarction using 2,3,5‑triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, assessed SA-β-galactosidase activity, and examined GABAA receptor expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In a dose-dependent manner, UTI affected learning and memory in zebrafish. Despite hypoxia, 100,000 units/kg of UTI preserved preference (time and distance) for the target compartment. More than 50,000 units/kg of UTI also showed reduced hypoxia-induced brain infarction, decreased SA-β-galactosidase levels, and upregulated GABAA receptors. This study demonstrated that the location of the GABAA receptor is affected by hypoxia or UTI.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
       
  • Implication of Paraprobiotics in Age-Associated Gut Dysbiosis and
           Neurodegenerative Diseases

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      Abstract: Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, are major age-related concerns in elderly people. Since no drug fully addresses the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, advance treatment strategies are urgently needed. Several studies have noted the senescence of immune system and the perturbation of gut microbiota in the aged population. In recent years, the role of gut microbiota has been increasingly studied in the manifestation of age-related CNS disorders. In this context, prebiotics, probiotics, and paraprobiotics are reported to improve the behavioural and neurobiological abnormalities in elderly patients. As live microbiota, prescribed in the form of probiotics, shows some adverse effects like sepsis, translocation, and horizontal gene transfer, paraprobiotics could be a possible alternative strategy in designing microbiome-based therapeutics. This review describes the health-beneficial effects of paraprobiotics in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
       
  • Metabolic Switching of Cultured Mesenchymal Stem Cells Creates Super
           Mitochondria in Rescuing Ischemic Neurons

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      Abstract: Abstract Transfer of healthy mitochondria from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to ischemic neurons represents a potent stroke therapeutic. MSCs were grown under ambient conditions (nMSCs) or a metabolic switching paradigm by alternating galactose and glucose in medium (sMSCs) and then assayed for oxygen consumption rates using the Seahorse technology. Subsequently, primary neurons were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and then co-cultured with either nMSCs or sMSCs. Compared to nMSCs, sMSCs displayed higher basal energy production, larger spare respiratory capacity, greater ATP production, and decreased proton leak. Co-culture of OGD-exposed neurons with sMSCs conferred greater cell viability, enhanced cell metabolism, reduced mitochondrial reactive oxidative species mRNA, and elevated mitochondria ATP mRNA than those cultured with nMSCs. Metabolic switching produces “super” mitochondria that may underlie the therapeutic benefit of using sMSCs to treat ischemic cells.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-022-08720-3
       
 
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