Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 992 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (885 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (58 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (885 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 85)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of GIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences ? SGGW. Land Reclamation     Open Access  
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Boletín Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Casopis Slezskeho Zemskeho Muzea - serie A - vedy prirodni     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
China Population, Resources and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access  
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access  
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Earth Surface Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Environmental Modelling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Divulgación Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dynamiques Environnementales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 213)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Engineering : X     Open Access  
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 480)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 339)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Landscape Ecology Reports
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2364-494X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Meta-analysis on a Decade of Testing Corridor Efficacy: What New Have we
           Learned'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Corridors are widely considered as a strategy to mitigate effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. There are, however, lingering concerns about whether corridors work as intended and whether managing for connectivity in fragmented landscapes is even important for biodiversity conservation. In response, numerous manipulative and natural experiments have been conducted to test the effectiveness of corridors. Gilbert-Norton et al. Conserv Biol. 2010;24(3):660-8 (2010) reviewed such studies published between 1985 and 2008 and concluded that corridors are generally effective at increasing inter-patch movement. The authors noted a lack of studies measuring responses at the population and community levels, responses that would better approximate corridor effects on population persistence and aspects of biodiversity. Here I explored what new insights can be gained on corridor effectiveness from studies published in the last decade, particularly with an eye toward insights going beyond effects on inter-patch movement. Recent Findings Following the same selection criteria as Gilbert-Norton et al. Conserv Biol. 2010;24(3):660-8 (2010), I reviewed studies published between 2008 and 2018 that tested corridor effectiveness by comparing ecological response variables from patches connected and not connected by corridors. Analysis of effect sizes showed that corridors increase response variables, reinforcing earlier conclusions that corridors function as intended. Whereas the previous review mainly included corridor effects on dispersal, recent research shows support for corridor efficacy at a variety of levels of organization, from individuals to communities. Summary These findings provide further support for the conclusion that efforts spent creating and maintaining corridors are worthwhile for biodiversity conservation.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-019-00041-9
       
  • Landscape Ecology in the Rocky Intertidal: Opportunities for Advancing
           Discovery and Innovation in Intertidal Research

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review In this paper, I review the development of landscape-based studies in rocky intertidal communities. The rocky intertidal has served as the site of a number of influential studies in ecology that have helped demonstrate the importance of biological and physical structuring processes in nature. Owing to its ease of access and preponderance of sessile species, the intertidal has also played an important role in studies that monitor the health of coastal systems. Traditional data gathering approaches such as meter tapes and quadrats provide limited capacity to capture data at the spatial and temporal scales across which intertidal systems are currently changing. New approaches and methods are now needed to more efficiently record data across the organizational scales within which ecological processes structure the intertidal. Recent Findings Recent developments in landscape-based theory have expanded the types of research questions asked by intertidal ecologists. The subsequent incorporation of geospatial technologies into field studies that test the predictions of emerging landscape theory has revealed emergent patterns in intertidal communities and previously unrecognized relationships between species and habitat across multiple scales of ecological organization. Summary New landscape-based approaches will improve our capacity to collect and analyze data and improve quantitative inferences on how habitat complexity affects patterns of species abundance in the intertidal. The continued integration of landscape ecology into rocky intertidal research can help advance discovery science and provide a platform for bridging basic discovery science with conservation and management efforts centered about this important marine habitat.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-019-00042-8
       
  • Anthropogenic Landscape Changes and Their Impacts on Terrestrial and
           Freshwater Soundscapes

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Quantifying the effects of anthropogenic sounds on wildlife at the landscape scale of observation has been notoriously difficult because these sounds are often confounded with the presence of infrastructure and loss of habitat through resource exploitation activities. In this paper, we review how anthropogenic landscape changes affect the power level and propagation of sounds in both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, as well as the behavioural response of organisms to novel acoustic habitats. Recent Findings Resource exploitation and other human activities change soundscapes both directly, by affecting sound production and propagation, and indirectly, by modifying landscape structure and species distribution patterns. Intermittent anthropogenic sounds are concentrated in the lower frequencies, tend to be louder than enduring sounds of the same origin and create more patchy soundscapes. We identified key sensorial traits that are related to the auditory acuity of species in different taxonomic groups, including fish, birds, anurans, stridulating insects and small mammals, and which may help us understand why certain species are more sensitive to anthropogenic changes to soundscapes. Summary Prioritizing research in an increasingly noisy world requires a proper understanding of the auditory sensitivity of species, the characteristics of anthropogenic sounds (i.e. intermittent or enduring), and how sound production and propagation is affected by landscape structure. Further research on species’ sensorial traits would provide a framework with which to scale responses to anthropogenic sounds from individuals to communities and better predict the impact of human activities on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-019-00038-4
       
  • Temporal Lag in Ecological Responses to Landscape Change: Where Are We
           Now'

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      Abstract: Purpose of the Review The loss or gain of biodiversity and/or ecosystem functions and services can occur with a substantial delay following landscape change. We have first revisited the key concepts used to refer to those delayed ecological responses to landscape change and then reviewed the literature aiming to summarize (i) methodological approaches used to empirically evaluate the existence of delayed ecological responses, (ii) empirical evidences of delayed ecological responses, and (iii) current understanding of the main mechanisms that can explain those delayed responses. Recent Findings We identified that key concepts used to refer to delayed ecological responses are very confusing as many different terms are used to refer to a single delayed ecological response. So, we propose here a unified vocabulary to support future research. Our review showed that there is plenty of empirical evidence that delayed ecological responses to landscape change are common in nature. However, current knowledge is mostly restricted to biodiversity responses to adverse landscape changes. Few studies have investigated for ecosystem functions and/or services delayed responses or delayed ecological gains after landscape structure improvements such as increase in habitat amount. We verified that some progress occurred in recent years. We identified the use of three new methodological approaches to empirically evaluate the existence of delayed ecological responses, and we also verified an increase in our understanding about the mechanisms that explain delayed ecological responses. As expected, we observed high levels of support for delayed ecological responses in landscapes that have undergone recent changes and for habitat specialist species. Other hypotheses have been less frequently tested. Some of them have a low level of support (no clear relationship between strength of landscape change and delayed responses), while others have a good level of support but still need more evidences (relationships between species longevity and dispersal capability with delayed responses). Summary Our understanding about delayed ecological responses to landscape change is still at an early stage and seems to be increasing slowly while human-altered landscapes are increasing rapidly worldwide. There are still important knowledge gaps to be filled. Beyond providing better support for some explanatory hypotheses, we still need to explore (1) ecosystem functions and services delayed responses to landscape change, and (2) the delayed ecological gains after positive landscape changes.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-019-00040-w
       
  • Recent Advances and Current Challenges in Applying Source-Sink Theory to
           Species Conservation

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The source-sink paradigm has been a powerful tool for focusing theoretical and empirical explorations of population dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes. The prevalence of suspected source-sink dynamics in empirical studies would lead to the conclusion that sources and sinks are common. However, important questions remain about how source-sink dynamics have been assessed in past studies and the degree to which current approaches apply to atypical populations and dynamic landscapes. Recent Findings We reviewed 432 papers that directly addressed source-sink dynamics between 1985 and 2018. We found that the majority of studies focused on birds, mammals, and forested systems. In recent years, however, the number of aquatic invertebrate and marine studies increased, as did the tendency to focus on conservation or management goals and to report population trends. Although 79% of papers claimed to identify source-sink dynamics, only 13% of studies based their assessment on all four measures of reproduction, mortality, immigration, and emigration. Nearly 23% of all studies used neither demographic nor movement metrics to make conclusions about the presence of source-sink dynamics. Summary Source-sink theory and practice has matured and is increasingly relevant for species conservation and management. However, we lack a clear understanding of the conditions under which limited data can defensibly support source-sink assessments and be scaled up to the extent at which resource decisions are made. In the absence of this, future studies will need to take a more rigorous approach to defining sources and sinks to better gauge the prevalence of source-sink dynamics.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-019-00039-3
       
  • Rough Around the Edges: Lessons Learned and Future Directions in Marine
           Edge Effects Studies

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review After several decades of research on edge effects in marine habitats, we still have little understanding of how organisms respond to marine ecotones, and methodological gaps appear to be limiting our progress. Using recent literature (2010–2018), we synthesized responses and processes of organisms across several marine habitats. Specifically, we examined the uniformity of studies across biogenic habitats, the scales selected for exploring edge effects, the experimental approaches used, and the confounding influences that muddle our interpretation of results. Recent Findings The majority of edge effect studies are still conducted in seagrass systems and focused on response patterns. We found that the majority of studies were equally likely to report an increase, decrease, neutral, or equivocal effect depending on the context of the organism or habitat. Additionally, only a single measure, or a few related responses, is assessed and causal mechanisms are rarely tested. We note that most studies quantitatively defined an edge habitat as a linear distance from a habitat boundary (e.g., < 1 m, < 5 m), but the distances were not usually scaled to the size, trophic level, or mobility of focal organisms. Summary We provide a conceptual diagram as a roadmap for researchers for navigating the myriad influences that affect floral and faunal responses to marine habitat edges. Future efforts should seek to move beyond mensurative searches, explicitly incorporate potentially confounding variables, and more consistently test putative causal factors when known or hypothesized. Additionally, we advise expanding research on habitat types other than seagrasses (e.g., mangroves, shellfish, corals) and adjusting observational scales to more appropriately match mechanisms. Ultimately, we should move beyond pattern description, repeated in a limited subset of nearshore habitats, and toward a quantitative understanding of the processes acting in these unique and potentially impactful marine ecotones.
      PubDate: 2019-08-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-019-00043-7
       
  • Countryside Biogeography: the Controls of Species Distributions in
           Human-Dominated Landscapes

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Countryside biogeography seeks to explain the distribution of wildlife in human-dominated landscapes. We review the theoretical and empirical progress towards this goal, assessing what forces control the presence, abundance, and richness of species in anthropogenic and natural habitats, based on characteristics of the landscape and the species themselves. Recent Findings Recent modifications of species-area relationships that incorporate multiple habitat types have improved understanding of species diversity in countryside landscapes. Attempts to understand why species affiliate with human-modified habitats have been met with only partial success. Though traits frequently explain associations with human-modified habitats within studies, explanatory traits are only rarely shared between studies, regions, or taxa. Nonetheless, greater attention to the regional and climatological context of countryside landscapes has uncovered that (i) species that associate with human-modified habitats within landscapes tend to occur primarily in warm and/or dry biomes at regional scales and (ii) species that rely exclusively on human-modified habitats in cool or wet regions may be restricted to natural habitats in warm or dry regions. Summary There remains a pressing need to determine how biodiversity can best be supported within landscapes to preserve nature and maximize ecosystem service benefits for humans. Future work in countryside biogeography must identify how land-use change interacts with other global stressors (e.g., climate change), determine how extinction debt and population sinks influence diversity, quantify the cascading effects of community changes on ecosystem services, and elucidate the evolutionary history and origins of species that today dwell in the countryside.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-019-00037-5
       
  • Selecting a Landscape Model for Natural Resource Management Applications

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Climate change and associated ecological impacts have challenged many conventional, observation-based approaches for predicting ecosystem and landscape responses to natural resource management. Complex spatial ecological models provide powerful, flexible tools which managers and others can use to make inferences about management impacts on future, no-analog landscape conditions. However, land managers who wish to use ecosystem and landscape models for natural resource applications are faced with the difficult task of deciding among many models that differ in important ways. Here, we summarize a process to aid managers in the selection of an appropriate model for natural resource management. Recent Findings To guide management planning, scientifically credible information on how landscapes will respond to management actions under changing climate is required. Landscape models are increasingly used in a management context to evaluate of impacts of changing climate and interacting stressors on ecosystems and to test effects of alternative management options on desired conditions. However, the wide range of available models makes selection of appropriate and viable models a complex process. Summary We present a series of preliminary steps to define critical scales of time, space, and ecological organization to guide an experimental design for a modeling project and then list a set of criteria for selecting a landscape or ecological model. Material presented includes the preliminary steps (crafting modeling objective, designing modeling project), organizational concerns (resources available, expertise on hand, timelines), and modeling details (complexity, design, documentation) of model selection.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-019-00036-6
       
  • Landscape Connectivity Planning for Adaptation to Future Climate and
           Land-Use Change

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review We examined recent literature on promoting habitat connectivity in the context of climate change (CC) and land-use change (LUC). These two global change forcings have wide-reaching ecological effects that are projected to worsen in the future. Improving connectivity is a common adaptation strategy, but CC and LUC can also degrade planned connections, potentially reducing their effectiveness. We synthesize advances in connectivity design approaches, identify challenges confronted by researchers and practitioners, and offer suggestions for future research. Recent Findings Recent studies incorporated future CC into connectivity design more often than LUC and rarely considered the two drivers jointly. When considering CC, most studies have focused on relatively broad spatial and temporal extents and have included either species-based targets or coarse-filter targets like geodiversity and climate gradients. High levels of uncertainty about future LUC and lack of consistent, readily available model simulations are likely hindering its inclusion in connectivity modeling. This high degree of uncertainty extends to efforts to jointly consider future CC and LUC. Summary We argue that successful promotion of connectivity as a means to adapt to CC and LUC will depend on (1) the velocity of CC, (2) the velocity of LUC, and (3) the degree of existing landscape fragmentation. We present a new conceptual framework to assist in identifying connectivity networks given these three factors. Given the high uncertainty associated with future CC and LUC, incorporating insights from decision science into connectivity planning will facilitate the development of more robust adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-019-0035-2
       
  • Changing Thermal Landscapes: Merging Climate Science and Landscape Ecology
           through Thermal Biology

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      Abstract: Climate change and habitat modification both alter thermal environments and species distributions. However, these drivers of global change are rarely studied together, even though many species are experiencing climate change and habitat modification simultaneously. Here we review existing literature and propose avenues for merging the largely disparate lines of climate and landscape ecological research using temperature exposure and species’ thermal sensitivity as a shared framework. The integration of research on climate and landscape change is in the early stages and lags behind research focused solely on the ecological effects of climate change. Recent studies highlight important mismatches between the resolution of widely used climate datasets and ecological processes, which can be addressed through detailed mapping of thermal landscapes and the microclimates within them. Furthermore, the thermal niches of species, evolved under past climates, can predict the responses of species to changing microclimates associated with habitat modification; this suggests that microclimates and thermal niches may together act as a common filter, reassembling communities in response to both climate and landscape change. There is a need to further integrate microclimate and thermal niche data into landscape ecological research to advance our basic understanding of the combined effects of landscape and climate change and to provide actionable data for climate adaptation strategies that largely focus on activities at landscape scales.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-018-0034-8
       
  • An Analysis of Trends in Urban Landscape Ecology Research in Spatial
           Ecological Literature Between 1986 and 2016

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      Abstract: Growth of scientific literature on human-environment interactions in urban landscapes is occurring at an exponential rate, prompting a need to synthesize the literature to guide future research. Using a systematic review process, we quantified trends in urban landscape ecology studies published in spatial ecology literature from nine spatial ecology journals between 1986 and 2016. Specifically, we identified publication trends and assessed geographic and taxonomic focus, study approach, data types, temporal scale, spatial extent of study area, spatial resolution of remotely sensed data, and study site types. Results indicated that field-collected and socioeconomic data are the common data types, whereas remotely sensed data are infrequent. Although few studies employed remote sensing, those that did tended to use moderate to high spatial resolution imageries at spatiotemporal scales of < 10,000km2 and < 2 years. Birds, plants, and mammals were the most frequently studied taxa, whereas insects and cross-taxa studies were few. Intensely built-up areas and urban forests were the most frequently studied ecosystem types, followed by grassland, aquatic, and wetland ecosystems. Urban core areas were studied more than suburban, exurban, and rural-urban gradients. The majority of studies were from North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia, while studies from Africa, South America, and across regions were limited. Our results suggest that urban landscape ecology research is receiving a limited but growing focus in the spatial ecology literature (< 9% of publication by volume). Therefore, urban landscape ecological studies which integrate coupled data across-taxa and varying spatiotemporal scales are imperative.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-018-0033-9
       
  • Functional Diversity Metrics: How They Are Affected by Landscape Change
           and How They Represent Ecosystem Functioning in the Tropics

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      Abstract: It is generally expected that landscape changes, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, should negatively affect functional diversity metrics, which in turn impact ecosystem functioning. In this review, we search for studies conducted in the tropics and published in the last 10 years to understand how different aspects of landscape change affect functional diversity metrics and how the latter are associated to ecosystem functioning. In total, we found 24 papers that assessed the effects of landscape metrics on functional diversity, evenness, divergence and composition, and although there was a general trend for functional diversity metrics to improve with habitat cover, we found a wide range of responses. Most surprisingly, however, we only found five studies from the tropics assessing the extent to which functional diversity metrics were correlated to measures of ecosystem functioning, and in general, very weak support was found. In conclusion, our results show that it is crucial to first investigate the level to which functional diversity metrics truly represent or may lead to changes in ecosystem functioning, and this is particularly important for animal communities in the tropics. Without such confirmation, there is little reason to pursue further work to reach a consensus regarding how landscape modification affects functional diversity metrics.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-018-0032-x
       
  • Evidence and Opportunities for Integrating Landscape Ecology into Natural
           Resource Planning across Multiple-Use Landscapes

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      Abstract: Enhancing natural resource management has been a focus of landscape ecology since its inception, but numerous authors argue that landscape ecology has not yet been effective in achieving the underlying goal of planning and designing sustainable landscapes. We developed nine questions reflecting the application of fundamental research topics in landscape ecology to the landscape planning process and reviewed two recent landscape-scale plans in western North America for evidence of these concepts in plan decisions. Both plans considered multiple resources, uses, and values, including energy development, recreation, conservation, and protection of cultural and historic resources. We found that land use change and multiscale perspectives of resource uses and values were very often apparent in planning decisions. Pattern-process relationships, connectivity and fragmentation, ecosystem services, landscape history, and climate change were reflected less frequently. Landscape sustainability was considered only once in the 295 decisions reviewed, and outputs of landscape models were not referenced. We suggest six actionable opportunities for further integrating landscape ecology concepts into landscape planning efforts: 1) use landscape sustainability as an overarching goal, 2) adopt a broad ecosystem services framework, 3) explore the role of landscape history more comprehensively, 4) regularly consider and accommodate potential effects of climate change, 5) use landscape models to support plan decisions, and 6) promote a greater presence of landscape ecologists within agencies that manage large land bases and encourage active involvement in agency planning efforts. Together these actions may improve the defensibility, durability, and sustainability of landscape plan decisions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-018-0029-5
       
  • The Spatial Scale of a Species’ Response to the Landscape Context
           Depends on which Biological Response You Measure

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Our ability to detect effects of the landscape context on wildlife often depends on the spatial scale at which environmental variables are measured. Theory suggests that the scale at which the species most strongly responds to this context—its scale of effect—should depend on the type of biological response. This is hypothesized to occur because the temporal scale regulating the response is linked to the spatial scale at which the species interacts with its environment; i.e. the scale of effect should be larger for responses influenced by forces acting over longer time periods. Here I test the prediction that the scale of effect increases in the order: fecundity < abundance < occurrence < genetic diversity, using a quantitative review of studies that empirically estimated scales of effect. Recent Findings The scale of effect of a given environmental variable depended on the type of response in 70% of the 145 cases identified in this review. However, scales of effect did not increase in the predicted order. This is likely, at least in part, because some studies did not include a wide enough range of scales in their analyses to accurately estimate the scales of effect. Summary Future research is needed to test this prediction using study designs that allow for accurate estimation of scales of effect. Nevertheless, my results have implications for wildlife research and landscape management, suggesting that we cannot assume that a species responds to its landscape context at only one scale.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-018-0030-z
       
  • The Scale-Dependent Role of Biological Traits in Landscape Ecology: A
           Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review We describe current approaches that evaluate how the influence of species traits on the relationship between environmental variables and ecological responses varies among scales (i.e. the scale-dependent role of traits). We quantify which traits and ecological responses have been assessed, and discuss the main challenges associated with quantifying the scale-dependent effect of traits. Recent Findings We identify three main approaches used to evaluate the scale-dependent role of traits, based on whether 1) traits are used as predictors or responses, 2) intraspecific variation in single traits is considered, or 3) trait diversity indices are used. Our review identifies several gaps that include the following: 1) evidence of the scale-dependent role of traits is biased towards studies of plants; 2) we lack evidence of whether the traits of interacting species groups are consistently related across spatial scales; and 3) interactions between species traits and landscape structure are usually ignored. Summary The explicit inclusion of landscape structure effects in trait-based approaches at multiple scales will benefit the integration of approaches from community ecology and landscape ecology. This is important for describing the mechanisms that operate simultaneously across scales and for predicting the impact of landscape change on a broad range of ecological responses, including species diversity and interspecific interactions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40823-018-0031-y
       
 
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