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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (822 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

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Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Wildlife Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews - Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Energy and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
World Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zoology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Землеустрій, кадастр і моніторинг земель     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
气候与环境研究     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Water Conservation Science and Engineering
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-3340 - ISSN (Online) 2364-5687
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2537 journals]
  • Optimal Water Allocation Under Climate Change, Based on Stochastic Dynamic
           Programming Model Approach in Ribb Reservoir, Amhara, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: Optimal operation of reservoir policies is very important for water resource planning, development, and management, but it is very challenging and complicated when dealing with climate change impacts. The objective of this paper was to assess the future irrigation and water supply development and operation at Ribb reservoir in the face of climate change. In this study, a calibrated and validated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model runoff inflow into the Ribb reservoir under present and future climate scenarios. Inflow to the reservoir was simulated using hydro-climatic data. Observed and projected inflows to the reservoir were used as inputs to the stochastic dynamic reservoir operation model to optimize irrigation in reservoir release, storage, and final level pool storage. From the results of the model, the optimized release of a reservoir in the dry season, there is a shortage of water allocation to the irrigation demand in the normal operating policy. This implies the release does not meet the demand for further water supply systems in the dry season. This analysis can be used by water resources planners and managers to develop effective reservoir operation techniques with low climate change impact to increase water release both for irrigation and water supply for the local community.
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
       
  • Nickel Removal by Adsorption/Photoelectrochemistry on ZnS Prepared by
           Chemical Bath Deposition

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      Abstract: Nickel is a natural element used in a variety of mineral forms, and its mobilization is regulated by the physicochemical qualities of the soil. Its release into the environment is linked to the industries, oil and coal-burning power stations, and waste incinerators, and is therefore a source of air, water, and soil pollutions. In order to reduce these effects, many materials are used as photocatalysts under sunlight. Among the candidates, the blende ZnS prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) is a wide band gap semiconductor with a direct optical transition of 3.92 eV obtained from the diffuse reflectance. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed narrow peaks with a well crystallization. It was studied electrochemically to assess its photocatalytic properties for the nickel deposition. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed the semiconductor behavior under UV illumination. At pH ~ 7, its conduction band (− 1.18 VSCE), determined from the capacitance−2–potential (C−2–E) plot derives from Zn2+: 4 s orbital. The compound works as n-type semiconductor and is located below the level of Ni2+ (− 0.59 VSCE), yielding a spontaneous Ni2+ reduction to elemental state. The efficiency of Ni deposition was dependent on the ZnS amount of and pH; these parameters were studied in order to find optimal conditions for the Ni2+ photoreduction. The results display a high removal efficiency of Ni2+ (100 mg L−1) after 1-h adsorption/2-h solar light and the best ZnS dose was obtained for 75 mg/100 mL where 99% of nickel was photoelectrodeposited at natural pH. The kinetic of Ni2+ photoreduction obeys a first-order model with a half-photocatalytic life of 89 min.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
       
  • Correction to: The Harmful Effect of the Hydro-Electric Dams Upstream of
           the Mekong River: Effect on the Ecosystems and Livelihoods of People in
           Mekong Delta, Vietnam

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      PubDate: 2021-11-25
       
  • The Anodising Industry Wastewater: Considerations of Its Treatment for
           Environmental Protection

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      Abstract: The anodising industry releases toxic effluents which have been treated using various technologies over the years. In this paper, we review separation, oxidative degradation and biological degradation wastewater treatment technologies for the anodising industry effluent. We also examined the suitability of these processes based on the effluent nature and composition. The objective was to synthesise the literature to ensure a proper understanding of the research progress and to highlight grey areas that require more investigative insight. It was observed in the review that the wastewater has a very low pH and is rich in heavy metals like aluminium, magnesium and phosphates and other anions. Techniques like nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and adsorption were shown to be able to effectively handle the variety of pollutant species in the wastewater (achieving pollutant removal percentage of > 90%). Oxidative and biological degradation were unsuitable for treating anodising industry wastewater albeit with a serious dearth in published literature. The major limitations of oxidative degradation processes are the non-biodegradability of heavy metals and the •OH radical scavenging of anions like phosphates, sulphates and nitrates. For biological degradation, the very low pH and high concentration of heavy metals make it unsuitable for the survival of most microorganisms. It is recommended that the improvisation of operating conditions of existing technologies and the consideration of alternative tertiary strategies of wastewater treatment to achieve zero liquid discharge and actualisation of the relevant sustainable development goals should be considered.
      PubDate: 2021-10-26
       
  • An Optimal Design Model of Furrow Irrigation

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      Abstract: The foremost goal of channel irrigation is to provide a suitable choice of development and administrative variables. These variables include the channel measurement, stream degree to the channel, and cut-off period. These variables are calculated through optimization focusing on minimizing the entire irrigation rate and maximizing the usage competence of irrigation. The goal is shaped depending on the cost of water, employees, and head ditch and channel excavation. Consequently, in the objective function, the water development period should be calculated in a clear and detailed way. Because none of the exact methods applied for planning channel irrigation, such as zero inertia, calculate the development time explicitly, in this investigation the Valiantzas calculation has been applied, which was deduced from the results of the zero-inertia model. In the objective function, in addition to the preparation variables, soil features, furrow, and net irrigation prerequisites were involved. Consequently, the project variables and irrigation productivity can be calculated for each kind of soil and specific crop. A sample of this design has been presented in this study. CT is increased dramatically, and at first, Ea increased then suddenly decreased dramatically. Sample of cost and irrigation efficiency variations were related to length of furrow. It has an opposite result with regard to the experiments. Also, the improvement of efficiencies and objective function in the optimal design indicates the capability and efficiency of the model presented in the optimization stage so that the use of the model for the data of an experimental plot could improve the application efficiency and deep penetration ratio. Distribution uniformity is 100% maintained. A channel irrigation organization project issue has been expressed in a least price project situation. The project issue has been expressed in terms of three integer appreciated choice variables. A modest thorough inventory depending on the model has been applied to resolve the project issue. The model is modest, healthy, and capable of discovering an internationally optimum explanation to the project issue.
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00115-y
       
  • Performance Evaluation of Surface Irrigation System in the Case of Dirma
           Small-Scale Irrigation Scheme at Kalu Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

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      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of Dirma small-scale irrigation scheme using selected performance indicators. To achieve these objectives, the primary data collected for this study were discharge measurements in the canals, measurements of water applied to the field, and soil data before and after irrigation. Besides, secondary data collected were also climatic and agronomic data, yields, command, and initial area. CROPWAT 8.0 model and Microsoft Excel were used to analyze the data. The results of internal indicators: conveyance efficiency, application efficiency, storage efficiency, and overall efficiency were 76.64%, 56.05%, 79.40%, and 43.54%, respectively, whereas the results of the external indicators: relative water supply, relative irrigation supply, water delivery capacity, irrigation ratio, the sustainability of an irrigated area, output per unit irrigated area, output per unit command area, output per unit water supply, and output per unit water consumed were 1.0, 0.95, 0.26, 0.41, 1.5, 4881.40 US$/ha, 1896.56 US$/ha, 1.64 US$/m3, and 1.25 US$/m3, respectively. There was an unfair distribution of water due to water scarcity and illegal water users as the beneficiaries responded. Those performance external indicator values indicate that there is a low water supply, the actual command area was reduced by 61% from initially designed, and some structures initially installed were becoming nonfunctional. The basis of this conclusion was frequent field observation, sustainability of an irrigated area result, and beneficiary responses about the initial and current condition of the scheme. Generally, the overall performance of the scheme is considered poor. Therefore, a gated division system, regular canal cleaning, and maintenance of broken irrigation infrastructures should be applied to mitigate the water scarcity problem.
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00119-8
       
  • Regulation of Color, pH, and Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Asa River Water
           Using a Luffa cylindrica Biomass Packed Bed

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      Abstract: Asa River is of strategic importance to the citizens of Ilorin, Nigeria, because it meets the basic water needs of the community and its surroundings. The river is however polluted and requires some form of treatment before it can be used. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a Luffa cylindrica biomass packed bed for the remediation of color and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the pH regulation of Asa river water. The fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDS). FTIR modification only led to slight changes in the functional groups of the fibers. EDS revealed some changes in the fiber composition due to NaOH modification. The inorganics present were all less than 5% (except for calcium in the modified fibers). SEM revealed a very plain surface of the fibers. The color was reduced from 9.88 to 4.7 TCU and 4.37 TCU for the unmodified and modified fibers respectively after 2 h. Both fiber types were able to effectively regulate the pH to the acceptable 6.5–8.5 threshold after 2 h. The BOD was reduced from 3.7 to 2.8 mg/L and 1.7 mg/L for the unmodified and modified fibers respectively after 2 h. Both color and pH were reduced below WHO permissible limit by the current set-up. Fiber modification improved the packed bed performance for color and BOD reduction.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00120-1
       
  • Evaluation of the Streamflow Simulation by SWAT Model for Selected
           Catchments in Mahaweli River Basin, Sri Lanka

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      Abstract: This study examines the skills of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for simulating the monthly streamflow in five catchments of the Mahaweli River Basin (MRB). Daily rainfall (43 rain gauges), terrain, land use and land cover, soil, and daily streamflow (5 stations) were used to run the SWAT model. The Calibration Uncertainty Procedure (SWAT-CUP) is adopted for model calibration (1998–2006) and validation (2007–2014). The model performance was evaluated using the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of determination (R2), percent bias (PBIAS), and deviation of runoff volumes (Dv). The results revealed that SWAT is able to reproduce the observed monthly variation of streamflow in 4 catchments, satisfying the model performance evaluation criteria (R2 = 0.5, NSE = 0.5, and PBIAS =  ± 25). However, the model shows overall low performance in the catchment with extensive human intervention. The results further demonstrate that SWAT simulated peak flow events in the four catchments with moderate to a reasonable agreement (− 20 < Dv < 20). In contrast, overall prediction results were not within acceptable levels for estimating low flow events in most catchments. Furthermore, it established that SWAT is a good tool to simulate the streamflow during the wet season, while the model performance does not meet the evaluation criteria during the dry season. The results in this study could provide necessary information for water resources management in the MRB. There is an imperative need for more studies to examine the effects of temporal rainfall resolution on the simulation streamflow by SWAT in MRB of different environmental conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00117-w
       
  • Conservatory Management of Natural Resources in the Naâma Region
           (Southwest Algeria)

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      Abstract: This work was carried out in the Naâma area to determine the appropriate techniques for natural resource conservation of the agricultural holdings surveyed in this region. The results show that combining the mechanical methods (threshold in gabion, threshold in dry stone and hillside reservoirs) and the biological ones (setting in defense, reforestation, rustic planting, etc.) can give the best result to conserve the natural resources. The investigation carried out with farmers of thirty farms allowed us to determine some peasant of water and soil conservation techniques (WSCT) implemented in this area, notably basins, seguia, mulching, and dry stonewalls. On the other hand, some thresholds were practical and very well adapted to the physical conditions of this region. Still, they are partially degraded due to the influence of intense rainfalls and violent winds, which usually require normal controls after each hydrological event. The average cost to install a complete system of natural resource conservation in this area (torrential corrections and biological plantation) could be estimated from 1200 to 4000 DZD/m3. The sensitization of people in the fight against any factor of land and environmental degradation is significant because this precious heritage that constitutes the land requests their participation in the various development programs on these steppe areas.
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00118-9
       
  • Assessment of Groundwater Quality Index Using Geographic Information
           

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      Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the groundwater quality for drinking purpose in selected locations of rural Ajmer and Bhilwara districts of Rajasthan, India. A total of 30 groundwater samples were collected during June 2015 and the samples were analysed for physicochemical properties, major cations and anions in the laboratory using the standard procedures of the American Public Health Association. Major ions like Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+, Cl−, NO3− and SO4−2 were calculated. The results of the study are illustrated with the help of descriptive statistics, Piper trilinear, Durov diagram, and geospatial mapping and water quality index (WQI). This work aimed to understand the status of groundwater quality and the spatial distribution of parameters to recognize the quality of drinking water. The results show that majority of sampling point clusters in the Piper diagram fall in the NaCl zone. WQI was used to classify the samples in different classes as per their suitability for drinking purposes. It is observed that most of the samples fall in the water unsuitable for drinking purposes category and few samples are in the very poor water category.
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00116-x
       
  • The Harmful of the Hydro-Electric Dams Upstream of the Mekong River Effect
           on the Ecosystems and Livelihoods of People in Mekong Delta, Vietnam

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      Abstract: The development of hydro-electric projects of the upstream Mekong countries has been and will be inevitable and greatly impact on the downstream areas, in which the Mekong Delta is suffering a lot of losses, especially for Vietnam. The processes have been happening at the same time: the process of depleting water, for agriculture, for industry, for daily life, and people’s livelihoods. The processes, at the same time the effects that resonate with the process of climate change, cause great harm [1]. The drought has accelerated the acidification process, because the potential drought of acid sulfate soil (1,700,000 ha) will become intense, damaging the ecosystem and human livelihoods. The drought due to the construction of hydro-electric dams upstream (especially Lan Thuong River, China) makes the process of salinization with saline intrusion fierce (seawater 4 g/liter) [2]. Many, penetrating into the interior fields more than 100KM, the harm is extremely great. If they want to reduce the harm, the Mekong River Commission must ask the upstream countries to share it with the downstream.
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00112-1
       
  • Study on Water Flow Capacity and Related Parameters of Spillway Gate of
           Orifice Outflow Dam

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      Abstract: The largest part of the water control project belongs to the low-head riverbed floodgate project, and its discharge capacity can be accurately determined in design, which can avoid the inundation of the upstream fertile land and at the same time achieve the purpose of reducing the scale of flood discharge structures and saving project investment. In this paper, the influence of different height difference between the dam floor and the upstream and downstream riverbeds on the discharge capacity is studied through the model test of the discharge capacity and its related parameters of the spillway gate of the orifice outflow dam, and the three-dimensional flow field of the discharge flow of the spillway gate is numerically simulated by FLUENT commercial software. The Reynolds equation is closed by using the standard K-ε turbulence numerical model, and the free liquid level is tracked by using the volume of fluid (VOF) method. The tetrahedral unstructured grid is used to divide the grid, and the calculation results of the discharge capacity, flow pattern, water level elevation, velocity field, and pressure field of the floodgate are obtained. Compared with the observation results of the model test, they are in good agreement, which shows that the model used in the numerical simulation is reasonable and the method is correct.
      PubDate: 2021-09-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00113-0
       
  • Optimization of Adsorption Parameters for Effective Removal of Hexavalent
           Chromium Using Simarouba glauca from Aqueous Solution

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      Abstract: The aim of this research was to see whether a biosorbent derived from the Simarouba glauca plant can effectively remove Cr(VI). The initial concentrations, pH, biosorbent dosage, temperature, and contact time, among other things, were optimized. As a result, the biosorption capacity was obtained as 10.90 mg/g at an optimized pH of 2, a standing time of 45 min, and a temperature of 27 °C in the batch mode operations. The optimum contact time was found to decrease with an increase in temperature and biosorbent dose. The adsorption kinetics was studied with Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin–Radushkevich, Elovich, and Jovanovic adsorption isotherm models. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to fit the best with the highest R2 (0.99) value. The adsorption efficiency was studied kinetically, and the adsorption process was found to follow the pseudo-second-order reaction. Elovich kinetics model proved the chemical adsorption mechanism between the active sites and Cr(VI) ions. The adsorption mechanism was found to involve intraparticle diffusion of Cr(VI) ions. The variability and the endothermic nature of the reaction are shown by the positive value of ΔS˚(0.207 kJ/mol) and ΔH˚ (60.168 kJ/mol), respectively. Also, the negative ΔG˚ values show the spontaneity of the reaction. FTIR study revealed the involvement of hydroxyl(-OH), alkane(-CH), alkyne, and carbonyl group in adsorption. The aggregate of Cr(VI) within the voids in the biosorbent was proved by SEM–EDX analysis. The biosorbent showed the regeneration efficiency of 74% after five successive adsorption–desorption cycles with 0.1 N HNO3. Overall, the present plant biosorbent has proved to have a high capability for removing Cr(VI) from synthetic and industrial water and can be employed at a large scale in a continuous process.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00106-z
       
  • Evaluation of Intercropping Legume Covers with Maize on Soil Moisture
           Improvement in Misrak Azerinet Berbere woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

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      Abstract: In Ethiopia, particularly Southern Regional State dry land crop productivity is majorly influenced by low soil moisture stress. The current study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping maize with legumes covers on Soil Moisture improvement at Misrak Azerinet Berbere woreda. Seven treatments evaluated were vetch with maize, lablab with maize, vetch only, lablab only, and maize only. The experimental design was in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in a permanent plot. Disturbed soil samples were collected from the intra-row spacing from both intercropped and non-intercropped plots from the depth of 0–20 cm and composited for soil moisture analysis. The yield and biomass of maize and legume shrubs have been collected. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) was computed to evaluate the land productivity of intercropped combinations. The result reveals that in both years, yield, biomass, and soil moisture content were not significant (p > 0.05) at a statistically significant level. After crop harvest, maize with lablab has better soil moisture relative to other combinations (first year). In both years, the soil moisture content in the soil was reduced in the sole crop of maize compared with sole vetch. However, the soil moisture content in the soil was increased in maize intercropped with lablab in both development stage and after harvest compared with maize intercropped with vetch. Both legume shrubs under mono and intercropped conditions conserve soil moisture relative to maize under mono cropped conditions. This implies the benefit of legume shrubs on soil moisture conservation both planted under mono cropped conditions and intercropped conditions. It is concluded that the combination of intercropping maize with legume shrubs could substantially increase soil moisture conservation and improve the overall land productivity. Therefore, for maximum maize production, farmers in the area should plant maize with a combination of vetch and lablab. Additionally, farmers should practice double cropping with the residual soil moisture from legume and its combinations.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00109-w
       
  • Effects of Melanin Extraction on Biosorption Behavior of Chestnut Shells
           Towards Methylene Blue

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      Abstract: Melanin is a kind of versatile biopolymer with strong binding capacities for cationic pollutants. The effects of melanin extraction from biomass on cationic pollutant adsorption of biomass remain unknown. Methylene blue (MB) was herein used as a model cationic pollutant, and chestnut shells were used as a melanin-containing byproduct of biomass. The MB biosorption behaviors onto the raw and melanin-extracted chestnut shells were comparatively studied. The biosorbents were contrastively characterized by BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, pH point of zero charges (pHpzc), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The MB adsorption capacity of each biomass was evaluated at different pH, contact time, initial MB concentration, and temperature. The melanin extraction resulted in higher values of adsorbent surface area, pHpzc, and CEC. It toned down the sensitivity of biomass to the solution pH, expanding the applicable pH range. It also introduced new types of binding sites or adsorption mechanisms. The biosorption process was well described by the chemisorption model of the pseudo-second-order equation and accelerated by the melanin extraction. The biosorption equilibrium data are well modeled by the Langmuir isotherm. The melanin extraction more than doubled the monolayer adsorption capacity. The improvement in the biosorption performance of chestnut shells by the melanin extraction is mainly owed to the chemical activation of binding sites and secondary to the physical modification. Melanin-containing biomass such as chestnut shells can be used in cascade for melanin production and subsequently for adsorptive removal of basic dyes such as MB.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00111-2
       
  • Identification of Potential Recharge Zones in Drought Prone Area of
           Bundelkhand Region, India, Using SCS-CN and MIF Technique Under GIS-frame
           work

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      Abstract: Jaspura watershed a part of Yamuna basin is situated in drought prone area lying in the Banda district of Bundelkhand region, Uttar Pradesh, India. The drastic decline of groundwater level and consistently drying up of the phreatic aquifer has led to the acute shortage of groundwater in the study area. The situation is further aggravated due to base flow in the areas adjoining the major order streams. To mitigate such problem in study area, MIF technique, combined with RS and GIS, has been effectively used to delineate the potential recharge zone using seven thematic layers, viz., LULC, soil, slope, drainage density (Dd), geomorphology, depth to water level map of post-monsoon, and groundwater fluctuation map. Relative rates and weight of each influencing factor have been calculated on the basis of major and minor effect of these thematic layers. Based on their influence on groundwater recharge capacity using seven thematic layers under potential zone, five classes under artificial recharge have been identified, viz., very high (96.4 km2), high (157.4 km2), moderate (146.1 km2), low (72.9 km2), and very low (34.2km2). The runoff in 15 micro-watersheds has been estimated using SCS-CN approach. Integration of runoff and potential recharge zone has yielded the suitable sites and type of groundwater recharge structure. On the basis of its percolation tank (PT), check dam (CD) and sub-surface dam (SD) have been identified as feasible and suitable groundwater recharge structure.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00105-0
       
  • Gas Sensor Applications in Water Quality Monitoring and Maintenance

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      Abstract: Industrial and population expansion in the last few decades has been a critical contributor to water quality degradation. Some of the gases emanating from water treatment plants are toxic and flammable, which need to be identified, such as hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water quality monitoring systems must be developed to meet legal, environmental, and social requirements. Monitoring water quality is difficult due to the variability, nature, and low concentrations of contaminants that need to be detected. The gas emanating from these treatment processes plays an essential role in water treatment, monitoring, and control. Gas sensors can be used as a safety device in the water purification process. The gas sensors receive input signals in chemical, physical, and biological stimulus and convert them into electrical signals. The gas sensors can be installed in different wastewater treatment processes. In this review, we present state-of-the-art progresses, landmark developments, and technological achievements that led to the development of gas sensors for evaluating water quality. The role of gas sensors in water quality maintenance and monitoring is discussed, and different analytes and their detection technologies and sensing materials outlining their advantages and disadvantages have been summarized. Finally, a summary and outlook for future directions of gas sensors in water quality monitoring and maintenance are provided.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00108-x
       
  • Sediment Retention Effect of Reservoirs and Microscale Surface Depressions

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      Abstract: On watershed scale, the reservoir dam has a significant regulating effect on runoff and sediment. Once the runoff enters the reservoir area, the sediment will be gradually deposited because of the lower flow velocity of runoff and the blocking effect of the dam. On microscale, soil surface depressions also can intercept runoff and promote sedimentation distinctly. In order to comparative study whether there was a high degree of correlation or consistency between these two sediment retention mechanisms, the sediment retention effect of reservoirs on watershed scale and that of soil surface depressions on microscale were comparatively studied and analyzed from the following 5 aspects: water–sediment relationship, double cumulative curve of runoff and sediment, deposition rate, sediment trapping coefficient, and sediment reduction coefficient. The results showed that there was a high correlation of sediment retention effect between reservoirs and soil surface depressions, and their sediment trapping coefficients were 0.113 and 0.097, respectively. In addition, the sediment retention effect was only related to topographic relief, but not to scale. It was feasible to use the sediment retention effect on microscale to predict that of reservoirs on macroscale, and the prediction results were accurate. In addition, with the increase of reservoir size, the annual total amount of sediment deposition showed an increasing trend, while the deposition rate, the error between calculated sedimentation and the measured value, and the sediment reduction coefficient showed a decreasing trend.
      PubDate: 2021-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00110-3
       
  • Removal of Acid Red 131 by Peroxi-Coagulation Using Stainless Steel and
           Aluminum Electrodes: a Comparative Study

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      Abstract: Azo dyes have great application in industries like textile. However, their presence poses a lot of concerns to the environment and human health such as carcinogenic effect. Electrochemical processes such as peroxi-coagulation (PC) are cost effective and efficient advanced oxidation processes which have been investigated extensively. This study aimed to conduct a comparative study on removal of Acid red 131 as an azo dye via PC process using stainless steel (SS) and aluminum (Al) electrodes as anode and graphite as cathode. Parameters including dye concentration, current density, initial pH, aeration rate, and electrode’s surface area were investigated. According to the results, the optimum condition for both electrodes was achieved at electrode’s surface area = 60 cm2, pH = 7, and aeration rate = 1.5 L/min. Also, the optimum current of 0.6 A and 0.9 A were selected for SS and Al, respectively. The removal percentages at these conditions were measured 98% and 93% after 120 min for SS and Al, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was also investigated, and the removal percentage was recorded 93% and 79% for SS and Al after 180 min, respectively. The removal kinetics studies indicated that the pseudo-first order model best fitted for both electrodes. Based on the results, the SS electrode outperformed the Al electrode and facilitated the process.
      PubDate: 2021-08-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00114-z
       
  • Smart Scheduling of Pump Control in Wastewater Networks Based on
           Electricity Spot Market Prices

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      Abstract: Pumping stations in a wastewater network use predetermined high and low sump elevations to manage overflow and spills of the system, but the operation protocol, generally, does not consider energy costs related to pumps. For wastewater pumping, the largest segment of the operating cost is spent on electricity charges. Therefore, management of electricity use in wastewater operations is crucial. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to assist asset operators to reduce electricity costs by improving and optimizing the pump control switching. With the consideration of the wholesale electricity prices from the spot market, there is an opportunity to improve efficiency and save costs by intelligent and smart scheduling control. A novel concept of utilizing the existing wastewater network hydraulic model to simulate the operations of the pump controller was undertaken. The sump elevation/wet well level and electricity spot prices were used as the two inputs of the smart controller to operate the pumps. Simulated results show that this smart controller could be a practical solution in terms of energy optimization and cost reduction to improve conventional pump switching models with up to 13% savings across the entire network under different dry and wet weather flow conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41101-021-00104-1
       
 
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