Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 960 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (58 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 85)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Boletín Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Casopis Slezskeho Zemskeho Muzea - serie A - vedy prirodni     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
China Population, Resources and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access  
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access  
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Earth Surface Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Environmental Modelling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Divulgación Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dynamiques Environnementales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Engineering : X     Open Access  
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 483)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 343)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Ecosystems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.081
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 33  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1435-0629 - ISSN (Online) 1432-9840
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Plant Functional Types Differ in Their Long-term Nutrient Response to eCO2
           in an Extensive Grassland

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      Abstract: Abstract Increasing atmospheric CO2 enhances plant biomass production and may thereby change nutrient concentrations in plant tissues. The objective of this study was to identify the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on nutrient concentrations of grassland biomass that have been grown for 16 years (1998–2013). The grassland biomass grown at the extensively managed Giessen FACE experiment, fumigated with ambient and elevated CO2 (aCO2; eCO2; +20%) was harvested twice annually. Concentrations of C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn were determined separately for grasses, forbs and legumes. Under eCO2, the concentration of N was reduced in grasses, Ca was reduced in grasses and forbs, P was reduced in grasses but increased in legumes, Mg concentration was reduced in grasses, forbs and legumes and K was reduced in grasses but increased in forbs. The nutrient yield (in g nutrient yield of an element per m−2) of most elements indicated negative yield responses at a zero biomass response to eCO2 for grasses. K and Zn nutrient yields responded positively to eCO2 in forbs and Mn and Fe responded positively in forbs and legumes. The results suggest that under eCO2 the nutrient concentrations were not diluted by the CO2 fertilization effect. Rather, altered plant nutrient acquisitions via changed physiological mechanisms prevail for increased C assimilation under eCO2. Furthermore, other factors such as water or nutrient availability affected plant nutrient concentrations under eCO2.
      PubDate: 2021-10-25
       
  • Elevated Allochthony in Stream Food Webs as a Result of Longitudinal
           Cumulative Effects of Forest Management

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      Abstract: The river continuum concept (RCC) predicts a downstream shift in the reliance of aquatic consumers from terrestrial to aquatic carbon sources, but this concept has rarely been assessed with longitudinal studies. Similarly, there are no studies addressing how forestry related disturbances to the structure of headwater food webs manifest (accumulate/dissipate) downstream and/or whether forest management alters natural longitudinal trends predicted by the RCC. Using stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen, we investigated how: 1) autochthony in macroinvertebrates and fish change from small streams to larger downstream sites within a basin with minimal forest management (New Brunswick, Canada); 2) longitudinal trends in autochthony and food web length compare among three basins with different forest management intensity [intensive (harvest and replanting), extensive (harvest only), minimal] to detect potential cumulative/dissipative effects; and 3) forest management intensity and other catchment variables are influencing food web dynamics. We showed that, as predicted, the reliance of some macroinvertebrate taxa (especially collector feeders) on algae increased from small streams to downstream waters in the minimally managed basin, but that autochthony in the smallest shaded stream was higher than expected based on the RCC (as high as 90% for some taxa). However, this longitudinal increase in autochthony was not observed within the extensively managed basin and was weaker within the intensively managed one, suggesting that forest management can alter food web dynamics along the river continuum. The dampening of downstream autochthony indicates that the increased allochthony observed in small streams in response to forest harvesting cumulates downstream through the river continuum.
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
       
  • Sensitive Groups of Bacteria Dictate Microbial Functional Responses to
           Short-term Warming and N Input in a Semiarid Grassland

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      Abstract: Environmental change factors can significantly affect the composition and physiology of soil microbes. How the resulting changes in the community composition are related to microbial functions, however, remains poorly understood. We investigated the effects of climate warming (+ 1.4°C of air temperature and + 0.75°C of soil temperature at 10 cm depth) and reactive nitrogen (N) input (12 g N m–2 year–1) on the community composition and physiologies of soil bacteria in a semiarid Loess grassland. Soil bacterial communities were assessed by Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons while their physiological properties were assessed by microbial metabolic quotients (qCO2, microbial respiration per unit of microbial biomass) and microbial community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs). Our results showed that N input, but not warming, altered bacterial community structure, although both warming and N input significantly affected the abundances of certain phyla. While phyla Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi were sensitive to warming, Saccharibacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were primarily responsive to N input. Both warming and N input increased microbial metabolic quotients, but only warming significantly impacted soil microbial CLPPs with L-cysteine, oxalic acid, oxoglutaric acid and aminobutyric acid being the sensitive C sources. Structural equation modeling showed that warming and N input influenced soil bacterial phyla through soil moisture, soil NO3––N and plant biomass. The sensitive bacterial phyla, not the whole community property, were significantly correlated with qCO2 and microbial C utilization. Our findings suggest that responses of bacterial groups sensitive to environmental change factors, rather than the whole community, may exert dominant effects on soil microbial functions under future climate change scenarios.
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
       
  • Ongoing Fen–Bog Transition in a Boreal Aapa Mire Inferred from Repeated
           Field Sampling, Aerial Images, and Landsat Data

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      Abstract: Northern aapa mire complexes are characterized by patterned fens with flarks (wet fen surfaces) and bog zone margins with Sphagnum moss cover. Evidence exists of a recent increase in Sphagnum over fens that can alter ecosystem functions. Contrast between flarks and Sphagnum moss cover may enable remote sensing of these changes with satellite proxies. We explored recent changes in hydro-morphological patterns and vegetation in a south-boreal aapa mire in Finland and tested the performance of Landsat bands and indices in detecting Sphagnum increase in aapa mires. We combined aerial image analysis and vegetation survey, repeated after 60 years, to support Landsat satellite image analysis. Aerial image analysis revealed a decrease in flark area by 46% between 1947 and 2019. Repeated survey showed increase in Sphagnum mosses (S. pulchrum, S. papillosum) and deep-rooted vascular plants (Menyanthes trifoliata, Carex rostrata). A supervised classification of high-resolution UAV image recognized the legacy of infilled flarks in the patterning of Sphagnum carpets. Among Landsat variables, all separate spectral bands, the Green Difference Vegetation Index (GDVI), and the Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) correlated with the flark area. Between 1985 and 2020, near-infrared (NIR) and GDVI increased in the central flark area, and AWEI decreased throughout the mire area. In aapa mire complexes, flark fen and Sphagnum bog zones have contrasting Landsat NIR reflectance, and NIR band is suggested for monitoring changes in flarks. The observed increase in Sphagnum mosses supports the interpretation of ongoing fen–bog transitions in Northern European aapa mires, indicating significant ecosystem-scale changes.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
       
  • Fire Recurrence and Time Since Last Fire Interact to Determine the Supply
           of Multiple Ecosystem Services by Mediterranean Forests

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      Abstract: Wildfires shape the composition and functioning of Mediterranean ecosystems, but we do not know how these ecosystems respond to both the higher fire recurrence and shorter recovery times expected for future climatic scenarios. We sampled 29 plots with different fire recurrences (from 0 to 4 fires over the past decades) and time since the last fire (up to 35 years; hereafter TSLF) in Southeast Spain, to assess the effect of fire recurrence and TSLF on 25 ecosystem attributes, five related ecosystem services (biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, disturbance regulation, food production, and supporting services), plus the synergies and trade-offs between them. High fire recurrence (number of fires) and TSLF interacted to determine ecosystem services but did not affect the synergies and trade-offs between them. Fire recurrence reduced many ecosystem functions and ecosystem multifunctionality. However, this effect dampened, and even became positive, for biodiversity conservation and food production services provided enough (> 20 years) time to recover. The combined effects of fire recurrence and TSLF, however, reduced carbon sequestration and had no overall effects on supporting services. Disturbance regulation, in turn, diminished drastically with the first fire, with no effect of further fires or their interaction with TSLF. Our results show which ecosystem services will suffer more from an increase in fire recurrence, and where restoration and management efforts should focus to maximize the provision of those services more demanded by stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
       
  • Identifying Carbon-Degrading Enzyme Activities in Association with Soil
           Organic Carbon Accumulation Under Land-Use Changes

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      Abstract: Land degradation and restoration strongly influence terrestrial soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, based on a meta-analysis of 803 observations from 138 studies worldwide, our data analyses suggest that C-degrading enzymes play a crucial role in regulating SOC dynamics under land degradation and restoration. Our result showed that decreased cellulase activity but unchanged ligninase activity was associated with land degradation, whereas higher increased cellulase activity compared with ligninase activity was associated with land restoration. Consequently, the ligninase-to-cellulase ratios were higher under land degradation and lower under land restoration. Also, the specific enzyme activity (the amount of enzyme produced per unit microbial biomass) was greater under land degradation but lower under land restoration. By comparison with the short-term (≤ 30) land degradation, the long-term (> 30 years) land degradation significantly increased the ligninase-to-cellulase ratio. On the contrary, the long-term land restoration exerted a more negative effect on the ligninase-to-cellulase ratio. The increases in the specific enzyme activity and ligninase-to-cellulase ratio were tightly correlated with decreases in SOC content under land degradation. A similar correlation was also found between decreases in specific enzyme activity and ligninase-to-cellulase ratio and increases in SOC content under land restoration. Overall, the decrease of SOC storage under land degradation is not only due to the low plant inputs, but also likely because of the accelerated degradation of recalcitrant C pools. However, the reverse applies for land restoration. The novel insights provided by our results contribute to the understanding of microbial mechanisms underlying the changes in SOC accumulation in response to land-use changes.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
       
  • Salt Marshes Buffer El Niño Effects on Benthic Secondary Production

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      Abstract: The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) strongly influences climate and hydrology on the planet and may drive the structure and functioning of estuarine communities. However, the effects of the ENSO on coastal areas are dependent on the spatial scale and the intrinsic characteristics of the estuary. Over six years (2013 to 2018), we investigated the variability in macrobenthic secondary production of Spartina alterniflora marshes and adjacent unvegetated areas in a subtropical coastal lagoon in Southern Brazil. We tested whether the ENSO events affect the benthic secondary production of these two habitats. Most environmental variables (air temperature, northward surface stress and northward wind component) did not differ significantly between ENSO phases, except for precipitation. Monthly precipitation totals during El Niño months were 70% higher than neutral and La Niña conditions. A total of 25,862 organisms (8,191 in salt marshes and 17,671 in unvegetated areas) belonging to 39 taxa (25 in marshes and 34 unvegetated areas) were collected throughout the study. The tanaid Monokalliapseudes schubarti, and Nereididae polychaeta Laeonereis acuta were largely the most abundant species in both vegetated and unvegetated areas, with higher biomass and productivity. The secondary production in unvegetated areas increased 216%, from a mean of 107.5 g C/m2/y to 336.4 g C/m2/y during El Niño. However, the salt marshes responded differently than the unvegetated areas, with secondary production more stable over the time, with highest value of 164.2 g C/m2/y-1. There is also a distinction in the effects on different species, L. acuta showed an increase only in biomass (from 0.024 to 0.042 g DW/0.03m2), whereas M. schubarti increased both in biomass (more than 4000%) and density (more than 5000%). In contrast, no significant differences in density, biomass and secondary production for both species were detected over time in the salt marshes. Our findings indicate that large scale climatic variations, such as ENSO, can strongly affect estuarine density, biomass and secondary production, but salt marshes buffer El Niño effects on benthic associations.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
       
  • Effects of Compounded Precipitation Pattern Intensification and Drought
           Occur Belowground in a Mesic Grassland

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      Abstract: Climate change is altering precipitation regimes globally, with expectations of intensified precipitation patterns (for example, larger but fewer rainfall events) and more frequent and extreme drought. Both aspects of precipitation change can impact ecosystem function individually, but it is more likely that they will occur in combination. In a central US mesic grassland, we imposed an extreme 2-year drought (growing season precipitation reduced by 66%) on plots with a long-term (16-year) history of exposure to either ambient or intensified precipitation patterns (average threefold increase in event size and threefold decrease in event number during the growing season). While this intensified pattern did not alter total precipitation amount, it generally led to ecosystem responses consistent with a drier environment (for example, reduced soil moisture, aboveground net primary production (ANPP), and soil CO2 flux, but little evidence for altered root biomass). Surprisingly, this history of intensified precipitation patterns did not affect the response of ANPP to the subsequent extreme drought. In contrast, previous exposure to intensified precipitation patterns reduced root production and muted soil CO2 flux responses to rainfall events during drought. Reduced root production in plots experiencing compounded precipitation extremes was driven not by the dominant C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii, but collectively by the subdominant species in the plant community. Overall, our results reveal that compound changes in precipitation patterns and amount affected this grassland in ways that were less apparent (that is, belowground) than responses to either change individually and significantly reduced ecosystem carbon uptake.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
       
  • Long-Term Drought and Warming Alter Soil Bacterial and Fungal Communities
           in an Upland Heathland

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      Abstract: The response of soil microbial communities to a changing climate will impact global biogeochemical cycles, potentially leading to positive and negative feedbacks. However, our understanding of how soil microbial communities respond to climate change and the implications of these changes for future soil function is limited. Here, we assess the response of soil bacterial and fungal communities to long-term experimental climate change in a heathland organo-mineral soil. We analysed microbial communities using Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS2 region at two depths, from plots undergoing 4 and 18 years of in situ summer drought or warming. We also assessed the colonisation of Calluna vulgaris roots by ericoid and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi using microscopy after 16 years of climate treatment. We found significant changes in both the bacterial and fungal communities in response to drought and warming, likely mediated by changes in soil pH and electrical conductivity. Changes in the microbial communities were more pronounced after a longer period of climate manipulation. Additionally, the subsoil communities of the long-term warmed plots became similar to the topsoil. Ericoid mycorrhizal colonisation decreased with depth while DSEs increased; however, these trends with depth were removed by warming. We largely ascribe the observed changes in microbial communities to shifts in plant cover and subsequent feedback on soil physicochemical properties, especially pH. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering changes in soil microbial responses to climate change across different soil depths and after extended periods of time.
      PubDate: 2021-10-19
       
  • Integrating Decomposers, Methane-Cycling Microbes and Ecosystem Carbon
           Fluxes Along a Peatland Successional Gradient in a Land Uplift Region

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      Abstract: Peatlands are carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks that, in parallel, release methane (CH4). The peatland carbon (C) balance depends on the interplay of decomposer and CH4-cycling microbes, vegetation, and environmental conditions. These interactions are susceptible to the changes that occur along a successional gradient from vascular plant-dominated systems to Sphagnum moss-dominated systems. Changes similar to this succession are predicted to occur from climate change. Here, we investigated how microbial and plant communities are interlinked with each other and with ecosystem C cycling along a successional gradient on a boreal land uplift coast. The gradient ranged from shoreline to meadows and fens, and further to bogs. Potential microbial activity (aerobic CO2 production; CH4 production and oxidation) and biomass were greatest in the early successional meadows, although their communities of aerobic decomposers (fungi, actinobacteria), methanogens, and methanotrophs did not differ from the older fens. Instead, the functional microbial communities shifted at the fen–bog transition concurrent with a sudden decrease in C fluxes. The successional patterns of decomposer versus CH4-cycling communities diverged at the bog stage, indicating strong but distinct microbial responses to Sphagnum dominance and acidity. We highlight young meadows as dynamic sites with the greatest microbial potential for C release. These hot spots of C turnover with dense sedge cover may represent a sensitive bottleneck in succession, which is necessary for eventual long-term peat accumulation. The distinctive microbes in bogs could serve as indicators of the C sink function in restoration measures that aim to stabilize the C in the peat.
      PubDate: 2021-10-19
       
  • Land Use Modeling Predicts Divergent Patterns of Change Between Upper and
           Lower Elevations in a Subalpine Watershed of the Alps

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      Abstract: The synergic influence of land use and climate change on future forest dynamics is hard to disentangle, especially in human-dominated forest ecosystems. Forest gain in mountain ecosystems often creates different spatial–temporal patterns between upper and lower elevation belts. We analyzed land cover dynamics over the past 50 years and predicted Business as Usual future changes on an inner subalpine watershed by using land cover maps, derived from five aerial images, and several topographic, ecological, and anthropogenic predictors. We analyzed historical landscape patterns through transition matrices and landscape metrics and predicted future forest ecosystem change by integrating multi-layer perceptron and Markov chain models for short-term (2050) and long-term (2100) timespans. Below the maximum timberline elevation of the year 1965, the dominant forest dynamic was a gap-filling process through secondary succession at the expense of open areas leading to an increase of landscape homogeneity. At upper elevations, the main observed dynamic was the colonization of unvegetated soil through primary succession and timberline upward shift, with an increasing speed over the last years. Future predictions suggest a saturation of open areas in the lower part of the watershed and stronger forest gain at upper elevations. Our research suggests an increasing role of climate change over the last years and on future forest dynamics at a landscape scale.
      PubDate: 2021-10-19
       
  • Contrasting Patterns of Soil Chemistry and Vegetation Cover Determine
           Diversity Changes of Soil Phototrophs Along an Afrotropical Elevation
           Gradient

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      Abstract: Soil phototrophic microbes play key roles in many ecosystem functions, including nutrient cycling, water absorption and retention, substrate weathering and soil stabilization, as well as colonization and persistence of other organisms. Knowledge about the diversity and biomass of soil phototrophs remains limited, especially in tropical forests and savannas. Here, we investigate changes in the diversity and abundance of soil phototrophs across the 4-km elevation gradient on Mt. Cameroon, Africa, from tropical forests (0–2300 m) to treeless savanna (2300–3600 m) and afroalpine vegetation (3600–4000 m). We evaluated the role of soil chemistry and vegetation cover in shaping phototrophic diversity patterns using soil, tree and herb census data from 224 permanent plots. Cyanobacteria from Chroococcales accounted for 65% of the species richness and > 70% of the biovolume. The highest phototrophic diversity and biovolume were recorded in treeless savanna and afroalpine vegetation, and lowest values in mid-elevation tropical forests with dense understory vegetation and hence limited light availability. Higher diversity and biovolume of soil phototrophs were associated with less productive, well-illuminated soils with lower organic matter and nitrogen content and higher pH, phosphorus and cation content. Changes in microbial richness and biovolume across tropical forests showed a U-shaped elevation pattern, with higher values recorded in coastal and lowland forests up to 1000 m elevation, the lowest values in the mid-elevation open-canopy forests with dense understory vegetation caused by disturbances of forest elephants and higher values again in montane forests between 1800 and 2200 m. Above the tree line, soil phototrophic biovolume also showed a U-shaped elevation pattern, with lower richness recorded in compact grasslands between 2700 and 3400 m. At lower-elevation savanna, soil phototrophs are indirectly supported by regular fires during the dry season, which reduces plant cover and increases soil phosphorus and cations, while barren lava fields at higher elevations around the summit support soil phototrophs directly via increased soil P and K content and indirectly by inhibiting plant growth and vegetation cover. Our results shed light on an overlooked part of soil biodiversity in major tropical ecosystems and uncover the role of various ecological filters in structuring phototrophic microbial communities in tropical soils.
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
       
  • Grasslands Maintain Stability in Productivity Through Compensatory Effects
           and Dominant Species Stability Under Extreme Precipitation Patterns

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      Abstract: Extreme climatic events are likely to intensify under climate change and can have different effects on ecosystems depending on their timing and magnitude. Understanding how productivity responds to extreme precipitation patterns requires assessing stability and vulnerability during critical growing periods at the plant community level. In this study, we experimentally imposed two contrasting types of extreme precipitation patterns, including extreme drought (excluding all rainfall for 30 consecutive days) during early-, mid-, and late-stages of the growing season, and heavy rainfall (adding 14.1 mm of rainfall every day for 20 consecutive days) during mid- and late-stages of the growing season over four years (2013–2016) in a steppe community in Inner Mongolia, China. We found that extreme drought and heavy rainfall had no effect on community aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), species richness, and dominance at any stage of the growing season. Community stability in response to extreme drought was mainly driven by compensation among species and the stability of dominant species, while the compensatory effect among species and functional groups, and the stability of dominant species contributed to the community stability in response to heavy rainfall. Overall, our findings indicate that the responses of the ecosystem to intra-seasonal contrasting extreme precipitation patterns can be driven by similar stability mechanisms and suggest that semiarid temperate steppe communities may have strong initial resistance to more frequent extreme climatic events in the future.
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
       
  • Evidence of the Significant Contribution of Heterotrophic Diazotrophs to
           Nitrogen Fixation in the Eastern Indian Ocean During Pre-Southwest Monsoon
           Period

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      Abstract: Nitrogen fixation continually transforms atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into biologically available nitrogen in the oceans, which actively sustains marine new production, especially in oligotrophic ecosystems. Recently, heterotrophic diazotrophs were found to be widespread and potentially important for nitrogen fixation in the Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO). However, no direct measurement has been taken in this region to explore the contribution of heterotrophic diazotrophs to total nitrogen fixation. To address this gap, we examined size-fractioned nitrogen fixation rates (NFRs) using an isotope 15 N tracer technique, diazotroph community structure analysis based on molecular detection, and primary productivity (PP) measurements using an isotope 14C tracer technique within the euphotic zone of the EIO during the pre-southwest monsoon period. Our results reveal that diazotroph communities are dominated by heterotrophic diazotrophs and filamentous cyanobacteria in the surface waters of the EIO. Size-fractioned data show that the < 10 μm fraction of the NFRs is major contributors to the total NFRs throughout the water column. Notably, the isotopically derived NFRs show that the > 10 μm fraction exhibits spatial heterogeneity in the surface samples, with significantly higher rates in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) compared to the southeastern Indian Ocean. Correspondingly, the NFRs of the > 10 μm fraction match well with high-throughput sequencing and microscope counts. In comparison, the NFRs of the < 10 μm fraction do not display significant regional differences, which is attributed to the major fixation efficiency by different bacteria. Based on the Redfield ratio (C:N = 6.6:1), depth-integrated NFRs were estimated to contribute 0.3–1.3% of the total PP in the study region. Overall, our study provides baseline NFRs in the EIO and highlights the potential importance of non-cyanobacteria to nitrogen fixation. Our findings have significance in the biogeochemical understanding of the coupling between nitrogen and carbon cycling in the oligotrophic Indian Ocean.
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
       
  • A Classification Framework to Assess Ecological, Biogeochemical, and
           Hydrologic Synchrony and Asynchrony

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      Abstract: Ecosystems in the Anthropocene face pressures from multiple, interacting forms of environmental change. These pressures, resulting from land use change, altered hydrologic regimes, and climate change, will likely change the synchrony of ecosystem processes as distinct components of ecosystems are impacted in different ways. However, discipline-specific definitions and ad hoc methods for identifying synchrony and asynchrony have limited broader synthesis of this concept among studies and across disciplines. Drawing on concepts from ecology, hydrology, geomorphology, and biogeochemistry, we offer a unifying definition of synchrony for ecosystem science and propose a classification framework for synchrony and asynchrony of ecosystem processes. This framework classifies the relationships among ecosystem processes according to five key aspects: (1) the focal variables or relationships representative of the ecosystem processes of interest, (2) the spatial and temporal domain of interest, (3) the structural attributes of drivers and focal processes, (4) consistency in the relationships over time, and (5) the degree of causality among focal processes. Using this classification framework, we identify and differentiate types of synchrony and asynchrony, thereby providing the basis for comparing among studies and across disciplines. We apply this classification framework to existing studies in the ecological, hydrologic, geomorphic, and biogeochemical literature and discuss potential analytical tools that can be used to quantify synchronous and asynchronous processes. Furthermore, we seek to promote understanding of how different types of synchrony or asynchrony may shift in response to ongoing environmental change by providing a universal definition and explicit types and drivers with this framework.
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
       
  • Multi-Scale Temporal Patterns in Stream Biogeochemistry Indicate Linked
           Permafrost and Ecological Dynamics of Boreal Catchments

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      Abstract: Temporal patterns in stream chemistry provide integrated signals describing the hydrological and ecological state of whole catchments. However, stream chemistry integrates multi-scale signals of processes occurring in both the catchment and stream. Deconvoluting these signals could identify mechanisms of solute transport and transformation and provide a basis for monitoring ecosystem change. We applied trend analysis, wavelet decomposition, multivariate autoregressive state-space modeling, and analysis of concentration–discharge relationships to assess temporal patterns in high-frequency (15 min) stream chemistry from permafrost-influenced boreal catchments in Interior Alaska at diel, storm, and seasonal time scales. We compared catchments that varied in spatial extent of permafrost to identify characteristic biogeochemical signals. Catchments with higher spatial extents of permafrost were characterized by increasing nitrate concentration through the thaw season, an abrupt increase in nitrate and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) and declining conductivity in late summer, and flushing of nitrate and fDOM during summer rainstorms. In contrast, these patterns were absent, of lower magnitude, or reversed in catchments with lower permafrost extent. Solute dynamics revealed a positive influence of permafrost on fDOM export and the role of shallow, seasonally dynamic flowpaths in delivering solutes from high-permafrost catchments to streams. Lower spatial extent of permafrost resulted in static delivery of nitrate and limited transport of fDOM to streams. Shifts in concentration–discharge relationships and seasonal trends in stream chemistry toward less temporally dynamic patterns might therefore indicate reorganized catchment hydrology and biogeochemistry due to permafrost thaw.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
       
  • Grazing Increases Soil Warming in Headwater Wetlands: Importance to Land
           Managers and Water Users

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      Abstract: The earth’s mountains continue to lose water. Glaciers are melting and mountain snow/rain balance tilts increasingly liquescent. Water is running off sooner—sometimes overfilling reservoirs, causing flooding, and setting the stage for late-season shortages. One adaptive strategy is to recover and enhance water-storage capacities of headwater riparian systems. Grazing, a common use of headwater lands, affects both soils and vegetation. To better understand how grazing might affect water storage and other ecosystem services of high elevation riparian wetlands, we measured soil-profile temperatures, soil organic matter (SOM), and phytomass at six sites in the upper Sweetwater River sub-basin of Wyoming, USA, where fence lines allowed us to contrast grazing management. We found grazed wetlands consistently had warmer soils than fenced wetlands. We found added evidence that SOM is important in both soil temperature control and water-storage potential of wetlands. We review evidence that warmer soil temperatures and drying cause loss of SOM with the implied concomitant C losses through erosion and emissions. We recommend land managers of temperate-climate headwater systems consider the need to end growing seasons with full stands of riparian vegetation to reduce soil warming and to build organic matter—particularly on lands where municipalities and other downstream water users are seeking long-term increases in water yields and less flooding.
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
       
  • Natural Advance Regeneration of Native Tree Species in Pinus radiata
           Plantations of South-Central Chile Suggests Potential for a Passive
           Restoration Approach

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      Abstract: Restoration of natural forests previously replaced by plantations is a widespread challenge for forestry in Chile and elsewhere. However, there is little documented evidence for successful restoration, either through active or passive approaches. In this study, we aimed at (1) determining the potential for passive restoration in first-rotation Pinus radiata plantations through natural regeneration of native tree species and (2) identifying drivers of this advance regeneration. Across different regions in south-central Chile, we established nearly 260 plots to assess regeneration and environmental conditions along 26 transects running from plantations into adjacent natural forests. The regeneration was exclusively composed by native species, except for 7 individuals of P. radiata. Mean density and diversity of seedlings were significantly higher in natural forests than in plantations, but this was not the case for sapling density, and no differences in sapling diversity were supported. Additionally, significant differences in regeneration composition between plantations and natural forests were found only at two of the eight study sites. Compared to climatic and soil chemical variables, which varied mostly at regional scales, local environmental conditions showed little influence on regeneration, possibly due to the structural homogeneity of plantations. Yet, the significantly higher basal area, litter thickness and gap fraction of plantations compared to natural forests suggest that these factors may explain differences at the seedling stage. Our study indicates that the use of appropriate harvesting methods that maintain advance regeneration may facilitate the transition from plantations to native forests through passive restoration. The use this approach should be further investigated through analyzing regeneration’s response to different forms of plantation harvesting.
      PubDate: 2021-09-29
       
  • Risk Assessment for Key Socio-Economic and Ecological Species in a
           Sub-Arctic Marine Ecosystem Under Combined Ocean Acidification and Warming
           

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      Abstract: The Arctic may be particularly vulnerable to the consequences of both ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, given the faster pace of these processes in comparison with global average speeds. Here, we use the Atlantis ecosystem model to assess how the trophic network of marine fishes and invertebrates in the Icelandic waters is responding to the combined pressures of OA and warming. We develop an approach where we first identify species by their economic (catch value), social (number of participants in fisheries), or ecological (keystone species) importance. We then use literature-determined ranges of sensitivity to OA and warming for different species and functional groups in the Icelandic waters to parametrize model runs for different scenarios of warming and OA. We found divergent species responses to warming and acidification levels; (mainly) planktonic groups and forage fish benefited while (mainly) benthic groups and predatory fish decreased under warming and acidification scenarios. Assuming conservative harvest rates for the largest catch-value species, Atlantic cod, we see that the population is projected to remain stable under even the harshest acidification and warming scenario. Further, for the scenarios where the model projects reductions in biomass of Atlantic cod, other species in the ecosystem increase, likely due to a reduction in competition and predation. These results highlight the interdependencies of multiple global change drivers and their cascading effects on trophic organization, and the continued high abundance of an important species from a socio-economic perspective in the Icelandic fisheries.
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
       
  • Ecosystem Functioning Influences Species Fitness at Upper Trophic Levels

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      Abstract: Global change is severely affecting ecosystem functioning and biodiversity globally. Remotely sensed ecosystem functional attributes (EFAs) are integrative descriptors of the environmental change—being closely related to the processes directly affecting food chains via trophic cascades. Here we tested if EFAs can explain the species fitness at upper trophic levels. We took advantage of a long-term time series database of the reproductive success of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)—an apex predator at the upper trophic level—over a 17-year period across a bioclimatic gradient (NW Spain; c. 29,575 km2). We computed a comprehensive database of EFAs from three MODIS satellite-products related to the carbon cycle, heat dynamics and radiative balance. We also assessed possible time-lag in the response of the Golden Eagle to fire, a critical disruptor of the surface energy budget in our region. We explored the role of EFAs on the fitness of the Golden Eagle with logistic-exposure nest survival models. Our models showed that the reproductive performance of the Golden Eagle is influenced by spatiotemporal variations in land surface temperature, albedo and vegetation productivity (AUC values from 0.71 to 0.8; ΣWi EFAs from 0.66 to 1). Fire disturbance also affected ecological fitness of this apex predator—with a limited effect at 3 years after fire (a time-lagged response to surface energy budget disruptions; ΣWi Fire = 0.62). Our study provides evidence for the influence of the matter and energy fluxes between land surface and atmosphere on the reproductive success of species at upper trophic levels.
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
       
 
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