Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)     - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)    - POLLUTION (31 journals)    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals) ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5
 Showing 201 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically Energy and Environment Research       (Followers: 13) Energy and Environmental Engineering       (Followers: 5) Energy, Ecology and Environment Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues EnviroLab Asia Environment & Ecosystem Science       (Followers: 2) Environment and Behavior       (Followers: 24) Environment and Development Economics       (Followers: 43) Environment and Ecology Research       (Followers: 9) Environment and Natural Resources Research       (Followers: 5) Environment and Planning A : Economy and Space       (Followers: 56) Environment and Planning B : Urban Analytics and City Science       (Followers: 39) Environment and Planning C : Politics and Space       (Followers: 44) Environment and Planning D : Society and Space       (Followers: 76) Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space       (Followers: 3) Environment and Pollution       (Followers: 10) Environment and Society       (Followers: 9) Environment 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(Followers: 10) Environments Erwerbs-Obstbau eScience       (Followers: 1) Estuaries and Coasts       (Followers: 22) Ethics & the Environment       (Followers: 7) Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics       (Followers: 5) Ethics, Policy & Environment       (Followers: 11) Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management       (Followers: 3) Études caribéennes       (Followers: 1) Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration European Energy and Environmental Law Review       (Followers: 14) European Environment: The Journal of European Environmental Policy       (Followers: 5) European Journal of Ecology       (Followers: 1) European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering       (Followers: 5) European Journal of Environmental Sciences       (Followers: 1) European Spatial Research and Policy       (Followers: 9) Evolutionary Ecology       (Followers: 25) Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology Exposure and Health Facta Universitatis, Series : Working and Living Environmental Protection       (Followers: 1) FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo       (Followers: 1) Fire Ecology       (Followers: 2) Food and Chemical Toxicology       (Followers: 18) Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal Food and Environment Safety       (Followers: 3) Fordham Environmental Law Review       (Followers: 4) Forest Ecology and Management       (Followers: 61) Foresta Veracruzana Forestry Chronicle       (Followers: 9) Freshwater Biology       (Followers: 32) Fronteiras : Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science Frontier of Environmental Science       (Followers: 2) Frontiers in Climate       (Followers: 4) Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment       (Followers: 72) Frontiers in Environmental Science       (Followers: 1) Frontiers in Water Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering       (Followers: 3) Future Cities and Environment       (Followers: 5) FUTY Journal of the Environment Geo : Geography and Environment       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Review       (Followers: 12) Health Services Management Research       (Followers: 16) Health, Safety and Environment       (Followers: 34) Hereditas       (Followers: 1) Hidrobiológica Historia Ambiental Latinoamericana y Caribeña       (Followers: 2) História, Natureza e Espaço - Revista Eletrônica do Grupo de Pesquisa NIESBF Home Health Care Management & Practice       (Followers: 1) Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology       (Followers: 10) Human & Experimental Toxicology       (Followers: 8) Human Ecology       (Followers: 24) Hydrology: Current Research       (Followers: 9) Ideas in Ecology and Evolution       (Followers: 9) IMA Journal of Management Mathematics       (Followers: 1) Indonesian Green Technology Journal Indonesian Journal of Conservation Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management Indoor Air       (Followers: 2) Information Systems Management       (Followers: 10) Informs Journal on Applied Analytics:       (Followers: 15) Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental Inhalation Toxicology       (Followers: 9) Innovative Infrastructure Solutions Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management       (Followers: 8) Interdisciplinary Environmental Review       (Followers: 3) International Aquatic Research       (Followers: 4) International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health       (Followers: 7) International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education       (Followers: 1) International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics       (Followers: 14) International Journal of Acarology       (Followers: 1) International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems       (Followers: 1) International Journal of Alternative Propulsion       (Followers: 23) International Journal of Corrosion       (Followers: 10) International Journal of Critical Infrastructures       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction       (Followers: 18) International Journal of Disaster Risk Science       (Followers: 14) International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics       (Followers: 4) International Journal of Ecology & Development       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering       (Followers: 3) International Journal of Energy and Water Resources International Journal of Environment       (Followers: 3) International Journal of Environment and Climate Change       (Followers: 20) International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics       (Followers: 4) International Journal of Environment and Health       (Followers: 5) International Journal of Environment and Pollution       (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
 Environmental Processes : An International JournalNumber of Followers: 0      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 2198-7491 - ISSN (Online) 2198-7505 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Impact of Inorganic Arsenic (III and V) on Growth and Development of Rice
(Oryza sativa L.) with Special Emphasis on Root and Coleoptile Growth

Abstract: Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil is a prime concern for food security and human health. A short-term phytotoxicity experiment was conducted on four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under the influence of arsenic (III)-arsenite and arsenic (V)-arsenate to evaluate the impact on root and coleoptile growth. Four varieties (GB-1, IET-4786, IET-4094, and MTU-1010) of rice were tested with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/L) of arsenic (As(III) and As(V)). Germination along with mean daily germination (MDG), length of root and length of coleoptiles, water holding capacity of both root and coleoptiles, fresh and dry weight, arsenic accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) and root ion leakage were evaluated. Results highlighted that the percent germination of IET-4094 and MTU-1010 varieties of rice seed compared to control decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing concentration of both arsenite and arsenate. Similarly, biomass of shoot was less affected than root under different concentration of arsenite and arsenate. The variety IET-4786 and MTU-1010 accumulated lower level of arsenic and the variety GB-1 accumulated higher level of MDA in roots under both arsenite and arsenate treatments. Therefore, it can be concluded that the varieties IET-4786 and MTU-1010 are more suitable varieties towards tolerance under both arsenite and arsenate. Farmers of arsenic contaminated areas are suggested to cultivate IET-4786 and MTU-1010 varieties.
PubDate: 2022-05-14

• Mean Flow and Mixing Properties of a Vertical Round Turbulent Buoyant Jet
in a Weak Crosscurrent

Abstract: This paper deals with the mean flow and mixing properties of a vertical round turbulent buoyant jet in a weak crosscurrent, through an implementation of the integral method. The phenomenon is described by the Reynolds averaged partial differential equations of continuity, momentum and conservation of tracer mass formulated in a curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system. Applying second order mathematical approximations, the equations are integrated on a reduced cross-sectional area of the jet under the similarity assumption and the boundary conditions. The reduced area by a cyclical sector provides increased entrainment due to the increase of its perimeter, which reduces the fluxes and affects the dilution, and the model predictions, mainly the dilutions, are considerably improved. A system of ordinary differential equations is produced, which is solved numerically using a 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The results obtained for several values of the normalized ratio of ambient over buoyant-jet exit velocity are compared with experimental data of normalized trajectories and dilutions available in the literature. The satisfactory performance of the integral model for weak current velocities makes it suitable for research, for studying effluent discharges in water bodies or in the atmosphere, as well as for design purposes. Article Highlights • A curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is used. • Reduced cross-sectional area is used in the bent-over phase. • The integral model predictions for weak currents agree well with experimental data.
PubDate: 2022-05-09

• Indices of Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change: a Review

Abstract: Abstract The objective of this paper is to identify and analyze relevant research of index-based methods for the evaluation of climate change vulnerability and resilience of coastal areas. We searched, retrieved, classified and reviewed papers on climate-change hazards, impacts, vulnerability and resilience of coastal water systems and relevant infrastructure. For this, Scopus, Science Direct, Thompson-Reuters Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed and other relevant databases were used. The analysis of the state-of-the-art presented in this paper acknowledges that using vulnerability and resilience indices in climate vulnerability research is effective, providing a solid, efficient and user-friendly framework. However, selection of index variables should be part of a holistic as well as dynamic approach to identify not only areas in danger, but also the level of social vulnerability.
PubDate: 2022-05-03

• Air Quality during the COVID–19 Lockdown and Unlock Periods in India
Analyzed Using Satellite and Ground-based Measurements

Abstract: A nationwide lockdown was imposed in India from 24 March 2020 to 31 May 2020 to contain the spread of COVID-19. The lockdown has changed the atmospheric pollution across the continents. Here, we analyze the changes in two most important air quality related trace gases, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) from satellite and surface observations, during the lockdown (April–May 2020) and unlock periods (June–September 2020) in India, to examine the baseline emissions when anthropogenic sources were significantly reduced. We use the Bayesian statistics to find the changes in these trace gas concentrations in different time periods. There is a strong reduction in NO2 during the lockdown as public transport and industries were shut during that period. The largest changes are found in IGP (Indo-Gangetic Plain), and industrial and mining areas in Eastern India. The changes are small in the hilly regions, where the concentrations of these trace gases are also very small (0–1 × 1015 molec./cm2). In addition, a corresponding increase in the concentrations of tropospheric O3 is observed during the period. The analyses over cities show that there is a large decrease in NO2 in Delhi (36%), Bangalore (21%) and Ahmedabad (21%). As the lockdown restrictions were eased during the unlock period, the concentrations of NO2 gradually increased and ozone deceased in most regions. Therefore, this study suggests that pollution control measures should be prioritized, ensuring strict regulations to control the source of anthropogenic pollutants, particularly from the transport and industrial sectors. Highlights • Most cities show a reduction up to 15% of NO2 during the lockdown • The unlock periods show again an increase of about 40–50% in NO2 • An increase in tropospheric O3 is observed together with the decrease in NO2
PubDate: 2022-05-01

• MicroAlgal Biofilm Reactor (MABR) – Evaluation of Biomass Support
Materials and Nitrate Removal Performance

Abstract: Microalgal biofilms have attracted a good deal of attention as highly beneficial systems capable of reducing the cost of dewatering operations, the costliest component of suspended-growth systems. The support material is a key factor for algal biofilms generating high solids biomass slurries. This study presents results from screening experiments for algae biofilm support materials in a stationary flood-and-drain system (FDS) and a rotating biological contactor (RBC). Areal biomass productivity served as the selection criterion for attachment while nutrient removal performance was also monitored. Batch experiments tested the attachment capability of Scenedesmus obliquus ATCC®11,477 on the surface of several materials, (e.g., cotton duck, PVC foam, ceramic et.) with BG11 as growth medium. The highest average biomass productivity of 3.4±0.7 g·m− 2·d− 1 was recorded in the FDS using cotton duck as a support material. Comparable total nitrogen (TN) uptake rates of 3.51 and 3.14 mg L− 1d− 1were obtained under low P conditions (N:P = 35:1) in the FDS and RBC, respectively. Under high P conditions (N:P = 5:1), the TN uptake rate and removal efficiency increased to 16.04 mg L− 1d− 1 and 99.8%, respectively. In addition, nitrate removal experiments were carried out in a continuous flow microalgal biofilm reactor (MABR) with cotton duck support material operating at steady state and high effluent recirculation rates. The reactor was modeled using first order nitrate uptake kinetics in a completely mixed regime. The applied model fitted the experimental data adequately and allowed for determination of the nitrate uptake rate constant (K = 58.1 d− 1) via linear regression (R2 = 0.967). Highlights • Attached algal biomass support materials are evaluated in FDS and RBC systems. • Among all materials tested, cotton duck supports the highest biomass productivity. • Nitrogen uptake in MABR is adequately described by first order kinetics.
PubDate: 2022-04-28

• An Ecofriendly Approach for Methylene Blue and Lead (II) Adsorption onto

PubDate: 2022-04-28

• Screening of Atrazine Distribution in Groundwater and Modeling of Leaching
Potential to the Unconfined Aquifer in the Pampean Plain of Cordoba,
Argentina

Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze atrazine (ATZ) spatial distribution in groundwater and present the factors related to its leaching potential in an area under intensive agricultural activity within the fluvio-Aeolian plain of the province of Córdoba, Argentina. Using tools such as soil and groundwater sampling and analysis, batch tests and numerical modeling, the variables that control the atrazine sorption and leaching potential were evaluated. The herbicide was detected in 14.7% of groundwater samples (0.14 to 1.26 μg L−1) becoming a leachable herbicide with moderate potential for groundwater pollution according to the calculated GUS (Groundwater Ubiquity Score) index. Hydrogeological characteristics influenced its distribution in the unconfined aquifer. Areas with a thin vadose zone (VZ) showed the highest atrazine levels, while the lithology of the vadose zone was also critical. In areas with a predominance of coarse-textured sediments (sands and gravels), low clay percentages and lower Koc, atrazine exhibits high mobility, which makes possible its transport to the unconfined aquifer at sites with a deep water table (≈25 m below surface). Herbicide spray application generally coincides with the rainy seasons, which contributes to high leaching rates. Numerical modeling indicated that transport of water and ATZ occurs both through micropores continuously, and macropores episodically. Groundwater has become a secondary environmental subsystem affected by the presence of ATZ due to advective, dispersive and reactive processes which allow its transport through the VZ. Even at relatively low concentrations, the presence of atrazine in groundwater requires long-term planning to monitor and control.
PubDate: 2022-04-20

• Quaternary Ammonium Impregnated Chitosan for the Decontamination of
Wastewater from Carcinogenic Dyes

Abstract: Abstract Chitosan, a well-known biopolymer, has been impregnated with tetrabutylammonium bromide using the reflux method. The synthesized adsorbent, tetrabutylammonium impregnated chitosan(C-TBA) was subjected to intense characterization using various spectral techniques which confirms impregnation. The pH point of zero charge was found to be 8.2 which indicate the suitability of the material for both anionic and cationic dyes. C-TBA was employed as adsorbent for the removal of two potent carcinogenic dyes, namely, Congo red (CR) and Crystal violet (CV). Batch experiments were carried out to study the effects of pH of dye solution, contact time, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration and temperature. A number of adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, R-P, D-R, Temkin, and Harkin-Jura were studied. The best fit isotherm model was judged by plotting the non-linear plots. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of C-TBA towards adsorption of CR was found to be 12.66 mg g−1 and for CV 0.86 mg g−1. Adsorption kinetics was well fitted to pseudo-second-order model and thermodynamics show that the process of adsorption was spontaneous. Statistical analysis as well as column adsorption studies was also carried out.
PubDate: 2022-04-19

• Mixing of Vertical Plane Fountains in a Calm Uniform Ambient

Abstract: Maximum and steady-state terminal penetration heights of vertical plane fountains have been studied in laboratory experiments using shadowgraph and planar, laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques. The initial Froude numbers of the flow were in the range 20 to 130 and Reynolds numbers 180 to about 700. The normalized, terminal rise height was computed numerically from the equations of motion and found congruent to findings of earlier and present measurements. The entrainment coefficient function used in modeling is derived from analytical, closed-form solutions regarding the momentum and mass flux of plane buoyant jets, and is expressed as a function of the local Richardson number and a jet width parameter proposed by List and Imberger J Hydraul Div 99:1461–1474 (1973). Article  Highlights Flow visualization via shadowgraph and PLIF experiments of vertical plane fountains were conducted. Normalized maximum penetration and terminal rise height of plane fountains have been considered. An entrainment function derived from analytical solution of vertical buoyant jets is introduced.
PubDate: 2022-04-18

• Energy, Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Hybrid Power Plant for
Electrification, and Drinking and Irrigation Water Supply

Abstract: The objective of this study consists of examining whether the coupling between wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic modules (PV) with batteries (BT) or pumped hydro-storage (PHS) can produce a sufficient amount of energy in order to cover the electricity demands in an island, as well as the demand for producing desalinated water for drinking and irrigation purposes, in an effort to avoid the consumption of conventional fuels. A methodology for the simulation and assessment of such a Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES) is presented, combining various Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and covering both the energy and the water demands of the study area. A sensitivity analysis for the examination of how certain parameters affect energy, economic and environmental indices was also conducted. The results present the reliability of each storage system. The comparison shows a reduced use of the Local Production Station (LPS) from 25 to 16% and an increase of the months of autonomy in the case of use of BT technology. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) is estimated at 0.473 € for battery storage technology and 0.464 € for PHS, while the price drops to 0.349 € if an upper reservoir already exists in the island. Also, when coupling with battery, 27 more tons of CO2 are eliminated compared to PHS. Coupling with PHS leads to lower LCOE and fewer eliminated CO2 quantities, while coupling with BT leads to increased autonomy and the coverage rate of the storage system is less affected by variations in wind and solar potential. Article Highlights • Higher Levelized Cost of Energy and Payback Period for battery storage technology. • More eliminated CO2 quantities when coupling with batteries. • Less use of costly and polluting conventional fuels when coupling with batteries.
PubDate: 2022-04-12

• Integration of Large-Scale Electrical Imaging into Geological Framework
Development and Refinement

Abstract: Abstract Geologic framework models (GFMs) are critical to the construction of reliable simulation models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. To support GFM development, direct information (e.g., core samples, fluid samples, hydraulic testing) tends to be sparse and separated by large distances relative to the spatial scales of aquifer heterogeneity. There are additional challenges associated with highly contaminated legacy waste sites, where drilling is particularly costly, and invasive sampling requires specialized handling and disposal of hazardous materials. At these sites in particular, non-invasive geophysical imaging can play an important role in filling spatial gaps between boreholes and reducing characterization costs by optimizing and minimizing the number of necessary boreholes. This paper presents a case study demonstrating the use of large-scale (>30 km2) electrical mapping to identify hydrostratigraphy and potential paleochannels at the Hanford Site, located in Washington State, USA. In two field campaigns, over 36 line-kilometers of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data were collected along 14 transects. ERT surveys were sited based on available site data and performed to image critical aspects (e.g., paleochannels, stratigraphic contacts) of the subsurface, demonstrating a general workflow for integrating ERT with GFM development and refinement. Inconsistencies between the GFM and ERT were catalogued to provide a basis for future site characterization using complementary geophysical methods and (or) direct sampling.
PubDate: 2022-04-05

• Enhanced Performance of Natural Polymer Coagulants for Dye Removal from
Wastewater: Coagulation Kinetics, and Mathematical Modelling Approach

Abstract: Abstract This study explores the potentials of Brachystegia eurycoma coagulant (BEC) and Vigna subterranean coagulant (VSC) as natural organic polymers (NOPs) for the decolourisation of Crystal Ponceau 6R (AR 44) in wastewater. Materials characterisation studies were done on the precursors. A detailed kinetics study was employed. The decolourisation procedures were evaluated through time-dependent reduction in the concentration of particles, with the variation of the independent parameters. The proximate analysis showed protein contents of 19.77% and 18.15% for BEC and VSC, respectively. The functional test showed the presence of –OH, N–H, and C=H. The surface morphological study revealed some rough surfaces, different pores sizes, and compact-net structures. The order of removal efficiency was VSC > BEC with an optimum of 88.8% and 73.3%, respectively. The values of the coagulation rate constant (K) and coagulation order (α) obtained for BEC and VSC were 6.38 × 10− 4 L mg− 1 min− 1, 1.8 and 4.03 × 10− 3 L mg− 1 min− 1, 1.9, respectively. The coagulation time, T ag of 31.35 and 26.96 min for BEC and VSC, respectively, disclosed quick coagulation. The coagulation-flocculation kinetics demonstrated that the process conforms to the pseudo-second-order model with R 2 >0.997, suggesting that the rate-controlling mechanism is governed by chemisorption. In the mass transfer study, experimental data were well predicted by the cross-validation test, with a percentage mean relative deviation modulus (M%) of 3.26 and 2.54 for BEC and VSC, respectively. These coagulants added meaningful progress in wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation while displaying significant adsorption features. Likewise, the usage of kinetics studies and particle behaviour modelling should be a prerequisite in water treatment processes.
PubDate: 2022-03-24

• Seasonal Occurrence of Cyanobacteria and First Detection of Microcystin-LR
in Water Column of Foum-Gleita Reservoir, Mauritania

Abstract: Abstract This work was carried out to study the seasonal occurrence of cyanobacteria and their microcystin-LR in the water column of Foum-Gleita reservoir (Mauritania). Limnological and biological factors were investigated at three depths (surface, − 3, and − 6 m) in this reservoir during a full year. Nutrients were analyzed by Spectrophotometry, phytoplankton was analyzed by Inverted Microscopy, microsystins were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry, and environmental factor relationships were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and Multiple Linear Regression. Physicochemical analyses have shown that this reservoir is hypertrophic with dissolved inorganic nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations relatively high, varying from 1.39 to 6.53 and 0.21 to 0.57 mg/L, respectively. The annual surface water temperature was exceptionally high (27.8 ± 3.6 °C), characterizing Sahelian climatic conditions. Phytoplankton analyses have shown dominance of two potentially toxic cyanobacteria species, Microcystis aeruginosa and Dolichospermum flos-aquae, during the warm season (May-September). Microcystin analysis revealed only the presence of the most toxic variant, microcystin-LR. Microcystin-LR concentration in the surface water samples, during cyanobacterial blooms, was consistently high (5.638 µg/L), exceeding 5-times the World Health Organization drinking water limit (1 µg/L); however, it was much lower (0.83 µg/L) at depth (− 6 m). Analysis of environmental factor relationships showed that the most influential factors on abundance of Microcystis aeruginosa and Dolichospermum flos-aquae and variability of microcystin-LR concentrations were total phosphorus, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, iron, temperature and pH. Finally, the study clearly demonstrated the need for regular monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in the reservoir.
PubDate: 2022-03-15

• Human Health Risk Assessment due to Solvent Exposure from Pharmaceutical
Industrial Effluent: Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches

Abstract: Abstract Treated effluents from a pharmaceutical industry were analysed using purge and trap coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry to determine the presence of organic solvents. Solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene, tetrahydrofuran and chlorobenzene were detected. A health risk assessment study using both the deterministic method and a probabilistic approach by Monte Carlo simulations were then carried out on children, adults and pregnant women considering oral ingestion, dermal contact and fish intake as the exposure routes. Among the various categories of receptors considered, the results obtained by both methods revealed that children are more sensitive followed by pregnant women, since their total hazard index (HItotal risk) exceeded the safe exposure limit for non-carcinogens. It is also evidenced that oral and dermal contact are the crucial routes of exposure among children, adults and pregnant women. The fish intake had the minimal impact on all receptors, which might be due to the lesser affinity of these solvents to sorb onto fish tissues. Cancer risk because of dichloromethane and chloroform exposure was found to be negligible (2.8×10-8 for children, 1.3×10-7 for adults, 3.9×10-7 for pregnant women) since the computed risk was well below the acceptable range (10-4 - 10-6). The total non-carcinogenic risk calculated from the probabilistic approach exceeded the deterministic approach by 1.9 times, 1.02 times, 1.8 times for children, adults and pregnant women, respectively. This might be due to incorporating lower values among the possible range for the parameters involved during deterministic risk assessment.
PubDate: 2022-03-04
DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00571-1

• Acknowledgement of Reviewers for 2021

PubDate: 2022-02-28
DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00566-y

• Analysis and Modelling of Temperature at the Water – Atmosphere
Interface of a Lake by Energy Budget and ANNs Models

Abstract: Abstract Different processes of lake surface water temperature (Tsw) are considered in this work. The Tsw estimation is based on the energy budget method and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs models).These processes were applied to Vegoritis Lake in northern Greece. For the analysis, daily meteorological data, lake characteristics, as well as simulation results from an integrated heat transfer model were used for two complete years. The simulation results from the heat transfer model are considered as the reference and more accurate procedure to estimate Tsw. These results are used to compare the performance of the other processes. The examined processes include:(a) models of heat storage changes in relation to net radiation values Qt(Rn); (b) net radiation estimation using different approaches, such as the process of Slob’s equation with adjusted coefficients to lake data; and (c) ANN models with various architectures and input variables. The results show that the surface water energy budget model accurately describes the temperature (r2 = 0.916, RMSE = 2.422 °C). The ANN(5,6,1) model in which Tsw(i-1) is incorporated in the input variables was considered the best performing compared to all other ANN structures (r2 = 0.995, RMSE = 0.490 °C). Using different approaches for simulating net radiation (Rn) and Qt(Rn) in the equation of surface water temperature estimation provides results with lower accuracy.
PubDate: 2022-02-26
DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00572-0

Application of Artificial Neural Network Modeling

Abstract: Abstract A roller bioreactor containing inert glass beads was employed to enhance naphthalene biodegradation in an aqueous solution. Mixed culture of microorganisms was isolated from sewage waste sludge and adopted for naphthalene biodegradation. The dissolution rate of naphthalene in the aqueous phase was studied at different conditions in the roller reactor. The results indicate that the best conditions for the biodegradation treatment in the roller bioreactor were 40% and 50% loads with 6 mm and 5 mm sized glass beads, respectively, at a rotation speed of 50 rpm. The biodegradation of 300 mg/L naphthalene in the bioreactor in the absence of glass beads proceeded slowly until depletion after seven days. In the presence of glass beads, the biodegradation rate was faster, depleting after only four days. At a concentration of 500 mg/L naphthalene, complete depletion was attained after nine days in the bioreactor with no glass beads and five days in the presence of glass beads. Both the biodegradation rate $$({r}_{s}$$ ) and the specific growth rate $$\left(\mu \right)$$ increased by utilizing the glass beads bioreactor compared with the bioreactor with no glass beads, thus confirming that the presence of glass beads enhances the mass transfer of naphthalene from the solid to the aqueous phase where it becomes available for utilization. An artificial neural network was used to model naphthalene dissolution and biodegradation. Correlation coefficients of 99.2% and 98.3% were obtained between the experimental and predicted output values for dissolution and biodegradation, respectively, indicating that the ANN model can efficiently predict the experimental data.
PubDate: 2022-02-26
DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00559-x

• Modeling Land Surface Temperature with a Mono-Window Algorithm to Estimate
Urban Heat Island Intensity in an Expanding Urban Area

Abstract: We have estimated the amplitude and impact of urbanization on Chittagong metropolitan area (CMA), and investigated the correlation between land cover features and land surface temperature (LST). We have also located the urban heat island (UHI) and calculated the UHI intensity. Support vector machine (SVM) for land cover classification and mono-window algorithm (MWA) for LST estimation were applied to Landsat images of years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2020. Validation of classification and temperature was also done by various statistical parameters giving credible results. The findings reveal that in Chittagong, between 1990 and 2020, the urban area has raised by almost 12%, whereas vegetative areas have decreased by about 14%. With the rise of the urban area, the temperature has also shifted from 19.8 °C to 23.7 °C. Moreover, the UHI intensity has also raised from 1 °C to 2.3 °C, which is the indication of an unplanned and unsustainable urban development. Evidently, the whole city can turn into a UHI if proper steps are not taken immediately. Highlights LST has increased almost 4 °C between 1990 and 2020 The UHI intensity decreases with the increasing distance from the urban center
PubDate: 2022-02-09
DOI: 10.1007/s40710-021-00554-8

• Application of Extracellular Polymeric Substances Extracted from
Wastewater Sludge for Reactive Dye Removal

Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to investigate the adsorption of three commercial reactive dyes using extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from the waste sludge of a beer wastewater treatment plant in Hanoi, Vietnam. EPS was extracted from sludge by the HCHO-NaOH method and was characterized by measuring kaolin flocculation activity, dry weight, chemical composition, and functional groups. Adsorption of dyes on EPS was conducted by Jartest at different pH values, contact times, and EPS dosages. The EPS was composed of 25% sludge by weight. The FTIR analysis showed the presence of amine and carboxyl groups in the EPS structure. The removal efficiencies of reactive dyes were high at pH values below 6, a contact time of 30 to 60 min, and EPS dosage of 200 – 250 mg/L. At optimum condition, removal efficiencies of 85%, 99%, and 99% were obtained for Reactive Yellow 176 (RY 176), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), and Reactive Red 241 (RR 241), respectively. The adsorption process could be described by both Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum dye adsorption capacities for RY 176, RB 21, and RR 241 were 0.50 g/g, 0.72 g/g, and 0.95 g/g, respectively. It is concluded that EPS in wastewater sludge could be utilized as an effective adsorbent for dye removal, thereby enhancing the value of sludge in wastewater treatment.
PubDate: 2022-02-08
DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00569-9

• Performance of Three Magnesium-based Coatings for Corrosion Protection of
Concrete against Sulfuric Acid

Abstract: Abstract The biogenic deterioration of large diameter concrete pipes constitutes a major problem in most sewerage systems. The protection of concrete against sulfuric acid produced in situ biogenically by certain microorganisms is of major interest. This study is focusing on the protection of concrete by applying relatively low-cost, magnesium-based coatings that can react and capture (neutralize) effectively the produced sulfuric acid. Three specific magnesium-based coatings were examined, i.e., a magnesium hydroxide/calcium hydroxide coating (C1), a magnesium hydroxide/calcium hydroxide coating with the supplementary addition of an acrylic additive (C2), and a magnesium phosphate cement coating (C3). The respective magnesium coatings were applied onto appropriate concrete specimens and evaluated by various experimental methods, regarding their anticorrosion capability. More specifically, the coated and the uncoated (used for comparison reasons) concrete specimens were subjected to two accelerated tests, i.e., a sulfuric acid immersion test and a sulfuric acid spraying test, attempting to simulate the real conditions existing in a sewer pipe internal wall surface. Multiple measurements performed to evaluate the respective coating performance, such as mass recordings, compressive strength, and surface pH measurements. The surface pH of the coated specimens was higher, as compared to the uncoated specimens, with the coating C3 presenting 7.8 surface pH value after four days of acid spraying. Overall, the coating C3 seemed to offer the best corrosion protection to concrete with respect to the other two examined coatings.
PubDate: 2022-02-05
DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00568-w

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