Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy, Ecology and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues     Open Access  
EnviroLab Asia     Open Access  
Environment & Ecosystem Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environment and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Environment and Ecology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment and Natural Resources Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environment and Planning A : Economy and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Environment and Planning B : Urban Analytics and City Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Environment and Planning C : Politics and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Environment and Planning D : Society and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environment and Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environment International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Environment, Space, Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Environmental & Engineering Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental & Socio-economic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Advances     Open Access  
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Bioindicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access  
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Claims Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental DNA     Open Access  
Environmental Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Forensics     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Health Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental Impact Assessment Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Environmental Management and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Environmental Modelling & Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability     Open Access  
Environmental Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Science & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Environmental Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science : Atmospheres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science and Ecotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Science: Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Skeptics and Critics     Open Access  
Environmental Smoke     Open Access  
Environmental Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Systems Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Technology & Innovation     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Technology Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Values     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Environments     Open Access  
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
eScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ethics & the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethics, Policy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études caribéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration     Hybrid Journal  
European Energy and Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
European Environment: The Journal of European Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evolutionary Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Working and Living Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fire Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fordham Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Freshwater Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Fronteiras : Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science     Open Access  
Frontier of Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Frontiers in Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Water     Open Access  
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Future Cities and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Geo : Geography and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Geo-Image     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geochemical Transactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
GeoHealth     Open Access  
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GeoScience Engineering     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geosystems and Geoenvironment     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Environmental Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Journal of Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Green Energy & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management     Hybrid Journal  
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Harvard Environmental Law Review     Free   (Followers: 12)
Health Services Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health, Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hidrobiológica     Open Access  
Historia Ambiental Latinoamericana y Caribeña     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
História, Natureza e Espaço - Revista Eletrônica do Grupo de Pesquisa NIESBF     Open Access  
Home Health Care Management & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IMA Journal of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Green Technology Journal     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Indoor Air     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Information Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Informs Journal on Applied Analytics:     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental     Open Access  
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Innovative Infrastructure Solutions     Hybrid Journal  
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Aquatic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Ecology & Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environment and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover
Environmental Processes : An International Journal
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2198-7491 - ISSN (Online) 2198-7505
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Impact of Inorganic Arsenic (III and V) on Growth and Development of Rice
           (Oryza sativa L.) with Special Emphasis on Root and Coleoptile Growth

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      Abstract: Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil is a prime concern for food security and human health. A short-term phytotoxicity experiment was conducted on four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under the influence of arsenic (III)-arsenite and arsenic (V)-arsenate to evaluate the impact on root and coleoptile growth. Four varieties (GB-1, IET-4786, IET-4094, and MTU-1010) of rice were tested with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/L) of arsenic (As(III) and As(V)). Germination along with mean daily germination (MDG), length of root and length of coleoptiles, water holding capacity of both root and coleoptiles, fresh and dry weight, arsenic accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) and root ion leakage were evaluated. Results highlighted that the percent germination of IET-4094 and MTU-1010 varieties of rice seed compared to control decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing concentration of both arsenite and arsenate. Similarly, biomass of shoot was less affected than root under different concentration of arsenite and arsenate. The variety IET-4786 and MTU-1010 accumulated lower level of arsenic and the variety GB-1 accumulated higher level of MDA in roots under both arsenite and arsenate treatments. Therefore, it can be concluded that the varieties IET-4786 and MTU-1010 are more suitable varieties towards tolerance under both arsenite and arsenate. Farmers of arsenic contaminated areas are suggested to cultivate IET-4786 and MTU-1010 varieties.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
       
  • Mean Flow and Mixing Properties of a Vertical Round Turbulent Buoyant Jet
           in a Weak Crosscurrent

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      Abstract: This paper deals with the mean flow and mixing properties of a vertical round turbulent buoyant jet in a weak crosscurrent, through an implementation of the integral method. The phenomenon is described by the Reynolds averaged partial differential equations of continuity, momentum and conservation of tracer mass formulated in a curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system. Applying second order mathematical approximations, the equations are integrated on a reduced cross-sectional area of the jet under the similarity assumption and the boundary conditions. The reduced area by a cyclical sector provides increased entrainment due to the increase of its perimeter, which reduces the fluxes and affects the dilution, and the model predictions, mainly the dilutions, are considerably improved. A system of ordinary differential equations is produced, which is solved numerically using a 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The results obtained for several values of the normalized ratio of ambient over buoyant-jet exit velocity are compared with experimental data of normalized trajectories and dilutions available in the literature. The satisfactory performance of the integral model for weak current velocities makes it suitable for research, for studying effluent discharges in water bodies or in the atmosphere, as well as for design purposes. Article Highlights • A curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is used. • Reduced cross-sectional area is used in the bent-over phase. • The integral model predictions for weak currents agree well with experimental data.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Indices of Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change: a Review

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this paper is to identify and analyze relevant research of index-based methods for the evaluation of climate change vulnerability and resilience of coastal areas. We searched, retrieved, classified and reviewed papers on climate-change hazards, impacts, vulnerability and resilience of coastal water systems and relevant infrastructure. For this, Scopus, Science Direct, Thompson-Reuters Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed and other relevant databases were used. The analysis of the state-of-the-art presented in this paper acknowledges that using vulnerability and resilience indices in climate vulnerability research is effective, providing a solid, efficient and user-friendly framework. However, selection of index variables should be part of a holistic as well as dynamic approach to identify not only areas in danger, but also the level of social vulnerability.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Air Quality during the COVID–19 Lockdown and Unlock Periods in India
           Analyzed Using Satellite and Ground-based Measurements

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      Abstract: A nationwide lockdown was imposed in India from 24 March 2020 to 31 May 2020 to contain the spread of COVID-19. The lockdown has changed the atmospheric pollution across the continents. Here, we analyze the changes in two most important air quality related trace gases, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) from satellite and surface observations, during the lockdown (April–May 2020) and unlock periods (June–September 2020) in India, to examine the baseline emissions when anthropogenic sources were significantly reduced. We use the Bayesian statistics to find the changes in these trace gas concentrations in different time periods. There is a strong reduction in NO2 during the lockdown as public transport and industries were shut during that period. The largest changes are found in IGP (Indo-Gangetic Plain), and industrial and mining areas in Eastern India. The changes are small in the hilly regions, where the concentrations of these trace gases are also very small (0–1 × 1015 molec./cm2). In addition, a corresponding increase in the concentrations of tropospheric O3 is observed during the period. The analyses over cities show that there is a large decrease in NO2 in Delhi (36%), Bangalore (21%) and Ahmedabad (21%). As the lockdown restrictions were eased during the unlock period, the concentrations of NO2 gradually increased and ozone deceased in most regions. Therefore, this study suggests that pollution control measures should be prioritized, ensuring strict regulations to control the source of anthropogenic pollutants, particularly from the transport and industrial sectors. Highlights • Most cities show a reduction up to 15% of NO2 during the lockdown • The unlock periods show again an increase of about 40–50% in NO2 • An increase in tropospheric O3 is observed together with the decrease in NO2
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • MicroAlgal Biofilm Reactor (MABR) – Evaluation of Biomass Support
           Materials and Nitrate Removal Performance

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      Abstract: Microalgal biofilms have attracted a good deal of attention as highly beneficial systems capable of reducing the cost of dewatering operations, the costliest component of suspended-growth systems. The support material is a key factor for algal biofilms generating high solids biomass slurries. This study presents results from screening experiments for algae biofilm support materials in a stationary flood-and-drain system (FDS) and a rotating biological contactor (RBC). Areal biomass productivity served as the selection criterion for attachment while nutrient removal performance was also monitored. Batch experiments tested the attachment capability of Scenedesmus obliquus ATCC®11,477 on the surface of several materials, (e.g., cotton duck, PVC foam, ceramic et.) with BG11 as growth medium. The highest average biomass productivity of 3.4±0.7 g·m− 2·d− 1 was recorded in the FDS using cotton duck as a support material. Comparable total nitrogen (TN) uptake rates of 3.51 and 3.14 mg L− 1d− 1were obtained under low P conditions (N:P = 35:1) in the FDS and RBC, respectively. Under high P conditions (N:P = 5:1), the TN uptake rate and removal efficiency increased to 16.04 mg L− 1d− 1 and 99.8%, respectively. In addition, nitrate removal experiments were carried out in a continuous flow microalgal biofilm reactor (MABR) with cotton duck support material operating at steady state and high effluent recirculation rates. The reactor was modeled using first order nitrate uptake kinetics in a completely mixed regime. The applied model fitted the experimental data adequately and allowed for determination of the nitrate uptake rate constant (K = 58.1 d− 1) via linear regression (R2 = 0.967). Highlights • Attached algal biomass support materials are evaluated in FDS and RBC systems. • Among all materials tested, cotton duck supports the highest biomass productivity. • Nitrogen uptake in MABR is adequately described by first order kinetics.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • An Ecofriendly Approach for Methylene Blue and Lead (II) Adsorption onto
           Functionalized Citrus limetta Bioadsorbent

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      Abstract: The aim of this study is to eliminate dye and heavy metal ions from their aqueous solution simultaneously. A modified Citrus limetta (MCL) bioadsorbent was synthesized utilizing hexamethylene diisocyanate as crosslinking agent. The synthesized bioadsorbent has been utilized in successful removal of organic and inorganic pollutants with high efficacy and recycling efficiency. The effect of several adsorption parameters such as concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH and temperature was investigated to assess the optimum adsorption conditions. The bioadsorbent shows maximum removal efficiency of 99.02% for methylene blue and 91.9% for lead ions. The maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue was found to be 250 mg/g and for lead ions 200 mg/g. The adsorption process was fitted well into the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption equilibrium was described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The regeneration study suggested that MCL could be effectively regenerated and has good recyclability upto five cycles. The removal of methylene blue and lead ion was found of spontaneous and endothermic nature by the thermodynamic study of adsorption. MCL could be an ideal, sustainable and eco-friendly bioadsorbent for environmental pollution cleanup because of excellent organic and inorganic pollutant removal efficiency with good reusability. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Screening of Atrazine Distribution in Groundwater and Modeling of Leaching
           Potential to the Unconfined Aquifer in the Pampean Plain of Cordoba,
           Argentina

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      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze atrazine (ATZ) spatial distribution in groundwater and present the factors related to its leaching potential in an area under intensive agricultural activity within the fluvio-Aeolian plain of the province of Córdoba, Argentina. Using tools such as soil and groundwater sampling and analysis, batch tests and numerical modeling, the variables that control the atrazine sorption and leaching potential were evaluated. The herbicide was detected in 14.7% of groundwater samples (0.14 to 1.26 μg L−1) becoming a leachable herbicide with moderate potential for groundwater pollution according to the calculated GUS (Groundwater Ubiquity Score) index. Hydrogeological characteristics influenced its distribution in the unconfined aquifer. Areas with a thin vadose zone (VZ) showed the highest atrazine levels, while the lithology of the vadose zone was also critical. In areas with a predominance of coarse-textured sediments (sands and gravels), low clay percentages and lower Koc, atrazine exhibits high mobility, which makes possible its transport to the unconfined aquifer at sites with a deep water table (≈25 m below surface). Herbicide spray application generally coincides with the rainy seasons, which contributes to high leaching rates. Numerical modeling indicated that transport of water and ATZ occurs both through micropores continuously, and macropores episodically. Groundwater has become a secondary environmental subsystem affected by the presence of ATZ due to advective, dispersive and reactive processes which allow its transport through the VZ. Even at relatively low concentrations, the presence of atrazine in groundwater requires long-term planning to monitor and control.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
       
  • Quaternary Ammonium Impregnated Chitosan for the Decontamination of
           Wastewater from Carcinogenic Dyes

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      Abstract: Abstract Chitosan, a well-known biopolymer, has been impregnated with tetrabutylammonium bromide using the reflux method. The synthesized adsorbent, tetrabutylammonium impregnated chitosan(C-TBA) was subjected to intense characterization using various spectral techniques which confirms impregnation. The pH point of zero charge was found to be 8.2 which indicate the suitability of the material for both anionic and cationic dyes. C-TBA was employed as adsorbent for the removal of two potent carcinogenic dyes, namely, Congo red (CR) and Crystal violet (CV). Batch experiments were carried out to study the effects of pH of dye solution, contact time, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration and temperature. A number of adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, R-P, D-R, Temkin, and Harkin-Jura were studied. The best fit isotherm model was judged by plotting the non-linear plots. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of C-TBA towards adsorption of CR was found to be 12.66 mg g−1 and for CV 0.86 mg g−1. Adsorption kinetics was well fitted to pseudo-second-order model and thermodynamics show that the process of adsorption was spontaneous. Statistical analysis as well as column adsorption studies was also carried out.
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
       
  • Mixing of Vertical Plane Fountains in a Calm Uniform Ambient

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      Abstract: Maximum and steady-state terminal penetration heights of vertical plane fountains have been studied in laboratory experiments using shadowgraph and planar, laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) techniques. The initial Froude numbers of the flow were in the range 20 to 130 and Reynolds numbers 180 to about 700. The normalized, terminal rise height was computed numerically from the equations of motion and found congruent to findings of earlier and present measurements. The entrainment coefficient function used in modeling is derived from analytical, closed-form solutions regarding the momentum and mass flux of plane buoyant jets, and is expressed as a function of the local Richardson number and a jet width parameter proposed by List and Imberger J Hydraul Div 99:1461–1474 (1973). Article  Highlights Flow visualization via shadowgraph and PLIF experiments of vertical plane fountains were conducted. Normalized maximum penetration and terminal rise height of plane fountains have been considered. An entrainment function derived from analytical solution of vertical buoyant jets is introduced.
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
       
  • Energy, Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Hybrid Power Plant for
           Electrification, and Drinking and Irrigation Water Supply

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      Abstract: The objective of this study consists of examining whether the coupling between wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic modules (PV) with batteries (BT) or pumped hydro-storage (PHS) can produce a sufficient amount of energy in order to cover the electricity demands in an island, as well as the demand for producing desalinated water for drinking and irrigation purposes, in an effort to avoid the consumption of conventional fuels. A methodology for the simulation and assessment of such a Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES) is presented, combining various Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and covering both the energy and the water demands of the study area. A sensitivity analysis for the examination of how certain parameters affect energy, economic and environmental indices was also conducted. The results present the reliability of each storage system. The comparison shows a reduced use of the Local Production Station (LPS) from 25 to 16% and an increase of the months of autonomy in the case of use of BT technology. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) is estimated at 0.473 € for battery storage technology and 0.464 € for PHS, while the price drops to 0.349 € if an upper reservoir already exists in the island. Also, when coupling with battery, 27 more tons of CO2 are eliminated compared to PHS. Coupling with PHS leads to lower LCOE and fewer eliminated CO2 quantities, while coupling with BT leads to increased autonomy and the coverage rate of the storage system is less affected by variations in wind and solar potential. Article Highlights • Higher Levelized Cost of Energy and Payback Period for battery storage technology. • More eliminated CO2 quantities when coupling with batteries. • Less use of costly and polluting conventional fuels when coupling with batteries.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
       
  • Integration of Large-Scale Electrical Imaging into Geological Framework
           Development and Refinement

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      Abstract: Abstract Geologic framework models (GFMs) are critical to the construction of reliable simulation models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. To support GFM development, direct information (e.g., core samples, fluid samples, hydraulic testing) tends to be sparse and separated by large distances relative to the spatial scales of aquifer heterogeneity. There are additional challenges associated with highly contaminated legacy waste sites, where drilling is particularly costly, and invasive sampling requires specialized handling and disposal of hazardous materials. At these sites in particular, non-invasive geophysical imaging can play an important role in filling spatial gaps between boreholes and reducing characterization costs by optimizing and minimizing the number of necessary boreholes. This paper presents a case study demonstrating the use of large-scale (>30 km2) electrical mapping to identify hydrostratigraphy and potential paleochannels at the Hanford Site, located in Washington State, USA. In two field campaigns, over 36 line-kilometers of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data were collected along 14 transects. ERT surveys were sited based on available site data and performed to image critical aspects (e.g., paleochannels, stratigraphic contacts) of the subsurface, demonstrating a general workflow for integrating ERT with GFM development and refinement. Inconsistencies between the GFM and ERT were catalogued to provide a basis for future site characterization using complementary geophysical methods and (or) direct sampling.
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
       
  • Enhanced Performance of Natural Polymer Coagulants for Dye Removal from
           Wastewater: Coagulation Kinetics, and Mathematical Modelling Approach

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      Abstract: Abstract This study explores the potentials of Brachystegia eurycoma coagulant (BEC) and Vigna subterranean coagulant (VSC) as natural organic polymers (NOPs) for the decolourisation of Crystal Ponceau 6R (AR 44) in wastewater. Materials characterisation studies were done on the precursors. A detailed kinetics study was employed. The decolourisation procedures were evaluated through time-dependent reduction in the concentration of particles, with the variation of the independent parameters. The proximate analysis showed protein contents of 19.77% and 18.15% for BEC and VSC, respectively. The functional test showed the presence of –OH, N–H, and C=H. The surface morphological study revealed some rough surfaces, different pores sizes, and compact-net structures. The order of removal efficiency was VSC > BEC with an optimum of 88.8% and 73.3%, respectively. The values of the coagulation rate constant (K) and coagulation order (α) obtained for BEC and VSC were 6.38 × 10− 4 L mg− 1 min− 1, 1.8 and 4.03 × 10− 3 L mg− 1 min− 1, 1.9, respectively. The coagulation time, T ag of 31.35 and 26.96 min for BEC and VSC, respectively, disclosed quick coagulation. The coagulation-flocculation kinetics demonstrated that the process conforms to the pseudo-second-order model with R 2 >0.997, suggesting that the rate-controlling mechanism is governed by chemisorption. In the mass transfer study, experimental data were well predicted by the cross-validation test, with a percentage mean relative deviation modulus (M%) of 3.26 and 2.54 for BEC and VSC, respectively. These coagulants added meaningful progress in wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation while displaying significant adsorption features. Likewise, the usage of kinetics studies and particle behaviour modelling should be a prerequisite in water treatment processes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
       
  • Seasonal Occurrence of Cyanobacteria and First Detection of Microcystin-LR
           in Water Column of Foum-Gleita Reservoir, Mauritania

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      Abstract: Abstract This work was carried out to study the seasonal occurrence of cyanobacteria and their microcystin-LR in the water column of Foum-Gleita reservoir (Mauritania). Limnological and biological factors were investigated at three depths (surface, − 3, and − 6 m) in this reservoir during a full year. Nutrients were analyzed by Spectrophotometry, phytoplankton was analyzed by Inverted Microscopy, microsystins were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry, and environmental factor relationships were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and Multiple Linear Regression. Physicochemical analyses have shown that this reservoir is hypertrophic with dissolved inorganic nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations relatively high, varying from 1.39 to 6.53 and 0.21 to 0.57 mg/L, respectively. The annual surface water temperature was exceptionally high (27.8 ± 3.6 °C), characterizing Sahelian climatic conditions. Phytoplankton analyses have shown dominance of two potentially toxic cyanobacteria species, Microcystis aeruginosa and Dolichospermum flos-aquae, during the warm season (May-September). Microcystin analysis revealed only the presence of the most toxic variant, microcystin-LR. Microcystin-LR concentration in the surface water samples, during cyanobacterial blooms, was consistently high (5.638 µg/L), exceeding 5-times the World Health Organization drinking water limit (1 µg/L); however, it was much lower (0.83 µg/L) at depth (− 6 m). Analysis of environmental factor relationships showed that the most influential factors on abundance of Microcystis aeruginosa and Dolichospermum flos-aquae and variability of microcystin-LR concentrations were total phosphorus, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, iron, temperature and pH. Finally, the study clearly demonstrated the need for regular monitoring of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in the reservoir.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
       
  • Human Health Risk Assessment due to Solvent Exposure from Pharmaceutical
           Industrial Effluent: Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches

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      Abstract: Abstract Treated effluents from a pharmaceutical industry were analysed using purge and trap coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry to determine the presence of organic solvents. Solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene, tetrahydrofuran and chlorobenzene were detected. A health risk assessment study using both the deterministic method and a probabilistic approach by Monte Carlo simulations were then carried out on children, adults and pregnant women considering oral ingestion, dermal contact and fish intake as the exposure routes. Among the various categories of receptors considered, the results obtained by both methods revealed that children are more sensitive followed by pregnant women, since their total hazard index (HItotal risk) exceeded the safe exposure limit for non-carcinogens. It is also evidenced that oral and dermal contact are the crucial routes of exposure among children, adults and pregnant women. The fish intake had the minimal impact on all receptors, which might be due to the lesser affinity of these solvents to sorb onto fish tissues. Cancer risk because of dichloromethane and chloroform exposure was found to be negligible (2.8×10-8 for children, 1.3×10-7 for adults, 3.9×10-7 for pregnant women) since the computed risk was well below the acceptable range (10-4 - 10-6). The total non-carcinogenic risk calculated from the probabilistic approach exceeded the deterministic approach by 1.9 times, 1.02 times, 1.8 times for children, adults and pregnant women, respectively. This might be due to incorporating lower values among the possible range for the parameters involved during deterministic risk assessment.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00571-1
       
  • Acknowledgement of Reviewers for 2021

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      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00566-y
       
  • Analysis and Modelling of Temperature at the Water – Atmosphere
           Interface of a Lake by Energy Budget and ANNs Models

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      Abstract: Abstract Different processes of lake surface water temperature (Tsw) are considered in this work. The Tsw estimation is based on the energy budget method and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs models).These processes were applied to Vegoritis Lake in northern Greece. For the analysis, daily meteorological data, lake characteristics, as well as simulation results from an integrated heat transfer model were used for two complete years. The simulation results from the heat transfer model are considered as the reference and more accurate procedure to estimate Tsw. These results are used to compare the performance of the other processes. The examined processes include:(a) models of heat storage changes in relation to net radiation values Qt(Rn); (b) net radiation estimation using different approaches, such as the process of Slob’s equation with adjusted coefficients to lake data; and (c) ANN models with various architectures and input variables. The results show that the surface water energy budget model accurately describes the temperature (r2 = 0.916, RMSE = 2.422 °C). The ANN(5,6,1) model in which Tsw(i-1) is incorporated in the input variables was considered the best performing compared to all other ANN structures (r2 = 0.995, RMSE = 0.490 °C). Using different approaches for simulating net radiation (Rn) and Qt(Rn) in the equation of surface water temperature estimation provides results with lower accuracy.
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00572-0
       
  • Biodegradation of Naphthalene Using Glass Beads Roller Bioreactor:
           Application of Artificial Neural Network Modeling

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      Abstract: Abstract A roller bioreactor containing inert glass beads was employed to enhance naphthalene biodegradation in an aqueous solution. Mixed culture of microorganisms was isolated from sewage waste sludge and adopted for naphthalene biodegradation. The dissolution rate of naphthalene in the aqueous phase was studied at different conditions in the roller reactor. The results indicate that the best conditions for the biodegradation treatment in the roller bioreactor were 40% and 50% loads with 6 mm and 5 mm sized glass beads, respectively, at a rotation speed of 50 rpm. The biodegradation of 300 mg/L naphthalene in the bioreactor in the absence of glass beads proceeded slowly until depletion after seven days. In the presence of glass beads, the biodegradation rate was faster, depleting after only four days. At a concentration of 500 mg/L naphthalene, complete depletion was attained after nine days in the bioreactor with no glass beads and five days in the presence of glass beads. Both the biodegradation rate \(({r}_{s}\) ) and the specific growth rate \(\left(\mu \right)\) increased by utilizing the glass beads bioreactor compared with the bioreactor with no glass beads, thus confirming that the presence of glass beads enhances the mass transfer of naphthalene from the solid to the aqueous phase where it becomes available for utilization. An artificial neural network was used to model naphthalene dissolution and biodegradation. Correlation coefficients of 99.2% and 98.3% were obtained between the experimental and predicted output values for dissolution and biodegradation, respectively, indicating that the ANN model can efficiently predict the experimental data.
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00559-x
       
  • Modeling Land Surface Temperature with a Mono-Window Algorithm to Estimate
           Urban Heat Island Intensity in an Expanding Urban Area

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      Abstract: We have estimated the amplitude and impact of urbanization on Chittagong metropolitan area (CMA), and investigated the correlation between land cover features and land surface temperature (LST). We have also located the urban heat island (UHI) and calculated the UHI intensity. Support vector machine (SVM) for land cover classification and mono-window algorithm (MWA) for LST estimation were applied to Landsat images of years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2020. Validation of classification and temperature was also done by various statistical parameters giving credible results. The findings reveal that in Chittagong, between 1990 and 2020, the urban area has raised by almost 12%, whereas vegetative areas have decreased by about 14%. With the rise of the urban area, the temperature has also shifted from 19.8 °C to 23.7 °C. Moreover, the UHI intensity has also raised from 1 °C to 2.3 °C, which is the indication of an unplanned and unsustainable urban development. Evidently, the whole city can turn into a UHI if proper steps are not taken immediately. Highlights LST has increased almost 4 °C between 1990 and 2020 The UHI intensity decreases with the increasing distance from the urban center
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-021-00554-8
       
  • Application of Extracellular Polymeric Substances Extracted from
           Wastewater Sludge for Reactive Dye Removal

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to investigate the adsorption of three commercial reactive dyes using extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from the waste sludge of a beer wastewater treatment plant in Hanoi, Vietnam. EPS was extracted from sludge by the HCHO-NaOH method and was characterized by measuring kaolin flocculation activity, dry weight, chemical composition, and functional groups. Adsorption of dyes on EPS was conducted by Jartest at different pH values, contact times, and EPS dosages. The EPS was composed of 25% sludge by weight. The FTIR analysis showed the presence of amine and carboxyl groups in the EPS structure. The removal efficiencies of reactive dyes were high at pH values below 6, a contact time of 30 to 60 min, and EPS dosage of 200 – 250 mg/L. At optimum condition, removal efficiencies of 85%, 99%, and 99% were obtained for Reactive Yellow 176 (RY 176), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), and Reactive Red 241 (RR 241), respectively. The adsorption process could be described by both Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum dye adsorption capacities for RY 176, RB 21, and RR 241 were 0.50 g/g, 0.72 g/g, and 0.95 g/g, respectively. It is concluded that EPS in wastewater sludge could be utilized as an effective adsorbent for dye removal, thereby enhancing the value of sludge in wastewater treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00569-9
       
  • Performance of Three Magnesium-based Coatings for Corrosion Protection of
           Concrete against Sulfuric Acid

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      Abstract: Abstract The biogenic deterioration of large diameter concrete pipes constitutes a major problem in most sewerage systems. The protection of concrete against sulfuric acid produced in situ biogenically by certain microorganisms is of major interest. This study is focusing on the protection of concrete by applying relatively low-cost, magnesium-based coatings that can react and capture (neutralize) effectively the produced sulfuric acid. Three specific magnesium-based coatings were examined, i.e., a magnesium hydroxide/calcium hydroxide coating (C1), a magnesium hydroxide/calcium hydroxide coating with the supplementary addition of an acrylic additive (C2), and a magnesium phosphate cement coating (C3). The respective magnesium coatings were applied onto appropriate concrete specimens and evaluated by various experimental methods, regarding their anticorrosion capability. More specifically, the coated and the uncoated (used for comparison reasons) concrete specimens were subjected to two accelerated tests, i.e., a sulfuric acid immersion test and a sulfuric acid spraying test, attempting to simulate the real conditions existing in a sewer pipe internal wall surface. Multiple measurements performed to evaluate the respective coating performance, such as mass recordings, compressive strength, and surface pH measurements. The surface pH of the coated specimens was higher, as compared to the uncoated specimens, with the coating C3 presenting 7.8 surface pH value after four days of acid spraying. Overall, the coating C3 seemed to offer the best corrosion protection to concrete with respect to the other two examined coatings.
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40710-022-00568-w
       
 
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