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  Subjects -> PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY (Total: 575 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AAPS Open     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AboutOpen     Open Access  
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Pharmaceutica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia     Open Access  
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription  
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 94)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AJP : The Australian Journal of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analytical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Pharmacotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Antibody Therapeutics     Open Access  
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clinical Trials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Archiv der Pharmazie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Drug Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Pharmacal Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Razi Institute     Open Access  
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica     Open Access  
Ars Pharmaceutica     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Researches     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioural Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biometrical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopharm International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
British Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
British Journal of Pharmacy (BJPharm)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CADTH Technology Overviews     Free  
Canadian Journal of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal  
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cephalalgia Reports     Open Access  
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemMedChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia e Investigación     Open Access  
Ciência Equatorial     Open Access  
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical and Translational Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology     Open Access  
Clinical Drug Investigation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Medicine Insights : Therapeutics     Open Access  
Clinical Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Pharmacist     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Pharmacokinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
CNS Drug Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CNS Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Combination Products in Therapy     Open Access  
Consultant Pharmacist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Drugs     Full-text available via subscription  
Contract Pharma     Full-text available via subscription  
Cosmetics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CPT : Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Current Bioactive Compounds     Hybrid Journal  
Current Cancer Therapy Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Discovery Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Drug Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Drug Targets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Drug Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Enzyme Inhibition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Medical Science     Hybrid Journal  
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Current Neuropharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Pharmaceutical Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Pharmacology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Protocols in Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Pharmacology and Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Therapeutic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Vascular Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Die Pharmazie - An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Dose-Response     Open Access  
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Drug Delivery and Translational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Drug Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Drug Metabolism and Disposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Drug Metabolism Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Metabolism Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Drug Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Resistance Updates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Drug Safety     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Drug Safety - Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Drug Target Insights     Open Access  
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Drugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 136)
Drugs & Aging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs & Therapy Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Drugs : Real World Outcomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drugs and Therapy Studies     Open Access  
Drugs in R & D     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drugs of the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal     Open Access  
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
EMC - Cosmetologia Medica e Medicina degli Inestetismi Cutanei     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Trends in Drugs, Addictions, and Health     Open Access  
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Epilepsy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EUREKA : Health Sciences     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Neuropsychopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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NeuroMolecular Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.468
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1559-1174 - ISSN (Online) 1535-1084
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Dimethyl Itaconate Reduces Cognitive Impairment and Neuroinflammation in
           APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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      Abstract: Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia characterized by abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neuroinflammation, and neuronal loss. Dimethyl itaconate (DI), a membrane-permeable derivative of itaconate, has been recently reported to limit inflammation. However, the effect of DI in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mouse model of AD remains unclear. We treated APP/PS1 mice with DI or saline. Our results showed that DI ameliorated the cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 mice. Further, DI significantly decreased brain Aβ deposition and Aβ levels, inhibited cell apoptosis, decreased hippocampal and cortical neuronal damage. We also found that DI promoted the expression of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, while inhibited cognitive impairment, cell apoptosis, and the proinflammatory cytokine levels in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. Our results indicated that DI attenuated memory impairment and neuroinflammation via the Nrf2 signaling pathway in APP/PS1 mice, suggesting that DI might be recognized as a promising candidate for the treatment of AD.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
       
  • Protective Effect of Ulinastatin on Cognitive Function After Hypoxia

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      Abstract: Abstract Ulinastatin (UTI) has neuroprotective properties. Neurologic insults, including hypoxia and use of anesthetic agents, cause postoperative cognitive dysfunction and alter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function. This study aimed to assess whether UTI could preserve learning and memory using a zebrafish hypoxic behavior model and biomarkers. Zebrafish (6–8 months of age and 2.5–3.5 cm long) were divided into eight groups as follows: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control, hypoxia + PBS, UTI (10,000, 50,000, and 100,000 units/kg), and hypoxia with UTI (10,000, 50,000, and 100,000 units/kg) groups. The endpoints of the T-maze experiment included total time, distance moved, and frequency in target or opposite compartment. We also measured the degree of brain infarction using 2,3,5‑triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, assessed SA-β-galactosidase activity, and examined GABAA receptor expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In a dose-dependent manner, UTI affected learning and memory in zebrafish. Despite hypoxia, 100,000 units/kg of UTI preserved preference (time and distance) for the target compartment. More than 50,000 units/kg of UTI also showed reduced hypoxia-induced brain infarction, decreased SA-β-galactosidase levels, and upregulated GABAA receptors. This study demonstrated that the location of the GABAA receptor is affected by hypoxia or UTI.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
       
  • Implication of Paraprobiotics in Age-Associated Gut Dysbiosis and
           Neurodegenerative Diseases

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      Abstract: Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, are major age-related concerns in elderly people. Since no drug fully addresses the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, advance treatment strategies are urgently needed. Several studies have noted the senescence of immune system and the perturbation of gut microbiota in the aged population. In recent years, the role of gut microbiota has been increasingly studied in the manifestation of age-related CNS disorders. In this context, prebiotics, probiotics, and paraprobiotics are reported to improve the behavioural and neurobiological abnormalities in elderly patients. As live microbiota, prescribed in the form of probiotics, shows some adverse effects like sepsis, translocation, and horizontal gene transfer, paraprobiotics could be a possible alternative strategy in designing microbiome-based therapeutics. This review describes the health-beneficial effects of paraprobiotics in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
       
  • Metabolic Switching of Cultured Mesenchymal Stem Cells Creates Super
           Mitochondria in Rescuing Ischemic Neurons

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      Abstract: Abstract Transfer of healthy mitochondria from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to ischemic neurons represents a potent stroke therapeutic. MSCs were grown under ambient conditions (nMSCs) or a metabolic switching paradigm by alternating galactose and glucose in medium (sMSCs) and then assayed for oxygen consumption rates using the Seahorse technology. Subsequently, primary neurons were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and then co-cultured with either nMSCs or sMSCs. Compared to nMSCs, sMSCs displayed higher basal energy production, larger spare respiratory capacity, greater ATP production, and decreased proton leak. Co-culture of OGD-exposed neurons with sMSCs conferred greater cell viability, enhanced cell metabolism, reduced mitochondrial reactive oxidative species mRNA, and elevated mitochondria ATP mRNA than those cultured with nMSCs. Metabolic switching produces “super” mitochondria that may underlie the therapeutic benefit of using sMSCs to treat ischemic cells.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
       
  • Phenylethanoid Glycosides of Cistanche Improve Learning and Memory
           Disorders in APP/PS1 Mice by Regulating Glial Cell Activation and
           Inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

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      Abstract: Abstract Phenylethanoid Glycosides of Cistanche (PhGs) have a certain curative effect on AD animal model, Echinacea (ECH) and verbascoside (ACT), as the quality control standard of Cistanche deserticola Y. C. Ma and the main representative compounds of PhGs have been proved to have neuroprotective effects, but the specific mechanism needs to be further explored. This study explored the mechanisms of PhGs, ECH, and ACT in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the perspectives of glial cell activation, TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, and synaptic protein expression. We used APP/PS1 mice as AD models. After treatment with PhGs, ECH, and ACT, the learning and memory abilities of APP/PS1 mice were enhanced, and the pathological changes in brain tissue were alleviated. The expression of pro-inflammatory M1 microglia markers (CD11b, iNOS, and IL-1β) was decreased; the expression of M2 microglia markers (Arg-1 and TGF-β1) was increased, which promoted the transformation of microglia from M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype to M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. In addition, PhGs, ECH, and ACT could down-regulate the expression of proteins related to the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and up-regulate the expression of synaptic proteins. The results indicated that PhGs, ECH, and ACT played a neuroprotective role by regulating the activation of glial cells and inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, and improving the expression levels of synapse-related proteins.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
       
  • Prognosis and Immune Landscapes in Glioblastoma Based on Gene-Signature
           Related to Reactive-Oxygen-Species

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      Abstract: Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant and aggressive primary brain tumor and is highly resistant to current therapeutic strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the regulation of signal transduction and immunosuppressive environment in GBM. To further study the role of ROS in prognosis, tumor micro-environment (TME) and immunotherapeutic response in GBM, an ROS-related nine-gene signature was constructed using the Lasso-Cox regression method and validated using three other datasets in our research, based on the hallmark ROS-pathway-related gene sets and the Cancer Genome Atlas GBM dataset. Differences in prognosis, TME scores, immune cell infiltration, immune checkpoint expression levels, and drug sensitivity between high-risk and low-risk subgroups were analyzed using R software. Collectively, our research uncovered a novel ROS-related prognostic model for primary GBM, which could prove to be a potential tool for clinical diagnosis of GBM, and help assess the immune and molecular characteristics of ROS in the tumorigenesis and immunosuppression of GBM. Our research also revealed that the expressions of ROS-related genes—HSPB1, LSP1, and PTX3—were closely related to the cell markers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and M2 macrophages validated by quantitative RT-PCR, suggesting them could be potential targets of immunotherapy for GBM.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • What Do Randomized Controlled Trials Inform Us About Potential
           Disease-Modifying Strategies for Parkinson’s Disease'

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      Abstract: Abstract Research advances have shed new insight into cellular pathways contributing to PD pathogenesis and offer increasingly compelling therapeutic targets. In this review, we made a broad survey of the published literature that report possible disease-modifying effects on PD. While there are many studies that demonstrate benefits for various therapies for PD in animal and human studies, we confined our search to human “randomised controlled trials” and with the key words “neuroprotection” or “disease-modifying”. It is hoped that through studying the results of these trials, we might clarify possible mechanisms that underlie idiopathic PD. This contrasts with studying the effect of pathophysiology of familial PD, which could be carried out by gene knockouts and animal models. Randomised controlled trials indicate promising effects of MAO-B inhibitors, dopamine agonists, NMDA receptor antagonists, metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, therapies related to improving glucose utilization and energy production, therapies related to reduction of excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, statin use, therapies related to iron chelation, therapies related to the use of phytochemicals, and therapies related to physical exercise and brain reward pathway on slowing PD progression. Cumulatively, these approaches fall into two categories: direct enhancement of dopaminergic signalling, and reduction of neurodegeneration. Overlaps between the two categories result in challenges in distinguishing between symptomatic versus disease-modifying effects with current clinical trial designs. Nevertheless, a broad-based approach allows us to consider all possible therapeutic avenues which may be neuroprotective. While the traditional standard of care focuses on symptomatic management with dopaminergic drugs, more recent approaches suggest ways to preserve dopaminergic neurons by attenuating excitotoxicity and oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Overexpressing SIRT6 can Attenuate the Injury of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
           by Down-Regulating NF-kB

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      Abstract: Abstract Sirtuin-6 (SIRT6), a member of the sirtuins family of NAD ( +) dependent deacetylases, has been shown to have beneficial effects in ischemic stroke. However, the role of SIRT6 in intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) has not reported. We observed that SIRT6 expression was down-regulated in human ICH patients and down-regulated in ICH-induced rat cortical neurons. We subsequently found that SIRT6 overexpression reduced brain tissue damage and increased neuronal survival in the ICH model of rats and hemin-induced cortical neurons. Our further study found that overexpression of SIRT6 can reduce inflammatory response by down-regulating the expression of NF-kB and thus promote the recovery of neurological function in ICH animals. In conclusion, SIRT6 can inhibit the expression of NF-kB and plays a neuroprotective role in ICH by inhibiting the NF-kB-mediated inflammatory response.SIRT6 could be a novel therapeutic target for ICH.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
       
  • Gastrodin Regulates the Notch-1 Signal Pathway via Renin–Angiotensin
           System in Activated Microglia

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      Abstract: Abstract Notch-1 and renin angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in microglia activation. It has been reported that gastrodin inhibited inflammatory responses mediated by activated microglia. This study explored the possible interaction between this two pathways, and to determine whether gastrodin would exert its effects on both of them. Expression of RAS, Notch-1 signaling and proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated BV-2 microglia subjected to various treatments was determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The protein expression of RAS, Notch-1 pathway and TNF-α and IL-1β was significantly increased in activated microglia. Exogenous Ang II markedly enhanced the expression of these biomarkers. Meanwhile, Azilsartan [a specific inhibitor of AT1 (AT1I)] inhibited the expression of Notch-1 pathway and proinflammatory cytokines. When Notch-1 signaling was inhibited with DAPT, ACE and AT1 expression remained unaffected, indicating that RAS can regulate the Notch-1 pathway in activated microglia but not reciprocally. Additionally, we showed here that gastrodin inhibited the RAS, Notch-1 pathway and inflammatory response. Remarkably, gastrodin did not exert any effect on expression of Notch-1 signaling when RAS was blocked by AT1I, suggesting that gastrodin acts on the RAS directly, not through the Notch-1 pathway. Furthermore, TNF-α and IL-1β expression was significantly increased in activated microglia treated with exogenous Ang II; the expression, however, was suppressed by gastrodin. Of note, expression of proinflammatory cytokines was further decreased in gastrodin and AT1I combination treatment. The results suggest that gastrodin acts via the RAS which regulates the Notch-1 signaling and inflammation in LPS-induced microglia.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
       
  • Mitochondrial SIRT3 Deficiency Results in Neuronal Network
           Hyperexcitability, Accelerates Age-Related Aβ Pathology, and Renders
           Neurons Vulnerable to Aβ Toxicity

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      Abstract: Abstract Aging is the major risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal network hyperexcitability are two age-related alterations implicated in AD pathogenesis. We found that levels of the mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) are significantly reduced, and consequently mitochondria protein acetylation is increased in brain cells during aging. SIRT3-deficient mice exhibit robust mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation and reduced mitochondrial mass during aging. Moreover, SIRT3-deficient mice exhibit epileptiform and burst-firing electroencephalogram activity indicating neuronal network hyperexcitability. Both aging and SIRT3 deficiency result in increased sensitivity to kainic acid-induced seizures. Exposure of cultured cerebral cortical neurons to amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) results in a reduction in SIRT3 levels and SIRT3-deficient neurons exhibit heightened sensitivity to Aβ toxicity. Finally, SIRT3 haploinsufficiency in middle-aged App/Ps1 double mutant transgenic mice results in a significant increase in Aβ load compared with App/Ps1 double mutant mice with normal SIRT3 levels. Collectively, our findings suggest that SIRT3 plays an important role in protecting neurons against Aβ pathology and excitotoxicity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
       
  • ZEB1 is a Subgroup-Specific Marker of Prognosis and Potential Drug Target
           in Medulloblastoma

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      Abstract: Abstract Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant brain tumor that afflicts mostly children and adolescents and presents four distinct molecular subgroups, known as WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. ZEB1 is a transcription factor that promotes the expression of mesenchymal markers while restraining expression of epithelial and polarity genes. Because of ZEB1 involvement in cerebellum development, here we investigated the role of ZEB1 in MB. We found increased expression of ZEB1 in MB tumor samples compared to normal cerebellar tissue. Expression was higher in the SHH subgroup when compared to all other MB molecular subgroups. High ZEB1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in Group 3 and Group 4, whereas in patients with WNT tumors poorer prognosis were related to lower ZEB1 expression. There was a moderate correlation between ZEB1 and MYC expression in Group 3 and Group 4 MB. Treatment with the immunomodulator and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor fingolimod (FTY720) reduced ZEB1 expression specifically in D283 cells, which are representative of Group 3 and Group 4 MB. These findings reveal novel subgroup-specific associations of ZEB1 expression with survival in patients with MB and suggest that ZEB1 expression can be reduced by pharmacological agents that target HDAC activity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
       
  • Correction to: Receptor-Interacting Protein 140 Enhanced
           Temozolomide-Induced Cellular Apoptosis Through Regulation of E2F1 in
           Human Glioma Cell Lines

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      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-021-08680-0
       
  • Role of Exosomes in Mediating the Cross-Talk Between Adipose Tissue and
           the Brain

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      Abstract: Abstract Adipose tissue is recognized as the largest endocrine organ by releasing secretory factors to exert systemic function on the brain. Exosomes are one type of extracellular vesicles that transport bioactive molecules between cells and organs. The cargo delivered by exosomes can alter a wide range of cellular responses in recipient cells and play an important pathophysiological role in human diseases. Emerging research showed that adipose tissue-released exosomes could be one of the mechanisms to mediate the function of the brain. Here, we review the modulatory function of adipose tissue-released exosomes in the brain. In particular, we emphasize the role of adipose tissue-released exosomes and their carried miRNAs in neurological disorder diseases. We provide an overview of advances in the understanding of adipose tissues in the regulation of brain function and offer a perspective on the potential therapeutic targets for neurological disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-021-08664-0
       
  • Gastrodin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response and
           Migration via the Notch-1 Signaling Pathway in Activated Microglia

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      Abstract: Abstract Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of different neurological diseases. Gastrodin, a phenolic glucoside, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS); however, the underlying mechanism has remained obscure. The present study aimed to ascertain if Gastrodin would regulate the Notch signaling pathway involved in microglia activation. We show here that LPS increased the expression of various members of the Notch-1 pathway, including intracellular Notch receptor domain (NICD), recombining binding protein suppressor of hairless (RBP-Jκ) and transcription factor hairy and enhancer of split-1 (Hes-1) in microglia in postnatal rat brain and in BV-2 microglia. Remarkably, Gastrodin was found to markedly attenuate the expression of the above various biomarkers both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, increased phosphorylation level of ERK, JNK and P38 induced by LPS was attenuated with pretreatment of Notch-1 signaling inhibitor, N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alany1-Sphenyglycinet-butylester (DAPT) as well as Gastrodin. Gastrodin mimicked the effects of DAPT by inhibiting the LPS-induced expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, TNF-α and NO. Moreover, lentivirus transfection mediated NICD overexpression inhibited the anti-inflammatory effects of Gastrodin. Furthermore, the activation of Notch-1 signaling promoted microglia migration and Gastrodin could inhibit the migration of activated BV-2 microglia by regulating the Notch-1 signaling pathway. In light of the above, our results indicate that Notch-1 signaling pathway is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of Gastrodin against LPS-induced microglia activation. These findings provide a new biological target of Gastrodin for the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-021-08671-1
       
  • Diagnostic Performance of miR-485-3p in Patients with Parkinson’s
           Disease and its Relationship with Neuroinflammation

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      Abstract: Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Some microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the development of many neurological diseases. This study aims to evaluate the clinical significance and biological function of miR-485-3p in the development and progression of PD. The expression of miR-485-3p in serum of PD patients was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). LPS-treated microglia BV2 cells were used to mimic neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of PD. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The diagnosis value of miR-485-3p was evaluated by plotting receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. A luciferase reporter assay was performed to demonstrate the interaction between miR-485-3p and FBXO45. The results showed that miR-485-3p was significantly up-regulated in serum of PD patients compared with that in both Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and healthy cases, and had diagnostic accuracy for PD screening. The activated microglia BV2 cells induced by LPS also had elevated miR-485-3p, and the knockdown of miR-485-3p inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. FBXO protein 45 (FBXO45) served as a potential target of miR-485-3p, which was speculated to mediate the function of miR-485-3p. Our results suggest that the up-regulated expression of miR-485-3p in PD may be a novel diagnostic biomarker for PD. Reducing the expression level of miR-485-3p can inhibit the inflammatory responses of BV2 cells, which indicated that miR-485-3p, as a regulator of neuroinflammation, may have the potential as a therapeutic target in PD.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-021-08676-w
       
  • Butanol Extract of Tinospora cordifolia Alleviates Acute Sleep
           Deprivation-Induced Impairments in Cognitive Functions and Neuromuscular
           Coordination in Middle-Aged Female Rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Sleep deprivation due to present-day lifestyle and late-hours work commitments are associated with a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral complications. Moreover, women, as they age, become prone to the cumulative effects of menopause such as sleep disturbances, adiposity, and inflammation which are attributed to a compromised immuno-neuro-endocrine axis. So far, no effective therapeutic remedy is available to mitigate the adverse effects of SD. The current study was aimed to elucidate the neuroprotective potential of n-Butanol fraction obtained from hydroalcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (B-TCE). Four groups of female rats are (1) Vehicle-undisturbed sleep, (2) Vehicle-sleep deprived (between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.), (3) B-TCE oral feeding for 2 weeks and sleep deprivation, and (4) B-TCE alone undisturbed sleep group. Novel Object Recognition test was used to study cognitive impairments and Rotarod for motor coordination. Rats were then sacrificed to study the expression of various marker proteins in the hippocampus and piriform cortex regions of the brain by western blotting. SD was observed to impair the exploratory behavior and neuromuscular coordination, whereas, B-TCE pre-treatment was observed to ameliorate these behavioral functions’- impairments and further suppressed the changes in the expression of markers for synaptic plasticity, inflammation, cell survival, and apoptosis pathways. The current data suggest that B-TCE may be effective in the management of acute SD-associated impairments in learning and memory functions and neuromuscular coordination.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-021-08683-x
       
  • Long Noncoding RNA LINC01518 Modulates Proliferation and Migration in
           TGF-β1-Treated Human Tenon Capsule Fibroblast Cells Through the
           Regulation of hsa-miR-216b-5p

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we investigated the expression and functions of long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) of LINC01518 in an in vitro model of TGF-β1-treated human Tenon capsule fibroblast (HTF) cells. qRT-PCR was used to examine LINC01518 expression in in situ human glaucoma tissues, and in vitro HTF cells treated with TGF-β1. Lentivirus-mediated LINC01518 knockdown was performed in HTF cells to investigate its effect on TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation, migration and autophagy signaling pathway. The potential ceRNA candidate of LINC01518, hsa-miR-216b-5p, was probed by dual-luciferase assay and qRT-PCR. Hsa-miR-216b-5p was also knocked down in LINC01518-downregulated HTF cells to investigate the function of this lncRNA-miRNA epigenetic axis in TGF-β1-treated HTF cells. LINC01518 was upregulated in human glaucoma tissues and cultured HTF cells. LINC01518 downregulation significantly suppressed TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation, migration and autophagy signaling pathway in HTF cells. Hsa-miR-216b-5p was confirmed to be a ceRNA target of LINC01518. Knocking down hsa-miR-216b-5p reversed the suppressing effects of LINC01518 downregulation in TGF-β1-treated HTF cells. Our study demonstrated that LINC01518 is a functional factor in regulating proliferation and migration in TGF-β1-treated HTF cells, and hsa-miR-216b -5p may also be involved. Targeting the epigenetic axis of LINC01518/hsa-miR-216b-5p may provide new insight into the pathological development of human glaucoma.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-021-08662-2
       
  • Receptor-Interacting Protein 140 Enhanced Temozolomide-Induced Cellular
           Apoptosis Through Regulation of E2F1 in Human Glioma Cell Lines

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      Abstract: Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM), a grade IV glioma, is responsible for the highest years of potential life lost among cancers. The poor prognosis is attributable to its high recurrence rate, caused in part by the development of resistance to chemotherapy. Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a very versatile coregulator of nuclear receptors and transcription factors. Although many of the pathways regulated by RIP140 contribute significantly to cancer progression, the function of RIP140 in GBM remains to be determined. In this study, we found that higher RIP140 expression was associated with prolonged survival in patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Intracellular RIP140 levels were increased after E2F1 activation following temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, which in turn modulated the expression of E2F1-targeted apoptosis-related genes. Overexpression of RIP140 reduced glioma cell proliferation and migration, induced cellular apoptosis, and sensitized GBM cells to TMZ. Conversely, knockdown of RIP140 increased TMZ resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that RIP140 prolongs the survival of patients with GBM both by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and migration and by increasing cellular sensitivity to chemotherapy. This study helps improve our understanding of glioma recurrence and may facilitate the development of more effective treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-021-08667-x
       
  • Influence of Simulated Deep Brain Stimulation on the Expression of
           Inflammatory Mediators by Human Central Nervous System Cells In Vitro

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      Abstract: Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) seems to modulate inflammatory processes. Whether this modulation leads to an induction or suppression of inflammatory mediators is still controversially discussed. Most studies of the influence of electrical stimulation on inflammation were conducted in rodent models with direct current stimulation and/or long impulses, both of which differ from the pattern in DBS. This makes comparisons with the clinical condition difficult. We established an in-vitro model that simulated clinical stimulation patterns to investigate the influence of electrical stimulation on proliferation and survival of human astroglial cells, microglia, and differentiated neurons. We also examined its influence on the expression of the inflammatory mediators C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL)12, CXCL16, CC-chemokin-ligand-2 (CCL)2, CCL20, and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 by these cells using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, protein expression was assessed by immunofluorescence double staining. In our model, electrical stimulation did not affect proliferation or survival of the examined cell lines. There was a significant upregulation of CXCL12 in the astrocyte cell line SVGA, and of IL-1β in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells at both messenger RNA and protein levels. Our model allowed a valid examination of chemokines and cytokines associated with inflammation in human brain cells. With it, we detected the induction of inflammatory mediators by electrical stimulation in astrocytes and neurons.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-021-08674-y
       
  • Altered Expression of miR-575 in Glioma is Related to Tumor Cell
           Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion

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      Abstract: Abstract Glioma is a kind of brain tumor with low overall survival and treatment success rates in the advanced stage. Evidence has shown microRNA-575 (miR-575) plays an important role in the generation and development of various cancers. This study aimed to explore the function of miR-575 in the prognosis and cell biological behavior of glioma. qRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of miR-575 in glioma tissues and cells, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the prognostic value. The proliferation ability of glioma cells was determined by MTT assay; the invasion and migration abilities were determined by transwell assays. Compared with normal brain tissues, the expression of miR-575 in glioma tissue cells was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.001). The survival rate of patients in the miR-575 high expression group was significantly lower than that in the low expression group (P = 0.020). In addition, the overexpression of miR-575 promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. The results of this study suggested that miR-575 may be a new biomarker for the prognosis of glioma.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12017-021-08679-7
       
 
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