Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 992 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (885 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (58 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (885 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 85)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences ? SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access  
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Boletín Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Casopis Slezskeho Zemskeho Muzea - serie A - vedy prirodni     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
China Population, Resources and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access  
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access  
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Earth Surface Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Environmental Modelling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Divulgación Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dynamiques Environnementales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 212)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Engineering : X     Open Access  
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 480)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 339)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Earth Systems and Environment
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2509-9426 - ISSN (Online) 2509-9434
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Environmental Study of Water Reservoirs for the Watershed Management in
           Pakistan

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      Abstract: Water reservoirs in most parts of the world face the problem of sedimentation. Environmental impacts and land-use changes/landslide have enormous potential to generate more sediment load in water reservoirs. Hence, the capacity of water reservoirs in Pakistan has been constantly reducing due to sedimentation. In this study, we have computed the environmental impacts on sedimentation load in Tarbela and Mangla water reservoirs using multi-satellite and ground-based data. The total drainage area of watershed is calculated using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data. Satellite data from NOAA-AVHRR are used to monitor urban development and changes in vegetation area, while MODIS data are used to estimate the snow area in the watershed region. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is used to estimate the temporal changes in vegetation cover, whilst principle component analysis is applied to monitor urban changes in watershed region. Similarly, snow cover area in the study region is estimated using Normalized Difference Snow Index algorithm. Rainfall data obtained from Pakistan Meteorological Department are used to evaluate the relationship between sedimentation deposited in water reservoirs and annual rainfall amount. Results of the current study reveal that increase in urban development and high amount of precipitation has direct relationship with the load of sedimentation, while amount of vegetation has inverse relationship with the load of sedimentation in water reservoirs of the country.
      PubDate: 2019-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00131-y
       
  • Lake Inventory and Evolution of Glacial Lakes in the Nubra-Shyok Basin of
           Karakoram Range

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      Abstract: The trends of glacier lake evolution during the past few decades and their future development are still not well understood. The aim of the present study is to investigate the growth and changes in moraine and bed rock dammed glacier lakes of the Nubra and Shyok basin, Karakoram Range using multi-temporal satellite images. The glacier lake inventory is based on Landsat 7 and 8 (15 m spatial resolution), and Sentinels 2A (10 m spatial resolution) satellite imageries. The data revealed that during the years 2002–2017, the number of glacial lakes increased from 215 to 255. The glacial lake area also increased from ~ 9.0 km2 in 2003 to ~ 9.36 km2 in 2013 and ~ 11.27 km2 in 2017. During 2002–2017, the lake area increased by ~ 2.27 km2, out of which ~ 1.9 km2 increase is recorded between 2013 and 2017 accounts for almost 84% of the total increase. The lakes with an area of ≥ 0.2 km2 have been considered for glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) susceptibility studies and volume estimation. Analyses of the data show a progressive increase in number of glacial lakes and their areal extent. This study would help planners to minimize the adverse effects of GLOF in the Nubra-Shyok basin.
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00129-6
       
  • Estimation of Rainfall-Induced Landslides Using the TRIGRS Model

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      Abstract: Rainfall-induced landslides have become the biggest threat in the Indian Himalayas and their increasing frequency has led to serious calamities. Several models have been built using various rainfall characteristics to determine the minimum rainfall amount for landslide occurrences. The utilisation of such models depends on the quality of available landslide and rainfall data. However, these models do not consider the effect of local soil, geology, hydrology and topography, which varies spatially. This study is to analyse the triggering process for shallow landslides using physical-based models for the Indian Himalayan region. This research focuses on the utilisation and dependability of physical models in the Kalimpong area of Darjeeling Himalayas, India. The approach utilised the transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability (TRIGRS) model, which is a widely used model in assessing the variations in pore water pressure and determining the change in the factor of safety. TRIGRS uses an infinite slope model to calculate the change in the factor of safety for every pixel. Moreover, TRIGRS is used to compare historical rainfall scenarios with available landslide database. This study selected the rainfall event from 30th June to 1st July 2015 as input for calibration because the amount of rainfall in this period was higher than the monthly average and caused 18 landslides. TRIGRS depicted variations in the factor of safety with duration before, during and after the heavy rainfall event in 2015. This study further analysed the landslide event and evaluated the predictive capability using receiver operating characteristics. The model was able to successfully predict 71.65% of stable pixels after the landslide event, however, the availability of more datasets such as hourly rainfall, accurate time of landslide event would further improve the results. The results from this study could be replicated and used in other unstable Indian Himalayan regions to establish an operational landslide early warning system.
      PubDate: 2019-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00125-w
       
  • Balancing the Potential Vorticity Seesaw: The Bare Essentials of
           Baroclinic Instability

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      Abstract: This paper bypasses the mathematical technicalities of baroclinic instability and tries to provide a more conceptual, mechanistic explanation for a phenomenon that is fundamentally important to the dynamics of the earth’s atmosphere and oceans. The standard conceptual picture of baroclinic instability is reviewed and stripped down to identify the most essential features. These are: (a) Regions with both positive and negative potential vorticity (PV) gradients, (b) separate Rossby wave perturbations in each region where PV gradients are of different signs, and (c) cooperative phase locking between Rossby waves in regions of opposite PV gradient, which renders them stationary, and allows them to amplify to reduce the background temperature gradient (or baroclinicity) while still conserving total PV. These three factors constitute the “counterpropagating Rossby wave” perspective, and suggest the heuristic picture of a “PV seesaw”, which remains balanced as the instabilities (i.e., the phase-locked PV wave perturbations) grow out along opposite limbs. After reviewing the key characteristics of PV and Rossby waves, the process is illustrated by the spontaneous onset of baroclinic instability during spin-up of the Held–Suarez dynamical core atmospheric model.
      PubDate: 2019-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00128-7
       
  • Flood Susceptibility Assessment in Bangladesh Using Machine Learning and
           Multi-criteria Decision Analysis

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      Abstract: This work proposes a new approach by integrating statistical, machine learning, and multi-criteria decision analysis, including artificial neural network (ANN), logistic regression (LR), frequency ratio (FR), and analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Dependent (flood inventory) and independent variables (flood causative factors) were prepared using remote sensing data and the Mike-11 hydrological model and secondary data from different sources. The flood inventory map was randomly divided into training and testing datasets, where 334 flood locations (70%) were used for training and the remaining 141 locations (30%) were employed for testing. Using the area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC), predictive power of the model was tested. The results revealed that LR model had the highest success rate (81.60%) and prediction rate (86.80%), among others. Furthermore, different combinations of the models were evaluated for flood susceptibility mapping and the best combination (11C) was used for generating a new flood hazard map for Bangladesh. The performance of the 11C integrated models was also evaluated using the AUROC and found that integrated LR-FR model had the highest predictive power with an AUROC value of 88.10%. This study offers a new opportunity to the relevant authority for planning and designing flood control measures.
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00123-y
       
  • Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Database to Calculate Drought
           Indices for Saudi Arabia: A Preliminary Assessment

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      Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present how the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model datasets might be used to calculate drought indices for Saudi Arabia. Widely used drought indices such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) are constructed and analyzed using observed rainfall from 27 stations as well as data from best performing CMIP3 models along with other variables for the present climate. Of the 22 CMIP3 models, the Canadian (CC: CCCMA-CGCM3.1) and the Australian (CS: CSIRO-Mk3.0) models were used in estimating the annual rainfall over Saudi Arabia while the German/Korean (MI: MIUB-ECHO-G) and the Japanese (MM: MIROC3.2 and MR: MRI-CGCM2.3.2) models were used in estimating the annual temperature. Results show that the CS model is superior to the other 21 CMIP3 models in calculating both SPI and PDSI. As for drought indices, PDSI (76% and 65% for CS and CC, respectively) performs well in assessing the spatial distribution of drought conditions as well as in determining the number of events (63% and 26% for CS and CC, respectively) within the different drought categories when compared to observations. Therefore, further use of PDSI is recommended for drought diagnosis in future climate for the disaster management purposes for Saudi Arabia, however, the use of the latest climate models datasets e.g. AR5 or AR6 may need further investigation.
      PubDate: 2019-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00126-9
       
  • A Drought Adaptation Management System for Groundwater Resources Based on
           Combined Drought Index and Vulnerability Analysis

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      Abstract: Water scarcity is one of the largest global risks in terms of potential impact over the next decade as it affects every continent is manifested by partial or no satisfaction of expressed demand, economic competition for water quantity or quality, disputes between users, irreversible depletion of groundwater, and negative impacts on the environment. Jordanian water crises are exacerbating all of the time due to increased water demands derived from high population growth, sudden fluxes of refugees, economic development, and increased frequency of drought events. These forces stress the urgent need to develop drought adaptation planning based on vulnerability mapping correlated to prolonged weather events. The objective of this research is thus to generate a drought vulnerability map with an emphasis on the severity and probability of drought occurrence, and to propose adaption measures based on groundwater sector impact chain analysis by incorporating numerical scorings for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacities at groundwater basin and Jordanian district levels. Drought impacts on groundwater basins were investigated based on measurements of severity and probability of drought occurrence, and drought exposure over the whole country computed by means of a combined drought index (CDI) that included the precipitation drought index, temperature drought index, and vegetation drought index from 1980 to 2017. Results indicated that drought in Jordan is characterised by a temporal and spatial variability regarding probability and severity. The most prolonged drought events range from mild to moderate, with long periods of exposure that may extend for up to 13 consecutive years. Due to high groundwater basin sensitivity and low adaptive capacity, the groundwater systems in Jordan are fragile and highly vulnerable to drought impacts, being subject to either reduction in quantity and/or deterioration in quality over time. The most vulnerable groundwater basins are the Azraq and Dead Sea regions, while Disi and Yarmouk are also highly vulnerable groundwater basins based on the weak enforcement of transboundary agreements. The proposed drought risk management system based on this research includes proactive and contingency plans enabled by policies and legal frameworks at the national level to ensure sustainable water resilience and governance.
      PubDate: 2019-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00118-9
       
  • Annual Daily Maximum Rainfall-Based IDF Curve Derivation Methodology

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      Abstract: Intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves are among the most demandable information in meteorology, hydrology and engineering water resources design, planning, operation, and management works. This paper suggests their generation based on annual daily maximum rainfall (ADMR) records from Turkey, Ceylanpınar region meteorology stations next to Syrian border. First, available storm rainfall records are used for dimensionless–intensity–duration (DID) curve development, then, the suitable theoretical probability distribution function (PDF) is obtained for the ADMR record series, which provides return periods’ identification for a given set of risk values, and finally, the ADMR data combination with the DID curve results in IDF curve set. The application of the methodology is presented for four stations in the Southeastern Province of Turkey, Ceylanpınar drainage basin, next to the Syrian border. The comparison of the newly developed IDF curves with the available measurement-based IDF curves indicated the validity of the proposed approaches with less than 10% error.
      PubDate: 2019-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00124-x
       
  • Analysis of Absorption Characteristics and Source Apportionment of
           Carbonaceous Aerosol in Arid Region of Western India

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      Abstract: The present work analyses the equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) data obtained using Aethalometer (AE-33) located at India Meteorological Department, Jodhpur, Rajasthan during the year 2016. The annual mean EBC concentration is 5.76 µg m−3 and the monthly mean concentration is maximum (12.12 µg m−3) in January and minimum (1.27 µg m−3) in December. The seasonal mean of wind speeds are 1.94, 2.02, 1.34, 1.02 m s−1 and the calm percentages are 7, 5.7, 28.7, 25.7% during pre-monsoon (MAM), monsoon (JJAS), post-monsoon (ON) and winter (DJF), respectively. The night time EBC concentrations are more than the day time concentrations due to the shallowness of the boundary layer and local anthropogenic activities. The Concentrated Weighted Trajectories (CWT) are calculated using back trajectories ending at 100 m above ground level at Jodhpur station using National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (NCMRWF) Global Forecast System (GFS) based reanalysis T574 data. The CWT, directional source region analysis reveals the effect of long-range transport in the winter season with a 60% of probability of source regions from the W, NW direction of observational site. Source apportionment also carried out by assuming alpha (at 470-, 950-nm wavelengths) close to 1 for anthropogenic emissions and alpha close to 2 for biomass burning aerosols. The monthly mean biomass burning concentration is found maximum (2.58 µg m−3) in November and minimum (0.22 µg m−3) in July.
      PubDate: 2019-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00122-z
       
  • Spatiotemporal Investigations of Aerosol Optical Properties Over
           Bangladesh for the Period 2002–2016

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      Abstract: This study investigates the aerosol optical properties over Bangladesh using Terra MODIS-based collection 06 (DT and DB) aerosol optical depth (AOD), ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)-based aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD), emission database for global atmospheric research (EDGAR) measured black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), and modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA) retrieved dust. In addition, ground-based aerosol robotic network (AERONET) retrieved optical properties such as aerosol volume size distribution, single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (ASY) are studied in understanding the behavior of aerosol properties. Both the satellite-based MODIS DB and DT algorithms detect the high AOD (> 0.5) all over Bangladesh except for a small portion in the eastern side. High AOD is also observed in all seasons except for SON. AOD significantly (at 95% level) increased over the period 2002–2016. The correlation coefficient between MODIS and AERONET AOD at Dhaka University site is 0.78 (0.76) for DT (DB). The Expected Error envelope is found 75.70% (54.38%) with small (large) RMSE for DT (DB) product. OMI-based AAOD indicates the presence of absorbing aerosols over the study area which is confirmed with AEROENT-based SSA and ASY. Three different types of absorbing aerosols such as BC, OC, and dust are identified from the EDGAR and MERRA data. In Bangladesh, the BC, OC, and dust are significantly (at 95% level) increasing. Further work is suggested to simulate and assess aerosols against the observations, which will help projecting aerosols in the future climate.
      PubDate: 2019-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00120-1
       
  • Downscaling and Projection of Spatiotemporal Changes in Temperature of
           Bangladesh

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      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate possible deviations in annual and seasonal maximum (Tmx) and minimum (Tmn) temperatures, and, (2) determine the spatial pattern of these temperature changes. The study used statistical downscaling of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) under four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. Perfect prognosis statistical downscaling models, based on support vector machine (SVM), were developed for this purpose. Biases in the GCM simulations were corrected using quantile mapping (QM) and the data were then used to determine future temperature scenarios at different locations within Bangladesh. For most of the GCMs, the mean bias was close to zero and the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency was above 0.58 for the downscaled temperature. Non-parametric hypothesis tests showed equality in median, distribution and variance values of the observed and downscaled temperature for all GCMs. Temperature projections from the models revealed an increase in Tmx by 1.3–2.3 °C, 1.3–2.9 °C, 1.5–3.1 °C, and 2.2–4.3 °C, and Tmn by 1.8–3.0 °C, 2.1–4.2 °C, 2.4–4.5 °C, and 3.2–5.1 °C under the four RCPs during the 2070–2099 period when compared with the 1971–2000 period. The greatest increase in Tmx and Tmn was found in the more northern regions and the lowest increase was found in the southeast coastal region. Tmn tended to increase in winter, while Tmx increased predominantly during summer. Uncertainty in the temperature projections was found to be greater during the latter part of the century. The rapid rise in temperature predicted for the northern part of Bangladesh (which is historically prone to temperature extremes) may cause an increase in the frequency of temperature-related extremes in this region.
      PubDate: 2019-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00121-0
       
  • Meridionally Extending Anomalous Wave Train over Asia During Breaks in the
           Indian Summer Monsoon

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      Abstract: Anomalous interactions between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) circulation and subtropical westerlies are known to trigger breaks in the ISM on subseasonal time-scales, characterised by a pattern of suppressed rainfall over central-north India, and enhanced rainfall over the foothills of the central–eastern Himalayas (CEH). An intriguing feature during ISM breaks is the formation of a mid-tropospheric cyclonic circulation anomaly extending over the subtropical and mid-latitude areas of the Asian continent. This study investigates the mechanism of the aforesaid Asian continental mid-tropospheric cyclonic circulation (ACMCC) anomaly using observations and simplified model experiments. The results of our study indicate that the ACMCC during ISM breaks is part of a larger meridional wave train comprising of alternating anticyclonic and cyclonic anomalies that extend poleward from the monsoon region to the Arctic. A lead–lag analysis of mid-tropospheric circulation anomalies suggests that the meridional wave-train generation is linked to latent heating (LH) anomalies over the CEH foothills, Indo-China, and the Indian landmass during ISM breaks. By conducting sensitivity experiments using a simplified global atmospheric general circulation model forced with satellite-derived three-dimensional LH, it is demonstrated that the combined effects of the enhanced LH over the CEH foothills and Indo-China and decreased LH over the Indian landmass during ISM breaks are pivotal for generating the poleward extending meridional wave train and the ACMCC anomaly. At the same time, the spatial extent of the mid-latitude cyclonic anomaly over Far-East Asia is also influenced by the anomalous LH over central–eastern China. While the present findings provide interesting insights into the role of LH anomalies during ISM breaks on the poleward extending meridional wave train, the ACMCC anomaly is found to have important ramifications on the daily rainfall extremes over the Indo-China region. It is revealed from the present analysis that the frequency of extreme rainfall occurrences over Indo-China shows a twofold increase during ISM break periods as compared to active ISM conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00119-8
       
  • The Use of a CMIP5 Climate Model to Assess Regional Temperature and
           Precipitation Variation due to Climate Change: A Case Study of Dhaka
           Megacity, Bangladesh

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      Abstract: The Dhaka megacity is highly vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change. In addition to the risks associated with high population density and unplanned infrastructures, temperature and precipitation changes are two environmental factors which have the greatest potential to negatively impact the residential population, both now and into the future. This study uses historical climate data recorded in the Dhaka area for the 1995–2014 period, as well as a multi-model dataset, to understand existing climate variability and possible future climate change scenarios. Future climate scenarios and predictions for this area have been carried out with CMIP5 40 GCMs using the three new representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5) adopted by the IPCC. Climate model projections suggest that the average temperature would increase approximately 2.56 °C by the end of the twenty-first century and future monsoonal rainfall events would also substantially increase in frequency, particularly in the month of July. The results indicate that the long, hot and humid (pre-monsoon) and humid and wet (monsoon) season will persist over Dhaka for an increased length of time. A multi-model ensemble projection clearly showed that the risks associated with the modeled climate change parameters could increase Dhaka’s vulnerability to climate change by the end of the twenty-first century. It also indicated that issues associated with waterlogging, public health, transport system, and water supply would impact many areas within the Dhaka megacity. This study provides information, which can be used to assist in the development of measures to support the sustainable growth of Dhaka.
      PubDate: 2019-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00117-w
       
  • Comparative Study of Different Types of Digital Elevation Models on the
           Basis of Drainage Morphometric Parameters (Case Study of Wadi Fatimah
           Basin, KSA)

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      Abstract: Nowadays there are a lot of geospatial datasets available in the form of different types of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) which were launched with different resolutions. These datasets are used for studying the physiographical features of the hydrographic basins through the tracing and extracting the elevation points, watershed boundaries, streamlines, flow directions and morphometric parameters assessment. Many researchers have used these datasets to study and evaluate the hydrologic behavior of the basins which is considered as the reflection of physiographic features of the hydrographic basins. In the Middle East especially in Saudi Arabia, the trend of using DEMs increased for hydrographic basin analysis and assessment of hydrologic behavior. So, there is an important question about the accuracy and sensitivity of these datasets which are acquired from different DEMs. This study deals with four types of DEMs, first is derivative from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER 30 m resolution), second is Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM 90 m resolution), third is SRTM 30 m resolution and the fourth is the Advanced Land Observing STLT (ALOS 30 resolution). More than 35 morphometric parameters including drainage network, basin geometry, basin texture and basin relief characteristics were measured and calculated using these four types of DEMs and calibrated with topographic maps of 1:250 K and 1:50 K scale and also google earth maps. Results show that the SRTM 30 m is characterized by high accuracy and has a very good matching with google earth maps and topographic map of scale1:50,000. This research is dealing with the comparison of the morphometric parameters of the hydrographic basin based on the type of DEM. It is clear to conclude that the SRTM 30 resolution is the best type for hydrology and water resources study.
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00111-2
       
  • Effect of 1-km Subgrid Land-Surface Heterogeneity on the Multi-year
           Simulation of RCM-Modelled Surface Climate Over the Region of Complex
           Topography

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      Abstract: Effects of parameterization of subgrid-scale topography and land cover scheme (SubBATS) at 1-km resolution were investigated over the Alpine region using a regional climate model. Two multi-year simulations were carried out with the Regional Climate Model of International Centre for Theoretical Physics. The control simulation was carried out at 10-km horizontal resolution using standard land-surface model; while for the SubBATS simulation, the land-surface model was employed at much higher resolution (1 km) to investigate the effect of land-surface heterogeneity on the Alpine climate. In SubBATS, near-surface atmospheric state variables from coarse (10-km) atmospheric model were disaggregated to 1 km before passing to high-resolution land surface scheme. Comparison of these two multi-year simulation was done for the Great Alpine Region. The analysis shows the added value imparted by very high-resolution SubBATS in simulating hydrology processes in the complex terrain. The direct effects of the scheme are evident on height-dependent variables; temperature and snow pack. The better representation of topographic height in sub-scale scheme leads to more refined temperature field which subsequently results in more realistic representation of snow cover and snow melt. At 1-km resolution, the influence of resolved mountain peaks and valleys results in decrease of snow-covered area. The subgrid scheme not only improves the overall simulation by feedback process but also provides high-resolution meteorological fields that can be used for adaptation and impact studies. Therefore, more accurate representation of land-surface heterogeneity in sub-grid approach improves the temperature and snow fields over the complex terrain and can be useful for coupling with impact models, although further improvements are desirable.
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00116-x
       
  • A Novel Hybrid Machine Learning-Based Model for Rockfall Source
           Identification in Presence of Other Landslide Types Using LiDAR and GIS

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      Abstract: Rockfall is a common phenomenon in mountainous and hilly areas worldwide, including Malaysia. Rockfall source identification is a challenging task in rockfall hazard assessment. The difficulty rise when the area of interest has other landslide types with nearly similar controlling factors. Therefore, this research presented and assessed a hybrid model for rockfall source identification based on the stacking ensemble model of random forest (RF), artificial neural network, Naive Bayes (NB), and logistic regression in addition to Gaussian mixture model (GMM) using high-resolution airborne laser scanning data (LiDAR). GMM was adopted to automatically compute the thresholds of slope angle for various landslide types. Chi square was utilised to rank and select the conditioning factors for each landslide type. The best fit ensemble model (RF–NB) was then used to produce probability maps, which were used to conduct rockfall source identification in combination with the reclassified slope raster based on the thresholds obtained by the GMM. Next, landslide potential area was structured to reduce the sensitivity and the noise of the model to the variations in different conditioning factors for improving its computation performance. The accuracy assessment of the developed model indicates that the model can efficiently identify probable rockfall sources with receiver operating characteristic curve accuracies of 0.945 and 0.923 on validation and training datasets, respectively. In general, the proposed hybrid model is an effective model for rockfall source identification in the presence of other landslide types with a reasonable generalisation performance. Graphic
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00114-z
       
  • Off-Road Vehicle Tracks and Grazing Points in Relation to Soil Compaction
           and Land Degradation

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      Abstract: The land degradation in Kuwait presents into two main forms, namely, soil compaction and loss to native plants. These two forms of land degradation are highly related to off-road vehicle tracks and grazing points. Therefore, the off-road vehicle tracks and grazing points were delineated for the first time within all Kuwait using Worldview and Rapid Eye images 2017 and ArcGIS. There is 871,811 grazing livestock (sheep, goats, and camels) spread into 2473 grazing points was detected in Kuwait open desert in 2017. There are around 354 as average livestock in each grazing point. The total length for off-road vehicle tracks is 14,774.7 km spread over Kuwait which is equivalent to 1.16 times more than the length of the planet earth mean diameter. The off-road vehicle tracks and grazing points are a leading cause for land degradation and soil compaction in Kuwait. Aeolian activities were monitored for 1 year at downwind of an off-road vehicle track at 10 m, 50 m, and 200 m. The results show more quantities of mobile sand, and dust was trapped at 10 and 50 m compared with the 200 m distance from off-road vehicle track. Consequently, the total area affected by soil compaction due to off-road vehicle tracks and grazing points in Kuwait is 1390.23 km2 representing 7.8% of the total area of Kuwait. It is concluded that grazing points and off-road vehicle tracks are highly related to each other, and both are jumped to higher densities around the urban area and watering points. As a result, it is strongly recommended to develop a national action plan to control off-road vehicle tracks and grazing points by putting into practice a proper rangeland management plan in Kuwait. Steps of the action plan were outlined for this study.
      PubDate: 2019-08-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00115-y
       
  • Heat Balance in the Sharm Obhur and Exchange with the Red Sea

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      Abstract: A comprehensive understanding of the balance and exchange of heat is vital to explore the interaction between atmosphere and ocean. Sharm Obhur is one of the most important lagoons along the eastern coast of the Red Sea. In situ observations of current speed and direction, temperature, and salinity along with near surface meteorological parameters are used to investigate monthly variability of heat balance in the Sharm Obhur and the exchange with the Red Sea. The net heat flux in the Sharm shows a notable seasonality with an annual heat loss of 49 W m−2. The heat loss in the region peaked during December while maximum heat gain noticed during August. The entrance of the Sharm is well mixed during winter, while it is stratified by 2–3 °C during summer. Heat exchange between the Sharm and the Red Sea shows significant seasonality associated with the velocity of spring and neap flows. Interestingly, the annual net heat gain of 49.9 W m−2 noticed from the heat exchange is well compensated by the net surface heat loss of 49 W m−2.
      PubDate: 2019-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00113-0
       
  • GIS-Based Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Suitability in Dakhla
           Oases, Egypt

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      Abstract: Groundwater is the main source for agricultural and domestic purposes in the Western Desert of Egypt. Groundwater quality is significantly influenced by the surrounding anthropogenic activities. This paper is one of the attempts to spatially assess groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigation in Dakhla Oases using Water Quality Index (WQI) and GIS techniques. Calibrated Landsat 8 OLI satellite images were processed to produce Land Use Cover map (LULC) to assess the agricultural and human activities in the study area. Further, eight groundwater quality parameters and WQI were attributed to a GIS layer for 71 investigated wells for mapping purposes using the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method in ArcGIS. LULC map showed that 75% of the study area is a bare land and 25% is urban and agricultural areas. Almost all the studied wells recorded total dissolved solids and sulfate coinciding with the Egyptian permissible limits for drinking purposes. Fe and Mn levels exceeded the allowable limits for drinking in the majority of Dakhla wells. Based on the WQI, 38% and 36.6% of the study area fell within the poor water category according to the Egyptian and WHO standards, respectively. Most of the groundwater wells were of the best quality for irrigation with regard to salinity (less than 2000 mg/L) and the excellent quality in terms of sodium absorption ratio (< 10). It can be concluded that GIS analyses of groundwater quality and suitability can provide one of the necessary inputs for management and planning of Dakhla Oases and other similar regions.
      PubDate: 2019-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00112-1
       
  • Long-Term Monitoring of Transformation from Pastoral to Agricultural Land
           

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      Abstract: The expansion of agricultural land at the cost of pastoral land is the common cause of land degradation in the arid areas of developing countries, especially in Morocco. This study aims to assess and monitor the transformation of pastoral land to agricultural land in the arid environment of the Feija Basin (Southeast of Morocco) and to find the key drivers and the issues resulting from this transformation. Spectral mixture analysis was applied to multi-temporal (1975–2017) and multi-sensor (i.e. Multi-spectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Operational Land Imager) Landsat satellite images, from which land use classifications were derived. The remote sensing data in combination with ground reference data (household level), groundwater and climate statistics were used to validate and explain the derived land use change maps. The results of the spatiotemporal changes in agricultural lands show two patterns of changes, a middle expansion from 1975 to 2007, and a rapid expansion from 2008 to 2017. In addition, the overall accuracy demonstrated a high accuracy of 94.4%. In 1975 and 1984, the agricultural lands in Feija covered 0.17 km2 and 1.32 km2, respectively, compared with 20.10 km2 in 2017. Since the adoption of the Green Morocco Plan in 2008, the number of watermelon farms and wells has increased rapidly in the study area, which induced a piezometric level drawdown. The results show that spectral mixture analysis yields high accuracies for agricultural lands extraction in arid dry lands and accounts for mixed pixels issues. Results of this study can be used by local administrators to prepare an effective environmental management plan of these fragile drylands. The proposed method can be replicated in other regions to analyse land transformation in similar arid conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s41748-019-00110-3
       
 
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