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 Nanotechnology for Environmental EngineeringNumber of Followers: 0      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 2365-6379 - ISSN (Online) 2365-6387 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
nanoparticles and Carbon–CaO nanocomposites

Abstract: Abstract Paper dyeing industries are using different kinds of dyes for producing variety of paper qualities. Auramine-O (Au-O) dye is one of the major sources of colour effluents from paper dyeing industries, and they cause long-term effects for an aquatic environment. The synthesis of carbon nanoparticles (C NPs) from neem leaves and C-CaO nanocomposites (C-CaO NCs) was examined for the adsorption and photocatalytic studies of the Au-O dye. Further their characterization for the degradation of Au-O dye was done based on the analytical techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). During XRD analysis, the average particle size was 6.78 nm and 10.23 nm for pure C NPs and C-CaO NCs, respectively. Further, the adsorption and photocatalytic properties of C NPs and C-CaO NCs for 2 h by observing the degradation process of the Au-O dye with the time interval of every 5 min through a UV–Visible spectrophotometer were examined. The obtained results indicate that C NPs act as better adsorbents only (91.56%), while C-CaO NCs acts as both an adsorbent (90.34%) and photocatalyst (88.39%). So, it can be concluded that the degradation of Au-O dye by adsorption process using C-CaO NCs alone is a cost-effective and harmless method, and also C NPs synthesized from neem leaves does not produce any side effects.
PubDate: 2022-06-16

• Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of silver nanoparticles
from the dye-yielding plants, Terminalia paniculata and Mallotus
philippensis

Abstract: Abstract Dye-yielding plants have been proved to be strong candidates for several scientific experiments. But the exploration of these plants in the field of nanotechnology is mere. On this background, the present study is mainly focused on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the fruit extracts of two important dye-yielding plants, i.e., Terminalia paniculata (TP) and Mallotus philippensis (MP). The combined action of methanolic fruit extracts and silver nitrate solution might be responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs. Physicochemical profiling was also performed for the detailed characterization of AgNPs. Ultraviolet–visible–near infrared (UV–Vis–NIR) spectral analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesiszed AgNPs. From UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy analysis, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrum of AgNPs produced a significant peak at 456 nm and 438 nm in T. paniculata and M. philippensis, respectively. From the SEM analysis, it was observed that the structure of synthesized AgNPs from both the species varied. Spherical shaped nanoparticles were obtained from T. paniculata, whereas cubical in M. philippensis. SEM coupled with EDAX technique was adopted to expose the elemental composition of the synthesized AgNPs. The prominence of silver was expressed by the characteristic peak which was obtained through the EDAX analysis. The crystalline size of the silver nanoparticles was unveiled by X-ray diffraction technique. So, the present study is a novel attempt to elucidate the potential of dye-yielding plants in nanoparticle synthesis, which can ultimately be a lead toward the use of these plants in green nanotechnology.
PubDate: 2022-06-11

• Synthesis, characterization, and the effectiveness of cobalt
hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles in Cs+ adsorbent application

Abstract: Abstract Nanoscale cobalt hexacyanoferrate (CoHF) is a low-cost and a good selective adsorbent for cesium (Cs+) removal, which was prepared via a chemical coprecipitation method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images were obtained to determine the properties and morphologies of the CoHF. It is shown that the CoHF has a cubic structure (space group F-43m), and a Brunauer Emmett Teller surface area of 29.085 m2/g was demonstrated. The isothermal parameters of Cs+ adsorbed at temperatures from 298 to 348 Kelvin (K), according to the Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum value of absorption capacity was calculated to be 197.01 mg/g at 318 K. The Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°) has a negative value from − 37.93 to − 42.47 at different temperatures ranging from 298 to 348 K, indicating that cesium ion adsorption by CoHF is a spontaneous process and the adsorption rate increased with increasing temperature. The mechanism of Cs+ adsorption was examined for the first time by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with a gallium internal standard. In addition, the primary mechanism of Cs+ adsorption through the ion exchange process was also proposed and discussed.
PubDate: 2022-06-10

• Study and evaluation of the degradation of procion blue dye by the
ozonation method: parametric and isothermal study

Abstract: Abstract The study carried out in this paper is interested in the degradation of wastewater contaminated with dyes, by advanced oxidation processes, namely ozonation. This treatment is carried out by the oxidizing action of the hydroxyl radicals produced in the medium to be treated. These radicals are capable of degrading almost all persistent organic pollutants because of their very high oxidizing power, their reactivity and their non-selectivity towards organic substances. In this context, we carried out an ozonation study of an azo dye, Procion Blue. Parametric effects were applied in this work to study the change in pH over time, the effect of ozonation on dye removal, the effect of the initial dye concentration on ozonation and thé effect of the addition of H2O2 on the ozonation of Procion blue. This study showed that ozonation was very successful in the complete discoloration of a solution of Procion Blue (85%). The kinetic study carried out demonstrated that the experimental results follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. The ozonation process has been shown to be effective in decontaminating water polluted with dyes, which can reach very high levels of mineralization.
PubDate: 2022-06-09

• Construction of Ag3PO4–TiO2 nano-heterostructure with excellent
visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for environmental
applications

Abstract: Abstract Nano-heterostructure constructed from Ag3PO4 and TiO2 has been successfully fabricated by the hydrothermal method with 2–10% of Ag3PO4 (X-AT). All the material properties have been investigated using XRD, HR-TEM, FEG-SEM, UV–Vis (DRS), BET surface area, XPS, and PL spectroscopy. The optoelectronic and structural properties have been correlated with materials photocatalytic performance with visible light illumination. XRD implies the formation of anatase and cubic phases of TiO2 and Ag3PO4 nanoparticles, respectively, with average crystallite size in the range of 18–25 nm. The formation of a proper heterojunction is corroborated by HR-TEM image. The addition of Ag3PO4 decreases the band gap from 3.2 for TiO2 to 2.56 eV for 10-AT heterojunction. The photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and deterioration of basic fuchsin were evaluated for the Ag3PO4–TiO2 nano-heterojunction. 50 ppm of Cr(VI) solution is completely reduced into Cr(III) within 75 min of visible light irradiation using 10-AT, whereas the same material takes 120 min for the complete degradation of 10 ppm of basic fuchsin dye solution. Bare TiO2 and Ag3PO4 show insignificant photocatalytic efficiency under similar conditions. The improvement can be attributed to the synergistic effect of diminished charge carrier recombination and increased visible light absorption due to the surface plasmon resonance of the metallic silver nanoparticle and oxygen vacancies.
PubDate: 2022-06-09

• A study on the design education method using 3D pen in an era of
manufacturing change

Abstract: Abstract With the development of 3D printing technology, there will be a lot of changes in manufacturing. Recently, research on 3D pen using 3D printing technology is increasing. Unlike 3D printing, 3D pen can print products instantly. So, 3D pen will be applied in various fields. In this study, the design education method using 3D pen was studied. The results of this study are as follows. First of all, design education using 3D pen can develop students’ creativity and problem-solving skills. In particular, this curriculum can be used in making education. The results of studies are expected to be important data for future education. Moreover, these results could be the basis for making textbooks for future schools. In the future, 3D pen should also be developed for students to use in practice.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Green synthesised iron oxide nanoparticles decorated on biochar for
enhanced natural attenuation in simulated petroleum compromised soil

Abstract: Abstract Nanobioremediation is an emerging technique for pollution management. This study aimed to enhance the natural attenuation process during remediation of petroleum polluted soil using a nanocomposite consisting of green synthesised iron oxide nanoparticles decorated on cow bone-derived biochar. The biochar used was produced via slow pyrolysis at 500 °C under low oxygen conditions while the iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesised using extracts from leaves of the pea eggplant (Solanum torvum). The iron oxide-biochar nanocomposite (BCNP) was applied to soil in microcosms at 10% w/w and 15% w/w amendment levels, and the set-ups were monitored for 60 days. At the end of the study, the total cultivable heterotrophic bacterial abundance in the BCNP amended soils were 7.37–8.92 times greater than the observed abundance in the biochar controls. Similarly, total petroleum hydrocarbon removal levels were 28.4 and 26.2% greater (at 10% w/w and 15% w/w BCNP, respectively) than obtained with the plain biochar controls. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. were the predominant cultivable heterotrophic bacterial isolates while Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp. and Enterobacter spp. dominated amongst the cultivable hydrocarbon utilising bacteria. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the initial dominance of Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria phyla at the onset of the study gave way to the dominance of the Proteobacteria as the study proceeded with Pseudomonas spp. dominating at the genus taxonomic rank. The iron oxide nanoparticle decorated biochar proved effective in boosting natural attenuation in petroleum-compromised soil.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Synthesis, characterisation and adsorption applications of PMMA/ZnO-based
nanocomposite material

Abstract: Abstract The synthesis and adsorption applications of polymethyl methacrylate (PPMA)- and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-based adsorbent (PMMA/ZnO) were investigated in this work. FESEM, EDX, FTIR and P-XRD techniques were used to characterise the PMMA/ZnO nanocomposite-based adsorbent. PMMA/ZnO was utilised in the adsorption-based removal of toxic Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cr6+ ions from aqueous solutions. PMMA/ZnO was highly capable of removing Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cr6+ ions at optimised conditions such as 60 min of agitation, 1 g of PMMA/ZnO, pH of 6 and temperature of 60 °C, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, different isotherm and kinetic models were used to evaluate the appropriateness of the adsorption process. The suitability order of isotherm models was Freundlich > Langmuir > Elovich, with rate constants of 5.216, 12.0336 and 4.926 g mg−1 min−1 for Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cr6+ ions, respectively, evaluated using the pseudo-second-order model.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Porous ZnO/hydroxyapatite nanomaterials with effective photocatalytic and
antibacterial activities for the degradation of antibiotics

Abstract: Abstract Simultaneous photocatalytic and antimicrobial activity is considered a very promising technology for water treatment. By studying their antimicrobial activity, the present study evaluates effect of the association of porous hydroxyapatite with zinc oxide to improve the photodegradation of antibiotics in water and to trap the by-products. Coexistence in the nanocomposite of zinc oxide with porous apatite, prepared from phosphate rock, is a key factor promoting strong photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. Toxicity of the water discharged after the photocatalytic treatment was studied. Owing to the simplicity of the synthesis of ZnO–hydroxyapatite nanocomposites from Moroccan natural phosphate and their versatility, the present approach holds promise for the development of multifunctional photocatalysts and antibacterial agents for environmental applications.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Improving the operation safety of the high-speed train by catenary carrier
communication and nanotechnology

Abstract: Abstract The birth of nanotechnology plays a leading role. China’s high-speed railway train operation has high reliability, but its safety still has defects. The main problem is that the information source received by the vehicle receiving end is single, which cannot fully guarantee the security of the information at the output end of the vehicle equipment. In this paper, some solution is presented, that is how to make full use of the carrier communication technique and nanotechnology by catenary to transmit the train operation information, take it as the redundant source of high-speed train communication, and improve the safety of the output information.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• A study on the environmental upgrade path of the commercial district in
Liangping District, Chongqing

Abstract: Abstract Liangping district, which is located in both the Three Gorges Reservoir area of Northeast Chongqing and Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle, is acting as a bridge and pivot between the “Belt and Road” and the “Yangtze River Economic Zone.” High-quality business districts play a vital role in gathering popularity, developing the economy and improving residents’ living standards. Therefore, Liangping district should make a comprehensive consideration of the development situation of business, overall planning of the whole region, construction requirements from Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone and the Three Gorges Reservoir area. From the commercial area positioning, dislocation development, intelligent promotion, mode innovation, cultural construction and other aspects, the implementation of “environmental engineering,” strengthen the overall layout, improve the supporting facilities, enrich the commercial format, strengthen comprehensive services, improve the commercial area operating soft and hard environment, realize the commercial area upgrade.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Safety management of environmental construction projects based on BIM and
RFID technology

Abstract: Abstract With the continuous development of China's economy, the pace of urbanization is accelerating, and the upstream and downstream industrial correlation of urban engineering construction projects is even more complex. Therefore, each management link of the environmental construction project has a direct impact on the effectiveness of the project, especially for safety management. The step-wise application of BIM and RFID technologies provides a more viable method for the safety management of construction projects. This paper aims to study the safety management of construction projects based on BIM and RFID technologies. This article selects the construction project safety management as the research object, applies BIM and RFID technology to the construction project safety management process, summarizes the application of BIM and RFID technology in the construction project safety management, and designed the technical construction project safety management platform based on BIM and RFID.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Mechanical strength optimization and simulation of cement kiln dust
concrete using extreme vertex design method

Abstract: Abstract Extreme vertex design (EVD) method was adapted for the experimental investigation involving the incorporation of industrial waste known as cement kiln dust (CKD) for concrete production; to encourage reuse and recycling of wastes and to achieve eco-friendly construction materials. This design method is mostly suited for factor levels impose with multiple constraints. Components’ constraint formulation was imposed expertly through the relevant literatures to determine the mixture-simplex bounded regions. The laboratory results obtained indicate maximum compressive-strength of 34.85 N/mm2 with concrete mixture-ratio of 13.0434%-cement, 13.043%-CKD, 26.09%-fine-aggregate, 34.78%-coarse-aggregate and 13.0434%-water while the minimum of 18 N/mm2 was obtained with mixture-ratio of 13.79%-cement, 2.299%-CKD, 39.08%-fine-aggregate, 36.78%-coarse-aggregate and 8.05%-water. The generated results were utilized for model-development and statistical-analysis. The statistical influence and diagnostic test results showed a good statistical correlation and points of great influence. The desirability-function was further deployed to achieve numerical and statistical optimization in-order to derive the optimal-solution for the factor-levels combination at 0.15:0.15:0.3:0.4 for cement, CKD, fine-aggregate and coarse-aggregate, respectively. A desirability computation result of 0.907 was obtained with optimal-response of 33.283 N/mm2. Model simulation was further carried out to test the EVD-model’s applicability using Student’s t-test and ANOVA. The results of statistical analysis indicated p-value > 0.05, showing no significant difference between the EVD-model simulated results and actual values.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Comparative analysis of PWM techniques for 15-level cross-connected H
bridge inverter

Abstract: Abstract The total harmonic distortion of the voltage plays an important role in selecting filter components. Multilevel inverters are one of the solutions for reducing total harmonic distortion and filter components. This paper discusses about third harmonic PWM controlled three-phase 15-level cross-H bridge multilevel inverter fed induction motor. The total harmonic distortion and losses of switches are calculated for third harmonic PWM, and the same are compared with a single pulse PWM controlled 3-Ø 15-level cross-H bridge multilevel inverter fed induction motor. The simulation of the third harmonic PWM and single pulse PWM fed 3-Ø 15-level cross-H bridge multilevel inverter fed induction motor is performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Degradation of 4-aminopyridine using bio-mediated Ag-doped Cu2O
nanoparticles under visible light

Abstract: Bio-mediated Ag-doped cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Ag@Cu2O NPs) were synthesised using Tabernaemontana divaricate leaves extract, as a reducing agent for the reduction Ag+ to Ag0. Synthesised Ag@Cu2O NPs were characterised by several techniques such as UV–Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRD. Doping Ag onto Cu2O nanoparticles reduced the bandgap of Cu2O to 1.8 eV from 2.1 eV and enhanced photocurrent. The crystallite size of prepared Ag@Cu2O NPs was estimated to be 48 nm using Scherrer’s equation. The photocatalytic activity of Ag@Cu2O NPs was tested against 4-aminopyridine under visible light. The synthesised photocatalysis showed 95% degradation efficiency and 98% chemical oxygen demand removal for 4-aminopyridine at optimized conditions (4-aminopyridine: 5 ppm, catalyst dosage: 0.8 g/L and temperature 30 °C) after 235 min of reaction time at pH 3. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Euphorbia and its biological
activities

Abstract: Abstract Nanotechnology is important in all fields of science. Silver nanoparticles, among the many metal nanoparticles, play an essential role in a wide range of applications in diverse fields. Nanoparticles are created using a variety of physical and chemical approaches. Synthesis utilising plant extracts, on the other hand, appears to be more important because it avoids the drawbacks of traditional procedures, such as time-consuming, high-energy needs, and the use of dangerous chemicals. Plant extract-based silver nanoparticle synthesis is usually eco-friendly, environmentally benign, low-cost, and readily scaled up for large-scale synthesis, and it is always preferable due to its advantages over other conventional approaches. Euphorbia plants are therapeutic as well as pharmacologically important. They contain a variety of phytoconstituents with a wide range of possible bioactivities and functional groups. Proper awareness of the participation of phytometabolites during the creation of nanoparticles is highly advised for better nanotechnology advancements. Previous research on the Euphorbia genus indicated phytoconstituents’ potential applications in a variety of disciplines. Due to the scarcity of research in this subject, the manufacture of silver nanoparticles and subsequent analysis of the role of phytometabolites will be extremely beneficial. The utilisation of several extracts from different Euphorbia plant species for the green production of silver nanoparticles is discussed here. Different phytochemicals involved in the nanoparticles’ synthetic mechanism and phytoconstituents that act as stabilising, capping agents during nanoparticle production are also described. The bioactivities of the produced silver nanoparticles varied, with antibacterial characteristics being the most important. In this review, the antifungal, antiparasitic, nematicidal, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial, antioxidant, and larvicidal capabilities of biosynthesised silver nanoparticles are briefly discussed.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Denitrification performance of kaolin and modified kaolin for the
treatment of nitrate contaminated water: isotherm and kinetic studies

Abstract: Abstract The present study focuses on nitrate removal from water using kaolin and modified kaolin in a batch system. The adsorption studies were executed to study the influence of initial pH (2.0–7.0), contact time (5–240 min), adsorbent dosage (1–30g/L), and initial nitrate concentration (50–250 mg/L) using kaolin and modified kaolin as adsorbents. The percentage removal of nitrate was noted to be maximum at pH 2.0. The maximum adsorption capacity of kaolin and modified kaolin was observed at 104.17 mg/g and 109.89 mg/g respectively. Denitrification process followed pseudo second-order kinetic model. The groundwater samples collected from 21 different regions of Bangalore city in India were analyzed for nitrate concentration. It was observed that the nitrate concentration of collected groundwater samples was ranging from a minimum of 3.42 mg/L to a maximum of 75.69 mg/L. Sample collected from Mandur area corresponds to the high nitrate concentration (75.69 mg/L). Higher percentage nitrate removal from the groundwater sample was achieved by modified kaolin (93.10%) compared to kaolin (66.86%). It can be concluded that modified kaolin has exhibited higher potential of nitrate removal compared to kaolin.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Fabrication of ulvan-based ionically cross-linked 3D-biocomposite:
synthesis and characterization

Abstract: Abstract Polysaccharides are among the multifunctional and highly abundant biomolecules of the plant kingdom. Their diversities range from being a homopolymer to heteropolymers with a vast list of applications precisely for the marine algae-derived sulfated polysaccharides. Ulvans, a green marine macroalgae-derived sulphated heteropolymer, have been modified by number of methodologies to prepare biocomposites, tissue scaffolds, hydrogels, aerogels, thin films, etc. The present study demonstrates for the first time use of ionic cross-linking using calcium as a green cross linker to construct a 3D scaffold. The assessment of cross-linking by 1H NMR shows potential involvement of methyl group of l-rhamnose, whereas surface analysis from FE-SEM-EDX rendered heterogeneous spores with a homogeneous distribution of calcium and sulphur. The characterization confirms functional group modifications taking place in the back-bone potentially due to calcium binding. The combined physico-chemical response of the scaffold makes it a potential alternative for a chemically cross-linked synthetic polymers for drug delivery, controlled release, and tissue engineering applications.
PubDate: 2022-04-28

• Silver nanoparticles synthesized from Launaea sarmentosa extract:
synthesis, characterization, and antimalarial activity

Abstract: Abstract This paper describes a simple and effective green approach for synthesizing silver nanoparticles using Launaea sarmentosa aqueous plant extract. Phytoconstituents screening revealed the presence of tannins and phenolics, terpenoids, and alkaloids, all of which function as both bio-reductants and capping agents for silver nanoparticles formation. The influence of several experimental parameters in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was optimized. Spectrophotometric analysis with a maximum absorbance peak of 430 nm was accomplished to confirm the successful formation of green silver nanoparticles. A range of characterization techniques was used to study the physicochemical properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles. The results demonstrated spherical and high-stability silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 30 nm. The silver nanoparticles greenly synthesized from Launaea sarmentosa extract exhibited good antiplasmodial potential against Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 17.21 ± 1.18 µg mL−1 and a 100% growth inhibitor percentage of 312.5 µg mL−1. The proposed method provides a sustainable, low-cost, non-toxic, rapid, and reliable procedure to create silver nanoparticles, which could be a promising alternative treatment for malaria.
PubDate: 2022-03-04
DOI: 10.1007/s41204-022-00239-z

• Utilization of Zn–Al–Cl layered double hydroxide as an adsorbent for
the removal of anionic dye Remazol Red 23 in aqueous solutions: kinetic,
equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies

Abstract: The Zn–Al–Cl Layered Double Hydroxide (Zn–Al–Cl LDH) was synthesized at constant pH by coprecipitation method and then used as an adsorbent for the removal of a reactive azo dye Remazol Red 23 (RR-23). The structural and morphological properties of the synthesized Zn–Al–Cl LDH were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry Analysis, and Differential Thermal Analysis, and the determination of the point of zero charge pHpzc. The adsorption characteristics were studied by optimizing different parameters such as solution pH, contact time, and initial dye concentration. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained in the pH ranging from 4 to 7. XRD and FTIR results of Zn–Al–Cl LDH before and after adsorption showed that the removal of the dye is due to its adsorption on the surface of the LDH and that there is no intercalation of the dye since no change in the basal spacing was observed. The kinetic data obtained were examined using the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order equations. The equilibrium adsorption data were studied using the Freundlich and Langmuir models. The adsorption behavior of Zn–Al–Cl LDH fits perfectly the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the RR-23 dye adsorption on Zn–Al–Cl LDH was exothermic and governed by a physisorption $$(\Delta_{{{\text{ads}}}} H^{0} < 0)$$ , spontaneous $$(\Delta_{{{\text{ads}}}} G^{0} < 0)$$ and increased the randomness $$(\Delta_{{{\text{ads}}}} S^{0} > 0)$$ in the adsorbent/adsorbate system. The regeneration study was also conducted in three cycles with 98, 91, and 74% removal efficiency of RR-23. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-03-04
DOI: 10.1007/s41204-022-00237-1

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