Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACS Environmental Au     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Animal - Open Space     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access  
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Chinese Journal of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal  
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cleaner and Circular Bioeconomy (CLCB)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cleaner Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cleaner Environmental Systems     Open Access  
Cleaner Production Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Cleaner Waste Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access  
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access  
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earth System Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Environment & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 136)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 345)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access  
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecotrophic : Journal of Environmental Science     Open Access  
Ecozon@ : European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Éducation relative à l'environnement     Open Access  
Electronic Green Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Empowering Sustainability International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Energy & Environmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Energy and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy and Environment Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Energy & Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.258
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 25  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0958-305X - ISSN (Online) 2048-4070
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Assessing and prospecting decoupling effect of carbon emissions from
           economic growth: Empirical studies from Chinese provinces

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xinyue Zhang, Xiaopeng Guo, Xingping Zhang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      China has proposed ambitious goals of carbon peak and carbon neutrality, and will pay more attention to the relationship between economic development and carbon emissions. It's significant to assess the current environmental decoupling and prospect the future conditions in China. This article studies the decoupling status and influencing factors in Chinese provinces from 1996 to 2018 through Tapio decoupling index and decomposition model. The results show that most provinces are currently in a weak decoupling state. The growth of per capita GDP and population will affect the process of strong decoupling, while the optimization of energy intensity, energy structure and industrial structure will promote the realization of strong decoupling. Moreover, this paper prospects the decoupling scenarios of Chinese provinces from 2019 to 2035 and finds that all provinces will achieve strong decoupling before 2040, 2035 and 2030 under different carbon emissions scenarios respectively. To achieve the strong decoupling of economic output and carbon emissions as soon as possible, the government must improve energy efficiency, use renewable energy in large quantities, and promote the industrial transformation and upgrading.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T05:20:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221100534
       
  • The effect of dispersant characteristics on the De-NOx efficiency of SCR
           catalyst

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      Authors: Yoo-Jin Jung, Jin-Sun Cha, Se-Jeong Lim, Jin-Woo Park, Min-Chul Shin, Young-Kwon Park
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we analyzed the effect of dispersant characteristics on the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst properties and de-NOx efficiency. For this, we measured the zeta potential and pH value of each dispersant, and compared the thermal properties of the dispersant through TG-DTA analysis. Also, the Py-GC/MS analysis results and the MSDS contents of the product were used to compare the components and molecular weight types of the dispersant. As a result, the higher the zeta potential, pH, and molecular weight of the dispersant, the more improved the dispersibility of the TiO2 slurry. Characteristics such as the rheology, sedimentation, and pH change, were studied to compare the dispersibility of the catalyst slurries, and the dispersion characteristics of the TiO2 slurries were confirmed by TEM. The SCR catalysts prepared varied based on the dispersant added, with the varying factor being the de-NOx efficiency between (250 to 450) °C depending on the dispersibility. The dispersant with the excellent dispersibility gave the highest efficiency of 84% or more at 250°C and 300°C, and the highest de-NOx efficiency of more than 92% at 350°C and 400°C.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T05:31:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221101152
       
  • Removal of Ni2+ and Zn2+ from groundwater by adsorption onto fishbone and
           hydroxyapatite: Effect of salinity

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      Authors: Ardie Septian, Jiyeon Choi, Won Sik Shin
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Ni2+- and Zn2+-contaminated groundwater in the coastal regions is a serious threat to water security in industrial areas. Apatite-like material is an excellent sorbent for heavy metals; however the effect of salinity on the Ni2+ and Zn2+ adsorption onto fishbone and synthesized hydroxyapatite (HAP) has not been investigated. This study investigates the effect of salinity on the single and binary adsorption of Ni2+ and Zn2+ onto apatite-like materials. The experiments were conducted in batch reactor for 24 h at 1:40 solid-to-liquid ratios (wt/wt), 25°C, and pH 5. Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin–Radushkevich models fit well with the single-adsorption data. The adsorption isotherms were nonlinear (NF = 0.350–0.710). The maximum adsorption capacities (qmL) of the Ni2+ and Zn2+ onto HAP were higher than those onto the fishbone, attributed to the higher Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area (ABET) and cation exchange capacity. In the binary adsorption, adsorption capacities of the adsorbents were less than those in the single-solute system due to the competition between Ni2+ and Zn2+. Salinity affected the single and binary adsorption by decreasing the adsorption capacities of the adsorbents. In a binary adsorption system, the selectivity of Zn2+ was less than that of Ni2+ for both fishbone and HAP at 0‰ and 30‰ salinity, respectively. Binary adsorption models, such as the Murali–Aylmore (M–A) model, competitive Langmuir model (CLM), P-factor model, and ideal-adsorbed solution theory coupled with the Freundlich (IAST-Freundlich) model were used; of these, the M–A model provided the best prediction for the binary system.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T08:36:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221102048
       
  • The impact of foreign direct investment on China's carbon emission
           efficiency through energy intensity and low-carbon city pilot policy

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      Authors: Lianghu Wang, Jun Shao
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The rapid growth of foreign direct investment (FDI) has had a significant impact on rapid economic development and environmental pollution in China. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism and empirical evidence of FDI impact on carbon emission efficiency have not been systematically explored. Therefore, this study investigates the impact of FDI on carbon emission efficiency via energy intensity, as well as the moderating role of the Low-Carbon City Pilot Policy (LCCP) in the process. We found that: (1) During the study sample period, the average carbon emission efficiency tends to rise, however, there remains a gap between the optimal carbon emission efficiency; (2) FDI is one of the key factors that inhibit the improvement of carbon emission efficiency, with a non-linear relationship between them; (3) FDI indirectly suppresses the improvement of carbon emission efficiency by promoting energy intensity. Nevertheless, the implementation of LCCP has a positive effect on carbon emission efficiency; (4) The implementation of LCCP has improved the negative impact of FDI on carbon emission efficiency, nonetheless, it cannot significantly influence the process that FDI affects carbon emission efficiency through energy intensity. Thus, we propose improvement measures from three aspects, i.e., increasing the introduction of foreign capital, adjusting the energy consumption structure, and expanding the scope of low-carbon cities.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T04:27:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221100524
       
  • Predicting intention of residential solar installation: The role of
           ecological lifestyle, consumer innovativeness, perceived benefit,
           government incentives, and solar product knowledge

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      Authors: Hsien-Long Huang, Li-Keng Cheng
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we investigated the relationships between personal traits (sustainable lifestyle and consumer innovativeness), psychological and physical benefits (warm glow and government incentive), attitude toward rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system installation, and intention to install a residential PV system. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effect of solar product knowledge on the relationship between attitude and intention to install a residential PV system. Convenience sampling was performed to collect data in this study. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to participants in the form of an online survey. To prevent priming effects, the research constructs were not presented in the questionnaire, and the questions were not presented in the order of the research constructs. Each questionnaire item was evaluated using a 7-point Likert scale, and 370 valid surveys were received. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to verify the validity of the constructs. The CFA results confirmed that the measurement scales used in this study were appropriate. The conclusions of this study are as follows. First, ecological lifestyle, consumer innovativeness, government incentive, and warm glow affect attitude toward rooftop PV system installation. Second, this attitude influences the intention of rooftop PV system installation, and consumer knowledge moderates the relationship between attitude and intention toward rooftop PV system installation. This study's findings provide a comprehensive theoretical and empirical basis for understanding the antecedents of attitude toward the installation of residential solar energy systems. Thus, the public sector can use the aforementioned findings as a basis for developing a residential solar energy promotion policy, and relevant public and private companies can use these findings as a basis to create attractive marketing strategies for residential solar energy technology.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T06:57:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221100525
       
  • Analysis of the impact of natural resource rent, transportation
           infrastructure, innovation and financial development on China's carbon
           emission

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      Authors: Jiemin Huang, Liying Guo
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Using panel data from 30 provinces in China from 1995 to 2017, this study explores the impact of natural resource rent, transportation infrastructure, innovation, financial development, green investment and energy investment on carbon emission and its role in achieving the sustainable development goals. In order to obtain long-term and short-term estimates, the auto-regression distribution lag model (ARDL) is used in this study. The results confirm that natural resource rent, transportation infrastructure, innovation, energy investment and carbon emission are significantly positively correlated in long-term and short-term. Financial development and carbon emission are not significant in short term, but in the long term, financial development will contribute to the rise of carbon emissions. Green investment will increase short-run carbon emissions, whereas it really can control carbon emissions, which is different from other studies. This research proposes to improve the level of innovation and reduce carbon emission in other fields through technological innovation, increase green investment and renewable energy investment and combine with financial development to invest more funds in low carbon environmental production industries and to build an environment friendly system.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:25:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221100526
       
  • The effect of renewable energy consumption on economic growth in KSA: A
           bootstrap causality test

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      Authors: Hakim Berradia, Mehdi Abid, Habib Sakrafi, Zouheyr Gheraia, Hanane Abdelli
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The majority of studies analyzed show a positive and statistically significant impact of renewable energy consumption on economic growth. Nevertheless, some studies suggest a limited effect, while others find no statistically significant effect. Faced with this problem, we conducted a study aimed at analyzing the impact of renewable energy consumption on economic growth in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the period 1990–2020. To determine the integration properties of the variables, we utilized the sharp and smooth structural breaks unit root test developed by Shahbaz, Omay and Roubaud (SOR). We also used the bootstrap approach of testing ARDL limits to examine the cointegration between variables. Using the VECM model, we studied the causal relationship between economic growth and its determinants. The results show, in the short and long run, the existence of a bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth (Feedback Hypothesis). Thus, there is a bidirectional relationship between GDP and capital and also between GDP and labor, in the long run. Therefore, an important policy implication resulting from this analysis is that renewable energy can be considered as an important factor for sustainable economic development in Saudi Arabia. The findings for Saudi Arabia may also be relevant for oil exporting countries to achieve efficiency and promote the renewable energy sector beyond oil.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:11:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221096856
       
  • A study on passivation improvement in n-passivated emitter rear totally
           diffused solar cell using rapid thermal annealing

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      Authors: Virender Sharma, Hrishikesh Dhasmana, Abhishek Verma, Avshish Kumar, C.V. Kannan, Yash Pal, Shivangi Jha, V.K. Jain
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      An investigation on enhanced surface passivation in the existing industrial process line of large area n-type silicon (Si) Passivated Emitter Rear Totally diffused (n- PERT) solar cell has been performed. The Rapid Thermal Process (RTP) optimization for 20 min is conducted in the temperature range of 500–900°C and device evaluation is carried out with respect to regularly processed n-PERT solar cell. The impact of pre-metallization annealing is studied with the support of cell parameters like shunt resistance, reverse saturation current density determined from current-voltage measurements. The enhanced surface passivation via hydrogenation from silicon nitride (SiNx) layer during annealing is established with the help of external quantum efficiency, spectral response measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The addition of optimized annealing resulted in improvement by 550% (from 38 to 247 µs), 7.73% (from 630.7 to 678.8 mV) and 84.77% (from 223.3 to 34 cm/s) in effective minority carrier lifetime, implied open circuit voltage and surface recombination velocity respectively. Finally, RTP technique for optimized process line has been successfully incorporated in industrial high-volume batch of 140898 CZ n-type Si wafers, which predicts conceptual validation of the study in mass scale production line with an increment in average efficiency of the device by 0.35%.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T03:55:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221091541
       
  • Performance enrichment of hybrid photovoltaic thermal collector with
           different nano-fluids

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      Authors: Sourav Diwania, Rajeev Kumar, Maneesh Kumar, Varun Gupta, Theyab R Alsenani
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This work manifests the influence of different nanoparticles on the photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) system. The hybrid PVT (hPVT) systems provide thermo-electric energy by utilizing the module heat. The module heat is recovered for controlling the cell temperature using coolant in the channel. This work examines the impact of the type and volume concentration of different nano-fluids on the cell temperature, outlet temperature, thermo-electric efficiency of hPVT collectors. Copper (Cu), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and silicon dioxide (SiO2) dispersed in pure water are considered nano-fluids in this study. The investigation reveals that the outcomes of the PVT collector with copper-water as nano-fluid are superior to the other nano-fluids considered in the study. At 0.012 kg/s mass flow rate (MFR), the thermo-electric efficiency of the hPVT collector is 1.645% and 6.239% higher than the thermo-electric efficiency of the PVT at an MFR of 0.002 kg/s. It is also observed that with a 4% vol. concentration of Cu in the base fluid, the thermo-electric efficiency is considerably better than the efficiency at 2% and base fluid.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T06:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221093459
       
  • The impact of CuO nanoparticles as fuel additives in biodiesel-blend
           fuelled diesel engine: A review

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      Authors: Sarah Oluwabunmi Bitire, Emeka Charles Nwanna, Tien-Chien Jen
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The utilization of fossil fuels like diesel has contributed immensely to ecological challenges such as the emission of greenhouse gasses. Hence, the motivation for sourcing another energy that is renewable as well as easily accessible from relatively cheap materials. Biodiesel is a perfect replacement for petro-diesel because it is biodegradable, economically viable, and has lower toxicity. However, there are challenges associated (poor engine efficiency) with its utilization in engines. It also raises NOx emissions which necessitates frequent engine component replacement owing to clogging, and it is ineffective in cold weather. To boost efficiency, nanoparticles can be combined with biodiesel blends. Moreover, the utilization of nanoparticle additives improves the performance of engines, rate of heat transfer, fuel mixture balance, thermo-physical characteristics, as well as the reduction in exhaust emissions. Copper oxide which is a transition metal oxide aids in the heat transfer from the engine down to the exhaust thus lowering the emissions of NOx. As a result, CuO nanoparticles are thought to have a lot of potential as a diesel engine additive and therefore, this review study was conducted to deduce the various techniques for generating CuO nano-fuels, the preparation methods, as well as their physicochemical features. Furthermore, the combustion behaviour, performance, and emission characteristics of diesel engines powered by CuO nanoparticle-containing biodiesel and blends were carefully investigated.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T06:17:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221089217
       
  • Clean energy, emission trading policy, and CO2 emissions: Evidence from
           China

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      Authors: Fei Yang, Chunchen Wang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper constructs a unique dataset of clean energy and adopts static panel models and dynamic panel specifications to explore the correlation between clean energy and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this paper employs the interaction term of pilot areas and pilot time as the proxy of emission trading policy to examine the effect of China’s emission trading pilot on clean energy. Then, this paper conducts quasi-natural experiments on CO2 emissions. Our findings show a negative correlation between CO2 emissions and clean energy. We also find that China’s emission trading pilot has a significant impact on promoting clean energy. In addition, empirical results affirm that emission trading market pilots can help decrease CO2 emissions. Finally, we put forwards relevant policy recommendations.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T04:52:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221094581
       
  • Biomass-based activated carbon for CO2 adsorption–A review

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      Authors: R. Maniarasu, Sushil Kumar Rathore, S. Murugan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Biomass can be converted into energy, fuels, and value-added products by adopting proper conversion or production methods. For many years, biomass has been considered to be a good candidate for producing biochar or activated carbon. The awareness created on mitigation of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the major cause of global warming, necessitated developing potential methods and materials for curbing CO2 originating from various sources. Adsorption is the most viable option to mitigate CO2 by using activated carbon which can be derived from various biomass sources. In recent years, activated carbon has been produced from different biomass substances by varying carbonization and activation duration, carbonization and activation temperature, impregnation ratio, and the concentration of the activating agent to improve its surface area and porosity. This review article provides a comprehensive review on utilization, production and characterization of biomass-based activated carbon for CO2 adsorption. Initially, the article discusses the review of research works carried out on utilization of biomass-based activated carbon for CO2 adsorption. Furthermore, the article presents the research works carried out on surface textural characteristics, physicochemical properties, and maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon obtained from different biomass substances. Finally, the article presents the research works carried out related to the biomass-based activated carbon and the parameters significantly enhancing the CO2 adsorption performance.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T04:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221093465
       
  • Testing the role of economic complexity on the ecological footprint in
           China: a nonparametric causality-in-quantiles approach

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      Authors: Seyi Saint Akadiri, Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo, Obioma Chinenyenwa Asuzu, Ijeoma Christina Onuogu, Izuchukwu Oji-Okoro
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      China is known for its large industrial sector and diversified energy mix, which could contribute to environmental pollution, as fossil fuels remain China's main source of energy. With the recent drive by the Chinese government to achieve low carbon emissions and further reduce greenhouse gases, this study adds to the existing literature by combining the quantile-on-quantile (QQ) regression and non-parametric techniques to examine the role of economic complexity, nonrenewables energy and renewable energy consumption on the ecological footprint in China over the period 1985Q1–2019Q4. Overall, results show that renewable energy, non-renewable energy use, economic growth and economic complexity affects ecological footprint positively. In addition, the nonparametric causality outcomes revealed that renewable energy, non-renewable energy use, economic growth and economic complexity can significantly predict variations in ecological footprint at different quantiles. We are of the opinion that policymakers in this region should work on the pro-growth mentality of China, which is majorly fossil fuel-driven. This requires an immediate replacement with more eco-friendly sources and energy-saving technologies for economic activities. Otherwise, fulfilling the SDG 13 goals in China will be challenging. For a sustainable renewable energy investment, China should shift to ancillary and spot markets, where the low energy storage and low marginal cost of renewable energy could facilitate higher reduction in electricity cost and encourage higher trading of electricity.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T05:59:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221094573
       
  • Predictive analysis of the industrial water-waste-energy system using an
           optimised grey approach: A case study in China

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      Authors: Wen-Ze Wu, Chong Liu, Wanli Xie, Mark Goh, Tao Zhang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      To estimate the dynamic trend of industrial water-waste-energy (hereinafter referred to as WWE) system, this paper proposes a new method for forecasting specific indicators in such a system. First, the fractional accumulated generation operator, fractional derivative and classic nonlinear grey Bernoulli model are simultaneously coupled to develop an optimised nonlinear grey Bernoulli model that identifies the nonlinear trends in industrial WWE systems. Second, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to determine the optimal model parameters in the newly-designed model. Based on this, simulation studies are conducted to examine the stability of the proposed model. Finally, the model is applied in the industrial WWE system. The results demonstrate that (1) the proposed model outperforms other competitive models in terms of error-value metrics and (2) industrial water use and industrial energy consumption will increase, whereas industrial wastewater discharge will decline. Furthermore, the rationality of the predicted results redis analyzed from a policy perspective.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T09:10:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221094666
       
  • ICT, carbon emissions, climate change, and energy demand nexus: The
           potential benefit of digitalization in Taiwan

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      Authors: Rishan Adha, Cheng-Yih Hong, Somya Agrawal, Li-Hua Li
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The global rise in energy consumption makes managing energy demands a priority. Here, the potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in controlling energy consumption is still debated. Within this context, the main objective of the current study is to measure the impact of ICT, its potential benefit, and environmental factors on household electricity demand in Taiwan. A panel of data from 20 cities in Taiwan was collected during the period 2004–2018. We adopted PMG estimation and applied the DH-causality test for analysis. The estimation results show that ICT, carbon emissions, and climate change will drive household electricity demand in Taiwan in the long term. However, ICT has a higher potential to reduce electricity demand in the short-term period. In addition, the results of the causality test reveal a two-way interrelationship between ICT and electricity demand. Our study also found that climate change indirectly affects the use of electricity through household appliances. We also presented several policy implications at the end of this paper.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T07:03:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221093458
       
  • Creating portfolios of firm-specific energy R&D investment under
           market uncertainty

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      Authors: Young Gwan Lee, Kihyun Park, Hyun Jae Kim, Seong-Hoon Cho
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This research determines the optimal distribution of firm-specific energy research and development (R&D) investment that balances firms’ return and risk under market-induced uncertainty. We focus on creating optimal portfolios of target firms and their optimal energy R&D investments that maximize their return on investments (ROIs) for given levels of risk. We employ a stochastic optimization framework that maximizes firms’ ROIs for energy R&D investment, measured by the ratio of the number of patents issued for energy technologies to the amount of annual energy R&D expenditures, for 78 energy firms in South Korea between 2006 and 2017. The findings from our mean-standard deviation tradeoff frontiers are summarized as follows: 1) the tradeoff ratio increases as the weights shift from 100% on maximizing expected ROI toward 100% on minimizing its standard deviation regardless of market conditions and 2) the tradeoff ratio during the downturn is higher than during the upturn. These findings suggest that firms mitigate market-induced risk with a smaller sacrifice in the expected number of issued patents when the initial weight is primarily on maximizing expected ROIs and when the market is experiencing an upturn instead of a downturn. From the distribution patterns of prioritized firms for the two extreme risk preference points along the upturn and downturn tradeoff frontiers, we find that the target firms shift under different market conditions and risk assumptions. These priority shifts highlight the importance of decision-maker flexibility in structuring firms’ portfolios to support energy R&D, depending on the governments’ risk tolerances and market conditions.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T03:08:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221092401
       
  • Environmental sustainability in Asian countries: Understanding the
           criticality of economic growth, industrialization, tourism import, and
           energy use

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      Authors: Daberechi Chikezie Ekwueme, Taiwo Temitope Lasisi, Kayode Kolawole Eluwole
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines the causation between economic growth, tourism import, industrialization, renewable energy, non-renewable energy use, trade openness, and environmental sustainability which is proxied by carbon emissions for 8 Asian countries (China, Japan, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam) over 20 years. Causal relations were tested using Pooled Mean Group Autoregressive distributive lag model (PMG-ARDL) and Dumitrescu and Hurlin's (2012) panel granger causality test The PMG-ARDL model results reveal that in the long-run renewable energy usage, economic growth, and trade have a significant negative influence on the emission of carbon, while non-renewable energy usage, tourism import, and industrialization exhibit a significant positive impact on CO2 emissions of the sampled Asian countries. In the short run, renewable energy has a significant negative influence on CO2 emissions. While economic growth exhibit a significant positive influence on carbon emissions in the short-run. Furthermore, the Granger causality analysis reveals that there is a feedback mechanism between industrialization, tourism import, non-renewable energy, renewable energy, and CO2 emissions meaning that the future dynamics of carbon emissions in the sampled countries can be significantly explained by industrialization, tourism import, renewable energy, and non-renewable energy. Contrarily, trade and economic growth are good to explain the dynamics of carbon effusion of the sampled Asian countries in the future but without feedback. It is recommended that policymakers in Asian countries should formulate stringent environmental policies that will encourage industries in these countries to utilize clean energy sources so that economic growth will be achieved simultaneously with carbon neutrality.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T02:05:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221091543
       
  • A new look at asymmetric effect of oil price changes on inflation:
           Evidence from Malaysia

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      Authors: Siok Kun Sek
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The existing literature that examined the effect of oil price on domestic price inflation only focused on consumer price at an aggregate level. The studies that focused on producer and production levels, and based on disaggregated data are very lack. Besides, previous studies also mainly applied the linear regression approach in studying the effect of oil price. This study seeks to explore the mentioned issues by focusing on sectoral consumer (CPI), industrial (IPI), and producer (PPI) prices of Malaysia. The Markov-switching (MS) regression technique is applied. The models are innovated by incorporating the asymmetric effects of oil price changes. The results reveal different reactions of sectoral domestic price inflation to oil price changes. The oil price has asymmetric effects on domestic price inflation with higher impacts on industrial and producer prices than the consumer price. The effect is larger in sectors that have higher linkages with oil/ energy resources. These sectors are oil-intensive and are sensitive to oil price changes. Among these sectors are the CPI transportation sector, IPI manufacturing, and electrical sectors as well as PPI fuel, chemicals, and manufacturing sectors. However, oil is not the main factor causes to domestic inflation. The main determinants of inflation are real exchange rate, aggregate supply, and demand. Besides, the policy decisions are also influential on price stability. The sectors of CPI transportation, PPI animals & vegetable oils, and PPI fuel have a high tendency to increase prices and should be well-monitored.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T05:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221077336
       
  • Fracture energy of fiber-reinforced and rubberized cement-based
           

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      Authors: S. Asad Ali Gillani, Muhammad Rizwan Riaz, Rashid Hameed, Adnan Qamar, Ahmed Toumi, Anaclet Turatsinze
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Using crumb rubber particles obtained from end-of-life tires as aggregate in concrete can reduce the environmental overburden caused by the huge accumulation of these scrap tires. However, reduction in the mechanical properties of concrete is observed with the incorporation of rubber aggregates. To counter this detrimental effect of crumb rubber in concrete, amorphous metallic fibers are added to balance the loss in strength and durability issues. Mechanical characteristics along with the fracture energy of rubberized fiber-reinforced mortar are presented here. Four mortar mix compositions were investigated; the first one is reference mortar (control mortar), the second mix containing 30 kg/m3 of metallic fibers, the third mix containing 30% of rubber aggregates as replacement of sand by equivalent volume and fourth containing both rubber aggregates and metallic fibers with the dosage 30% and 30 kg/m3, respectively. Compression tests, modulus of elasticity and direct tension tests were conducted for mechanical characterization. Deformation capacity, residual post-cracking strength and fracture energy of these composite mortar mixes were evaluated through uniaxial direct tension tests. The fracture energy was determined from the obtained complete softening curves. Test results show a reduction in mechanical properties with the incorporation of crumb rubber as aggregates in mortar. However, a significant increase in fracture energy was observed in rubberized fiber-reinforced mortar mixes. Moreover, the mortar mixes containing both rubber aggregates and metallic fibers show positive synergetic effect resulting in enhanced post-cracking residual tensile strength, strain capacity and energy dissipation capacity.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T06:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221089223
       
  • Experimental Study of Increase of Biogas Production from Lagoon Station's
           Sludge by Alkaline Pretreatment

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      Authors: Mohamed El Amine Dahou, Mohamed Hadj Kouider, Siham Dehmani, Abdelmadjid Habchi, Said Slimani
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The present research focuses on the experimental study of the effect of alkaline pretreatment with NaOH on biogas production. Different concentrations of NaOH, i.e. 1, 2.5 and 5% (w/w), were tested on the lagoon station's sludge (dry basis) at room temperature for 24 h. The results obtained after 60 days of digestion, through the cumulative volume of biogas recorded, clearly indicate a positive effect of the chemical alkaline pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion since the amount of biogas produced increased by 42.6% when the NaOH concentration was close to 2.5%. This concentration is considered optimal under the chosen conditions. Indeed, inhibition of the methanogenic activity and a blockage of the digestion process are observed beyond this concentration. These results suggest that the alkaline pretreatment can improve the energy efficiency of the obtained biogas (CH4 content) and reduce the residence time.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T07:10:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221088569
       
  • Chemical reaction and thermal characteristiecs of Maxwell nanofluid
           flow-through solar collector as a potential solar energy cooling
           application: A modified Buongiorno's model

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      Authors: Syed M. Hussain, Wasim Jamshed, Rabia Safdar, Faisal Shahzad, Nor Ain Azeany Mohd Nasir, Ikram Ullah
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Solar collectors absorb solar radiation at the focus of solar concentrating systems as heat energy which is further transferred to nanofluid. Entropy creation in Maxwell nanofluid flow over an infinite horizontal surface of a porous media is the subject of the current investigation. A non-linear stretching surface then induces a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) flow. The thermal boundary layer is studied using a modified version of Buongiorno's Model. As a result, the PDEs, which encompass the physical aspects of the issue, must be transformed into solvable and boundary-constrained ODEs. By using a proper similarity transformation, boundary conditions and partial differential expressions are reduced to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The Keller box method is used to find approximate solutions to ODEs. Tests are carried out on a nanofluid known as Copper-engine oil (Cu-EO). The Nusselt number was lowered, but the skin friction coefficient was increased as a result of a substantial magnetic parameter. In addition, Reynolds number and Brinkman number are used to measure fluctuations in viscosity, and, as a result, entropy variations throughout the domain are increased. Temperature decreased due to chemical reaction and Schmidt number, while thermal radiation increased skin friction and Nusselt. According to the current analysis, the heat collector has enhanced PTSC with Maxwell nanofluid.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T08:09:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221088113
       
  • Evidence from the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model on the
           asymmetric influence of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on energy
           markets

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      Authors: Daniel Stefan Armeanu, Stefan Cristian Gherghina, Jean Vasile Andrei, Camelia Catalina Joldes
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic remained a global risk factor and integrated into various means in the functioning of companies, economies and financial markets. Therefore, this paper investigates how COVID-19 influences the energy market in the main financial markets (China, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United States), using time series from February 28, 2020, to November 3, 2020. The goal of this research is to investigate the asymmetric impact of COVID-19 from leading financial markets on energy commodities. In this regard, the non-linear auto-regressive distributed lag (NARDL) framework is employed to capture the long-run asymmetric reactions. The econometric design allows to explore the long-term asymmetric reactions of dependent variables through positive and negative partial sum decompositions of changes in the explanatory variables. The quantitative results show a significant long-run asymmetric interdependence between the number of new SARS-CoV-2 incidence and mortality and the daily percent change in close price of future contracts pertaining to Brent oil, crude oil WTI, carbon emissions, gasoline RBOB, heating oil, Chukyo kerosene, and natural gas. Furthermore, no asymmetry is found in the case of ethanol and fuel oil futures. The novelty of this article is the study of the impact of COVID-19 on the energy sector during the first two waves of COVID-19 by applying the NARDL model that allows to capture long-term asymmetric reactions. Certainly, further research on this topic is necessary due to the permanent shifts in the pandemic, as well as the availability of longer data periods on COVID-19.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T08:08:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221087502
       
  • Sterling insights into natural resources intensification, ageing
           population and globalization on environmental status in Mediterranean
           countries

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      Authors: Bright Akwasi Gyamfi, Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo, Festus Victor Bekun, Mary Oluwatoyin Agboola
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Along with the increasing aging population (AP) and global interconnectedness in the Mediterranean bloc comes climate change issues faced by the Mediterranean region in its trajectory to energy security and sustainable development. To meet the continuous energy consumption demand while cutting down natural resources extraction and exploitation with a view to minimizing environmental impacts, the policy structure in these countries may require readjustment, which is the motivation for the present study. This study advances a strategic framework for investigating the impact of natural resources rent as well as aging reliance on carbon emissions in the Mediterranean region for the annual frequency data from 1990–2016. Using quantile regression to analyze the highlighted variables, empirical results shows that both income and natural resources rent have an inverted U-Shaped connection with CO2 emission, which affirms the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Subsequently, globalization and energy use show a positive relationship with emissions while AP is negatively correlated with emissions. Depending on the outcomes of this analysis, a multi-stage Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) framework has been developed and SDG- 7, SDG -13 as well as SDG-8 were examined in this context. While these three SDGs are the main targets of the study, the SDG System has also provided a way to test other SDGs.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T08:08:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221083240
       
  • Impact of technological progress on carbon emissions in different country
           income groups

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      Authors: Chris Belmert Milindi, Roula Inglesi-Lotz
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the complex relationship between carbon emissions and technological progress in a sample of 60 countries divided into four income groups for the period 1989–2018. For robustness purposes and due to the broad definition of technology, we use six different proxies to represent technology: Information and telecommunication technology (ICT), patents, public R&D expenditure, Total factor of productivity (TFP), science and technology publications. After applying the fixed-effect method with Driscoll and Kraay standard errors, ICT variables appear to be good instruments for carbon reduction in the full sample. However, R&D expenditure and patents do not significantly impact carbon emissions. TFP increases carbon emissions, while science and technology publications are negatively related to carbon emissions. The analysis shows mixed results for the various country income groups and all indicators.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T04:50:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221087507
       
  • Sustainable portfolio re-equilibrium on wind-solar-hydro system: An
           integrated optimization with combined meta-heuristic

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      Authors: Lu Gan, Dirong Xu, Xiuyun Chen, Pengyan Jiang, Benjamin Lev, Zongmin Li
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Due to the intermittency of renewable energies, their acceptances in electricity market are lower than fossil energies. Therefore, it is necessary to overcome the development resistance through portfolio re-equilibrium. Balance supply and demand in markets involving different stakeholders to optimize return on investment. Compared with the past, this paper proposes an integrated optimization with combined meta-heuristic for wind-solar-hydro system. It investigates to coordinate the interactions of power stations and power grid with their internal conflicts respectively. Specifically, the investment profit, the investment volume and the investment risk are considered as the optimized objectives for wind-solar-hydro system. However, power grid takes operation efficiency, surplus electricity and carbon emissions into account to be the optimal objectives. They are composed to establish a bi-level programming model. Moreover, an improved particle swarm optimization is utilized to deal with the problem-orientated model with NP-hard complexity. Finally, to verify the feasibility of the proposed model, a case of wind-solar-hydro system from Panzhihua located in southwest China is conducted. The results showed that portfolio re-equilibrium strategies had the potential to push forward sustainable development. Secondly, generating capacity was positively affected by the initial investment volume. However, the investment profit did not absolutely rise with the grow of investment risk. Thirdly, profit-oriented strategies were conducive to carbon emissions reduction. But risk-oriented strategies can reduce surplus electricity and increase the stability of electricity purchase schemes.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T03:03:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221083253
       
  • Economic growth, environmental regulations, energy use, and ecological
           footprint linkage in the Next-11 countries: Implications for environmental
           sustainability

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      Authors: Perekunah B. Eregha, Solomon P. Nathaniel, Xuan Vinh Vo
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The activities of humans on Earth have increased the global concern for climate change, ecological distortions, and environmental deterioration. These concerns have warranted regulations that relate to environmental preservation and sustainability. However, the efficiency of such regulations in emerging economies is yet to be ascertained as conclusions from various findings still remain murky. We explore how environmental regulations affects ecological footprint (EFP) using the cross-sectionally augmented autoregressive distributed lag (CS-ARDL) model, augmented mean group (AMG), and the common correlated effects mean group estimators (CCEMG) in the eleven fastest emerging economies (N11). The findings reveal that environmental regulations are not efficient in abating environmental deterioration. Economic growth, trade, and energy consumption invigorate the EFP. The country-specific findings confirm that energy consumption and economic growth promote environmental degradation in all the N11 countries, and the outcome was consistent across all estimators. Finally, policy directions are discussed along with the limitations of the study.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T02:11:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221084293
       
  • Renewable energy taxes and environmental impacts: A critical reflection
           from the wind tax in Spain

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      Authors: Rosa Mª Regueiro-Ferreira, María Cadaval Sampedro
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In recent decades, wind energy has undergone significant progress, with the contribution of countries such as China, the United States, Germany and Spain standing out, although there is no single comprehensive model for promoting renewable energy worldwide. In Spain, the regions of Galicia, Castilla-La Mancha and Andalusia have led this process, with significant changes in their contribution depending on the economic situation and the varied legislative framework in force at any given time. Although wind energy is less harmful to the environment, it is not harmless, and environmental impact and its penalisation is one of the key elements in the applicable regulations. In the case of Spain, the three regions mentioned above, out of a total of seventeen, apply their own taxes to tax the environmental impact of wind energy. The aim of this paper is to describe and compare the wind tax applied in the aforementioned regions from 1995 to 2020; to characterise wind taxation socio-economically, and to assess the suitability of this type of taxation to tax the environmental impacts associated with wind energy activity in Spain. The differences in tax treatment are notable and it is observed that the concept of environmental impact has been anchored in the past and, today, older wind farms with less powerful wind turbines are those that bear a greater tax burden, while more modern, more powerful and larger wind farms (with a significant environmental, acoustic and visual impact) may even be exempt from taxation.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T10:22:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221083249
       
  • Interaction among geopolitical risk, trade openness, economic growth,
           carbon emissions and Its implication on climate change in india

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      Authors: Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo, Seyi Saint Akadiri, Joshua Sunday Riti, Ada Tony Odu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we examine whether geopolitical risk influences environmental degradation, while controlling for non-renewable energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness, using a quarterly dataset from 1985Q1 to 2019Q4. The choice of India as a case study is based on a number of reasons. India is a developing country, which produces approximately 3.2% of global GDP. Also, India produces almost 17.7% of the world population. The country also emits about 6.8% of global carbon emissions, and according to the 2020 report of the consulting firm Eurasia, India is ranked fifth in terms of geopolitical risk. This study adds to the existing literature by using the quantile-on-quantile (QQR) regression to examine the effect of geopolitical risk on environmental degradation, as well as highlighting the implications of geopolitical risk on environmental sustainability. Based on empirical estimation, we find that geopolitical risk increases and decreases carbon emissions in India. That is, geopolitical risk increases environmental degradation at middle quantiles and decreases environmental degradation at lower and higher quantiles. In addition, we find that non-renewable energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness impede environmental quality in India. Thus, we are of the opinion that policymakers, when making policy decisions on environmental quality, should factor in geopolitical risk in two areas, mitigation and channel of escalation, among other policy suggestions.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T10:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221083236
       
  • The effects of MDR-TB Treatment Regimens through Socioeconomic and Spatial
           characteristics on Environmental-Health Outcomes: Evidence from Chinese
           Hospitals

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      Authors: Yadong Liu, Daquan Cao, Xinghua Cao, Vipin Jain, Chanchal Chawla, Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Carlos Samuel Ramos-Meza
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines socioeconomic and spatial factors and its influences on the outcomes of environmental-health through “multi-drug resistance tuberculosis” (MDR-TB) treatment regimes in China. For this purpose, a survival analysis is conducted by applying “multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard model” on secondary data starts from 2010 to 2019. The data set is consisting of six hundred and fifty five (655) TB patients from different hospitals of China. The findings of this study indicate us that there is no alteration in patient survival rates between the two treatment departments, hospital and ambulatory care. The spatial characteristics of time expenditure and medical expenditure are significantly correlated with “supporting distance bias methods” and “environmental health results”. On the other side, travel expenditures and male gender results show negatively associated with the “environmental-health outcome”. This study reveals with these remarks that Ministry of Health, China should take serious actions to control MDR-TB and launch a comprehensive policy with the help of WHO recommendation.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T10:10:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221079425
       
  • Asymmetric effect of financial globalization on carbon emissions in G7
           countries: Fresh insight from quantile-on-quantile regression

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      Authors: Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo, Seyi Saint Akadiri, Usenobong Akpan, Bisola Aladenika
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Being among the highest emitters of greenhouse gases globally, the G7 countries have pledged to halve their carbon emissions by 2030, relative to 2010. This is in clear recognition of the need to transit from carbon energy to more sustainable solutions that are climate-friendly. In view of this, understanding how financial globalization contributes to the realization of those pledges becomes necessary. In this paper, we introduce two major innovations to the literature on financial globalization and environmental degradation. First, in terms of methodology, we apply the quantile-on-quantile regression (QQR) approach with a nonparametric technique over the period 1970Q1–2018Q4. The combination of these techniques has so far received limited attention in the literature. Second, we test for an asymmetric nexus between financial globalization and carbon emission in the G7 economies—Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States—as they present an interesting area of research focus. Empirical results from the QQ regression show an emission-increasing effect of financial globalization on environmental degradation in the G7 nations. Furthermore, in order to assess the causal effect of financial globalization on environmental degradation, we apply the nonparametric causality technique. Overall, results from the nonparametric estimations show that financial globalization significantly predicts variation in environmental degradation across quantiles. From a policy standpoint, economic and political frameworks in these nations should be directed towards enhancing higher financial inflows that are in line with the stated economic and environmental policies, among other policy suggestions.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T10:09:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221084290
       
  • Evaluation of Reanalysis and Analysis Datasets against Measured Wind Data
           for Wind Resource Assessment

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      Authors: Ammara Kanwal, Zia ul Rehman Tahir, Muhammad Asim, Nasir Hayat, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Abdullah, Muhammad Azhar
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The evaluation of reanalysis and analysis data (estimated data) against in-situ measured data is essential to find uncertainties before its use for wind resource assessment. The performance evaluation of four different generations reanalysis datasets (NCEP-CFSR, NCEP-DOE, NCEP-NCAR and JRA-55) and two analysis datasets (NCEP-FNL and NCEP-GFS) was done against measured data for six sites using statistical analysis. A comparison of monthly mean time-series, Weibull probability distribution function and wind rose diagram of measured and estimated data was performed. The MBE and RMSE for wind speed range from −2.18 to 2.01 m/s and 1.34 to 3.00 m/s respectively; whereas MBE and RMSE for wind direction range from −34.34° to 13.90° and 40.58° to 71.28° respectively for six sites using all datasets. NCEP-CFSR data show promising results for most of the sites with the lowest errors and better correlation coefficients. NCEP-CFSR data being the new generation reanalysis having higher spatial resolution show better results compared to other reanalyses and analyses. The reanalysis and analysis wind data can be used as alternative to measured data to assess wind energy potential.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T10:09:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221084078
       
  • Recent developments and issues of small-scale wind turbines in urban
           residential buildings- A review

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      Authors: N. Aravindhan, M. P. Natarajan, S. Ponnuvel, P.K. Devan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      To address the future growth in energy demands, complete renewable power generation from environmental assets demands unique methodologies from every investigator. Wind energy harvesting in residential areas is one such approach. But the urban landscape and the physical challenges restrict the erection of small-scale wind turbines. Further, a significant degree of uncertainty leads to a lack of awareness of how dispersion in urban environments impacts turbine performance. This research looks into the potential productivity of wind turbine installations in urban areas, considering turbulence. These unique ambient conditions prevailing in a dynamic environment compared to flat terrains have made the harnessing of wind energy very difficult. Many researchers are still trying to find an effective methodology in these constrained circumstances. Since the characteristics of small-scale wind turbine models are undetermined, large-scale turbines fared well compared to small-scale wind turbine models. The feasibility and success of small and medium turbines in community homes were investigated in this study. The origins of the very uncertain nature of atmospheric boundary layer limitations are discussed in this work and subsequent successful developments by different researchers.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T12:37:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221084038
       
  • Optimization of Micro Gas Turbine Based Hybrid Systems for Remote Off-grid
           Communities

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      Authors: Nareg Basmadjian, Sean Yun, Zekai Hong
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Inherent fuel flexibility of micro gas turbine (MGT) makes the engine a promising energy solution to remote Canadian communities that are not connected to the North American electricity grid, where bio-oils derived from locally available bio-mass may be utilized to meet local power and heat demands to reduce fossil fuel consumption. The switch to bio-oils enabled by MGTs reduces not only carbon footprints but also operating expenses due to high transportation costs of fossil fuels. However, MGT efficiencies are greatly reduced at partial loads. This work investigates the feasibility of addressing MGT efficiency drops at partial loads by incorporating MGT with a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) to form a hybrid system so that the MGT can be operated at near full power at all times for better efficiencies. In this study, a daily power demand profile of a typical Canadian household is adopted for optimizing battery size and MGT operating strategies. By optimizing MGT daily start time and the engine's threshold partial load factor, the specific fuel consumption and battery size can be minimized for a specific number of households on a micro-grid supported by the MGT-based hybrid power system.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T12:37:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221082926
       
  • Removal of hydrochlorothiazide from drinking and environmental water:
           Hydrolysis, direct and indirect photolysis

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      Authors: Maria M. Uzelac, Branislava Srđenović Čonić, Nebojša Kladar, Stevan Armaković, Sanja J. Armaković
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) has been detected in drinking and environmental water. Since HCTZ exhibited some toxic effects on the environment, it is essential to propose safe and economical ways of its removal. The influence of water quality on the removal efficiency of HCTZ from the environment was observed. The stability of HCTZ was investigated in ultrapure (UPW), tap, and two different environmental waters, by hydrolysis, photolysis, and indirect photolysis under simulated solar irradiation (SSI) and UV irradiation. Also, experiments were conducted at temperatures of (5  ±  1) °C and (25  ±  1) °C, in the dark. Comprehensive experimental and computational analysis was performed to examine the stability and reactivity. The results show that HCTZ is susceptible to hydrolysis. Photolysis and indirect photolysis were efficient under UV irradiation, wherein HCTZ was entirely degraded after 180 min of irradiation in UPW. Chloride ions, carbonates, calcium, and magnesium ions present in natural waters inhibited the degradation of HCTZ. This diuretic has significant interaction with •OH radicals. A 4-amino-6-chlorobenzene-1,3- disulfonamide (ABSA) was observed as a stable degradation product, and ABSA formation's degradation mechanism was proposed. Mineralization of HCTZ was above 50% in H2O2/UV system in UPW after 180 min of irradiation.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T04:19:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221084035
       
  • Computational Galerkin Finite Element Method for Thermal Hydrogen Energy
           Utilization of First Grade Viscoelastic Hybrid Nanofluid Flowing Inside
           PTSC in Solar Powered Ship Applications

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      Authors: Fatimah S Bayones, Wasim Jamshed, SH Elhag, Mohamed Rabea Eid
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSCs) are commonly used in solar thermal implementations to achieve high-temperatures. The current investigation looks at entropy formation and the effect of nano solid particles on a parabolic trough surface collector (PTSC) mounted aboard a solar-powered ship (SPS). The non-Newtonian first grade viscoelastic type, as well as a porous medium and Darcy-Forchheimer effects, were utilised in the current study. The flowing of PTSC was created by a non-linear stretching sheet, and the changing thermal conductivity, heat source, and viscous dissipation effects were used to calculate the heat flux in the thermal boundary layer. To convert partial differential equations (PDEs) into solvable ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with boundary-constraints, a similarity transformation strategy was used. The boundary-constraints and PDEs have been reduced to a set of non-linear ODEs (ordinary differential equations). To reach the approximated solution of ODEs, the Galerkin finite element method (G-FEM) is used. As working fluids, copper-sodium alginate (Cu-SA) and molybdenum disulfide-copper/sodium alginate (MoS2-Cu/SA) hybrid nanofluids were used. According to the findings, the permeability factor diminished the Nusselt number whilst boosting the skin friction factor. Furthermore, overall entropy variance throughout the domain was increased for flow speeds using the Reynolds number, and viscosity changes were tracked using the Brinkman number. When compared to MoS2-Cu/SA, using Cu-SA nanofluid boosted thermal efficiency by 1.3–18.8%.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T12:00:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221081463
       
  • Environmental impact of fiscal decentralization, green technology
           innovation and institution’s efficiency in developed countries using
           advance panel modelling

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      Authors: Feng Wang, Tayyaba Rani, Asif Razzaq
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The debate regarding mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions and fiscal decentralization has gained extreme attention, but only a little evidence supports this issue. Therefore, this study adopts fiscal decentralization, green technology innovation, and institutional efficiency that reduce environmental degradation and help to create a sustainable environment in seventeen developed countries. This study applies a novel Methods of Moment's Quantiles Regression (MMQR) which helps to deal with asymmetricity, structural change and non-normality. The overall results exhibit emissions mitigating effect of fiscal decentralization, green technology innovation and institutional efficiency. However, the emissions mitigating effects of fiscal decentralization is the lowest for lower quantiles and the highest for higher emissions quantiles. In contrast, emission reduction effect of green technology innovation and institutional efficiency is higher for lowest quantiles and lower for highest quantiles. These results confirm the asymmetric effect of fiscal decentralization, green technology innovation, and institutional efficiency on carbon emissions, and validating that their effect is not alike across all distribution, rather significantly varied at lower, medium, and higher quantiles. These results offer valuable suggestions to improve the environmental sustainability.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T05:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221074727
       
  • How do fiscal decentralization and intergovernmental fiscal transfers
           affect energy consumption in China'

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      Authors: Liangliang Liu, Yonghao Guan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Since the reform of the tax-sharing system in 1994, the regulation of the central government to local governments has relied on the mean of intergovernmental fiscal transfers (IFTs) to a certain extent. However, the existing literature has not yet explored the influence of fiscal decentralization (FD) on energy consumption in the presence of IFTs. Thus, this study empirically examines the influences of FD and IFTs on energy consumption by using panel data for 30 Chinese provinces during the period of 1998–2019. Results indicate that FD and IFTs have positive effects on energy consumption. Moreover, the positive influence of FD on energy consumption is strengthened by the improvement in IFTs. In addition, FD and IFTs affect energy consumption through industrial structure upgrading. In terms of policy implications, this study suggests that China may further reduce energy consumption by appropriately reducing the degree of FD, optimizing the intergovernmental fiscal transfer system, and promoting the upgrading of industrial structure.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T01:44:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221083250
       
  • A Time-Varying Analysis between Financial Development and Carbon
           Emissions: Evidence from the MINT countries

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      Authors: Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo, Seyi Saint Akadiri, Ilham Haouas, Husam Rjoub
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Since the global economic crisis, researchers and policymakers have paid close attention to the carbon emissions and financial development interrelationship, and some researchers believe that financial development can aid in abating the emissions of carbon. Thus, the objective of this study is to analysis the impacts of financial development of the MINT countries (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey) on their CO2 emissions year on year via historical data covering the period 1969–2019. The full-sample bootstrap non-Granger causality test outcomes for Mexico and Turkey reveal that there is a one-way causal association from financial development to CO2 emissions. Short and long-run instability is shown through a range of parameter constancy tests utilized to investigate the stability of the estimated vector autoregressive models. This implies that the full-sample causality tests are inadequate, necessitating the use of a time-varying (bootstrap) rolling-window technique to address parameter non-constancy and prevent pre-test distortion; therefore, this research uses rolling-window bootstrap estimation. Empirical results from the rolling-window bootstrap estimation show that the nexus between financial development and carbon emissions is date-stamped. These outcomes indicate that significant feedback causal associations exist between financial development and CO2 emissions in sub-sampled periods in the MINT nations. In addition, we observe emission-decreasing and emission-increasing effects of financial development in the sampled countries across period. One of the study policy recommendations is that policymakers in these nations through monetary authority should mop-up financial resources from institutions showing emission-increasing tendencies to institutions and/or sectors with emission-reducing tendencies.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T12:35:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221082092
       
  • Assessing Indian Point’s Electricity Generation Through Renewable Energy
           Pathways: A Technical and Economic Analysis

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      Authors: Jenny R. Frank, Tristan R. Brown, Rohit D. Bhonagiri, Ryan J. Quinn, Kirsten C. McGiver, Marie-Odile P. Fortier, Robert W. Malmsheimer, Timothy A. Volk, Thomas R. Dapp
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The Indian Point Energy Center (IPEC) supplied approximately 25% of New York City and the surrounding area’s electricity. As of April 2021, the nuclear power plant has been shut down, creating the need for other energy sources to meet the demand. This scoping analysis study examined the ability of different renewable pathways (solar photovoltaic (PV), willow biomass, onshore wind, and two combinations of these) to replicate the IPEC’s electricity generation profile. Five renewable electricity generation supply profiles were developed and analyzed from monthly and seasonal perspectives. The timing and alignment of the different generation supply profiles relative to that of IPEC were analyzed. Productivity in MWh hectare−1 year−1 and economic feasibility of the renewable electricity pathway scenarios were assessed. This study identified the solar PV pathway as the most efficient in terms of electricity land productivity at 731.9 MWh hectare−1 year−1, while the willow biomass pathway was the least efficient at 15.2 MWh hectare−1 year−1. However, in terms of net electricity output to the grid, the solar PV pathway was the least productive at 137,610 MWh/year, while the onshore wind with willow biomass pathway produced the highest net output at 894,801 MWh/year. These findings are important at a time when policymakers are considering or implementing plans to phase out nuclear power in favor of renewable electricity.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T03:35:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221074728
       
  • The impact of eco-environmental regulation on green energy efficiency in
           China - Based on spatial economic analysis

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      Authors: Mingran Wu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      To figure out at what extent of China's investment in energy technology in recent years has helped economic growth and improved the environment. From the basic theory of environmental regulation’s influence on energy consumption efficiency, this study uses the super-efficiency slack base model to measure the green energy efficiency of 30 provinces in China from 2010 to 2019, and uses the kernel density function to analyze evolution trajectory. Then, the spatial Dubin model is used to test the influence of some important economic variables. The results of value show that although China's green energy efficiency improved significantly from 2010 to 2019, the overall performance was lacking. However, the overall efficiency value was significantly improved during the study period. Moreover, the efficiency value was closely related to the performance of economic development. From the dynamic trajectory perspective, efficiency values of all years show the type of "two peaks".Altough the width between the two peaks did not change noticeably, but the efficiency still had a significantly improved. In addition, according to the results of spatial economic regression analysis, eco-environmental constraints, foreign direct investment, and industrial agglomeration were not conducive to the efficiency value, while industrial structure and manufacturing enterprise scale had positive effects. In addition, the influence effects had obvious spatial phenomena. Therefore, for the Chinese government, enterprises and society, the next step is not only to vigorously exploit energy-saving and emission reduction technologies to improve energy consumption efficiency but also to establish reasonable environmental regulation policies to push enterprises to produce in a cleaner way. Additionally, a reasonable regional development plan should be established to promote the rational distribution and flow of the energy industry across different places. This paper provides a novel perspective for the study of energy input and usage.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-16T02:29:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211072435
       
  • Does environmental pollution weaken the positive effect of government
           public expenditure on residents’ subjective well-being' A case study
           in China

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      Authors: Jingmei Li, Shaofei Yu, Zhihua Xu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      With the deepening of government reform, the Chinese government has strengthened the functions of public service and social management. Public policies are increasingly concerned with residents’ well-being. However, environmental quality, which can be regarded as a visual indicator to reflect the performance of environmental protection and the quality of public service, is still not optimistic in China. Thus, we wonder if there exist deep relationships among public expenditure, environmental pollution, and subjective well-being. By combining the data from the Chinese Family Panel Survey (CFPS) with relevant government statistics, we find that public expenditure improves residents’ well-being, whereas environmental pollution has a negative effect. More importantly, environmental pollution is found to moderate the relationship between government expenditure and residents’ subjective well-being. These findings not only prove the extra costs of environmental degradation, but also suggest that good performance of environmental governance should be emphasized in promoting human welfare.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T03:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221079424
       
  • Population aging redefines the economic growth-carbon emissions nexus,
           energy consumption-carbon emissions nexus - Evidence from 36 OECD
           countries

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      Authors: Qiang Wang, Ting Yang, Rongrong Li, Lili Wang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This work aims to analyze the impact of population aging on the relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions, and the relationship between energy consumption and carbon emissions. To this end, based on the panel data of 36 OECD countries from 1996 to 2016, the panel threshold regression model was developed. In the model, per capita carbon emissions are the explained variables, economic development (per capita GDP) and per capita energy consumption are the core explanatory variables of the two models respectively, population aging is the threshold variable, population size, technological innovation level, the degree of urbanization, industrial structure and energy intensity are control variables. The empirical results show that there is a population aging threshold effect between per capita GDP and per capita carbon emissions, and between per capita energy consumption and per capita carbon emissions. This means that population aging is an important factor that affects the relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions, as well as energy consumption and carbon emissions. Although economic growth and carbon emissions, energy consumption and carbon emissions were coupled, the coupling state decline when the population aging crosses the threshold value. This indicates that the population aging contributes to the decoupling of the economic growth and carbon emissions, and the decoupling of energy consumption and carbon emissions. Finally, on the basis of the proposed model, a robust analysis of the variable of trade openness was conducted to prove the validity of this research.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T03:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221079426
       
  • Hydropower development, policy and partnership in the 21st century: A
           China-Nigeria outlook

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      Authors: Taitiya Kenneth Yuguda, Sunday Adiyoh Imanche, Tian Ze, Tosin Yinka Akintunde, Bobby Shekarau Luka
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Regardless of the challenges facing renewable energy development in today’s world, hydropower is still the most broadly patronized source of renewable energy, with a global installed capacity of 1330 GW in 2020. Hydropower contributes the largest share of the total installed renewable energy globally, accounting for more than 54% of renewable energy generation capacity worldwide. In this 21st century, the quest for a global shift to a carbon-emission-free future has been epitomized by China through its way of overcoming some crucial challenges to becoming the number one hydropower producer in the world. China is currently the top exporter of its hydropower technology and expertise to a reasonably significant number of countries across the globe. Due to failed energy policy implementation, Nigeria, on the other hand, has been languishing in air pollution from fossil fuel energy generation due to poor and erratic electrical energy supply from the grid, despite its enormous hydropower potential. However, a resurgence of Nigeria’s National renewable energy and Energy Efficiency Policy in 2015 resulted in a consortium signed between China and Nigeria, placing China at the helm of reviving Nigeria’s hydropower industry, yielding some positive outcomes so far. A partnership between technologically advanced and undeveloped countries, particularly Africa, is required to overcome significant avoidable hydropower constraints towards attaining their full hydropower output potential. In this way, the imperative to guaranteeing a globally cleaner and more sustainable energy future is more reassuring.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-14T02:50:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221079423
       
  • Pyrolysis of rice husk using CO2 for enhanced energy production and soil
           amendment

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      Authors: Hakyoung Kim, Saeyeon Kim, Jeongmin Lee, Minyoung Kim, Dohee Kwon, Sungyup Jung
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Anthropogenic CO2 generations from use of fossil resources has led to catastrophic climate problems. Biochar is a promising material for CO2 capture and storage in soil, because it does not require additional storage space. To produce biochar, pyrolysis is required in an oxygen-limited condition. In an attempt to offer more environmentally benign route for biochar formation, this study introduced CO2 as a reaction agent. Using rice husk as a model compound, biochars were produced under CO2 and N2 condition. Porosity of rice husk biochars (RHBs) were enhanced under CO2 condition, because CO2 affected to formation of nano-sized pores. pH and moisture retention capacity of garden soil was controlled with an addition of RHBs. Mixtures of garden soil and RHB were also used as cultivation media for growth of barley grass, and plant growth in the mixtures was improved by 20% comparing to garden soil. Moreover, CO2 contributed to enhanced syngas generation during biochar production through gas phase reactions between CO2 and volatile compounds. Thus, this study proved that CO2 is a useful reactant for pyrolysis of biomass waste.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T09:27:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221079422
       
  • A current efficiency model coupled with desiccant molecular weight for
           

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      Authors: Qing Cheng, Han Wang, Lin Zhu, Yao Chen
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Liquid desiccant air-conditioning system is an energy-efficient choice for heat and moisture independent treatment in buildings, especially for the large dehumidification load. Electrodialysis regeneration is a novel and reliable regeneration method for liquid desiccants, which is suitable for hot and humid climates. In this paper, the performance of the electrodialysis regenerator for regenerating lithium chloride and lithium bromide solutions was studied experimentally, and the current efficiency of the electrodialysis regenerator for regenerating these two solutions was compared. Through analysis, the solute molecular weight was coupled into the current efficiency model, and a new current efficiency model of electrodialysis regenerator for regenerating these two solutions was established, which considers the solute molecular weight of liquid desiccant and can be extended to more liquid desiccants in the future. Furthermore, the performance of the liquid desiccant air-conditioning system using electrodialysis regeneration with these two solutions is compared based on this model. The results show that when lithium chloride solution is applied as liquid desiccant, the system performance coefficient (COP, ratio of cooling capacity to energy consumption) is between 1.16 and 4.49, while the performance coefficient of the system is between 2 and 8.3 when the system uses lithium bromide solution.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T09:27:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221079421
       
  • Effect of Cerium oxide nanoparticles derived from biosynthesis of
           Azadirachta indica on stability and performance of a research CI engine
           powered by Diesel-Lemongrass oil blends

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      Authors: Sathiyamoorthi Ramalingam, G Sankaranarayanan, S Senthil, R.A Rohith, R Santosh Kumar
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The effects of performance and emission parameters of a mono-cylinder CI engine have been studied using new alternate fuel: Lemongrass oil (LGO) with nano additive (Cerium Oxide). The study focuses on a novel biosynthesis method (Plant-mediated synthesis) of CeO2 nano-additives from the Azadirachta indica plant, which is less toxic and more compatible with other chemical methods. The biosynthesis method is a simple, high-yielding, environmentally friendly alternative to chemical methods. Recently, a green technique based on impulsively decreasing elements such as polysaccharides, microorganisms (bacteria and fungas), or plant extract has been developed. This is due to the fact that the process is a simpler, non-hazardous, and environmentally friendly alternative technique when compared to the intricate chemical techniques of synthesis of nano-additives. The engine tests were carried out by using three different volumetric percentages (LGO25, LGO25 + 50 ppm and LGO25 + 100 ppm) and related with base diesel. The test outcomes revealed that the BSFC decreased by 4.98% and 6.83% and BTE increased by 1.76% and 2.27% at LGO25 + CE 50 ppm and 100 ppm concentrations, correspondingly. The CO emission decreased by 18.18% and 24.2%, HC emission decreased by 3.03% and 9.1%, NOx emission decreased by 14.8% and 31%, Smoke emission decreased by 10.5% and 15.1% for LGO25 + CE 50 ppm and 100 ppm correspondingly.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T09:27:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221077386
       
  • Renewable energy resources: Combustion and environmental impact of diesel
           with pyrolytic and biodiesel blends

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      Authors: Halil İbrahim Sönmez, Fatih Okumuş, Aykut Safa, Zafer Aydin, Cenk Kaya, Görkem Kökkülünk
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The worldwide increasing energy demand, interest in alternative energy production and limited resources have made it inevitable to turn to recovering wastes, such as waste tires. Waste tires with annual increase of 2%, corresponding to significant reserves all over the world, brings a serious environmental pollution. In this study, energy recovery was planned considering environmental pollution caused by waste tires and waste cooking oils, both. Accordingly, performance and emission analyzes were carried out using fuels formed by mixing pyrolytic oil obtained from waste tires (WTPO) and biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil with diesel fuel in a single cylinder engine. The experiments are carried out at 2800 rpm and at full load condition. The findings of engine performance and exhaust emissions were evaluated. While the maximum brake specific fuel consumption (Bsfc) value was determined as 2100 g/kWh for blend fuel of 30% biodiesel and 10% WTPO in diesel fuel, the maximum brake thermal efficiency (Bte) value was determined as 33.541% for P30 fuel. The crank angles yielding maximum in-cylinder pressures approach to top dead center, with increasing biodiesel fraction while keeping WTPO fraction constant. While the increase in the amount of WTPO in the test fuels has an effect on the increase of CO emissions, and increasing biodiesel ratio has reduced the CO emissions. Also the use of biodiesel without WTPO increases NOx emissions slightly, while providing an effective reduction at high WTPO fractions. At low WTPO fractions, biodiesel has reduced HC emissions, while at high WTPO fractions has increased.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T09:54:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221078262
       
  • Changing the regulations for regulating the changes: From distribution
           system operator (DSO) to electricity distribution stakeholders’
           organization (EDSO)

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      Authors: Sajjad Solat, Farrokh Aminifar, Heidarali Shayanfar
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Followed by the extensive activation of demand side entities, the anti-competitive and monopolistic aspects of distribution system operator (DSO) is becoming more apparent. The business model of the DSO and its regulations are not capable enough to fully leverage the capacity of emerging technologies and responsive prosumers. This paper criticized the challenges/deficits revolving around the conventional DSO model and proposes an interactive platform based on the sharing economy business model at the network level. The electricity distribution stakeholders’ organization (EDSO) as the substitute of DSO in active distribution networks is developed based on the collaborative governance decision-making model. The EDSO has the privilege to legislate on the platform operation and its main policy is to preserve the public interest as well as the integrity of electric distribution system. The superiority of proposed operation model is its non-monopolistic and non-profit nature which materializes the perfect competition of active customers and guaranties their maximum utilization.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T05:31:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211073800
       
  • Financial Instability and CO2 Emissions in India: Evidence from ARDL Bound
           Testing Approach

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      Authors: Muhammad Qayyum, Yuyuan Yu, Mir Muhammad Nizamani, Saqlain Raza, Minhaj Ali, Shijie Li
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between financial instability and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in India from 1980 to 2020. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model is used to measure long-run and short-run dynamics, followed by the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to determine the causal direction. As per the findings of the study, financial instability has an insignificant effect on CO2 emissions. However, economic development, energy use, and urbanization have a detrimental effect on environmental quality because it releases a significant amount of CO2 emissions into the environment. Our empirical findings confirmed the presence of an environmental Kuznets curve. The outcomes of the VECM show that the long-run causality can be noticed in CO2 emissions, financial instability, energy use, and urbanization. Furthermore, the validity and reliability of the results were verified by using a variety of diagnostic tests. This research presents novel results that add to the current literature and may be of particular importance to the country's policymakers regarding the financial system and its importance in environmental problems.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T12:29:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211065019
       
  • Numerical Simulations of Environmental Energy Features in Solar Pump
           Application by Using Hybrid Nanofluid Flow: Prandtl-Eyring Case

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      Authors: Wasim Jamshed, Rabia Safdar, Ameni Brahmia, Abdullah K. Alanazi, Hala M. Abo-Dief, Mohamed Rabea Eid
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      As the primary energy source derived from the sun, solar energy is widely utilized in various technologies, including photovoltaic cells as well as the solar types of energy plates, street lights, and water pumping. This era is about studying solar radiations and a way to active enhancements in solar power pump (SWP) efficacy with the use of solar radiations and nanotechnology. Communication is structured to examine the capability of SWP in terms of transfer of heat using a hybrid nanofluid passing through a parabolic trough surface collector (PTSC) placed inside the pipeline of SWP. Solar radiation has been considered a heat source. The performance in terms of heat transfer of the SWP is scrutinized for various effects like porous media, viscous dissipation, radiative heat flux, and Cattaneo–Christov heat flux (C–CHF). Entropy generation analysis is also conducted for Prandtl – Eyring fluid (P-EF). The simulated momentum and energy equations were solved using the Keller box technique, which is a well-known numerical approach. For this work, Prandtl – Eyring hybrid nanofluid (P-EHNF) has been considered, consisting of double diverse kinds of nanotubes (NT), including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in the rich, viscous fluid of kind Sodium Alginate (SA). The impact of various parameters on velocity, temperature fields, shear stress, coefficient of drag force, and Nusselt number are investigated and demonstrated in graphs and tables. The SWP experience an enhancement in the transfer of heat for amplification of the parameters of thermal radiative flow as well as viscous dissipation. In comparison with conventional nanofluid, hybrid nanofluid performs better in heat transmission. The thermal efficacy of MWCNT/SWCNT-SA over SWCNT-SA got down to a minimal level of 39.9% and peaked at 42.2%.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T04:24:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211073806
       
  • Application of RALS cointegration test assessing the role of natural
           resources and hydropower energy on ecological footprint in emerging
           economy

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      Authors: Firat Emir, Selin Karlilar
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This paper assesses the nexus between natural resource rent, hydropower energy consumption and ecological footprint for environmental sustainability incorporating with economic performance by using yearly data from 1970 to 2017. To this end, the long run steady-state relationship among investigated variables has been analyzed by using newly established Residual Least Squares (RALS) method and confirmed for Turkish economy. The directions and magnitudes of the effects of these variables on ecological footprint were tested by using Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) technique. The findings, except hydropower energy consumption, reveal statistically significant and positive effects of investigated variables on ecological footprint. Moreover, the inverted U-shaped EKC hypothesis was also affirmed between economic performance and ecological footprint. The causal relationship among these variables were also tested by using VECM Granger causality test The unidirectional Granger causality relationships were found that they are running from ecological footprint, and natural resource rent to economic performance, from natural resources to ecological footprint and from natural resource rent to economic performance in Turkish economy. Additionally, the bidirectional causal relationship has been detected among economic performance and ecological footprint in Turkey. The findings highlight the importance of investigated variables on ecological footprint in Turkey.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T08:54:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211073807
       
  • Community perspectives on natural gas management in Tanzania

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      Authors: Obadia Kyetuza Bishoge, Godlisten Gladstone Kombe, Benatus Norbert Mvile
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Several studies have discussed community participation in socio-economic projects. The studies have shown that many projects that have been initiated by either the government or private sectors have encountered resistance and reluctance from the local communities and other officials due to lack of prior and continuous involvements, poor dissemination of information on the significance of the projects, and differences in priority and interests. One of the key factors for the success and sustainability of any project is a clear understanding of the community's voluntary involvement, perspectives, and expectations of the given project. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the communities’ perspectives, expectations, and concerns related to the recent discovery and management of natural gas in Tanzania. The study adopted a questionnaire survey. Data was collected from the 115 respondents from local communities of Lindi and Mtwara regions in Tanzania. The study revealed that the communities are aware of the natural gas discoveries and policies and laws related to them. It shows that a small number of employment opportunities have been created and/or are expected to increase in the future. There should be transparency and accountability in the natural gas development, contracts, and agreements. The parliament should be the most trustworthy custodian of natural gas revenues. The study revealed that the natural gas sector would enhance the living conditions of Tanzanian households and support the attainment of the country's socio-economic development.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-24T12:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221076047
       
  • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

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      Authors: Gulam Smdani, Muhammad Remanul Islam, Ahmad Naim Ahmad Yahaya, Sairul Izwan Bin Safie
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Energy systems are progressive and revolutionary for their alternative resources, technical developments, demands, effectiveness and environmental effects. The recently published research's goal is to assess and evaluate the systems that are already in operation and those that will be in the future. Energy can be stored as electrical energy such as supercapacitors (SCs) and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) etc., mechanical energy such as pumped hydro energy storage (PHES), compressed air energy storage (CAES) and flywheel energy storage (FES) etc., chemical energy, electrochemical energy such as batteries and fuel cells etc., and thermal energy. Performance of these energy storage systems (ESSs) have been evaluated in terms of energy density, power density, power ratings, capacitance, discharge-time, energy-efficiency, life-time and cycling-times, and costs. Supercapacitors provide highest power density (>10,0000 W/l), while hydrogen fuel cells provide highest energy density (500-3000Wh/l) among other EESs. Batteries also provide high energy density(200-500Wh/l). The energy efficiency is found highest in SMES system (95-98%), and lowest in TES system (30-50%). Moreover, batteries and supercapacitors have the cycle efficiency above 90%. PHES and CAES seem to be the most cost-effective energy storage systems reviewed in this analysis in terms of $/kWh. In addition, power-based capital cost of supercapacitors is lower (100-300$/kW) compared to energy-based capital cost of supercapacitors (300-2000$/kWh). In comparison with power-based capital costs, the energy-based capital cost of batteries is lower, which is 150-400$/kWh for Lead-acid battery, and
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T12:30:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X221074729
       
  • Optimal maintenance planning with special emphasis on deterioration
           process and vessel routing for offshore wind systems

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      Authors: Shuo-Yan Chou, Xuan Loc Pham, Thi Anh Tuyet Nguyen, Tiffany Hui-Kuang Yu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Maintenance cost contributes a large portion in total life-cycle cost of offshore wind systems and improves the efficiency of maintenance activities that has emerged as an effective solution in enhancing cost-effectiveness of offshore wind energy. This study proposes a mathematical model to determine the optimal maintenance schedules, by highlighting the deterioration process of offshore wind systems and accounting the optimal vessel routing of maintenance activities, maintenance cost therefore could be shifted to an optimal level. Firstly, reliability of each component is precisely analyzed with respect to the effect of previous maintenance activities. Then, an optimal individual maintenance schedule and a grouping maintenance schedule in daily manner are established based on reliability analysis and opportunity cost consideration. Finally, an optimal maintenance schedule approach accounting vessel routing is apparently presented to optimize the transportation cost of maintenance activities. Numerous influential factors such as system reliability, weather condition, maintenance resource, maintenance duration, production loss cost, and vessel related issues are deliberately examined to enhance the robustness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The experimental results investigating four different scenarios demonstrate that by applying the proposed approach, number of maintenance activity is lowered down, maintenance duration and vessel travelling distance are also significantly reduced in the range of 43.86% - 52.77%, and 52.90% - 58.35%, respectively. Therefore, the economic benefit on maintenance cost could be achieved in an interval of 15.15% - 23.25% by selecting the optimal maintenance schedule.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T11:35:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211073799
       
  • Numerical Optimization and Energetic Advantages of an Innovative Solar
           Power System Based on Scheffler Receiver Coupled with Volumetric Expanders
           

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      Authors: Paolo Iodice, Amedeo Amoresano, Giuseppe Langella, Francesco Saverio Marra
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the current context of increasing public awareness of the externalities of fossil fuel-based energy consumption, improvement in new technologies for energy-saving systems has become a crucial target to reduce both global warming and air pollution. Being motivated by such a critical matter, this study presents an innovative solar thermal plant based on volumetric expanders as work-producing devices coupled with Scheffler solar receivers as a thermal source. Nowadays, Scheffler receivers are well performing owing to high efficiency of the focal receiver which reduce heat losses. Simultaneously, screw expanders are volumetric machines which are able to convert thermal to mechanical power with acceptable efficiency also by expanding vapor-liquid blends at low operating pressures. The numerical model presented in this study evaluates the energetic benefits of the proposed solar power system for various operating situations. Parametric optimization of this solar power plant is then performed in a broad range of operating conditions: the optimum evaporation temperatures, together with the corresponding maximum global efficiencies, were so defined under various solar radiation intensities. The numerical results attained in this research prove that solar electricity generation systems based on screw expanders coupled with the Scheffler receivers are a promising technology.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T12:58:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211073808
       
  • Evaluating the impact of energy and environment on economic growth in BRI
           countries

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      Authors: Muhammad Noshab Hussain, Zaiyang Li, Abdul Sattar, Muhammad Ilyas
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the impact of renewable energy consumption (REC), nonrenewable energy consumption (NREC), and carbon emissions on economic growth in 133 Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) countries from 1996 to 2020. We divided our sample into four income groups. For empirical estimation, this study employs panel quantile regression (PQR), and fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) estimation techniques. The results confirm that REC have a positive impact on economic growth and NREC has a negative impact on economic growth. A 1% increase in REC and carbon emissions results in an increase in economic growth of 0.108% and 1.085%, respectively. A 1% increase in NREC reduces economic growth by 0.263% in the full sample countries. There are regional differences, although NREC has a positive impact on economic growth in all income groups in the long run. These novel empirical findings will help policymakers design energy policies to fulfill the target of economic growth in BRI countries.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T12:58:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211073805
       
  • The moderating role of informal economy on financial development induced
           ekc hypothesis in turkey

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      Authors: Baris Memduh Eren, Salih Katircioglu, Korhan K. Gokmenoglu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study conducts an empirical investigation about the moderating role of the informal economy on Turkey's environmental performance by employing advanced econometric techniques that account numerous structural breaks in series. In this extent, we created three interaction variables by captivating the impact of informal economic activities on CO2 emissions through income, energy use, and financial sector development. Besides, we built a main effect model without the interaction variables to assess the direct effects of our variables on global environmental degradation. The outcomes of the carried analyses produced supporting evidence toward the confirmation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) assumption. Obtained findings shown that energy use, financial development and the informal economy in Turkey transmit a deteriorating impact on environmental well-being. Furthermore, the moderating role of the informal economy was found to be statistically significant factor in terms of both economic and environmental efficiency.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T12:49:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211070775
       
  • Energy and exergy analysis of the transient performance of a qanat-source
           heat pump using TRNSYS-MATLAB co-simulator

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      Authors: Maryam Karami, Hajar Abdshahi
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the transient performance of a qanat source heat pump is investigated using a TRNSYS-MATLAB co-simulator. The water/ethylene glycol-to-air compression heat pump and the helical coil heat exchanger, which is used to inject heat to or to extract heat from the qanat water, are mathematically modeled in matrix laboratory (MATLAB), and then, coupled to transient systems simulation (TRNSYS) model to evaluate the system transient performance and calculate the heating and cooling loads of the case study building. Comparison of the performance of the qanat source heat pump with an air source heat pump showed that the coefficient of performance of the qanat source heat pump is at least 5% and at most 34% higher than that of the air source heat pump. By increasing the flow rate of the working fluid in the helical coil heat exchanger from 2 L/min to 8 L/min, the coefficient of performance of the qanat source heat pump increases at least 12% and at most 34.1%. The maximum increase in energy efficiency ratio and free energy ratio of the system by the similar increase in the flow rate is 46.4% and 24.8%, respectively. The exergy analysis of the qanat source heat pump reveals that the minimum and maximum exergy efficiency of the system is 32% and 85.5%, respectively. The findings also indicate that the most exergy destruction occurs in the condenser in heating mode and in the evaporator in cooling mode.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211068152
       
  • Can the Financial Industry ‘Anchor’ Carbon Emission Reductions':
           — The Mediating and Moderating Effects of the Technology Market

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      Authors: Shuhong Wang, Xiaojing Yi
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research is ambiguous about the relationship between the financial industry development scale and carbon emission reduction targets. Therefore, using data from 30 provinces and municipalities directly under the central government (excluding Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) from 2009–2018, this study divides the reduction targets into emission quantity and intensity to investigate this relationship. Using the improved STIRPAT equation, the pooled OLS and other estimation technique in robustness test, we found that the financial industry development scale is positively related to emission quantity and negatively related to emission intensity. The financial industry development scale inhibits carbon emission intensity through the mediating role of the technology market development degree, which also has a moderating effect on the scale. The study also discusses the regional differences in the scale's impact on carbon emission intensity, its compensation effect on the economic loss caused by carbon emissions, and the positive influence of policy implementation on carbon emission intensity. We provide suggestions to reduce carbon emissions and achieve carbon neutrality.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-06T12:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211061810
       
  • Process optimization for the production of biodiesel from Azolla
           Microphylla oil and its fuel characterization

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      Authors: T.R. Kannan, S. Sheeju Selva Roji, A. Agnes
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The most competent and operative use of renewable feedstock is super critical for the production of biodiesel which has increased attention worldwide pertaining to aquatic fern Azolla. Maximizing the biodiesel yield by optimizing the process parameters of the low-frequency ultrasonic energy-assisted transesterification process of Azolla oil is the need of the hour for minimizing the production cost of biodiesel. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied using central composite rotatable design (CCRD) to find the best optimum reaction parameters for this transesterification process. The optimized reaction parameters arrived from the design of experiments were as following: methanol/Azolla oils molar ratio (A)  =  6.49 mole/mole, KOH catalyst concentration (B)  =  1.69 (weight% of oil), reactiion time (C)  =  34.74 min and reaction temperature (D)  =  38.87°C. The best higher theoretical predicted Azolla Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) yield was Y  =  99.76% which is in well coincidence with the actual yield. The extracted Azolla biodiesel was tested for various fuel properties with standard test procedures and found to be in agreement with various Biodiesel standards and the results are promising in terms of utilizing Azolla oil as an inexhaustible and potentially economical source of biodiesel.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T06:13:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211065423
       
  • Analysis of vibrations in a diesel engine produced by Jatropha biodiesel
           using heterogeneous catalyst

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      Authors: Aparna Singh, Akhilesh Kumar Choudhary, Shailendra Sinha, Hitesh Panchal, Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Extensive consumption of fossil fuel has contributed to the worldwide decline of its reserves and detrimental effect on the environment. Therefore, it is essential to explore alternative option of fuel for diesel engine. The main objective of this research article is to optimize vibrations in a single-cylinder variable compression ratio diesel engine driven by Jatropha biodiesel blend. The heterogeneous catalyst (calcium oxide) is used to manufacture of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil by a process of transesterification. The optimization technique (Response Surface Methodology) has been employed to optimize root mean square acceleration of vibration by taking load, compression ratio (CR), and fuel injection pressure (FIP) as engine input parameters. Experiments were designed according to central composite design. The amplitude of the frequency domain signals is determined using Fast Fourier Transform and the influence of input parameters has been investigated in the frequency domain analysis of the vibration signatures. The adequacy and significance of the models have been checked by p-value and F value tests. Regression coefficients Adj. R2, R2, Pred. R2 were also found in acceptable range. The experimental outcome reveals that biodiesel yield of 81.6% was obtained at methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 12:1, reaction temperature of 65°C, reaction time of 3 h, and catalyst concentration of 5 wt%. Simultaneously, the model obtained a series of solutions based on the desirability criteria and proposed optimum setting of engine input parameters at a load of 2.59 kg, 17.94 CR, and 268.76 bar FIP for B30 blend. B30 blend generated root mean square acceleration of 4.46 m/s2 at above optimized conditions. A validation trial was conducted and the percentage of error for root mean square acceleration was found to be 2.3356% and 1.3039%, respectively, for B0 and B30 blend.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-05T02:22:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211063935
       
  • Amine-Ionic Liquid Blends in CO2 Capture Process for Sustainable Energy
           and Environment

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      Authors: Muthumari Perumal, Dhanalakshmi Jayaraman
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In the present work, an experiment for CO2 capture process were performed by absorption using various aqueous solvent blends of amine and ionic liquids. The solvent blends were prepared for various compositions by mixing TetraButylAmmonium Acetate [TBA][OAC] and TetraButylAmmonium Bromide [TBA][Br] ionic liquids with Monoethanolamine (MEA). The obtained results were compared with baseline MEA. It was observed that capture efficiency of CO2, absorption rate of CO2 and CO2 diffusion coefficient of MEA-[TBA][OAC] and MEA-[TBA][Br] solvent blends were comparatively higher than baseline 30%MEA. Moreover, the parameters such as density, viscosity, pH, carbon loading and surface tension of all the solvent blends were measured for before and after absorption process. The carbon loading of solvent blends MEA-[TBA][Br] (0.405 mole of CO2/mole of solvent) and MEA-[TBA][OAC](0.459 mole of CO2/mole of solvent) was slightly lower than baseline MEA (0.494 mole of CO2/mole of solvent). However, the viscosity of MEA-[TBA][Br] blends were remarkably lower than MEA-[TBA][OAC] blend and baseline MEA. This might be an important key factor in solvent recovery process with lesser energy demand for sustainable energy and environment.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T03:49:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211070782
       
  • Alternative pathways to CO2 reduction in Gansu province, China

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      Authors: Guokui Wang, Xiaojia Guo, Jinxiu Fu, Qingyue Wei, Linlin Zhang
      First page: 809
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Climate change has been considerable concerned because of the increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Gansu province is a typical less-developed and heavy chemical industrial province, its CO2 emission per unit of the gross domestic product (GDP) is 252.52 ton per million Chinese yuan (t/M-CNY) in 2019, which is 48.42% more than national average value. Gansu province faces the following dual pressures including maintaining economic growth and reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This paper establishes a low carbon development system dynamics model in order to investigate the effects of four carbon reduction measures (technical progress, industrial transformation, fuel substitution, and low carbon awareness) on reducing CO2 emission over the period of 2020–2030. The simulation results indicate that, without direct intervention, the CO2 emissions per unit of GDP is projected to be 171.34 t/M-CNY by 2030. While utilizing technical progress, implementing industrial transformation, fuel substitution, and low carbon awareness could potentially be 2.12%, 3.33%, 0.72% and 1.27%, respectively less than that. For the sake of achieving the goal of CO2 reduction in the long run, the local government should address today’s industrial transformation and adopt reasonable combination of adjustment and control policies immediately.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T01:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211023182
       
  • Investigating environmental regulation effects on technological
           innovation: A meta-regression analysis

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      Authors: Zhuanlan Sun, Demi Zhu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The relationship between environmental regulation (ER) and any associated innovative technologies has been studied in the previous decades; however, the estimated results have varied with no obvious consensus. To analyse what drives the different estimates in existing studies, we investigated the regulation–innovation relationship through a meta-analysis of 1276 estimates reported in 49 studies. In our analysis, 41 aspects of study design were controlled, Bayesian model averaging (BMA), and frequentist model averaging (FMA) methods were used to address model uncertainty problems. Our results suggested that controlling resources and ignoring endogeneity problems both played robust and methodical roles in explaining the differences in individual study results. Additionally, our results also indicated that five factors (middle year, publication year, usage of province-level data, linear model function, and the difference-in-differences (DID) model) consistently explained the differences in the reported estimates. We found that the ER had almost zero influence on technical innovation; more than one flexible policy instrument was required to trigger innovative activities among firms and sectors.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T02:00:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211069654
       
  • Thermal performance assessment of a cylindrical box solar cooker fitted
           with decahedron outer reflector

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      Authors: B C Anilkumar, Ranjith Maniyeri, S Anish
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      One of the important issues humankind globally faces in recent years is the scarcity of non-renewable energy resources. Solar energy is considered safe and renewable, which can fulfil the demand and supply chain requirements. Solar box cookers (SBCs) are popular in domestic cooking due to their ease of use and handling. The prime objective of the present work is to develop and test the performance of a cylindrical SBC fitted with decahedron-shaped reflector (CSBC-FDR). The CSBC is designed using minimum entropy generation (MEG) method. Through experiments, we observed that absorber plate attains peak temperature of about 138°C–150°C with the aid of decahedron reflector. The first figure of merit (F1) is found to be 0.13, indicating better optical efficiency and low heat loss coefficient for the SBC. The second figure of merit (F2) is obtained as 0.39, which indicates good heat exchange efficiency (F') and less heat capacity for cooker's interior. The average energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, and standardized cooking power values are 21.93%, 3.04%, and 25.28W, respectively. These results show that the present CSBC-FDR is able to cook food in a shorter period with better efficiency. The experimental and numerical values of overall heat loss coefficient of the developed SBC are in close agreement. The experimentally assessed performance parameters reveal superior performance of the present cylindrical SBC in comparison with many conventional rectangular and trapezoidal box solar cookers.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T01:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211070779
       
  • How solar-based renewable energy contributes to CO2 emissions
           abatement' Sustainable environment policy implications for solar
           industry

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      Authors: Lei Zhu, Wei Fang, Saif Ur Rahman, Ahmad Imran Khan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Renewable energy sources are gaining popularity because they are less expensive and more efficient than traditional energy sources. Using data from 1991 to 2018, we examined the asymmetric impact of solar energy consumption on CO2 emissions in the top-ten solar energy-consumer economies (China, the United States, Japan, Germany, India, Italy, Australia, Vietnam, South Korea, and Spain). Earlier research has used a panel data technique, which has produced consistent conclusions on the solar power–CO2 emissions association, despite the fact that some economies have no evidence of such a linkage. The current study, on the other hand, employs a unique methodology known as “quantile-on-quantile,” which can evaluate time-series dependence in each economy separately to give world yet country-related information for the association among the variables. The findings investigate how quantiles of solar energy consumption quantiles influence CO2 emissions quantiles asymmetrically by giving an appropriate structure to apprehend the whole dependency pattern. The results suggest that, except in Spain and India, solar energy consumption minimizes carbon dioxide emissions at various quantiles. However, the strength of nonlinear association in solar energy–CO2 emissions nexus varies from country to country that needs individual attention and caution for governments in developing the policies related to the solar industry and the sustainable environment.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T01:18:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211061886
       
  • Spatio-temporal evolution and driving effects of the ecological intensity
           of urban well-being in the Yangtze River Delta

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      Authors: Meijuan Hu, Suleman Sarwar, Zaijun Li, Nianxing Zhou
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The fundamental goal of sustainable urban development is to maximize human well-being with minimum ecological consumption. The ecological intensity of urban well-being (EIWB) achieves an effective linkage among economic, social, and ecological systems, and it is an effective indicator for evaluating urban sustainable development. This study analyzed the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics and driving effects of the ecological intensity of urban well-being over 2000–2019 in the Yangtze River Delta. It was found that as the ecological consumption per unit well-being output decreased gradually, the improvement in well-being level and the increase in ecological consumption were increasingly delinked, and regional EIWB and its sub-dimensions tended to fluctuate. Urban EIWB was dominated by low and lower levels, urban economic well-being (ECWB) was increasingly dominated by the lower type, and urban social well-being (SOWB) and environmental well-being (ENWB) were dominated by the low level. The resource consumption, technology, and well-being effects distinctively inhibited the decrease in regional EIWB and the economic effect exerted an obvious boosting function, whereas environmental consumption effect, scale effect, and efficiency effect had no obvious impact. The variation in urban EIWB was mainly driven by two-factor dominance, featuring economic and technological effects.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-23T11:00:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211069324
       
  • Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PVT) Collector Systems With Different
           Absorber Configurations For Thermal Management – A Review

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      Authors: V. Tirupati Rao, Y. Raja Sekhar
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Thermal management in hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PVT) collectors is essential to derive electrical and thermal energy from a single system. Effective removal of heat gained by the photovoltaic module during its operation is possible with a proper thermal absorber design. Hence, thermal absorber design has gained prominence, and various design techniques were attempted in the literature to enhance energy delivery among different stakeholders. Most research groups tried to design absorber configurations attached to the PV panel's front or rear side. Absorber design configurations include various channel materials and geometry as well as other physical parameter combinations. The quantitative thermal energy delivery from the system could vary based on the absorber configuration and be useful for different applications. This study reports a detailed review to understand the relation between thermal absorber design configurations and the potential energy recovery from PVT systems. This study helps the designers identify channel designs, materials, and adequate working fluids for enhanced heat transfer to anticipate better thermal management of PVT systems. Challenges and suggestions to develop state of the art thermal absorber designs for relative commercial thermal applications using PVT systems are conveyed.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-22T11:54:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211065575
       
  • Dynamic assessment of agro-industrial sector efficiency and productivity
           changes among G20 nations

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      Authors: Ying Feng, Ching-Cheng Lu, I-Fang Lin, Jia-Yan Lin
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, the Group of 20 (G20; excluding EU economies) were selected as the research objects, and the dynamic network slacks-based model (SBM) was used to evaluate the impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and forested area on the efficiency and productivity of the industrial and agricultural sectors from 2011 to 2015.Empirical results showed that: (1) The efficiency of the industrial sector was superior to that of the agricultural sector among the G20 countries. Argentina, Australia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the UK, and the US maintained the best industrial sector efficiency values, falling on the efficiency boundary, whereas Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Indonesia, South Korea, Russia, and the US had the best agricultural sector efficiency values. (2) Argentina, Indonesia, and the US had the best overall efficiency value of G20 countries. Saudi Arabia (0.0303), China (0.2721), and the UK (0.2809) had the lowest efficiency values. (3) Only France and Germany had higher than average total factor productivity, while Indonesia and Saudi Arabia had declining industrial and agricultural sector productivity. (4) The proportion of forested area (546.02%) was the most important variable to be improved due to the influence of desert topography, followed by the proportion of agricultural output values (60.86%) and the proportion of industrial output values (38.02%) in some countries.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-22T11:54:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211056030
       
  • Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Exergoenvironmental, Emergy-based Assessment and
           Advanced Exergy-based Analysis of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power
           Plant

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      Authors: M. Nourpour, M. H. Khoshgoftar Manesh, A. Pirozfar, M. Delpisheh
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The high amount of solar energy as clean and sustainable energy has increased awareness in solar energy concentration, especially in integrated concepts. One of the best and promising hybrid configurations for converting solar energy into power is an integrated solar combined cycle system (ISCCS). In this study, conventional and advanced analysis tools for the ISCCS located in Yazd (Iran) have been investigated. In this paper, thermodynamic simulation, exergy, exergoeconomic, and exergoenvironmental analysis based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) have been performed. In addition, an emergy-based concept, including emergoeconomic and emergoenvironmental assessment, has been performed. In-depth analysis of exergy, exergoeconomic, and exergoenvironmental modelling, advanced exergy analysis based on endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts have been done. In this regard, MATLAB code has been developed for thermodynamic simulation, exergy, exergoeconomic, exergoenvironment, emergoeconomic and emergoenvironment analysis. Furthermore, THERMOFLEX (commercial software) applied for thermodynamic simulation and verification. The Sankey diagram based on each analysis tool has been constructed. Furthermore, the priority of improvement based on each analysis has been identified. The thermal efficiency and net power generation of ISCCS are 48.25% and 419600 kW, respectively. It was obsereved that in most equipment, less than 10% of exergy destruction and cost and environmental impact rates were avoidable/endogenous.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-17T02:39:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211063558
       
  • On variational mode decomposition of wind speed for real-time thermal
           rating determination in power transmission system

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      Authors: Salah K ElSayed, Mohammad Alsharef, Mohamed K Metwaly
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Power transmission line capacity is restricted with the maximum temperature that can withstand without inadmissible of line sag. Regardless of the carried current, the temperature of the transmission line conductors was affected by various weather variables. However, the maximum capacity of the line current known as static thermal rating was determined based on the conservative weather conditions for safe operation, but the restriction of the line capacity may be modified which results in the additional capacity of the line. As a result, real-time thermal rating technique was applied on thermal model of the transmission line. Generally, the information about weather conditions is considered uncertainty, however, the weather variables should be dealt with and studied statistically for determining the accurate rise in the conductor temperature. The real-time thermal rating technique is evaluated using weather variables. The most important parameter is the wind speed, which greatly influence s conductor temperature and implicitly affects power transmission line capacity. Thus, in this study, the real-time thermal rating technique is developed by weather variable model based on the variational mode decomposition technique that applied only on the wind speed for adapting wind speed measurements to produce conservative evaluation of convective cooling on the conductors of power transmission system without violating the maximum operating temperature inside the core of conductors. The developed real-time thermal rating is implemented on sections of the power transmission system of western Saudi Arabia. The developed technique is compared with other techniques to investigate its applicability.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-13T12:37:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211033919
       
  • Eco-efficiency Assessment of Chinese Petrochemical Enterprises: A Data
           Envelopment Analysis Approach

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      Authors: Yanqiu Wang, Lixia Yao, Shengnan Cui, Zhiwei Zhu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study uses the Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) and Banker, Charnes and Cooper (BBC) models of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to evaluate the relative eco-efficiency and operating efficiency of the ten petrochemical enterprises. A random sample of ten petrochemical enterprises were selected from the Northeastern area of China. The data collected from the ten petrochemical enterprises were run on the DEA models and the evaluated results were input for the difference analysis for the scale efficiency and technical efficiency. Then the estimates the petrochemical enterprise's operating efficiency and ecological efficiency along with the influencing factors were run by regression analysis in order to verify the evaluation model and the rationality of influencing factors. After the projection analysis of the DEA, the firms that did not reach the values of effectiveness were identified and provided the suggestions for the targeted improvement values of eco-efficiency. Thus, this application procedure can be viewed as an example of the application development of the new DEA model and provides the reference for related industry making sustainable development strategy.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-12-10T12:45:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211065424
       
  • Do environmental policy and innovation improve carbon productivity'
           Evidence from the Korean Emission Trading Scheme

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      Authors: Jung Youn Mo
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the relationship among technology innovation, emission trading schemes, and carbon productivity based on data from firms participating in the Korean Emission Trading Scheme. First, the total factor carbon productivity based on stochastic frontier analysis is estimated by industry and it is confirmed that changes in carbon productivity vary by industry. Based on the estimated carbon productivity, panel data analysis is conducted to determine the effects of innovation and environmental policy on carbon productivity. The results show that R&D investment and environmental policy play an important role in promoting carbon productivity. In this study, the factors affecting carbon productivity are also analyzed by industry. Comparative analysis across industries confirms that factors affecting environmental performance vary by industry. Innovation does not significantly affect carbon productivity in assembling industries, but in the process industry, R&D investment plays an important role in increasing environmental performance.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-30T02:28:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211064575
       
  • A review on materials and processes for carbon dioxide separation and
           capture

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      Authors: R Maniarasu, Sushil Kumar Rathore, S. Murugan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In today’s world, owing to industrial expansion, urbanization, the rapid growth of the human population, and the high standard of living, the utilization of the most advanced technologies is unavoidable. The enhanced anthropogenic activities worldwide result in a continuous increase in global warming potential, thereby raising a global concern. The constant rise in global warming potential forces the world to mitigate greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is considered as the primary contributor responsible for global warming and climatic changes. The global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions released into the atmosphere can eventually deteriorate the environment and endanger the ecosystem. Combating global warming is one of the main challenges in achieving sustainable development. Carbon capture and storage is a potential solution to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. There are three main methods for carbon capture and storage: post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxy-fuel combustion. Among them, post-combustion is used in thermal power plants and industrial sectors, all of which contribute a significant amount of carbon dioxide. Different techniques such as physical and chemical absorption, physical and chemical adsorption, membrane separation, and cryogenic distillation used for carbon capture are thoroughly discussed and presented. Currently, there are various materials including absorbents, adsorbents, and membranes used in carbon dioxide capture. Still, there is a search for new and novel materials and processes for separating and capturing carbon dioxide. This review article provides a comprehensive review of different methods, techniques, materials, and processes used for separating and capturing carbon dioxide from significant stationary point sources.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-30T02:28:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211050984
       
  • Efficacy of energy consumption policy in Iranian National Gas Company:
           System dynamics approach

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      Authors: Nazanin Zahra Alikhani, Mohammadali Vahdat, Mohammad Saleh Owlia
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The ever-increasing global demand for energy, oil production/supply and the necessity for alternative approaches regarding energy harvesting have opened a deeper horizon for natural gas utilization. The complexity of the demand–supply match of natural gas and the lack of an optimal pattern of energy consumption have been daunting tasks for the energy decision-makers in the last century. Although laws regarding energy efficiency are formulated and even implemented in some cases, there was no benchmarking analysis which takes all useful indexes into account until recently. However, in this article, by identifying the factors affecting the pattern of gas consumption through the system dynamic approach, regulations associated with productivity are assessed. For this, a regional dynamic integrated gas model is developed. The model effectiveness in handling the system dynamism and various scenarios are investigated through a real case study in Yazd—a central province of Iran—to ascertain the proposed approach. The results show that the developed targeted subsidy law is effective in the household sector. Despite the fact that the thorough implementation of the energy efficiency regulations has positive environmental and economic impacts, these regulations have not been fully implemented in many cases and do not have the required efficiency in the industry sector.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-30T02:28:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211038650
       
  • Box-Behnken design for the optimization of bioethanol production from rice
           straw and sugarcane bagasse by newly isolated Pichia occidentalis strain
           AS.2

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      Authors: Ahmed K. Saleh, Yasser R. Abdel-Fattah, Nadia A. Soliman, Maha M. Ibrahim, Mohamed H. El-Sayed, Zeinab K. Abd El-Aziz, Waleed K. El-Zawawy
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated bioethanol production from rice straw (RS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which containing 72.8 and 73.2% holocellulose, 56.8 and 58.6% α-cellulose, and 14.9 and 25.1% lignin for RS and SCB, respectively. To eliminate the lignin content, different pretreatment conditions, such as hot water, dilute acid, and acid-alkali, were designed. Acid-alkali was characterized as the best pretreatment for removing ∼79 and 70% of lignin, α-cellulose increased 91.4 and 91%, and holocellulose reached 90.8 and 90% for RS and SCB, respectively. The results revealed that acid-alkali was highly efficient than other pretreatment used for both RS and SCB. After enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-alkali-treated RS and SCB with cellulase, glucose concentrations reached 45 and 42 g/l, respectively. Pichia occidentalis AS.2 was isolated and identified based on 18S rRNA sequencing as a bioethanol producer. Maximization of bioethanol production by P. occidentalis AS.2 using the resulting glucose as a carbon source from RS and SCB was studied using an experimental design. The pH, incubation period, and inoculum size were optimized using Box-Behnken designs (BBD), the final conditions for bioethanol production used 100 g/l acid-alkali-treated fibers, 10 ml cellulase enzyme at 50°C for 5 days at 75 rpm for enzymatic hydrolysis. After time consumed and adjusting the pH to 6, the mixture was inoculated with 2.5% P. occidentalis AS.2 and incubated at 35°C for 24 h at 200 rpm to increase the bioethanol yield by 1.39-fold to 23.7 and 21.4 g/l compared to initial production (17 and 15.3 g/l) between RS and SCB, respectively.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-24T11:50:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211045010
       
  • Floating solar photovoltaic plants in India – A rapid transition to a
           green energy market and sustainable future

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      Authors: J. Charles Rajesh Kumar, MA Majid
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The 18,000 square kilometers of water reservoirs in India can generate 280 GW of solar power through floating solar photovoltaic plants. The cumulative installed capacity of FSPV is 0.0027 GW, and the country plans to add 10 GW of FSPV to the 227 GW renewable energy target of 2022. The FSPV addition is small related to the entire market for solar energy, but each contribution is appreciated in the renewable energy market. FSPV could be a viable alternative for speeding up solar power deployment in the country and meeting its NDC targets. So far, the country has achieved the world's lowest investment cost for a floating solar installation. Despite the lower costs, generalizations are still premature because FSPV is still in its initial stages of market entry. Continuous innovation and timely adoption of innovative ideas and technology will support India in meeting its solar energy goals and progressing toward a more sustainable future. Governments must establish clear and enforceable policies to assist developers in reducing risks and increasing investor confidence in the sector. Economic and financial feasibility are examined, and various difficulties in technology, design, finances, environment, maintenance, and occupational health that impact the FSPV deployment are discussed. Based on the research, effective and comprehensive FSPV policy suggestions are included to support establishing an appropriate market, fostering competition and innovation, and attracting large-scale investment. This paper aims to stimulate interest among various policy developers, energy suppliers, industrial designers, ergonomists, project developers, manufacturers, health and safety professionals, executing agencies, training entities, and investment institutions of the FSPV plant to implement effective governance planning and help them to participate in their ways to assure sustainable growth.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-23T11:32:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211057185
       
  • Improvement of performance and emission characteristic of waste plastic
           pyrolytic oil blended diesel fuel in variable compression diesel engine
           using graphene nano additive

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      Authors: Amar Kumar Das, Achyut K. Panda
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A growing interest in extracting oil from waste plastics has converged with rising demand for petro-fuels and issues in disposing of waste plastics. The characteristics of pyrolytic oil produced from plastic wastes were compared to diesel and found to be sufficiently similar to be used as an alternative fuel. In this paper, an attempt has been taken to enhance the combustion properties of waste plastic oil blended diesel following dispersion of nanographene particles. The performance and emissions of a single-cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine with compression ratios ranging from 16:1 to 18:1 was evaluated using 50, 70, and 100 ppm by using 50, 70, and 100 ppm by mass of nanographene dispersed in 20% waste plastic oil blended diesel without any engine modification. By supercharging the engine with nanographene at various compression ratios, the performance of a 20% plastic oil blended diesel is compared to that of a neat diesel. The brake thermal efficiency of 20% plastic oil blended 100 ppm graphene dispersed diesel fuel increased by 1.16% at a compression ratio of 17:1 when compared to diesel. The CO, HC, NOx emissions also dropped significantly by adding 100 ppm nanographene to WPO as compared to the other combinations of fuels.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-22T11:02:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211060405
       
  • The impact of China's financial expenditure on energy and carbon emission
           efficiency: Applying a meta-dynamic non-radial directional distance
           function

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      Authors: Zhenhua Xie, Xiangyu Teng, Fan-peng Liu, Yung-ho Chiu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      China is the world's largest energy consumer and carbon emitter, but despite unbalanced growth among the eastern, central, and western regions, local financial expenditure on energy conservation and environmental protection has increased from 255.1 billion yuan in 2011 to 582.5 billion yuan in 2018. This research thus introduces financial expenditure like a new input into a dynamic meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function to evaluate China's energy and carbon emission efficiency over that period of time. Different from previous studies, after considering financial expenditure we find that most provinces have narrowed their gap with the benchmark frontier, reflecting that increasing financial expenditure does help improve energy and carbon emission efficiency. The results highlight that most provinces should increase their financial expenditure on energy conservation and environmental protection, especially in the central and western regions, so as to narrow their technology gap with the eastern region.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-20T11:08:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211053913
       
  • Inhibitory effect of thyme oil as an antioxidant for waste cooking oil
           biodiesel crystallization

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      Authors: Gediz Uguz
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The effects of thyme oil extract as an antioxidant on crystallization properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel were investigated. The inhibitory effect was determined for ASTM D7545 standard method for biodiesel added with 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm of additives by using oxifast device and compared with the chemical antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Inhibition time data were determined by converting the oxidation stability analysis results. The crystallization temperatures (Tcr) of the samples were determined by using a Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) technique. Tcr values of samples with antioxidants were decreased compared to the non-antioxidant biodiesel sample (B100). The order of antioxidant power was B100
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-20T11:08:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211061346
       
  • Spatial analysis of public residential housing's electricity consumption
           in relation to urban landscape and building characteristics: A case study
           in Singapore

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      Authors: Hui Yun Rebecca Neo, Nyuk Hien Wong, Marcel Ignatius, Chao Yuan, Yong Xu, Kai Cao
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In a highly populated country like Singapore, a significant percentage of our gross annual electricity consumption stems from our domestic electricity usage in our residential houses. Analyzing and understanding factors that could influence such patterns is thus essential in order to derive effective measures to reduce usage. In this research, 16 identified variables were calculated and considered in the spatial analyses based on various buffer sizes. Both multilinear regression (MLR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) based analyses were conducted using each residential housing's Energy Unit Intensity (EUI) as the dependent variable. The analyzed results have shown that building characteristics variables have more significant influences towards energy consumption patterns as compared to urban landscape variables. Although little difference was observed across different buffer sizes, more reliable results were obtained from a smaller buffer size of 50 m, suggesting its suitability in using these obtained values for further prediction model analysis and development. Results obtained from the GWR-based analysis have shown a significant improvement in the goodness-of-fit value compared to the MLR-based analysis, effectively indicating that GWR performs better in this context, apart from its better explanation on the contribution of these identified variables to the EUI in this case study.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-20T11:08:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211056031
       
  • Consolidated nuclear waste storage in Andrews, Texas: An integrated
           technical and policy risk analysis

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      Authors: Adam J. Mallette, Aparajita Datta, Ramanan Krishnamoorti
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Over the last 50 years, nuclear energy has reduced US energy-related CO2 emissions by over 30 gigatons compared to if the same electricity were produced by fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. However, many kilotons of spent nuclear fuel have accumulated at different sites across the country, and sociopolitical factors have frustrated efforts to address the challenge of nuclear waste disposal. Presently, a consolidated interim storage facility in Andrews, Texas, provides a promising temporary solution. In this paper, we compare the technical and policy risks of the project to continued storage at independent spent fuel storage installations. Our results indicate that the cost of the radiological risk is low (
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-20T11:08:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211051328
       
  • Human health risk assessment of toxic elements in soils and crops around
           Xiaoqinling gold-mining area, Northwestern China

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      Authors: Min Yang, Jianghua Zhang, Huaqing Chen, Hailing Ke, Youning Xu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The threat to the quality and safety of agricultural products from toxic elemental pollution is a critical contemporary problem. Extensive mining and lax management in the Xiaoqinling gold-mining area from 1986 to 2000 have increased the toxic element concentrations in soils, groundwater, and crops around the mines. Long-term excessive intake of Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn can cause serious life-threatening human diseases, such as hydromelalgia, lead poisoning, Itai Itai disease, chronic rhinopathy, and acute hemolysis. Influenced by local environmental conditions, toxic elements in soils and crops enter the food chain and endanger human health. To determine the health risks from toxic elements introduced by mineral exploitation in Xiaoqinling, soil, wheat, and corn samples were analyzed for Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Cu, and Zn content. The contamination risks of toxic elements in soils were assessed using the single pollution index and risk assessment code method. The human health risks from toxic elements through wheat and corn consumption were evaluated using transfer factor (TF) and hazard quotient (HQ). The results indicated severe Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulation in the mining-affected soils. The TF revealed a relatively easier transformation of Cd, Zn, and Cu from soil to crops, and the HQ showed a high risk of Pb intake from wheat and corn.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-18T10:33:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211056900
       
  • Treatment after Pollution'

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      Authors: Tsangyao Chang, Yu-Cheng Chang, Tei-Ying Liu, Chi-Wei Su, Mei-Chih Wang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The paper considers the causal relationship about CO2 emissions, traffic density and urbanization development in China's provinces by the quantile causality test The method can capture the structural breaks under different quantiles from the nonlinear perspective. The robust results don't find the causality relationship between traffic density and CO2 emissions. Urbanization will increase CO2 emission at the high quantile level while the impact of CO2 emissions on urbanization presents a symmetric relationship. The promoting effect of transportation on urbanization only occurs at the beginning of urbanization. It shows the environmental pollution is a key factor to the whole process of urbanization. With the advancement of urbanization, the increase of traffic line density has no significant impact on the urbanization process. The results can provide references for the government in the layout of local traffic lines and the improvement of urbanization.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-16T12:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211053289
       
  • The relationship between LNG price, LNG revenue, non-LNG revenue and
           government spending in China: An empirical analysis based on the ARDL and
           SVAR model

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      Authors: Yuanyuan Hao
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The present paper examines the dynamic relationship between liquefied natural gas (LNG) price, LNG revenue, non-LNG revenue and government spending (GOVS) in China using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) and structural vector auto-regressive (SVAR) model. The goal of carrying out ARDL and SVAR together is to consolidate and strengthen the consistency of the results obtained from both approaches. ARDL results show that a positive influence relationship between both short-run and long-run LNG prices, LNG revenue, non-LNG revenue and GOVS, but there was no significant relationship between LNG price and GOVS. The SVAR also substantiates the results of ARDL test and provides further insight which shows that long-run fiscal synchronization hypothesis is evidenced between the LNG revenue and GOVS, while spend-tax hypothesis exists in the long-run between GOVS and non-LNG revenue. It is also evidenced that there is a complementary relationship between LNG revenue and non-LNG revenue, but this complementary role is stronger than the substitution role. Since non-LNG revenue has a greater impact on GOVS in the short-run, and the impact of LNG prices and LNG revenue on GOVS in the long-run increases over time, thus, GOVS mitigates the direct impact of non-LNG revenue to some extent, and that an appropriate allocation of spending in the non-LNG industry will have a positive impact on the development of the market economy supporting the Keynesian and spend-tax hypothesis.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-13T03:40:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211053621
       
  • Economic globalization and energy consumption patterns in Organisation for
           Economic Co-operation and Development economies

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      Authors: Hemachandra Padhan, Santosh Kumar Sahu, Umakant Dash
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the impact of economic globalization on the patterns of energy consumption for 24 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) economies from 1995 to 2015. We employ Westerlund cointegration, which shows a long-run association between economic globalization and energy consumption patterns. Furthermore, cross-sectional autoregressive distributed lag models (CS-ARDL) results explain the short-run and long-run relationship between the series. The results further explain that economic globalization reduces oil and coal consumption while accelerating gas consumption in OECD economies. We additionally employ the Eberhardt augmented mean group test to verify consistency with CS-ARDL results. The empirical evidence of this study suggests that OECD economies’ policymakers should prioritize economic globalization in framing policies related to energy consumption. Furthermore, allocating funds for better technology related to high polluting fuels should be one of the crucial considerations arising from this study. Finally, we recommend economic globalization as an important indicator to address the issues related to OECD economics’ environmental and ecological footprints.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-11-08T01:28:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211042537
       
  • A comparative assessment of performance and emission characteristics of a
           DI diesel engine fuelled with ternary blends of two higher alcohols with
           lemongrass oil biodiesel and diesel fuel

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      Authors: Kaliappan Seeniappan, Balaji Venkatesan, Nithyanandan Navaneetha Krishnan, Thanigavelmurugan Kandhasamy, Shanmugam Arunachalam, Raghuram Kandregula Seeta, Melvin Victor Depoures
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Utilisation of high carbon alcohols in diesel engines as fuel is gaining importance among researchers because of its better fuel properties that are compatible with mineral diesel. The present study utilises two such alcohols namely octanol and decanol along with diesel and biodiesel derived from lemongrass. Two ternary blends, 50% by volume of diesel – 30% by volume of biodiesel – 20% by volume of octanol, and 50% by volume of diesel – 30% by volume of biodiesel – 20% by volume of decanol, were prepared, and different engine characteristics were analysed and compared with both neat diesel and biodiesel operation. Results indicated that peak cylinder pressure lowered with the ternary blend. Peak heat release rate was higher for octanol blend. When compared with octanol blend, 2.5% higher brake thermal efficiency was observed for decanol blend. However, still, the brake thermal efficiency was 3.5% lower than the diesel operation. The oxides of nitrogen emission for decanol blend were 4% lower than octanol blend. In general, smoke emission was lower for higher alcohol blends in comparison with the binary blend operation. Among the higher alcohol blends, octanol portrayed a 15% lower smoke opacity. Both the hydrocarbon emission and the carbon monoxide emission increased with higher alcohol blends. The study revealed that 1-decanol could be a potential fuel candidate for diesel engines operating with biomass-derived lemongrass oil biodiesel.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-29T10:39:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211051323
       
  • Government cooperation, market integration, and energy efficiency in urban
           agglomerations—Based on the quasi-natural experiment of the Yangtze
           River Delta Urban Economic Coordination Committee

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      Authors: Da Gao, Ge Li, Yi Li
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Energy efficiency is the key to green development, and the government plays a vital role in energy efficiency. This paper clarifies the mechanism by which the Yangtze River Delta Economic Coordination Committee affects the energy efficiency of urban agglomeration by promoting market integration. Based on panel data of China's prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2017, we take the Yangtze River Delta Economic Coordination Committee as a quasi-natural experiment of government cooperation and use the difference-in-difference method to test whether this organization has enhanced the energy efficiency of urban agglomeration. The results show that the Yangtze River Delta Economic Coordination Committee can significantly improve energy efficiency in urban agglomerations. The mechanism analysis shows that it reduces the energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product by enhancing the marketization level, perfecting the relationship between the government and the market, and improving the factor market development. The heterogeneity analysis shows that cities with lower city size, lower level of innovation, and cleaner industrial structures gain more benefits in energy efficiency from government cooperation in urban agglomeration. This paper provides empirical evidence for cities to realize integrated energy conservation through government cooperation and market integration.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-29T10:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211047480
       
  • After the adoption of Renewable Portfolio Standards: Go greener or back to
           grey'

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      Authors: Sojin Jang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) is a state-level policy that mandates renewable energy supply or sales goals in the U.S. In some states like California, Hawaii, and Oregon, renewable energy production goals have become more stringent since adoption and 50% or more electricity is projected to come from renewable energy sources in these states. In contrast, Ohio, Kansas, and West Virginia retracted or even repealed their RPS policies. Less is known, however, about the determinants of post-RPS adoption decisions relative to the amount of empirical and theoretical knowledge accumulated on the drivers of RPS policy adoption. Accordingly, this study conducted a cross-case analysis in order to explore the drivers of RPS repeal in West Virginia and RPS expansion in Oregon through semi-structured interviews of state legislators, secondary data, and literature review. Findings indicate that state government ideology frames views about environmental and economic issues and the effectiveness of RPS, and ultimately guide the directions of policy revisions. More specifically, West Virginia’s RPS repeal effort was initiated by Republican state legislators who were determined to terminate RPS since the beginning of the new legislative session. On the other hand, RPS expansion in Oregon was the output of strategic negotiation between two parties and largely driven by a bottom-up effort from cities and counties, citizens, and environmental organizations.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-23T05:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211048176
       
  • The detection of illicit cryptocurrency mining farms with innovative
           approaches for the prevention of electricity theft

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      Authors: B. Dindar, Ö. Gül
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Illegal use of electricity is very common in cryptocurrency mining farms, as energy bills are the most important component of the cost of cryptocurrency production. In this case, it raises the issue of how to detect illegal cryptocurrency mining. Innovative approaches are needed to identify data centers that illegally mine cryptocurrencies. This study proposes the use of unique noise and/or harmonic features of cryptocurrency generating machines to detect illegal cryptocurrency mining farms. Within the scope of this study, the characteristic harmonics originating from the data centers were determined by performing field tests on the neutral line of the electrical grid. In this study, it has been shown that electricity distribution companies can detect illegal cryptocurrency data centers using potential illegal electricity by monitoring energy quality data. Legal permissions can be obtained easily for detailed examination and detection in cryptocurrency data centers of using illegal electricity. With the proposed innovative approach, the time taken to detect illegal cryptocurrency mining farms using illegal electricity is reduced.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-23T05:18:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211045066
       
  • How political conflicts threaten energy security and economic growth in
           Asia: A study on the sanctions imposed on Iran

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      Authors: Wei Wei, Qi Cui, Heng Cui
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Given their high dependence on energy imports, Asian countries’ energy security is challenged by international political conflicts that interfere with the global energy supply. This study examines the impacts of the sanctions imposed on Iran on the energy security and economic growth of oil-importing Asian countries. A global computable equilibrium model is applied, and three illustrative scenarios are developed to simulate a full embargo on Iran's oil exports, the utilization of spare oil production capacity of other Persian Gulf countries, and a reduction of their oil exports. The impacts of a full embargo are not disastrous if oil exports from other Persian Gulf petrostates are secured. The utilization of spare oil production capacity could largely buffer the impacts on Asian countries’ oil prices than oil supply. Under a pessimistic scenario, the oil supply of Asian countries would be disastrously disturbed. Moreover, political conflicts would force Asian countries to struggle for oil import sources, straining their relations and causing intense international competition.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T10:05:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211045768
       
  • Does hydropower growth threaten fish security under the pathway of
           sustainable development' Evidence from European Union economies

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      Authors: Mohd Alsaleh, Abdul Samad Abdul-Rahim
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This research explores the impact of hydropower growth on fish supply in European Union Region nations from 1990 to 2019. Using the panel fully modified ordinary least squares, the outcome exhibits the reduced fish supply with the growth in hydropower production. Also, human population density and growth economics were found to be decreasing fish supply and their habitats. While institutional quality and expenditure were found to be increasing fish species and numbers, the finding implies that fish supply in the European Union Region could efficiently be minimized by boosting the quantity of hydropower production with operational procedures. This can ultimately add more burden on an already degraded natural resource and negative environmental impacts. The predicted outcomes are confirmed by dummy panel ordinary least squares and pooled ordinary least squares thus, thought to be valid. The research advised the European Union nations to develop the efficiency and productivity of hydropower in the energy mix to lessen the carbon dioxide releases. The authorities from these nations should further participate in the sustainability of hydropower industry growth by exploring the probability of the unified river managing structures to resolve conflicting economic, political, and ecological benefits. The government of the said nations can similarly stress the sustainability of the hydropower output to reach energy certainty and conservation of fish resources to achieve food security.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-18T12:19:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211046317
       
  • A comparative performance of machine learning algorithm to predict
           electric vehicles energy consumption: A path towards sustainability

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      Authors: Irfan Ullah, Kai Liu, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Rabia Emhamed Al Mamlook, Arshad Jamal
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The rapid growth of transportation sector and related emissions are attracting the attention of policymakers to ensure environmental sustainability. Therefore, the deriving factors of transport emissions are extremely important to comprehend. The role of electric vehicles is imperative amid rising transport emissions. Electric vehicles pave the way towards a low-carbon economy and sustainable environment. Successful deployment of electric vehicles relies heavily on energy consumption models that can predict energy consumption efficiently and reliably. Improving electric vehicles’ energy consumption efficiency will significantly help to alleviate driver anxiety and provide an essential framework for operation, planning, and management of the charging infrastructure. To tackle the challenge of electric vehicles’ energy consumption prediction, this study aims to employ advanced machine learning models, extreme gradient boosting, and light gradient boosting machine to compare with traditional machine learning models, multiple linear regression, and artificial neural network. Electric vehicles energy consumption data in the analysis were collected in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. To evaluate the performance of the prediction models, three evaluation metrics were used; coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error, and mean absolute error. The prediction outcome exhibits that the extreme gradient boosting and light gradient boosting machine provided better and robust results compared to multiple linear regression and artificial neural network. The models based on extreme gradient boosting and light gradient boosting machine yielded higher values of R2, lower mean absolute error, and root mean square error values have proven to be more accurate. However, the results demonstrated that the light gradient boosting machine is outperformed the extreme gradient boosting model. A detailed feature important analysis was carried out to demonstrate the impact and relative influence of different input variables on electric vehicles energy consumption prediction. The results imply that an advanced machine learning model can enhance the prediction performance of electric vehicles energy consumption.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-18T12:18:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211044998
       
  • Behavioural interventions yield electricity savings among high-income
           households in Johannesburg, South Africa

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      Authors: Stephanie P Williams, Gladman Thondhlana, Harn Wei Kua
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The societal benefits of addressing wasteful electricity use practices through behavioural interventions are now well-established. Surprisingly, in South Africa, where the economy is highly dependent on fossil fuel (coal) for electricity generation, this subject remains little studied and understood. The residential sector is a major electricity consumer, and high-income households, in particular, use a substantial proportion of total electricity with serious adverse impacts on grid stability and the environment, which can disproportionately affect the poor. Using a field-based experiment, this study examines the impact of behavioural interventions on household electricity savings and the determinants of success among high-income households in Johannesburg, South Africa. Over the intervention period, households exposed to a combination of electricity-saving information, frequent reminders and feedback on monthly electricity-saving performance showed mean electricity savings of about 1.5%, ranging from 2% to 4% of electricity, while households in the control group showed increased electricity consumption by approximately 11%. Out of all the demographic and personal value factors considered, age, achievement and benevolence promoted electricity savings, while household size, number of rooms, baseline electricity consumption and security inhibited savings. The findings empirically validate the impact of behavioural interventions on, and the positive influence of, personal values in promoting participation in electricity-saving actions within households.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-18T12:18:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211044386
       
  • The nexus between financial development and energy consumption: Estimating
           the role of foreign direct investment, economic growth and urbanization

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      Authors: Jaleel Ahmed, Shuja ur Rehman, Zaid Zuhaira, Shoaib Nisar
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the impact of financial development on energy consumption for a wide array of countries. The estimators used for financial development are foreign direct investment, economic growth and urbanization. The study employed a panel data regression on 136 countries with time frame of years 1990 to 2019. The model in this study deploys system GMM technique to estimate the model. The results show that financial development has a significant negative impact on energy consumption overall. Foreign direct investment and urbanization has significant impact on energy consumption. Also, economic growth positive impact on energy consumption its mean that economic growth promotes energy consumption. When dividing further the sample into different groups of regions such as Asian, European, African, North/Latin American and Caribbean countries then mixed results related to the nexus between financial development and energy consumption with respect to economic growth, urbanization and foreign direct investment. The policymakers in these different groups of countries must balance the relationship between energy supply and demand to achieving the sustainable economic development.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T04:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211045375
       
  • Energy efficiency cycle and the export-oriented economic growth style in
           China

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      Authors: Pengfei Sheng, Haohao Wei, Chunjie Lou
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Few studies addressed the relationship between the energy efficiency cycle and the export-oriented economic growth style, and our work aimed to contribute this research in the literature using China's dataset during 1985–2018. Results of the autoregressive-distributed-lag model there were two cycles in China's energy efficiency, and the first ranged from 1989 to 2002 while the second was over the period 2003–2012. Meanwhile, the estimations suggested that a 1% export increase was linked to a 0.107% increase in energy efficiency in the long run. However, the export was significantly and negatively associated with the short-run fluctuation of energy efficiency. As a result, the statistical simulation confirmed that export would raise the fluctuation range of energy efficiency.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T04:07:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211045374
       
  • Moving toward sustainable environment: The effects of hydropower industry
           on water quality in EU economies

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      Authors: Mohd Alsaleh, AS Abdul-Rahim
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This research investigates the effect of hydropower yields on water quality in European Union participating nations from 1990 to 2019. Integrating the panel fully modified ordinary least squares, the outcomes show that water quality degradation increase with a rise in hydropower production growth. Similarly, fossil fuel, economic growth and population density are found to be increasing water resource pollution. While institutional quality is found to decrease water quality degradation and water resource pollution. The finding implies that water quality degradation in the EU27 region can be effectively increased by increasing the amount of hydropower production in sustainability procedures. This will increasingly influence the status of climate change. The evaluated outcomes are observed to be valid as they were authenticated with the panel dynamic ordinary least square and pooled ordinary least square. Therefore, it attests to the paper's uniqueness, input to the body of knowledge and novelty. The research suggests that for EU27 nations have to enhance the role of the hydropower industry in their energy mix to achieve Energy Union objectives taking into consideration the water resources pollution factor. Authorities in these nations must also focus more on investing in the growth of the hydropower industry to add more to its production and availability of renewable energy and decrease water quality degradation. The government of these nations can similarly stress the competence and sustainability of hydropower production and water resource conservation to reach energy security and reduce water quality degradation.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T03:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211039452
       
  • Comparative exergy and energy assessment of a biogas plant with biological
           purification process: A multigeneration system

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      Authors: Mahmood Mahmoodi-Eshkaftaki, Hossein Rahmanian-Koushkaki, Mohammad Rafie Rafiee
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The improved systems of biogas production usually increase the energy consumption of biogas plants. Therefore, it is very important to determine an appropriate improvement system to increase plant efficiency. For this purpose, a biogas plant with a biological self-purification system was energetically and exergetically analyzed, and its performance was compared with that of a base plant. To keep the temperature of digesters up to 310.2 K, a solar water heater was used. It was able to maintain a high level of efficiency for both plants. The energy analysis of the plants indicated that the overall energetic efficiency of both plants was very close. The exergy analysis of the plants showed that the overall exergetic efficiency of the self-purification biogas plant (76.24%) was higher than that of the base plant (66.78%). This is due to the fact that the total exergy destruction rate of the self-purification plant was lower than that of the base plant and the exergy rate of biogas output of the self-purification plant was higher than that of the base plant. The exergy analyses of both plant components showed that although the highest exergy destruction rates were attributed to the principle digester and separation unit, they showed the highest exergetic improvement potential rates. These results confirm that the digesters in biogas plants have a great potential to be improved exergetically, and the self-purification system is a suitable improvement system to increase the plant efficiency exergetically.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-30T10:56:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211041722
       
  • Stackelberg game based co-firing biomass with coal under carbon
           cap-and-trade regulation

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      Authors: Zongtang Xie, Hongxia Liu
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Coal-fired power industry is under enormous pressure to accomplish carbon emission reduction targets. This paper proposes a bi-level multi-objective model for co-firing biomass with coal under carbon cap-and-trade regulation which considers a leader-follower Stackelberg game between the authority and the coal-fired power plants. The upper level regards social welfare maximization and allocation satisfaction maximization as its multiple objectives, while the lower level attempts to maximize the profits of each coal-fired power plant. The inherent uncertainty prompts the motivation for employing fuzzy set theory to characterize the uncertain parameters and determine their exact values. A case study from Shandong Province, China is provided to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the optimization model. [math]-constraint method and interactive algorithm are used to solve the model, and furthermore the solutions associated with different free carbon emission quota levels and minimal allocation satisfactions have been generated to examine the influences. Based on the analysis and discussion, the methodology can meet the carbon emission reduction goals and transit to a lower-carbon power generation. It also assists the decision makers to develop desired quota allocation strategy in accordance with their attitudes and actual conditions.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-30T04:15:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211041522
       
  • Effect of addition of plastic pyrolytic oil and waste cooking oil
           biodiesel in palm oil biodiesel–commercial diesel blends on diesel
           engine performance, emission, and lubricity

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      Authors: Muhamad SN Awang, Nurin WM Zulkifli, Muhammad M Abbas, Syahir A Zulkifli, Mohd NAM Yusoff, Muhammad H Ahmad, Muhammad AH Lokman NolHakim, Wan MA Wan Daud
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The main purposes of this research were to study the diesel engines' performance and emission characteristics of quaternary fuels, as well as to analyze their tribological properties. The quaternary comprised waste plastic pyrolysis oil, waste cooking oil biodiesel, palm oil biodiesel, and commercial diesel. Their compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. By using mechanical stirring, four quaternary fuels with different compositions were prepared. Because Malaysia is expected to implement B30 (30% palm oil biodiesel content in diesel) in 2025, B30a (30% palm oil biodiesel and 70% commercial diesel) mixture was prepared as a reference fuel. In total, 5%, 10%, and 15% of each waste plastic pyrolysis oil and waste cooking oil biodiesel were mixed with palm oil biodiesel –commercial diesel mixture to improve fuel characteristics, engine performance, and emission parameters. The palm oil biodiesel of the quaternary fuel mixture was kept constant at 10%. The results were compared with B30a fuel and B10 (10% for palm oil biodiesel and 90% for diesel; commercial diesel). The findings indicated that compared with B30a fuel, the brake power and brake thermal efficiency of all quaternary fuel mixtures were increased by up to 2.78% and 9.81%, respectively. Compared with B30a, all quaternary fuels also showed up to a 6.31% reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption. Compared with B30a, the maximum carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide emissions of B40 (60% commercial diesel, 10% palm oil biodiesel, 15% waste plastic pyrolysis oil and 15% waste cooking oil biodiesel) quaternary fuel were reduced by 19.66% and 4.16%, respectively. The B20 (80% commercial diesel, 10% palm oil biodiesel, 5% waste plastic pyrolysis oil and 5% waste cooking oil biodiesel) quaternary blend showed a maximum reduction of 41.86% in hydrocarbon emissions collated to B30a. Compared with B10, the average coefficient of friction of the quaternary fuel mixture of B40, B30b (70% commercial diesel, 10% palm oil biodiesel, 10% waste plastic pyrolysis oil and 10% waste cooking oil biodiesel), and B20 were reduced by 3.01%, 1.20%, and 0.23%, respectively. Therefore, the quaternary blends show excellent utilization potential in diesel engine performance.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T09:48:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211034822
       
  • Moving toward a green revolution in Japan: Symmetric and asymmetric
           relationships among clean energy technology development investments,
           economic growth, and CO2 emissions

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      Authors: Zahoor Ahmed, Michael Cary, Sajid Ali, Muntasir Murshed, Hamid Ullah, Haider Mahmood
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      A revolution in the energy sector is crucial for achieving environmental sustainability since almost three-fourth of global carbon dioxide emissions is generated from the energy sector. It is believed that combustion of unclean energy resources is the major contributor to the multifaceted environmental adversities experienced across the globe. Thus, the development of clean energy technologies, to elevate their shares in the global energy mix, is deemed necessary to reinstate environmental well-being worldwide. Against this background, this study aims to explore the symmetric and asymmetric impacts of public research and development investments for nuclear and renewable energy development and economic growth on carbon dioxide emissions in the context of Japan over the 1974–2017 period. As opposed to the conventional approaches, this study contributes to the literature by specifically scrutinizing the environmental effects associated with public investments in clean energy development projects; whereas the majority of the preceding studies have either considered the environmental impacts associated with the overall research and development investments in the energy sector or that made by firms in general. However, evaluating the effects of such investments for clean energy development is more appropriate for policy-making purposes. The results from both the symmetric and asymmetric analyses reveal that higher public investments in clean energy research and development-oriented projects help to curb carbon dioxide emissions in Japan. Besides, such investments for nuclear energy development are evidenced to be relatively more effective in facilitating the nation's carbon emission-abating agenda. In contrast, economic growth in Japan is evidenced to trigger higher carbon dioxide emissions. In line with these key findings, this study offers several policy-level suggestions in respect of undergoing clean energy transition and achieving environmental sustainability in Japan.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-22T11:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211041780
       
  • Optimum sizing and simulation of hybrid renewable energy system for remote
           area

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      Authors: Animesh Masih, HK Verma
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In current scenario, people tend to move towards outskirts and like to settle in places that are close to nature. But, due to urban lifestyle and to fulfill the basic needs, demand of electricity remains the same as in urban areas. This demand of electricity can be only fulfilled by using hybrid renewable energy resources, which is easily available in outskirts. Renewable energy resources are unreliable and more expensive. Researchers are working to make, it more reliable and economic in terms of utilization. This article proposes a metaheuristic grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) for the optimal sizing of hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system located in remote areas. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal sizing and configuration of remote village load demand that includes house electricity and agriculture. The optimization problem is solved by minimization of total system cost at a desirable level of loss of power supply’s reliability index (LPSRI). The results of GOA are compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and hybrid optimization of multiple energy resources (HOMER) software. In addition, results are also validated by modeling and simulation of the hybrid energy system and its configurations at different weather conditions-based results. Hybrid PV/wind/battery is found as an optimal system at remote areas and sizing are[math] with cost of energy (COE) (0.3473$/kWh) and loss of power supplies reliability index (LPSRI) (0%). It is clear from the results that GOA based methods are more efficient for selection of optimal energy system configuration as compared to others algorithms.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-20T12:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211030112
       
  • Environmental pollution and population distribution among districts and
           counties: Evidence from prefecture-level cities in China

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      Authors: Yongpei Wang, Jieru Yang, Jinwei Chen, Qian Zhang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      China's unprecedented urbanization has come at the cost of environmental degradation, which increasingly appears to be holding back migration to bustling municipal districts. Escaping from Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou has become a hot topic in recent years. But in fact, small and medium-sized cities also show signs of population decentralization. The aim of this paper is to reveal the impact of environmental pollution on the decentralization of urban population in China. Based on the panel data of over 227 prefecture-level cities and municipalities directly under the central government, the sensitivity of municipal population to PM2.5 concentration was empirically studied. The results showed that PM2.5 concentrations generally had the effect of driving away the population of municipal districts, but this was most pronounced in first-tier and fourth-tier cities rather than second-tier and third-tier cities. The panel quantile estimates further confirm this finding that megacities and small and micro cities rather than small and medium-sized cities are more vulnerable to environmental pollution, which is a reminder that Chinese policymakers must not focus on the environmental problems of megacities alone, but must prevent environmental degradation from hollowing out the population of small cities and towns.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-20T09:50:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211041519
       
  • Pakistan's energy sector—from a power outage to sustainable supply.
           Examining the role of China–Pakistan economic corridor

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      Authors: Wenqi Duan, Adnan Khurshid, Naila Nazir, Adrian Cantemir Calin
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The industrial development alongside inadequate planning in the energy sector put demand-side pressure on Pakistan's energy demand. Similarly, the excessive dependency on fossil fuels has an ecological footprint. Moreover, the abuse of energy tariff subsidies and deficits had a detrimental effect on department earnings, limiting the sector's emergence and intensifying its crisis. This research examines the electric demand and supply imbalance in the context of the China–Pakistan economic corridor investments using the system dynamics modeling approach, highlights the renewable resources, and discusses the hurdles in the way of green conversion. Moreover, the study forecasts the production capacity, electric demand, and supply up to 2040. The results show that China–Pakistan economic corridor investments will uplift the production capacity up to 12.9%, whereas the average production will reach 15.8%, variables that were 5% and 4.8% before China–Pakistan economic corridor. As a result, the energy sector will be able to meet the energy demand after 2021. However, the current investment in the renewable industry will not help in achieving policy targets. The study provides targeted implications to overcome potential barriers to the green path.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T10:27:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211044785
       
  • How can new energy vehicles affect air quality in China'— From the
           perspective of crude oil price

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      Authors: Qiu-Su Wang, Chi-Wei Su, Yu-Fei Hua, Muhammad Umar
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      From the perspective of crude oil price, this paper investigates the effects of new energy vehicles on air quality by applying a time-varying parameter–stochastic volatility–vector autoregression model. NEVs benefits from the continuous adjustment and improvement of subsidy standards by the Chinese government, and the share of new energy vehicles in the market has been continuously improved. The empirical results show that the increase in new energy vehicles can reduce PM2.5 emissions, which is also consistent with the energy and environment theoretical model, and replacing traditional energy with new energy is helpful for controlling environmental pollution. Oil price has a direct negative impact on PM2.5 concentration, and the influence of new energy vehicles on air quality is also regulated by changes in oil price. A high oil price leads to an increase in driving costs, and consumers are more inclined to purchase new energy vehicles, which achieves the purpose of improving air quality to a certain extent. To improve the air quality, the relevant departments should adjust the subsidy policy of new energy vehicles according to the change in oil price and appropriately increase gasoline or diesel consumption taxes to provide development space for the new energy vehicle market.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T10:25:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211044388
       
  • Experimental investigation of designed solar parabolic concentrator based
           desalination system for textile industry wastewater treatment

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      Authors: Atin K Pathak, VV Tyagi, Sanjeev Anand, Richa Kothari
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The escalation in demand for textile products increased the use of fresh water and treatment of wastewater; which escalates the search for suitable and energy-efficient technology for wastewater treatment. Solar assisted technology (i.e. solar desalination) for the textile industry wastewater treatment is proved to be an affordable technology. The only drawback of solar desalination is its low productivity which is the major hindrance in the global acceptance of the system. In the present study, an ingenious improvement in form of a parabolic concentrator-based solar desalination system (PCB-SDS) is designed to overcome low productivity, and the simultaneous use of source textile industry wastewater for its treatment makes this study more realistic. The performance of the designed system was examined for three different brine depths i.e. 20%, 40%, and 60% for two different processing step i.e. Dyeing and Degumming. System performance was evaluated in terms of energetic, exergetic, pollutant removal, and economic analysis. The maximum output of the system was found to be around 7440 and 8330 mL/day on clear sunny days with textile dyeing wastewater (TDyWW) and textile degumming wastewater (TDgWW) at 60% depth respectively. Daily average energy and exergy efficiency of system varies in the range 39.8–51.9 and 3.6–4.8% respectively. The degumming wastewater shows 85% COD removal, whereas, around 90% of TDS and hardness removal was also recorded. The dyeing processed wastewater showed 80% COD removal efficiency, ≅90% TDS, and hardness removal. The cost per liter of distillate output produced from designed PCB-SDS was found to be 0.014 $/L.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-15T07:13:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211027335
       
  • Detecting cadmium contamination in loessal soils using near-infrared
           spectroscopy in the Xiaoqinling gold area

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      Authors: Min Yang, Youning Xu, Haixing Shang, Abdullah Abdullah, Wen Zhang
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Loess is an important soil type that is widespread in the Loess Plateau of northwest China. However, mining exploitation, beneficiation, and metallurgy have led to inorganic contamination of soils that threatens the health of residents. The regular absorption peak shift of near-infrared (NIR) spectra in loessal soils represents a new method of soil environmental assessment based on field reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral remote sensing. Specifically, the NIR features of loessal soil will shift in response to changes in the soil composition and microstructure induced by heavy metal pollution. This study collected 27 samples from notable regions in the study area. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectral analysis, NIR spectral analysis, modified seven-step Tessier sequential extraction, and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the band shift phenomenon of MIR and NIR features. The alignment of NIR bands was determined via the correlation between NIR and MIR bands associated with the vibration variations of the hydroxyl group. The correlations established by NIR band positions and exchangeable Cd cations were also analyzed. The results were then discussed according to the mineralogical characteristics of the heavy metal cations adsorbed on the surface and interlayer sites of clay minerals. These results can be used as a reference for the application of NIR technology to detecting heavy metal contamination in the soil of mining regions.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-15T07:13:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211030114
       
  • Determinants of firm-level energy productivity – Evidence from the
           Korean emission trading scheme

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      Authors: Jung Youn Mo, Wooyoung Jeon
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      With increasing global pressure on transition to carbon neutrality, various technical and policy efforts such as emission trading scheme and carbon tax are being made to improve energy productivity. Yet, there are not many literatures that analyze determinants of firm-level energy productivity, which is an important issue as energy use in industry accounts for one fourth of global carbon emission. This study investigates factors affecting energy productivity such as technology innovation, environmental policy and energy price based on firm-level data from the Korean Emission Trading Scheme (KETS). The total factor energy productivity is estimated by industry based on stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) and panel data analysis is performed to identify determinants of firm-level energy productivity. The results show that energy productivity in Korea has been improved since 2016, and technical progress and environmental policy play an important role in promoting energy productivity. In addition, analysis identifying industry-specific characteristics is performed as their production process and energy consumptions structures vary. The result shows that innovation activity does not significantly affect energy productivity in process industries, but it does in the assembling and high technology industries. This paper implies that policy design reflecting industry-specific characteristics is important to improve energy efficiency more effectively.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-15T07:13:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211029273
       
  • Determining the effectiveness of pollution control policies implemented by
           the Chinese government: Distribution fitting and testing of daily PM2.5
           data

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      Authors: Gang Peng, Jie Zhang, Kai Shi
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Air pollution has become an urgent issue affecting sustainable urban development. The Chinese government has implemented a series of air pollution control policies since 2012. Exploring the effectiveness of pollution control policies is important for future policy-making and improvements in air quality. Mean and variance tests were used for evaluation on the effectiveness of pollution control policies implemented in major cities and estimates of the heterogeneity among cities based on the distribution fitting and testing of daily PM2.5 data from January 2015 to January 2020. The nonparametric kernel density estimation adopted in this paper can effectively describe the data characteristics, and this is very important for air quality monitoring and control. Our findings demonstrate that air pollution prevention and control policies have significantly improved the levels and distribution of urban air quality in China.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-14T09:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211043528
       
  • Evaluating the relative operational performance of wind power plants in
           Indian electricity generation sector using two-stage model

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      Authors: Rajeev Kumar, Pavan Khetrapal, Manoj Badoni, Sourav Diwania
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Nowadays, to fulfill growing power requirements at reasonable prices, like other European countries, the Indian electricity market is now more oriented towards renewable energy resources. Today, the wind energy industry has grown from a marginal activity to a multi-billion-dollar business in India's power production sector because of its comparatively safer and positive environmental features. Though, there are several wind energy power plants generating electricity in India's different geographical locations, assessing their performance is a crucial task and an important target for stakeholders. In the present study, an attempt is made to quantitatively assess the relative operational efficiencies of 14 wind power plants in India during 2016–2017 to 2019–2020 employing a two-stage data envelopment analysis Tobit model. Further, the sensitivity analysis is implemented in the present study to assess the robustness and efficacy of the data envelopment analysis models with different combinations of inputs and outputs. Data envelopment analysis results indicate that 14% of India's wind power plants were operated at the most productive scale during the observed period 2016–2017 to 2019–2020. The Tobit regression results indicate that the wind turbines’ age adversely affects production efficiency. In contrast, the site elevation has a significant positive impact on the operational efficiency of wind power plants. Findings from the present study may help stakeholders and policy regulators in the wind industry to identify the key factors influencing the performance of ongoing wind power plants in India and optimize operational strategies and policies.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-13T12:23:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211043531
       
  • Do remittance and renewable energy affect CO2 emissions' An empirical
           evidence from selected G-20 countries

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      Authors: Khalid Jamil, Dunnan Liu, Rana Faizan Gul, Zahid Hussain, Muhammad Mohsin, Guangyu Qin, Farman Ullah Khan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The study aims to compare CO2 emissions, renewable energy, trade openness, gross domestic product (GDP), financial development (FD), and remittance in selected G-20 countries. The study carried out fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) models for estimation covering annual data from the year 1990–2019. LM tests detected the cross-section dependency while stationarity of the variables was checked through Levin-Lin-Chu and Im-Pesaran-Shin tests along with Hansen's Covariate-Augmented Dickey Fuller (CADF) test in the presence of cross-section dependency. The panel unit root tests reported that all variables became stationary after converting them into the first difference. The Panel Cointegration and Wester-Lund test examined the existence of long-run equilibrium nexus among selected variables in the context of G-20 countries. The study's findings show that there is a significant and negative relationship between renewable energy and CO2 emissions. It was proven in two models that the economic growth of selected G-20 countries has a positive relationship with CO2 emissions. Furthermore, findings indicate that the coefficient of financial development is positive and significantly impacts CO2 emissions. The remittances have a significant positive effect on CO2 emissions, while trade openness has an insignificant impact on CO2 emissions in both models. This research will enlighten policymakers, researchers, governments, and environmentalists toward attaining a sustainable environment by wisely consuming remittances and renewable energy resources.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-09-13T07:07:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211029636
       
  • Influence of retarded injection timing on thermal performance and emission
           characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with an optimized pyrolytic
           blend

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      Authors: Gopinath Soundararajan, Devan Ponnusamy Kumarasami, Bibin Chidambaranathan, Pitchandi Kasi Viswanathan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The enormous rise in plastic waste leads to severe environmental issues and complete removal is a quiet challenge. The entire world focuses on finding new alternate for traditional conventional fuel. The waste low-density polyethylene is chosen as feedstock for the preparation of fuel from thermo-catalytic pyrolysis, considering the silica–alumina catalyst at a reaction temperature of 500 °C. From our previous study, the lower blends of waste low-density polyethylene exhibit a similar performance to diesel. However, brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen are not encouraging. Further improving combustion behaviour, the present research is carried out at different injection timings. The investigation is carried on standard injection timing of 23°bTDC and three retarded injection timings, namely, 21°bTDC, 19°bTDC and 17°bTDC. Retarded injection timing exhibits higher performance and lower unburned hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide emissions. However, smoke emission is increased due to the reduced heat release at all the considered test parameters. The result divulges that reduced performance and increased smoke at 17°bTDC due to the lack of burning rate. The combustion behaviour of 20% waste low-density polyethylene by volume at 19°bTDC is similar to that of diesel at 23°bTDC. Hence, the injection timing of 19°bTDC is preferred as an optimized condition for the test fuel 20% waste low-density polyethylene by volume.   
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T10:14:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211033970
       
  • Economy–energy markets nexus during COVID-19: A dynamic
           time–frequency analysis

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      Authors: Masnun Mahi, Shamim Ahmed Khan, Mohammad Zainuddin, Ishtiaque Arif
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      We investigate dynamics between the economic activities and energy markets—both conventional and clean energy markets, with a sample of daily data from 1 January 2020 to 25 November 2020. We perform wavelet-based time–frequency techniques and measure the market volatility with continuous wavelet transforms. Besides, we use wavelet coherency to understand the co-movement of economic activities and energy markets and employ a nonlinear phase-difference technique to understand the time-varying causality between different series. Our continuous wavelet transform results show that all three market indices experience significant volatility in the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) period, notably during the initial period of the outbreak. The market volatilities are comparatively more substantial in the lower frequency band than the upper frequency, while the latter sustained longer in the markets. Moreover, wavelet coherency results show a strong correlation between the economic activity index and both energy market indices; however, the co-movement is significantly higher for the conventional energy market than the clean energy market. We further detect a positive and bi-directional causality between economic activities and energy market indices. Besides providing fresh and time-varying and frequency-varying relationship between global economic activities and the energy markets, which is currently lacking in the existing literature, our study has significant implications for the heterogeneous market participants in terms of improved price prediction accuracy. Furthermore, our findings can aid policymakers in decision making by showing that the dynamics between energy markets and economic activities change even within a short period, and imply that suitable constant policy interventions are necessary to avoid long-term predicament.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T12:00:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211032630
       
  • The future of coal as a transportation fuel

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      Authors: Vikram Mittal, Rajesh Shah, Nabill Huq
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Due to environmental concerns and cost issues, coal is currently being phased out from usage in electricity production. Regardless, there remains a massive stockpile of coal reserves along with a large industrial complex and a robust distribution/processing infrastructure. As such, coal should be considered for usage in other energy areas. Since coal is simply a solid hydrocarbon, it can be converted over for usage as a transportation fuel. The Fischer-Tropsch process that underlies this conversion is well established with some countries like South Africa currently using it at large scales. Unfortunately, this conversion process has a large carbon footprint, even when using carbon capture technology. However, the blending of coal-based fuels with biodiesel has been found to be more carbon neutral than standard diesel or biodiesel alone. Additionally, coal can be used as an alternate to methane for hydrogen production. Given carbon capture technologies and the existing coal infrastructure, these two uses of coal provide opportunities for a sustainable and economical use of coal as a transportation fuel.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-08-17T10:46:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211037973
       
  • Thermal augmentation in solar aircraft using tangent hyperbolic hybrid
           nanofluid: A solar energy application

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      Authors: Wasim Jamshed
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      The major source of heat from the sun is solar energy, with enormous use of photovoltaic technology, solar power plates, photovoltaic lights and pumping solar water. This time is about the analysis of solar radiation and how the efficiency of solar aircraft may be improved by using solar radiation and nanotechnology. The study is intended to develop analyses of solar aircraft hybrid nanofluid transfer via parabolic trough surface collector solar wings. Solar radiative flow was named the heat source. The heat transfer efficiency of the wings is evaluated for various phenomena such as a slanted magnetic field, Joule heating, play heat and thermal radiative flow. The entropy production study was carried out in the instance of the tangent hyperbolic fluid. The modelled energy and momentum formulas were controlled with the well-established Keller box numerical technique. This work consists of ethylene glycol standard fluid with two differing types of nanosolid particles copper and silver. Different control factors for velocities, shear stress and temperature are addressed and shown in the figures and tables as well as surface friction and heat transport rate. In terms of thermal transfer, the efficacy of the aviation wings with thermal radiation amplification and changeable thermal conduction parameters is enhanced. Hybrid nanofluid is an ideal source of heat transmission compared to conventional nanofluids. Silver–copper/ethylene glycol thermal efficiency is reduced between 2.6% and 4.4% than copper–ethylene glycol nanofluid.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-08-11T02:31:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211036671
       
  • Is there a grid-connected effect of grid infrastructure on renewable
           

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      Authors: Yongpei Wang, Chao Xu, Pinghong Yuan
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      China has built the world's largest power infrastructure. Those upgrading power grid facilities not only contribute to providing enough end-used energy for the world's factories, but also offering a basic guarantee for the clean strategy of Building a Beautiful China proposed by the Chinese government. The national grid system supported by extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage grids as the backbone makes it possible for a non-dispatchable renewable energy source to be connected to the national grid and transmitted to terminal consumers in load centers. The aim of this paper is to test whether China's advanced power grids have played a positive role in promoting power generation of intermittent renewable energy source. A novel nonlinear estimation named panel smoothing transition regression is introduced to capture heterogeneous effects of grid-connecting renewable energy source across regions. The empirical results show that whereas power grid infrastructure generally enhances power generation of renewable energy source and consumption in energy bases and load centers, the effects change across different voltage levels of power grids. The extra-high voltage power grids show strong support for grid-connecting renewable energy source, while the effect of ultra-high voltage power grids is unexpectedly insignificant. The extra-high voltage power grids have not yet become the backbone of the national grid, which is the main reason for the inadequate grid-connected renewable energy source to the ultra-high voltage power grids, indicating the importance of upgrading the power grid infrastructure.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T11:06:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211031015
       
  • Effect of economic indicators, biomass energy on human development in
           China

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      Authors: Ngo Thai Hung
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies ignored the distinction between short, medium, and long term by decomposing macroeconomic variables and human development index at different time scales. We re-visit the causal association between biomass energy (BIO), economic growth (GDP), trade openness (TRO), industrialization (IND), foreign direct investment (FDI), and human development (HDI) in China on a quarterly scale by scale basis for the period 1990 to 2019 using the tools of wavelet, i.e., wavelet correlation, wavelet coherence and scale by scale Granger causality test. The main findings uncover that IND, TRO, GDP, and BIO positively drive the HDI at low and medium frequencies, while FDI negatively impacts HDI during the sample period. Additionally, there is a bidirectional relationship between GDP and HDI at different time and frequency domains. Specifically, we discover that the positive co-movement is more robust in the aftermath of the global financial crisis, particularly for HDI, BIO, GDP, and TRO at medium frequencies throughout the period under research. Our empirical insights have significant implications for achieving human development sustainability in China.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-06-26T06:35:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211022040
       
  • Nudging down household electricity usage during peak hours with small
           monetary rewards

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      Authors: Miyoung Lee, Daehwan Kim
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Two recent studies highlight the potential of a demand response (DR) program as a tool to manage peak-hour electricity consumption by households. Households in these studies respond to the offer of financial rewards or an appeal to the sense of civic duty and significantly reduce electricity consumption during declared peak hours. Due to the small number of peak events included in these studies, however, a question remains whether households will continue to respond to repeated calls to action over a long span of time. We analyze a demand response program of Gangwon Province, South Korea, called “Electricity Piggy Bank” where the incentive offered was in the form of small monetary reward together with an appeal to social consciousness. The program tracked the electricity usage of about 2,000 households over one-year period during which peak events were declared once a week. We find significant reduction in electricity usage during declared peak hours and, more importantly, no decay of effects over time. The magnitude of electricity savings during peak hours is no less than the one reported for the previous financial-incentive-based DR, suggesting that offering small monetary rewards together with pro-social stimuli can be a viable alternative to a financial-reward-oriented scheme.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-06-26T06:35:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211025689
       
  • Planning natural gas networks and storage in emerging countries – an
           application to Brazil

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      Authors: Ricardo Moreira dos Santos, Alexandre Szklo
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Some emerging countries, such as Brazil, have large remaining natural gas resources but relatively poor infrastructure to monetize it. When most of the natural gas extraction derives from associated gas, this results in high reinjection rates in production fields combined with fuel imports also to deal with an increasingly variable demand. This study test the hypothesis that modeling the natural gas transportation network expansion with Underground gas Storage (UGS) is crucial, as UGS can reduce transportation costs by better fitting natural gas supply and demand. Without UGS chances are that network expansion will be based in oversized pipelines, or pipelines often challenged by peaking demands. Therefore, this study emulated a real natural gas transport network in a thermo-hydraulic model, aiming at diagnosing its bottlenecks mainly caused by demand intermittency, and pointing out infrastructure solutions. Findings indicated the design of UGS associated with new pipelines as a problem-solver for network bottlenecks, under a least-cost approach. This option reduced idleness and lowered gas transmission costs by 60%. In addition, it increased the network operation reliability and created a virtuous cycle, where a better planning reduces the gas tariffs and spur infrastructure expansion by raising the fuel competitiveness.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T05:58:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211019011
       
  • Does a carbon emissions trading scheme spur urban green innovation'
           Evidence from a quasi-natural experiment in China

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      Authors: Chao Li, Xiangyou Li, Deyong Song, Meng Tian
      First page: 640
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Based on the panel data of 277 cities between 2003 and 2017 and a unique city-level dataset of green patent applications, this study employs the difference-in-differences (DID) method to evaluate the effect of China’s carbon emission trading scheme (ETS) pilots on urban green innovation. The findings indicate that China’s ETS pilots have a positive impact on urban green innovation, and that impact is more significant for municipalities than for prefecture-level cities. Furthermore, the impact on different categories of urban green innovation is heterogeneous. More specifically, China’s ETS pilots have significantly spurred urban green innovation that is closely related to energy conservation and emission reduction, including alternative energy production, transportation, energy conservation and so forth. Moreover, the facilitating effect of China’s ETS pilots on urban green innovation suffers from a lagging effect, which began to show a significant positive effect in 2016. Overall, this paper identifies the effect of China’s ETS pilots on urban green innovation, and suggests that the government should consider the heterogeneity of urban green innovation when designing national ETS policies.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T06:02:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211015327
       
  • Total-factor air environmental efficiency and its influencing factors in
           the areas along the Belt and Road in China: A spatial spillover
           perspective

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      Authors: Ni-Ni Yin, Ke-Liang Wang, Zhen Yao, Li-Li Ding, Zhuang Miao
      First page: 663
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In order to promote sustainable economic development in the areas along the Belt and Road in China, it is of great necessity to reduce the negative impact of air pollutants resulting from industrialization and urbanization on the complex and fragile ecological environments of neighboring areas. First, this study estimated the total-factor air environmental efficiency (TFAEE) of 17 provinces along the Belt and Road in China from 2010 to 2017 using a slacks-based measure (SBM) model. Second, the global and local Moran indices were used to test the spatial correlations between TFAEEs. Finally, the spatial factors and spatial spillover effects influencing the TFAEEs were investigated using the spatial Durbin model with spatiotemporal double fixed effects. The results were shown as follows: (1) The total-factor TFAEEs of the areas along the Belt and Road were low and showed significant regional spatial differences during 2010–2017. (2) There was a positive spatial autocorrelation between the TFAEEs of the areas along the Belt and Road, and the spatial distribution generally clustered into High-High and Low-Low concentrations. (3) Economic development and technological innovation played significantly positive effects on TFAEEs of the areas in the Belt and Road, while energy consumption structure had negative effect on it. In addition, although industrial structure and environmental regulation were negatively correlated with TFAEEs, the coefficients were not significant. (4) The positive spatial spillover effect of the TFAEEs of the areas along the Belt and Road was mainly the result of significant environmental regulations and insignificant economic development factors, while the technological innovations, energy consumption structures and industrial structures showed insignificant negative spatial spillover effects.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-05-22T08:46:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211015146
       
  • Bilateral bidding strategy in joint day-ahead energy and reserve
           electricity markets considering techno-economic-environmental measures

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      Authors: Mojtaba Shivaie, Mohammad Kiani-Moghaddam, Philip D Weinsier
      First page: 696
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, a new bilateral equilibrium model was developed for the optimal bidding strategy of both price-taker generation companies (GenCos) and distribution companies (DisCos) that participate in a joint day-ahead energy and reserve electricity market. This model, from a new perspective, simultaneously takes into account such techno-economic-environmental measures as market power, security constraints, and environmental and loss considerations. The mathematical formulation of this new model, therefore, falls into a nonlinear, two-level optimization problem. The upper-level problem maximizes the quadratic profit functions of the GenCos and DisCos under incomplete information and passes the obtained optimal bidding strategies to the lower-level problem that clears a joint day-ahead energy and reserve electricity market. A locational marginal pricing mechanism was also considered for settling the electricity market. To solve this newly developed model, a competent multi-computational-stage, multi-dimensional, multiple-homogeneous enhanced melody search algorithm (MMM-EMSA), referred to as a symphony orchestra search algorithm (SOSA), was employed. Case studies using the IEEE 118-bus test system—a part of the American electrical power grid in the Midwestern U.S.—are provided in this paper in order to illustrate the effectiveness and capability of the model on a large-scale power grid. According to the simulation results, several conclusions can be drawn when comparing the unilateral bidding strategy: the competition among GenCos and DisCos facilitates; the improved performance of the electricity market; mitigation of the polluting atmospheric emission levels; and, the increase in total profits of the GenCos and DisCos.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-05-22T08:45:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211014875
       
  • Adjustment of bus departure time of an electric bus transportation system
           for reducing costs and carbon emissions: A case study in Penghu

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      Authors: Bwo-Ren Ke, Shyang-Chyuan Fang, Jun-Hong Lai
      First page: 728
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      As a response to the worldwide problems of global warming and environmental pollution, electric vehicles have become the main direction of development in the automobile industry. Taking the bus system of Penghu Islands as the subject, this study explores the switching of all the original diesel buses to electric buses, and it adjusts the departure time of all the buses, with the purpose of reducing the costs of the construction and electricity used in an electric bus system. Plug-in and battery-swapping buses are used as examples in the study, and the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Simulate Anneal Arithmetic (SA) algorithms, as well as an algorithm that combines the above, is used to optimize the departure times, in order not to affect the volumes and passenger demands in units of five minutes, the shift starts within the range of 15 minutes before or after the scheduled time. After each new schedule is prepared, batteries are used to optimize the daytime charging schedule of electric buses, to ensure the lowest cost of each new schedule. The results show that, regardless of which algorithm is used to optimize the departure time, all the minimum costs are lower than the best results before the adjustment, especially for the PSO-GA algorithm. Hence, the proper adjustment of the departure time can really reduce the construction and electricity costs and carbon emissions of the electric bus system.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T06:00:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211016872
       
  • Asymmetric impact of fiscal decentralization and environmental innovation
           on carbon emissions: Evidence from highly decentralized countries

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      Authors: Meng Lingyan, Ze Zhao, Haider Ali Malik, Asif Razzaq, Hui An, Marria Hassan
      First page: 752
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the asymmetric link between fiscal decentralization, environmental innovation, and carbon emissions in highly decentralized countries. Our preliminary findings strictly reject the preposition of data normality and highlight that the observed relationship is quantile-dependent, which may disclose misleading results in previous studies using linear methodologies. Therefore, a novel empirical estimation technique popularized as Method of Moments Quantile Regression is employed that simultaneously deal with non-normality and structural changes. The results exhibit that fiscal decentralization significantly mitigates carbon emissions only at lower to medium emissions quantiles. On the other hand, environmental innovation reduces carbon emissions only at medium to higher emissions quantiles. Interestingly, the emissions-reducing effect of fiscal decentralization is highest for lower emissions quantiles and lowest for higher emissions quantiles. In contrast, the impact of environmental innovation is lowest for lower emissions quantiles and highest for higher emission quantiles. Economic growth and population increase carbon emissions, and their emissions-increasing effect are lowest for lower emissions quantiles and highest for higher emissions quantiles. Moreover, the heterogeneous panel causality test confirms a one-way causal association, implying that any policy intervention regarding fiscal decentralization and environmental innovation significantly affects carbon emissions.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T10:21:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211018453
       
  • Fusion of interval-valued neutrosophic sets and financial assessment for
           optimal renewable energy portfolios with uncertainties

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      Authors: Tuyet Thi Anh Nguyen, Shuo-Yan Chou
      First page: 783
      Abstract: Energy & Environment, Ahead of Print.
      Renewable energy has been actively researched and developed in many countries to replace the conventional energy resources that come from fossil fuels. As social and environmental awareness of the renewable energy has grown, it is essential to address both quantitative factors and qualitative factors in determination of the optimal renewable energy portfolio. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrate a financial model and a fuzzy model to analyze both quantitative and qualitative factors. The financial model is utilized to calculate the quantitative factors, thereby assisting experts make judgments more accurately in the fuzzy model. The fuzzy model is utilized to evaluate the qualitative factors based on the expert judgements. Moreover, this paper proposes multi-segment judgment model that analyzes the evaluation of different groups, including government, investor and user groups. The results show that each group has different priority order. For example, the highest-priority factor of Government, Investor and User is environmental (with a score of 0.665), economic (with a score of 0.854), and technological criteria (with a score of 0.771), respectively. The results also indicated that small-scale onshore wind energy, large-scale onshore wind energy and solar energy is the best option for Government, Investor and User, respectively.
      Citation: Energy & Environment
      PubDate: 2021-07-01T05:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0958305X211019363
       
 
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