Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy, Ecology and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues     Open Access  
EnviroLab Asia     Open Access  
Environment & Ecosystem Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environment and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Environment and Ecology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment and Natural Resources Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environment and Planning A : Economy and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Environment and Planning B : Urban Analytics and City Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Environment and Planning C : Politics and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Environment and Planning D : Society and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environment and Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environment International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Environment, Space, Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Environmental & Engineering Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental & Socio-economic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Advances     Open Access  
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Bioindicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access  
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Claims Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental DNA     Open Access  
Environmental Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Forensics     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Health Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental Impact Assessment Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Environmental Management and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Environmental Modelling & Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability     Open Access  
Environmental Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Science & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Environmental Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science : Atmospheres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science and Ecotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Science: Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Skeptics and Critics     Open Access  
Environmental Smoke     Open Access  
Environmental Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Systems Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Technology & Innovation     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Technology Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Values     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Environments     Open Access  
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
eScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ethics & the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethics, Policy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études caribéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration     Hybrid Journal  
European Energy and Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
European Environment: The Journal of European Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evolutionary Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Working and Living Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fire Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fordham Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Freshwater Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Fronteiras : Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science     Open Access  
Frontier of Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Frontiers in Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Water     Open Access  
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Future Cities and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Geo : Geography and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Geo-Image     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geochemical Transactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
GeoHealth     Open Access  
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GeoScience Engineering     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geosystems and Geoenvironment     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Environmental Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Journal of Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Green Energy & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management     Hybrid Journal  
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Harvard Environmental Law Review     Free   (Followers: 12)
Health Services Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health, Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hidrobiológica     Open Access  
Historia Ambiental Latinoamericana y Caribeña     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
História, Natureza e Espaço - Revista Eletrônica do Grupo de Pesquisa NIESBF     Open Access  
Home Health Care Management & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IMA Journal of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Green Technology Journal     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Indoor Air     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Information Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Informs Journal on Applied Analytics:     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental     Open Access  
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Innovative Infrastructure Solutions     Hybrid Journal  
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Aquatic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Ecology & Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environment and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

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Frontiers in Water
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-9375
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Seasonality in Environmental Conditions Drive Variation in Plankton
           Communities in a Shallow Tropical Lake

    • Authors: Benjamin N. Kondowe, Frank O. Masese, Phillip O. Raburu, Wales Singini, Augustine Sitati, Riziki Jacques Walumona
      Abstract: Factors influencing the spatio-temporal dynamics of plankton communities in small tropical lakes are not well-understood. This study assessed plankton communities in response to spatial (six sampling sites) and seasonal (wet vs. dry seasons) changes in environmental variables in Lake Kanyaboli, a small satellite lake on the northern shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Water quality variables, including pH, conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, Secchi depth (SD), nitrates (NO3-), nitrites (NO2-), ammonium (NH4+), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), were monitored monthly at six sites spread throughout the lake for 1 year. Phytoplankton and zooplankton samples were collected and analyzed for taxon composition and abundance. Two-way ANOVA showed no significant interaction between site and season for all variables. Likewise, there were no significant spatial differences for all variables except Chl- a. A t-test showed significant seasonal differences in SD, DO, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, and TN. Thirty phytoplankton genera were identified belonging to Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Euglenoidae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Zygnematophyceae, with Chlorophyceae being the most dominant (42.30%). Zooplankton comprised of 15 genera, belonging to Copepoda (55.4%), Rotifera (27.9%), and Cladocera (16.7%). Two-way ANOVA for plankton abundance showed no significant interaction between site and season, but there were significant differences in community composition between the wet and dry seasons. Canonical correspondence analysis identified water clarity (Secchi depth) and concentrations of dissolved fractions of nitrogen and phosphorus as the major water quality variables driving variation in the composition of plankton communities in the lake. This study showed that seasonality was a major driver of changes in plankton community composition between dry and wet seasons through changes in the concentrations of nutrients (NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, TN, and TP). Lake Kanyaboli's phytoplankton community indicated a non-equilibrial state, perhaps due to short residence times of water, especially during the wet season, and dense macrophytes fringing the lake that increase nutrient uptake and limit the dominance of select phytoplankton species. This study shows the importance of long-term studies covering dry and wet seasons to understand the dynamics of plankton communities and their drivers in small tropical waterbodies to inform management and conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T00:00:00Z
  • Ten Years of Research on the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: An Analysis of
           Topics Evolution

    • Authors: Lira Luz Benites Lazaro, Rodrigo Augusto Bellezoni, Jose Antonio Puppim de Oliveira, Pedro Roberto Jacobi, Leandro Luiz Giatti
      Abstract: This study explores how the concept and research on the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus has evolved over time. The research uncovers the key terms underpinning the phenomenon, maps the interlinkages between WEF nexus topics, and provides an overview of the evolution of the concept of WEF nexus. We analyzed published academic literature from the Scopus database and performed both qualitative and quantitative analyses using Natural Language Processing method. The findings suggest that the nexus approach is increasingly evolving into an integrative concept, and has been incorporating new topics over time, resulting in different methods for WEF nexus research, with a focus on interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral analyses. Through the five periods outlined, we have identified the nexus approach debate focused on the following predominant topics: i) Trend 1 (2012–2016) debates on WEF nexus for water management and natural resource security, ii) Trend 2 (2017–2018) linkages between the nexus, the sustainable development goals and green economy, iii) Trend 3 (2019) WEF nexus governance and policy integration, iv) Trend 4 (2020) application of the nexus concept on different scales, including regions, countries, watersheds, urban areas as well as other components coupled to the WEF nexus, and, v) Trend 5 (2021) climate change and urban nexus challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Modeling-Based Approaches for Water Resources Problems

    • Authors: Marwan Fahs, Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani, Thomas Graf, Maarten W. Saaltink, Craig T. Simmons, Anis Younes
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T00:00:00Z
  • Commercial Real-Estate at Risk: An Examination of Commercial Building and
           Economic Impacts in the United States Using a High-Precision Flood Risk
           Assessment Tool|Classification Codes

    • Authors: Jeremy R. Porter, Evelyn G. Shu, Mike F. Amodeo, Neil Freeman, Mark Bauer, Ibrahim Almufti, Meg Ackerson, Jinal Mehta
      Abstract: Environmental changes are predicted to exacerbate changes in flood events, resulting in consequences for exposed systems. While the availability and quality of flood risk analyses are generally increasing, very little attention has been paid to flood impacts related to the commercial market. This is notable given that the commercial market is often made up of the most valuable physical structures in communities, employs much of the local labor force, and generally plays a key role in the sustainability of economies. This study provides the first national spatial model of flood risk for commercial and multi-unit residential buildings at a property level resolution within the United States. This is achieved through the use of high-resolution inputs (hazard and property data), flood hazard information for the four major flood types, multi-return period hazard information, component-based depth-damage functions, GDP and economic multipliers information, and future facing projections. This study estimates that over the next 30 years, the absolute count of commercial and multi-unit buildings with risk will increase 8%, structural damage costs will increase 25.4%, downtime days will increase 29.1%, and economic impacts will increase 26.5%. Additionally, these impacts are concentrated in certain spatial locations. A high resolution model capturing flood risk as related to these commercial buildings is important for a comprehensive understanding of overall flood risk within the United States.Classification CodesJEL C30, E00, G17, M20, R10, R30
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
  • Hydrogeologic and Thermal Effects of Glaciations on the Intracontinental
           Basins in Central and Northern Europe

    • Authors: Maximilian Frick, Mauro Cacace, Volker Klemann, Lev Tarasov, Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth
      Abstract: We use a fully coupled hydro-thermal model (TH) to quantify changes in the pore pressure and temperature distribution following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the intracontinental basins in Central and Northern Europe. We demonstrate that even without considering a direct mechanical coupling from the visco-elastic lithosphere rebound, the system is, at present-day, in a state of hydrogeologic and thermal disequilibrium as a result of the past ice sheet dynamics. We find that the local geology exerts an additional control on the subsurface response to imposed glacial loading, as evidenced by a contrasting thermal and pore pressure configuration in time and space. Highest rates of pore pressure dissipation are restricted to crustal domains that underwent substantial glacial loading, while the majority of the sedimentary sub-basins show a prominent signature of hydraulic disequilibrium (overpressure) at present. Groundwater-driven convective cooling and heating during the advance and retreat of the ice cap occurred mainly within sedimentary rocks, domains where thermal equilibration is ongoing. The spatial correlation between modeled pore pressure dissipation rates and postglacial uplift rates is indicative of a complex and transient hydrogeological system structurally connected to the viscous tail of the ongoing isostatic adjustment after the LGM, with important implications for assessing the long-term mechanical stability of this intraplate setting.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
  • CaPO4-Mediated CKD of Crystallo-Tubular-Nephropathy [CKD-CTN]—A Crystal
           and Nanotube-Induced Geo-Environmental

    • Authors: Sunil J. Wimalawansa, Chandra B. Dissanayake
      Abstract: ImportanceMore than forty million people from certain tropical countries are at risk of developing a non-conventional form of chronic kidney disease (CKD), CKD of multifactorial etiology (CKDmfo). This is also known as CKD of unknown etiology (CKDu). Worldwide, it kills more than 20,000 people annually.FindingsCKDmfo is a chronic tubulointerstitial renal disease caused by groundwater-induced hydroxy- and fluorapatite nano-crystals and nano-tube formation in renal tubules and cortical tissues, in conjunction with chronic intravascular volume depletion, chronic renal anaemia, and ischemia. To manifest this gradually developing renal failure, consuming hard water having, higher concentrations of calcium, phosphates, and fluoride for more than 10 years is necessary. The disease progresses when the kidneys fail to repair or due to ongoing renal tissue damage in the presence of micronutrient deficiency, chronic dehydration, renal ischemia, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. These prevents regenerations of renal tissues.ConclusionConsumption of stagnant groundwater concentrated with ions, like Ca2+, PO4, and F− due to prolonged annual droughts over many years, in conjunction with lesser water intake and chronic dehydration, creates a conducive internal milieu for CaPO4 crystallisation in renal tissues. This proposed primary etiology of the crystal-tubular-nephropathy (CTN) provides an insight into a deeper understanding of the use of cost-effective strategies for prevention, early intervention, and eradication of CKD-CTN. In addition to the nano-crystal/nano-tube concept, we provide supporting scientific evidence that Mg2+ in water and the diet does not promote the disease; instead, it prevents crystal formation and developing CKDmfo, as with some other CKDs.RelevanceWe present novel CaPO4 hydroxyapatite crystal formation concepts in a hyperosmolar fluid in renal tissues that causes CKDmfo. Besides, the protective (e.g., magnesium) and enhancing (e.g., dehydration, drinking stagnant hard water) mechanisms that cause CKD-CTN are explored. A new understanding of causative mechanisms paves a path for cost-effective targeted interventions to prevent and eliminate CKDmfo. These principles apply to all CKDmfo/CKDu-affected countries to protect the renal health of farm labourers and others who regularly engage in physical work in hot and dry environments. Providing affordable potable water, increasing water consumption, and avoiding harmful behaviours are critical measures for eliminating CKDmfo.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T00:00:00Z
  • River Response to Melting Cryosphere Since Late Quaternary in the Pir
           Panjal Range of NW Himalaya

    • Authors: Reyaz Ahmad Dar, Khalid Omar Murtaza, Omar Jaan Paul, Azra Un Nisa, Nida Akhter, Farooq Ahmad Dar, Riyaz Ahmad Mir
      Abstract: Rambiara River basin, a sub-basin of the Upper Indus, is dotted with fluvial and glacial geomorphic landforms. The presence of large number of glacial landforms like moraines, cirques, aretes, U-shaped valleys, etc. reflects the enormous erosive power of the past glaciers. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), glaciers on average were 200 m thick and extended more than 10 km from the present-day cirque marks. Rock glaciers outnumber the clean glaciers that cover an area of 0.22 and 1.25 km2, respectively, in the basin. Glacial lakes are the prominent features in the higher reaches of the basin and occupy an area ranging from 0.01 to 0.70 km2. Downstream, the river is characterized by large channel width, anomalous sinuosity, braided pattern, and the presence of unpaired fluvial terraces. The large channel width depicts the enormous discharge from the glacial- and snow-melt during the Late Pleistocene when glaciers covered most of the Pir Panjal. After LGM, the glacier cover and the river discharge significantly decreased as highlighted by a large number of braided bars and the narrow stream to which the river is reduced. The warming trends observed across the Himalayas encompassing the Pir Panjal Range since the last century has further contributed significantly to the glacier recession in the basin.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T00:00:00Z
  • Physical Controls on Irrigation Return Flow Contributions to Stream Flow
           in Irrigated Alluvial Valleys

    • Authors: Stephen B. Ferencz, Vincent C. Tidwell
      Abstract: Irrigation can be a significant source of groundwater recharge in many agricultural regions, particularly in arid and semi-arid climates. Once infiltrated, irrigation recharge can travel via subsurface flowpaths that return to the river system in a lagged manner, supplementing natural streamflow weeks, months, or even years from when the irrigation was applied. In regions that experience low flows during summer and early fall, return flows can be a significant source of supplementary streamflow. Many water planning and operations models either ignore return flows or roughly approximate them with analytical solutions. Thus, return flows represent an important but often overlooked component of the hydrological exchange and overall water balance in agricultural regions. This study uses groundwater models to explore a wide range of factors that control irrigation return flow timing in irrigated alluvial valleys. A sensitivity analysis approach is used to assess how factors such as the extent of irrigated land adjacent to a stream, irrigation recharge rate, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, aquifer thickness, water table configuration, and seasonal fluctuations in stream stage control the timing of subsurface return flows. Modeling is conducted using MODFLOW models representing an irrigated alluvial valley adjacent to a stream. While a simplification of the full complexity in real systems, the models are a significant advancement from the analytical solution and provide new insight into the timescales of return flows over a broad range of possible conditions. To contextualize our modeling results, they are compared to an analytical solution commonly used for approximating return flows to evaluate its performance. Our findings show what factors and conditions influence return flow timing and control whether they contribute to streamflow over short term (months) or longer term (seasonal) time scales.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T00:00:00Z
  • Policymakers, Consider Reducing Reliability

    • Authors: Brian Davidson, Petra Hellegers, Biju George, Hector Malano
      Abstract: In this study, the physical and economic impacts of four policy measures (crop diversification, improved watershed development, canal lining and reducing the level of reliability) all designed to improve bulk water supply, are assessed in a case study of the Musi catchment of India. The aim is to compare the impacts these policy measures have on the amount of bulk water supplied and the net economic returns across a complex multi-nodal catchment. It is argued that because it is policymakers who make decisions regarding these measures, an assessment of the private benefits to a subset of users would not be adequate. Rather, the society wide costs and benefits need to be considered. Using a hydroeconomic model of the catchment it was found that reducing the level of reliability was the most beneficial outcome from both a physical and economic perspective. The other three measures were found to have some adverse impacts on regions not directly affected by the measure.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T00:00:00Z
  • Mass- and Energy-Balance Modeling and Sublimation Losses on Dokriani Bamak
           and Chhota Shigri Glaciers in Himalaya Since 1979

    • Authors: Smriti Srivastava, Mohd. Farooq Azam
      Abstract: Available surface energy balance (SEB) studies on the Himalayan glaciers generally investigate the melt-governing energy fluxes at a point-scale. Further, the annual glacier-wide mass balance (Ba) reconstructions have often been performed using temperature-index (T-index) models. In the present study, a mass- and energy-balance model is used to simulate the Ba on Dokriani Bamak Glacier (DBG, central Himalaya) and Chhota Shigri Glacier (CSG, western Himalaya) using the bias-corrected ERA5 data from 1979 to 2020. The model is calibrated using in-situ Ba and validated against available in-situ altitudinal and geodetic mass balances. DBG and CSG show mean Ba of −0.27 ± 0.32 and −0.31 ± 0.38 m w.e. a−1 (meter water equivalent per year), respectively, from 1979 to 2020. Glacier-wide net shortwave radiation dominates the SEB followed by longwave net radiation, latent heat flux, and sensible heat flux. The losses through sublimation are around 22% on DBG and 20% on CSG to the total ablation with a strong spatial and temporal variability. Modeled Ba is highly sensitive to snow albedo —with sensitivities of 0.29 and 0.37 m w.e. a−1 for 10% change in the calibrated value—on DBG and CSG, respectively. The sensitivity of the modeled mean Ba to 1°C change in air temperature and 10% change in precipitation, respectively is higher on DBG (−0.50 m w.e. a−1°C−1, 0.23 m w.e. a−1) than the CSG (−0.30 m w.e. a−1°C−1, 0.13 m w.e. a−1). This study provides insights into the regional variations in mass-wastage governing SEB fluxes at a glacier-wide scale, which is helpful for understanding the glacier–climate interactions in the Himalaya and stresses an inclusion of sublimation scheme in T-index models.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T00:00:00Z
  • Can Prediction and Understanding of Water Quality Variation Be Improved by
           Combining Phosphorus Source and Waterbody Condition Parameters'

    • Authors: Marc Stutter, Miriam Glendell, Adekunle Ibiyemi, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, Linda May
      Abstract: Phosphorus (P) pollution impairs river systems globally. There is long-standing interest in understanding catchment source P loads to inform mitigation to improve water quality. However, P sources to the hydrosphere differ individually in discharge behaviour, P intensity, bioavailability, and cumulative impacts. River condition also varies (e.g., riparian disturbance, climate change impacts) such that source and river resilience are likely synergistic but poorly studied controls on water quality variation. To challenge the use of overly-simplistic factors (e.g., basic soils and landcover) in empirical catchment pollution source-impact assessments, we pooled spatial data according to conceptual aspects of P source mechanisms and waterbody riparian condition. These were related empirically to P concentrations and loads, and trophic diatom indices, for 19 Scottish catchments (~10–250 km2) representing some mechanistic aspects of pollution loading and river impacts. Sources of P from septic tanks and farmyards influenced loads and ecological impacts. Some secondary calculations pooling spatial data such as septic tank source-delivery methods were novel, involving complex, but available, soil water flowpath data. In contrast, inclusion of channel condition and farmyard P loads used simple aerial imagery. Multiple Factor Analysis combined with Redundancy Analysis showed that source P loads expressed as bioavailable forms of P were better explanatory factors of diatom classification groups than stream soluble reactive P concentrations, although used together they improved explanation further. Riparian quality metrics were less powerful predictors than expected, likely with more scale-dependant effects on ecological functions than can be quantified by visual condition assessment on isolated short reaches. There was strong justification for examining separate P fractions (total, dissolved, particulate and bioavailable forms) by distinct catchment source types to understand better nutrient dynamics across land to waters, ecosystem degradation and waterbody impacts in the contemporary hydrosphere.
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T00:00:00Z
  • Natural Sources and Anthropogenic Influences on the River Water and
           Groundwater Chemistry of the Lower Mahanadi Basin: Insights From
           Radiogenic Sr Isotopes and Major Ion Chemistry

    • Authors: Shiba Shankar Acharya, Valens Hishamunda, Ramananda Chakrabarti
      Abstract: The Mahanadi River ranks second among the rivers in the peninsular India in terms of water potential and flows through a geologically heterogeneous terrain. The present study uses a multiproxy approach, involving concentrations of major ions, and 87Sr/86Sr of the dissolved phases in seasonally collected river water and groundwater samples from the Lower Mahanadi Basin to investigate the sources of ions, the Cl-enrichment in the river water, the influences of the man-made structures like the Naraj Barrage, and the role of fertilizers on the chemistry of the river water. This study also provides the first estimate of the radiogenic Sr-flux of the Mahanadi River to the Bay of Bengal. Both inverse and forward models were used to evaluate the contributions of different sources to the dissolved ions of the Mahanadi River over different seasons. The results suggest that even in the predominantly silicate watershed of the Lower Mahanadi River, the riverine chemistry is modulated primarily by carbonate dissolution farther upstream followed by silicate weathering although, the contributions vary seasonally. The Naraj Barrage, which divides the main channel of the Lower Mahanadi River into several distributaries marks a divide between the less polluted upstream and the more polluted downstream. The radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr of the Mahanadi River water can be explained by mixing of four endmembers: Proterozoic carbonates, Archean silicates, rainwater, and fertilizers. The dominance of agricultural input during monsoon is consistent with high loadings of nitrates and phosphates used as fertilizers in the Mahanadi River basin along with a strong positive relationship between phosphate concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr of the river water samples. The flux-weighted averages of Sr concentration and 87Sr/86Sr to the Bay of Bengal were found to be 1.03 μmol/l and 0.72154, respectively. The groundwater composition of the Lower Mahanadi Basin is modulated by the mixing of four endmembers, viz. weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks, Bay of Bengal seawater, and fertilizer inputs. The groundwater samples of the Mahanadi basin show an average Sr concentration of 5.45 μmol/l and an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.71772.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T00:00:00Z
  • Assessing the Quantity and Quality Controls of the Freshwater Lens on a
           Semi-Arid Coral-Limestone Island in Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Chen Lester R. Wu, Tibor Y. Stigter, Simon G. Craig
      Abstract: Uncertainties in the contamination and salinization mechanisms of the freshwater lens (FWL) in the semi-arid coral-limestone aquifer of Delft Island, Sri Lanka threatens its water security. The processes governing the quality and distribution of the FWL were therefore investigated through recharge assessment and hydrochemical analysis. Potential groundwater recharge zones based on land classification and geology were first identified. A rootzone water balance model was then built, which revealed the spatiotemporal variability of potential groundwater recharge occurring rapidly during the wet season (October to January) and most abundantly on pasture land underlain by yellow and brown sand. Recharge also varied largely between dry and wet years. Where the water table was shallow, intense rainfall in wet years was seen to result in surface flooding. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC combined with diagrams (Piper and Stiff) and scatter plots, including stable water isotopes, revealed the meteoric origin of groundwater with salinization mainly caused by seawater mixing and slight evaporation. Findings also suggest that salinization is driven by the island's low-lying nature (maximum elevation of 6 m above sea level), the low hydraulic heads (maximum of 3.7 m above sea level), the shallow depth of the marine water, the presence of lagoons in the center which are inferred to be in hydraulic continuity with the ocean, and to some extent by unregulated abstraction of groundwater through shallow hand-dug wells. We hypothesize about infiltration and percolation of saline water through the root zone during storm inundations near the coast, supported by the combined occurrence of high values of partial CO2 pressure, alkalinity and salinity in groundwater samples. Cation exchange showed indications of salinization of wells mostly in low lying areas (minimum Na/Cl value of 0.66), and freshening in areas near the coast with high potential groundwater recharge (maximum Na/Cl value of 1.04). Elevated nitrate concentrations (maximum of 2.55 mmol/L NO3-) in groundwater samples were observed. This suggests that anthropogenic contamination is further threatening the already scarce resource as well as coastal ecosystems that may be groundwater dependent.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T00:00:00Z
  • Commission for the Upper Cauca River Basin Recovery, Collaborative
           Governance for Sustainability and Water Security

    • Authors: Luis Dario Sánchez Torres, Alberto Galvis Castaño, Mario Andres Gandini, Gloria Almario, Maria Victoria Montero, María Virginia Vergara
      Abstract: Rivers are essential for life, there is an indissoluble relationship between the natural system and the human system. Aquatic ecosystems guarantee ecosystem services to the human system, on the other hand, the human system makes use of these services and as a result of this generates effects on the natural system. However, an over use of these services could adversely impact the natural system. Therefore, the recovery of rivers is a priority for the planet. This work describes the progress of the Commission for the recovery of the upper Cauca river basin as a collaborative governance for sustainability and water security in the region. The upper basin is between the Colombian massif in the department of Cauca and the municipality of Cartago in Valle del Cauca. It is an important natural, cultural, social, and economic resource of Colombia, but it presents a continuous deterioration of water availability, both in quantity and quality, limiting its use for human consumption and a reduction in biodiversity. This work shows that the Commission for the upper Cauca river basin recovery is a process in development. The Commission is an instance made up of public and private entities, which arises from the failure of the current model of water resource management in Colombia. The central problem is how to transcend short-term planning in administrations to long-term planning based on a shared vision. Collaborative governance is proposed as a recovery of the Cauca river based on the concept of bioculturality and the rights of nature, due to the deep relationship of unity between nature and the human species. The need to achieve a shared vision is highlighted, to act under the watershed vision with all the actors involved. In addition, minimal and conclusive indicators must be defined that society recognizes and that motivates it to advance in the recovery. The aquatic ecosystems recovery is a priority, understanding that the investments required for achieving this goal can also significantly contribute to sustainability and water security for the region.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T00:00:00Z
  • Changes in Large Lake Water Level Dynamics in Response to Climate Change

    • Authors: Alexander VanDeWeghe, Victor Lin, Jennani Jayaram, Andrew D. Gronewold
      Abstract: Understanding impacts of climate change on water level fluctuations across Earth's large lakes has critical implications for commercial and recreational boating and navigation, coastal planning, and ecological function and management. A common approach to advancing this understanding is the propagation of climate change scenarios (often from global circulation models) through regional hydrological models. We find, however, that this approach does not always fully capture water supply spatiotemporal features evolving from complex relationships between hydrologic variables. Here, we present a statistical approach for projecting plausible climate-related regional water supply scenarios into localized net basin supply sequences utilizing a parametric vine copula. This approach preserves spatial and temporal correlations between hydrologic components and allows for explicit representation and manipulation of component marginal and conditional probability distributions. We demonstrate the capabilities of our new modeling framework on the Laurentian Great Lakes by coupling our copula-derived net basin supply simulations with a newly-formulated monthly lake-to-lake routing model. This coupled system projects monthly average water levels on Lake Superior, Michigan-Huron, and Erie (we omit Lake Ontario from our study due to complications associated with simulating strict regulatory controls on its outflow). We find that our new method faithfully replicates marginal and conditional probability distributions, as well as serial autocorrelation, within and among historical net basin supply sequences. We find that our new method also reproduces seasonal and interannual water level dynamics. Using readily-available climate change simulations for the Great Lakes region, we then identified two plausible, transient, water supply scenarios and propagated them through our model to understand potential impacts on future water levels. Both scenarios result in an average water level increase of
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T00:00:00Z
  • Editorial: Water Harvesting Methods in Drylands to Increase Climate

    • Authors: Alison Parker, Tibor Y. Stigter, Daniel Odero
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T00:00:00Z
  • Low Cost, Recyclable and Magnetic Moringa Oleifera Leaves for Chromium(VI)
           Removal From Water

    • Authors: Daniel Masekela, Tunde L. Yusuf, Nomso C. Hintsho-Mbita, Nonhlangabezo Mabuba
      Abstract: Chromium(VI) a heavy metal by nature, is one of the most toxic metals in the environment. We recently reported functionalized Moringa Oleifera (FMO) leaves as a low cost and efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) and bacterial from water, as a continuation, we report the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with previously studied FMO for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. Iron oxide due to its magnetic properties has been shown to assist in the recovery of its adsorbents. In this study, in-situ co-precipitation synthesis of iron nanoparticles onto FMO was employed. During chemical precipitation, the iron precipitate tends to cover the FMO thus forming some outer-shell coating of magnetite on the surface of FMO. The Fe3O4/FMO was characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM, BET, TGA and Zeta potential. FTIR results showed a new developed intense peak at 685.6 cm−1 for Fe-O stretching, indicating successful incorporation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto FMO. Powder XRD was further use to confirm the formation and further indicated that the structure of FMO was still intact even after the Fe3O4 incorporation. The adsorption conditions such as pH, dosage, time and concentration were optimized to 2, 0.15 g, 25 min and 20 mg/L, respectively. The adsorbent was selective toward Cr(VI) since 99% was removed in the presence of interfering ions (20–100 mg/L). The adsorbent (Fe3O4/FMO) could also be reused up to 4 times with a percentage Cr(VI) removal of>80% in the 4th cycle. Adsorption kinetics studies obeyed pseudo second-order model, suggesting a chemical interaction mechanism (chemisorption) between Fe3O4/FMO and Cr(VI). Therefore, the adsorbent has shown that it can be used for selective removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater and potentially other heavy metals as well.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T00:00:00Z
  • Isotopic Heterogeneity of Stem Water in Conifers Is Correlated to Xylem
           Hydraulic Traits and Supports Multiple Residence Times

    • Authors: William H. Bowers, David G. Williams
      Abstract: The isotopic composition of xylem water is frequently measured to identify sources of plant water uptake and evaluate the ecosystem water budget. The most common approach to sample xylem water is cryogenic vacuum distillation (CVD). However, the water recovered by CVD is total xylem water from the complex xylem tissue, including living xylem parenchyma cells, embolized tracheary conduits, and small or disconnected conduits that may have a different isotopic composition from water conducted through conduits of the dominant flow from roots to leaves. The isotopic composition of water in the dominant flow network is likely more representative of the isotopic composition of daily transpiration whereas the total xylem water likely integrates water with a longer residence time that may undergo exchange with organic compounds. An alternative extraction method using a pressure chamber (PC) can capture predominantly the transpiration-stream water through the dominant flow network. We compared the offsets in the isotopic composition of water recovered using CVD and PC from eight conifer species that vary in xylem anatomical and functional traits. The PC method accessed a significantly distinct isotopic domain of stem xylem water compared to the total xylem water accessed by CVD (δ2H, p = 0.012; δ18O, p = 0.028). The difference between δ2H of stem water extracted by PC and CVD methods (Δ2Hstem) was significantly correlated with stem water content (p = 0.048) and the mean Δ2Hstem for each species had a significant relationship with species-specific xylem vulnerability to cavitation (i.e., ψ50) from literature values (p = 0.030). We found a significant positive relationship between Δ2Hstem and Δ18Ostem across all trees sampled (p =
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T00:00:00Z
  • Application of Distributed Ledger Platforms in Smart Water Systems—A
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Mahdi Asgari, Mehdi Nemati
      Abstract: The application of distributed ledger technologies, including blockchain, is rapidly growing in governance, transport, supply chain, and logistics. Today, blockchain technology is promoted as the heart of Smart Cities. This study reviews the potential of blockchain application in water management systems. We surveyed the literature and organized the previous studies based on three main application topics: Smart Water Systems, Water Quality Monitoring, and Storm Water Management. Also, we addressed technical, organizational, social, and institutional challenges that may hinder the adoption of Blockchain technology. Water management systems need to have a long-term commitment plan, update their organizational policies, and acquire relevant knowledge and expertise before successfully adopting any distributed ledger technology.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T00:00:00Z
  • Contamination and Removal Efficiency of Microplastics and Synthetic Fibres
           in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    • Authors: Angel Negrete Velasco, Stéphan Ramseier Gentile, Stéphane Zimmermann, Serge Stoll
      Abstract: Microplastics have been detected all around the globe in freshwaters which are frequently used to produce drinking water. Therefore, the contamination of raw water with microplastics that supplies drinking water treatment plants, and their removal efficiency is raising more concern and interest. In the present study, we evaluated the microplastic contamination in a conventional drinking water treatment plant (Geneva, Switzerland) and the contribution of coagulation on the efficiency of the filtration systems (sand and activated carbon filtrations) in the removal efficiency of microplastics (MPs) and synthetic fibres. This work was performed in a pilot station that replicates the main drinking water treatment process. Raw water and effluents of each filtering processes were analysed for the presence of MPs and synthetic fibres with sizes ≥ 63 μm using infrared spectroscopy. The contamination of MPs in raw water and in drinking water ranged from 19.5 to 143.5 MPs/m3 and from 0 to 8 MPs/m3 (in presence and absence of coagulant), respectively. On the other hand, concentration of synthetic fibres ranged from 7.7 to 23.8 synthetic fibres/m3 in raw water and from 0 to 3 synthetic fibres/m3 in drinking water. Results show that on average 89% of microplastics and 81% of synthetic fibres (≥63 μm) are retained in water treatment in absence of coagulant. Better final removal efficiency of microplastics (97%) and synthetic fibres (96%) was observed in drinking water with coagulation treatment. The chemical composition of microplastics and synthetic fibres is found more heterogeneous in raw water than after sand filtration and activated carbon filtration.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T00:00:00Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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