Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 401 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environment, Workplace and Employment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environmental Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Exergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Warming     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications : A Leading Journal of Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Phytoremediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Process Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Reliability and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Stress Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Materials and Structural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Commons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Health and Environment     Open Access  
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies     Hybrid Journal  
JACEE (Journal of Advanced Civil and Environmental Engineering)     Open Access  
Jahangirnagar University Environmental Bulletin     Open Access  
Journal for the History of Environment and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal Of Advances In Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International     Open Access  
Journal of Air Pollution and Health (رتبه علمی- پژوهشی)     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Applied Volcanology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosystems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Coastal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134)
Journal of Ecology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy and Environment Technology of Graduate School Siam Technology College     Open Access  
Journal of Environment and Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Environment and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Analysis and Progress     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Environmental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Environmental Media     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Environmental Professionals Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Environmental Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Environments     Open Access  
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Fisheries and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Freshwater Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International     Open Access  
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection     Open Access  
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Hazardous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances     Open Access  
Journal of Health Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Health Organisation and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Housing and the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Hydrology X     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers     Open Access  
Journal of Land Use Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Management and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mega Infrastructure & Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Operational Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Plant Science and Phytopathology     Open Access  
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Population and Sustainability     Open Access  
Journal of Reliable Intelligent Environments     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Rural and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Safety Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Journal of School Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Sustainable Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Planning Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Vietnamese Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pengendalian Pencemaran Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Presipitasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sains & Teknologi Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan     Open Access  
Knowledge Management Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Landscape Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Latin American Journal of Management for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal  
Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales     Open Access  
Limnological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Living Reviews in Landscape Research     Open Access  
Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Low Carbon Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Luna Azul     Open Access  
M+A. Revista Electrónica de Medioambiente     Open Access  
Macquarie Journal of International and Comparative Environmental Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Management International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Management of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Marine Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Marine Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Marine Pollution Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Medio Ambiente y Urbanizacion     Full-text available via subscription  
Mediterranean Geoscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Metabarcoding and Metagenomics     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Risk Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Microplastics and Nanoplastics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mine Water and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monteverdia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multequina     Open Access  

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International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-6930 - ISSN (Online) 2345-6949
Published by U of Tehran Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Geoelectrical characterization of a landslide surface for investigating
           hazard potency, a case study in the Tehran- North freeway, Iran

    • Abstract: Landslide, as a geohazard issue, causes enormous threats to human lives and properties. In order to characterize the subsurface prone to the landslide which is occurred in the Tehran-North freeway, Iran, a comprehensive study focused on geological field observations, and a geoelectrical survey as a cost-effective and fast, non-invasive geophysical measurement was conducted in the area. As a result of road construction, problems in this region have increased. The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) investigation in the landslide area has been carried out by the Schlumberger array for data acquisition, implementing eight survey profiles varying in length between 60 and 130 m. Based on the electrical resistivity models through a smoothness-constrained least-square inversion methodology, the landslide structure (i.e., depth of the mobilized material and potential sliding surface) is better defined. The inferred lithological units, accompanied by stratigraphical data from a borehole and geological investigations for the prone landslide region, consisted of a discontinuous slip surface, having a wide range of resistivity, observed to be characterized by tuff with silt. Electrical resistivity values above 150 Ωm indicate a basement of weathered marlstone and sand. Values between 15 and 150 Ωm illustrate a shale-content layer with outcrops in the area that is the reason for movement. The sliding surface is at a depth of about 12 m. The method used in this study is a good candidate to investigate the risk of landslides in this region and can be applied to other landslide areas where borehole exploration is inefficient and expensive due to local complications.
  • Optimizing the exploratory drilling rig route based on the Multi-Objective
           Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem

    • Abstract: Exploratory drilling is one of the most important and costly stages of mineral exploration procedures, so the continuation of mining activities depends on the gathered data during this stage. Due to the importance of cost and time-saving in the performance of mineral exploration projects, the effective parameters for reducing the cost and time of drilling activities should be investigated and optimized. Road construction and the sequence of the drilling boreholes by drilling rigs are among these parameters. The main objectives of this research were to optimize the overall road construction cost and the difference in length drilled by each drilling rig. The problem has been modeled as a Multi-Objective Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MOmTSP) and solved by the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Finally; the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method has been used to find the optimal solution among the solutions obtained by the NSGA-II.
  • A numerical study on the influence of tunnel excavation on pile foundation

    • Abstract: Tunnel construction in cities faces many geotechnical challenges, and the effect on pile foundation is possibly one of the most complex ones. Most tall buildings in big cities mostly have pile foundations, and any tunnelling nearby might significantly influence those existing foundations. In the present study, a 3-dimensional Finite Element (FE) analysis has been carried out to investigate tunnelling effects on pile foundations. The investigation is done for a single pile with multiple stages of tunnel excavation where the pile foundations are assumed to reach below the base of the excavation of tunnelling. A tentative rate of excavation was also included in this investigation and found that a faster rate of excavation results in better performance of foundations affected by tunnelling. The study also extended to see the effect of tunnelling on pile groups. Attempts were made to compare the results with some of the previously published literature.
  • Effect of the chemical compounds of soil on the stability of excavation
           wall: A case study

    • Abstract: Chemical compounds of soils can remarkably affect the stability of the excavation wall. This is highlighted in soils with fine grain materials. Inter-particle chemical cementation (IPCC) increases soil cohesion and, in turn, provides more stable excavations. This study evaluates the effect of soil chemical compounds on the stability of an excavation excavated in the west of Iran, Kermanshah city. It adopted the 2D finite element method (2DFEM) to evaluate the physical stability of the excavation. In the excavation examined here, the maximum depth that could be excavated with no need for support was 36m. In contrast, according to simulation results, the maximum possible depth for an excavation with soil cohesion of 6kPa and friction angle of 33 degrees, derived from direct shear test, is 6m. As per the results of this investigation, iron oxide, aluminum oxide, and silicon oxide increase the soil's cohesion containing the clay mineral montmorillonite by 10 folds and increase its shear strength by 127%. 
  • Geometry determination of galleries and pillars in Chehel Koureh copper
           mine, Iran

    • Abstract: Chehel Koureh mine project is located 110 km NW of Zahedan in the southeast of Iran. Due to the great depth of ore deposits, the underground exploitation method was chosen. In this research, the geomechanical parameters were obtained using in situ tests and empirical formulas. The non-pillar continuous mining method (NPCM) was selected as the most appropriate method considering the shape of the ore body and rock mass strength conditions. As the rock mass is fractured and has semi-continuum characteristics, the stability analysis of the shape dimensions was carried out using FLAC 3D software. In the proposed method, a cylindrical pillar with a height of 3.8 meters was located above the stope. For the safety of the drilling machine room and stope roof, height accuracy was required. Five different pillar diameters (i.e., 3, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, and 3.8 m) were analyzed by considering the critical height and plastic zone created around the pillar. For these five diameters, only the pillar with a diameter of 3 meters had a supercritical height. It was observed that for the pillar with a diameter of 3.8 m, no plastic zone was created and the safety factor for this pillar was obtained 1.11. Due to the restrictions for the application of the proposed mining method i.e. NPCM in Iran, the Miami method was considered as the alternative mining method applicable to the Chehel Koureh copper deposit. Then, the suitable dimensions for stope and pillar were determined by the same software. In the Miami method, there were three spans and two pillars at each stope before the recovery of pillars could be undertaken. The pillars with three widths of, i.e., 5, 6, and 8 meters were studied for the stability analysis. The results demonstrated that a plastic zone was not created only around the pillar with a width of 8 meters, and the safety factor for this pillar was obtained to be 1.56.
  • HEBF strategy: A hybrid evidential belief function in geospatial data
           analysis for mineral potential mapping

    • Abstract: In integrating geospatial datasets for mineral potential mapping (MPM), the uncertainty model of MPM can be inferred from the Dempster – Shafer rules of combination. In addition to generating the uncertainty model, evidential belief functions (EBFs) present the belief, plausibility and disbelief of MPM, whereby four models can be simultaneously utilized to facilitate the interpretation of mineral favourability output. To investigate the functionality and applicability of the EBFs, we selected the Naysian porphyry copper district located on the Urmia – Dokhtar magmatic belt in the northeast of the Isfahan city, central Iran. Multidisciplinary datasets- that are geochemical and geophysical data, ASTER satellite images, Quickbird and ground survey- were designed in a geospatial database to run MPM. Implementing the Dempster law through intersection (And) and union (OR) operators led to different MPM performances. To amplify the accuracy of the generated favourability maps, a combinatory EBFs technique was applied in three ways: (1) just OR operator, (2) just And operator, and (3) combination of And and OR operators. The plausibility map (as mineral favourability map) was compared to Cu productivity values derived from drilled boreholes, where the MPM accuracy of hybrid method was higher than each individual operator. Of note the success rate of hybrid method validated by 21 boreholes was about 84%, and it demarcates high favourability zones occupying 0.67 km2 of the studied area.
  • Determination of ozone concentration using gene expression programming
           algorithm (GEP)- Zrenjanin, Serbia

    • Abstract: As one of the hazardous pollutants, ozone (O3), has significant adverse effects on urban dwellers' health. Predicting the concentration of ozone in the air can be used to control and prevent unpleasant effects. In this paper, an attempt was made to find out two empirical relationships incorporating multiple linear regression (MLR) and gene expression programming (GEP) to predict the ozone concentration in the vicinity of Zrenjanin, Serbia. For this purpose, 1564 data sets were collected, each containing 18 input parameters such as concentrations of air pollutants (SO2, CO, H2S, NO, NO2, NOx, PM10, benzene, toluene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene) and meteorological conditions (wind direction, wind speed, air pressure, air temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity (RH)). In contrast, the output parameter was ozone concentrate. The correlation coefficient and root mean squared error for the MLR were 0.61 and 21.28, respectively, while the values for the GEP were 0.85 and 13.52, respectively. Also, to evaluate these two methods' validity, a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) with an 18-10-5-1 structure has been used to predict the ozone concentration. The correlation coefficient and root mean squared error for the ANN were 0.78 and 16.07, respectively. Comparisons of these parameters revealed that the proposed model based on the GEP is more reliable and more reasonable for predicting the ozone concentrate. Also, the sensitivity analysis of the input parameters indicated that the air temperature has the most significant influence on ozone concentration variations.
  • Benchmark study of rock slope stability through Generalized Hoek-Brown
           criterion: case study of an open pit in Sudan

    • Abstract: The non-linear Generalized Hoek-Brown (GHB) failure criterion for rock mass is widely accepted and has been applied in a large number of open pits slope designs. This paper proposes new equations for estimating the maximum confining stress from the (GHB) parameters and geometrical properties of the slope in the case where the strength ratio is critical (SR)_crit=(σ_ci/γH)_crit and the factor of safety (FOS)=1. This maximum confining stress can be used to calculate the global equivalent Mohr-Coulomb (MC) parameters. It was found that, compared to the calculation with the limit analysis method (LAM), the discrepancies do not exceed 5% and remain in the most cases less than 1%. Hence, the estimation of the (FOS) is much more improved, because the comparison of the literature’s results with the (LAM) leaded to a difference up to 21%. For any value of (FOS≠1), an iterative method has been proposed to evaluate (SR)_crit. The comparison between the results driven from this method and those of (LAM) showed a good agreement, which proves its accuracy. A case study has been conducted in an open pit located in Sudan to evaluate the discrepancy of the (FOS) provided by different methods using limit equilibrium method (LEM) with Rocscience Slide software and using the (LAM) given in the form of charts.
  • Analysis and improvement of blasting operation in porphyry, diorite dyke,
           and trachyte Sungun zones: In-situ investigations

    • Abstract: The infrastructures of Sungun copper mine are located inside the ultimate extraction limits where blasting operation is carried out in their proximity. In such cases, investigating blast-induced phenomena is at most important to reduce their adverse impacts on the mine and surrounding environments. The main objective of this study is to analyze and improve the most critical adverse outcomes of over 100 cases of blasting in different zones of Sungun mine to make it feasible from an operational viewpoint. Hence, the blasting operation and its adverse outcomes recorded in the mine were first studied. Moreover, the important factors that resulted in blast-induced phenomena were investigated. These investigations were in the form of observation, acquisition, and complete field studies at the site. Then, the technical problems and weaknesses of the blasting operation resulted in undesirable outcomes and their negative impacts on the mine and surrounding environment were extracted and analyzed using checklists, specification forms, and recorded observations. Given the results of the qualitative and quantitative analysis of operation based on a trial blasting strategy, an improved blasting scheme was discussed to enhance the current conditions and reduce the undesirable outcomes down to the permissible limits. The present study could provide a practical framework to identify, analyze, and reduce the critical adverse blast-induced phenomena in metallic open-pit mines.
  • Powder factor prediction in blasting operation using rock geo-mechanical
           properties and geometric parameters

    • Abstract: Prediction of powder factor is a major activity while preparing drilling and blasting operation, as the total production cost depends on it. It is a major input parameter in blast design as it influences the efficiency of subsequent operations in mining. Generally, effective parameters that influence powder factor can be divided into three, namely, rock mass, geometric and explosive parameters. In this study, the rock mass properties and geometric parameters were studied based on the ratio of the mass of explosive and blast design. The main objective of this study is the application of rock engineering system (RES) to calculate the powder factor index (Pfi) based on predominant rock mass properties and geometric parameters. This approach was applied to a database of twenty-four blast sites comprising of rock mass rating, blastability index, porosity, specific gravity, uniaxial compressive strength, the burden, the ratio of space to the burden, the ratio of drilled-hole depth to burden, drilled-hole diameter and the ratio of the burden to drill-hole diameter. The relationship between these parameters and how each of them influence powder factor was studied and used to predict powder factor index. The result shows that rock mass rating, blastability index, porosity, specific gravity, uniaxial compressive strength and drilled-hole diameter affect powder factor. It also shows that Pfi is a robust technique for generating an improved line of fit and predicting more dependable and accurate valuation of powder factor with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.86, and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.023 when compared with the traditional multivariable regression method.
  • Determination of alteration genesis and quantitative relationship between
           alteration and geochemical anomaly using support vector machines

    • Abstract: In this research, support vector machine (SVM) as a supervised classification method has been used to explore the relationship between the geochemical anomaly and the surface alterations quantitatively in the Tanurcheh mineralization area. The Tanurcheh area has been located in the Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. This area has been considered as a high potential region for Cu and Au mineralization. The different mineralization processes of Au and Cu have unclearly been intertwined in this area and have created extreme surface alterations.Determination of the major origin of mineralization that has created strong alterations in this area is an important issue that can be addressed using a new proposed scenario. The relationship between the geochemical distribution map and the alteration zone was mathematically calculated using the proposed approach and then the geochemical anomaly map was predicted based on the alteration zones as an innovative achievement.In this paper, the Au and Cu geochemical data were divided into three classes, namely background, regional anomaly and local anomaly using the probability plot method. Two threshold values for Cu (70 and 300 PPM) and Au (0.13 and 0.4 PPM) were obtained by the probability plot method. Then the SVM was utilized to classify the geochemical samples using the ASTER images based on these obtained thresholds. The ASTER 14-band images were used as features in this classification. Using this novel scenario, the relationships between the Au and Cu mineralization processes with the intensity of alterations were determined and therefore the origin of these alteration zones was clarified. The SVM classification indices of correct classification rate (CCR) and confusion matrix demonstrate the main origin of alterations is related to the Cu mineralization process in this area. The CCR indices obtained based on the Au and Cu thresholds are 0.66 and 0.85 respectively. It demonstrates the intensity of alterations has more been affected by the Cu mineralization process and there is a relatively good relationship between the alteration zone and the Cu geochemical distribution map. Finally, the geochemical anomaly and background maps were properly predicted using the SVM and the ASTER bands. This paper shows the new application of SVM as a powerful tool for the interpretation of geochemical anomaly and the intensity of alteration.
  • Some opportunities to increase performance of tailing thickener case
           study: Gol-E-Gohar iron ore beneficiation plant

    • Abstract: Thickener is a major and convenient applied equipment for tailings dewatering in mineral processing plants. Past investigations have shown that feed slurry dilution can improve flocculation efficiency by affecting both floc size and density. Advantages of thickener feed dilution method include reduced flocculent consumption, increased settling flux, and enhanced bed/sediment compressibility. Gol-E-Gohar iron complex is one of the largest iron concentrate producer in Iran and is located in Kerman. Gol-E-Gohar thickeners Performance was monitored through daily inspections. High flocculent consumption and turbidity of recycled water were major thickeners problems. Inspections showed that high solid content of thickeners feed was the major issue. Diluting pump method was used to decrease solid content of the thickeners feed. Also the reduction of used flocculent dosage happened by 45 % via Flocculent preparation improvement .the number of Flocculent distribution points was increased from 4 point to 9 .for enhancing flocculent solubility, water with less total dissolved solids was used for Flocculent preparation. The modifications resulted the a very clear thickener overflow water (turbidity less than250 ppm) and flocculent consumption was decreased from 114 g/t (gram per thickener feed tailings ) to 43 g/t, in other words there was a 45% decrease in flocculent consumption.
  • 3D Numerical investigation of excavation in sandy ground reinforced using
           different types of geosynthetics

    • Abstract: Stabilization of excavations and retaining walls are important issues in geotechnical field. Use of new and novel methods in excavation sites, and providing safe condition for the final aim of project is one of the challenging matters in this regard. Excavation in sandy soils, due to lack of enough cohesion for its stability, face serious problems. In order to solve this problem, using special techniques to improve the stability is very important subject. Geosynthetics (i.e. geotextile, geogrid, and geocell) are among the new techniques, which could enhance the stability and performance of sandy soils. In this research, 3D finite different analysis performed to investigate unreinforced and reinforced excavations using geotextile, geogrid, and geocell elements and their comparison. Results indicated that in the case of using geotextile, geogrid, and geocell the critical depth of excavation increased up to 3.125, 2.75, and 2.25 times of unreinforced excavation, respectively.
  • Assessment of rock fragmentation and strength properties using the
           Rosin-Rammler and Extended Swebrec Distribution functions parameters

    • Abstract: This work assessed the curve fitting ability of Rosin-Rammler and Swebrec functions and the comparison of their fitting parameters with rock strength properties. The work aimed to show if there exist a relationship between the function’s distribution parameters and rock strength properties. The rock strengths properties were determined in accordance with International Society of Rock Mechanics standards. The two functions were used to reproduce sieving curves of different rocks fragmented on a laboratory scale using electric detonators. The Swebrec function reproduces the sieving curves better than Rosin-Rammler. The Rosin-Rammler curve fitting performs creditably with well fragmented rocks of poor grading or uniformly sorted fragments. The Rosin-Rammler curve fitted better to Class II rocks than the Class I rocks. The Rosin-Rammler parameters are shown to be interdependent while only factor ‘a’ and exponent ‘c’ parameters of Swebrec function are mutually dependent. The undulating exponent ‘b’ of Swebrec is related to the uniformity index, ‘n’ and characteristic size, ‘Xc’ of Rosin-Rammler. By comparison, the parameters of the two functions show correlations with rock strength properties (BTS, UCS, E and v). The uniformity index, ‘n’ is related to rock properties included in this study while the Swebrec ‘c’ parameters did not show any relationship with rock properties. The ‘Xc’ parameter of Rosin-Rammler is related to UCS, E and v. The ‘a’ and ‘b’ parameters of Swebrec function are related to BTS, UCS and v and BTS UCS and E respectively. In all cases the correlation coefficients are greater than 0.6 and can be fitted by power form function.
  • Protection of flexible pipes from dynamic surface stresses by
           geocell-reinforced sand backfill

    • Abstract: Underground conduits or utility pipelines are buried at shallow depths in trenches with the help of flowable fills. These pipes are subjected to deformations and damage due to application of dynamic traffic loads or heavy static loads from the vehicles. This study presents the results of a pipe model installed in geocell reinforced and unreinforced sand. A PVC pipe of 110 mm diameter and 1.4 mm wall thickness was installed in a rigid tank to simulate buried pipe. Different types of instrumentation such as earth pressure cell and vibration meter were used to measure the vertical transmitted pressure and displacement amplitude on the pipe crown, respectively. Different factors that affect the performance of pipes installed in sand bedding and backfill were investigated. The factors included state of compaction of bedding and backfill, magnitude of the applied surface dynamic pressure, and the load frequency. The results of this study were presented in terms of the vertical transmitted pressure on the crown of the pipe, surface soil settlement, the displacement amplitude of the pipe crown. It was concluded that the performance of the buried pipe depends on the state of compaction of sand bedding and backfill. When the relative density of the sand increases from 30% to 60%, the vertical pressure on the pipe crown, surface settlement, and the amplitude of displacement, decrease by about 30 %, 40 % and 15 %, respectively. When the relative density of the soil increases from 30% to 60%, more than 40% reduction was recorded in the surface settlement for unreinforced model while this reduction is about 25% for model reinforced with geocell.
  • The selection of an appropriate method for Gazik Granite Quarry mine using
           a hybrid multi- criteria decision making method

    • Abstract: One of the crucial stages in the operation of quarry exploitation is the selection of an appropriate mining method because the lack of attention to this issue may bring about many problems in the process of mining, leading to extra charges incurred to the mine owner or the possible drop in the quality or quantity of the mine product. The adoption of the appropriate method of quarry mining, given the various interacting factors involved, requires a multi-criteria decision-making method. This paper makes use of the hybrid AHP-ELECTRE model to examine the conventional quarry mining methods including Diamond Wire Sawing, Blasting, Feathers and Wedge as well as the expansive agents such as KATROCK and FRACT.AG in the granite quarry of Gazik located in the South Khorassan Province, taking into consideration various factors such as the gross profit increase, safety, quality, decrease of adverse environmental effects, wastage and the reduction of mining time. In this model, the items weights were applied by the AHP method, and the items were assessed through non-rank comparisons so that, finally, the Diamond Sawing Blasting was chosen as the most appropriate method of Gazik granite quarry mining based on the ELECTRE model. Such studies can aid in managing the mining costs to decrease, which can lead to the profitability of the quarries.
  • Effects of the water content and grain size on soil-cutting tools
           interactions: implications of LCPC abrasion test

    • Abstract: Increasing demand for the application of mechanical excavation techniques in various civil and mining projects has increased the importance of ground abrasive properties and its mechanized excavatability. The accurate prognosis of cutting tools lifetime has crucial importance in the planning of mechanized tunneling projects. Moreover, the precise estimation of the required cutter number for excavating the determined length of a given section in a specific geotechnical condition is one of the main tasks of the project consultants. The main objective of these estimations is to assess the needed time and cost of cutter replacements in the phase of feasibility studies and to plan a proper maintenance schedule. The LCPC testing procedure is one of the simplest and most common soil abrasivity assessment methods. The purpose of the presented study is to investigate the steel – soil interaction during the LCPC abrasion test. The consumed energy of LCPC tests on different abrasive samples was measured. Based on the recorded energy values, a new parameter of wear specific energy of the LCPC test (WSEL) was introduced. The obtained WSEL values showed meaningful correlations with the sample grains size and the sample average hardness. Moreover, the results revealed that the high LCPC abrasion coefficient (LAC) values are relevant to the high consumed energy levels recorded during the tests.
  • An analytical approach for estimating the bearing capacity of slopes under
           loading on the upper surface

    • Abstract: Bearing capacity plays a significant role in evaluating the safety of the foundations rest on the slope. Many solutions have been proposed to assess the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation adjacent to the slope, however, the available analytical and empirical methods are associated with some shortcomings in view of slope material properties and geometry. Also, numerical methods suffer from the rigorous computational effort, and the accuracy of the outcome depends on the mesh and boundary effect. Therefore, a new analysis is employed in this research work that is able to consider all the effective parameters on the evaluation of ultimate bearing capacity. The results are compared with the existing numerical one in the literature and show good agreements. Also, in order to facilitate the use of the proposed method a Mathematica package code has been proposed to help the researcher to evaluate the bearing capacity of a shallow foundation rests on the slope.
  • Thermoacidophilic bacteria isolated from Sarcheshmeh low-grade copper ore
           in chalcopyrite bioleaching from mineral tailing

    • Abstract: This research has focused on isolating and identifying different thermoacidophilic bacteria from a Sarcheshmeh low-grade copper ore and evaluating their ability of copper bioleaching from the mineral tailing. After the isolation of the bacteria, molecular identification was carried out based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences and drawing the phylogenetic tree. Then, the effect of the pH, pulp density, and composition of the media on the copper bioleaching was determined using the identified bacteria. The isolated strain (Strain SCM1) belonged to Delftia acidovorans with a 95.73% of identity. The optimal condition for the copper bioleaching was reported in a medium consisting of sulfur (10 g/L), glucose (10 g/L), yeast extract (2 g/L), and mineral tailing (5% wt/vol) at the pH of 2.00 at 50°C. Under this condition, the highest amount of copper (83%) was bioleached. It proves that the lately isolated strain can be effectively employed in the copper bioleaching process.
  • Application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for prediction of
           dissolved oxygen concentration in the gold cyanide leaching process

    • Abstract: An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model has been developed for the prediction of the dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC) as a function of the solution temperature (0-40oC), salinity based on conductivity (0-59000 µS/cm) and atmospheric pressure (600-795 mmHg). The data set was randomly divided into two parts, training and testing sets. 80% of the data points (80%=11556 datasets) were utilized for training the model and the remainder data points (20% =2889 datasets) were utilized for its testing. Several indices of performance such as root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and coefficient of correlation (R) were used for checking the accuracy of data modeling. ANFIS models for prediction of DOC were constructed with various types of membership functions (MFs). The model with the generalized bell MF had the best performance among all of the given models. The results indicate that ANFIS is a powerful tool for the accurate prediction of DOC in the gold cyanidation tanks.
  • The Potential Sources of Bauxite in PirMishi Tash, Semnan Province,
           Northern Iran

    • Abstract: Tash bauxite mine is located approximately 6 km northeast of Tash village and 40 km northwest of Shahroud city in Semnan Province with coordinates of 36° 32′ N to 36° 37′ N and 54° 41′ E to 54° 48′ E. The actions of the orogenic phase of the former Cimmerian as well as the chemical and physical factors have caused the erosion of the basalts in the Shemshak sedimentary basin, which have resulted in the simultaneous deposition of the Shemshak molasses‌ and bauxite in Tash area. According to some geological evidence and the location of Elias rule, bauxites in the vicinity of Shemshak Formation shales, it is concluded that the clay minerals have played an important role in forming the bauxite deposits in this area. The results showed that the basalts were formed from the alkaline magma and then altered to the clay minerals. The rmaining immobile elements such as aluminum and residual iron formed Tash bauxite deposit. The investigation of thin sections designates that the studied ore contains ooidal, plitomorphic, allogeneic pizolite, coloform, and compressive dissolution tissues, which indicates the autochthonous origin. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, goethite, and hematite were also recognized. The mineralogical study, performed by the X-Ray diffraction method, led to the identification of minerals of anatase, boehmite, diaspore, chamosite, kaolinite, quartz, and hematite. Analysis of ore samples by the X-Ray fluorescence method and calculation of aggregation coefficient of trace elements and geochemical indicators along with geological evidence revealed the source rock could be from the mafic type.    
  • A proposed framework for estimating the environmental damage cost of
           mining activities in line with the goals of sustainable mining: a case
           study of Sungun-Ahar Copper Mine, Iran

    • Abstract: The growth of mining activities reduces the area covered by natural ecosystems and the value of ecosystem services (ES) provided by them. It is necessary to estimate the impacts of land-use changes on the ES value of the ecosystems located in the areas directly and indirectly influenced by mining activities as well as the cost of environmental damages inflicted on the ecosystems. Green mining makes it possible to develop a suitable and effective mechanism for the policymakers and planners to optimally and sustainably upgrade resources utilization. Estimating the cost of the environmental damage of mining activities would effectively preserve ES values and prevent the degradation of ecosystems. It is also an efficient approach in making effective decisions and plans for the restoration of mines. The recent study is the first research to investigate the relationship between mining activities and their impact on reducing/losing the value of ecosystem services by offering a comprehensive and specific framework. The total estimated cost of environmental damages inflicted on ecosystem services influenced by the mining activities in the Sungun Copper Mine was estimated at Int $ 7543232 (1734943 million IRR). This research aimed to develop a comprehensive framework for the stages involved in estimating the changes and losses inflicted on the values of ecosystem services provided by the ecosystems within the scope of direct and indirect effects of mining activities. This framework can help policymakers, stakeholders, and land use planners at regional and national levels preserve ecosystem services and make sustainability plans for the mining regions.
  • Constrained Vertex Optimization and Simulation of the Unconfined
           Compressive Strength of Geotextile Reinforced Soil for Flexible Foundation

    • Abstract: Extreme vertex design (EVD) provides an efficient approach to mixture experiment design whereby the factor level possesses multiple dependencies expressed through component constraints formulation. Consequently, the derived experimental points are within the center edges and vertices of the feasible constrained region. EVD was deployed for the modeling of the mechanical properties of the problematic clayey soil-geogrid blends. Geogrids are geosynthetic materials which possess an open mesh-like structure and are mostly used for soil stabilization. The geotextile materials present a geosynthetic and permeable layer to support the soil and foundation by improvement of its stiffness characteristics and at a cheaper cost to procure compared to other construction materials and possess unique light weight properties with greater strength improvement on the soil layer when used. Minitab 18 and Design Expert statistical software were utilized for the mixture design experiment computation; to fully explore the constrained region of the simplex, I-optimal designs with a special cubic design model were utilized to formulate the mixture component ratios at ten experimental runs. I-optimality and D-optimality of 0.39093 and 1747.474, respectively, were obtained with G-efficiency of 64.8%. The generated laboratory responses were taken together with the mixture ingredients’ ratio and taken as the system database for the model development. Statistical influence and diagnostics tests carried out on the generated EVD model indicate a good correlation with the experimental results. Graphical and numerical optimizations were incorporated using a desirability functions that ranged from 0 to 1, which helped to arrive at the optimal combination of the mixture components. 0.2% of geogrid, 9.8% of water, and 90 % of soil yielded the optimal solution with a response of 41.270kN/m2 and a desirability score of 1.0. Model simulation was further carried out to test the model’s applicability with the results compared with the actual results using student’s t-test and analysis of variance. The statistical results showed p-value>0.05 which indicates good correlation.
  • Failure modeling of alluvial foundations due to boiling: numerical
           modeling versus experiments

    • Abstract: The sheet piles are used below hydraulic structures to reduce seepage flow rate and hydraulic gradient at the outlet of such structures rested on permeable foundations. Up to now, for analysis of seepage under hydraulic structures much research work has been carried out in the form of numerical models. However, less field and laboratory works have been performed to study and compare boiling phenomena for evaluating of the numerical models. By simulating an experimental model of a sheet pile inserted in a sand foundation by computer code FLAC based on the finite difference method, the soil behavior mechanism flow has been investigated under seepage effect. The results indicate that computer code FLAC underestimated uplift pressures compared to the experimental data. In order to study the boiling, the soil treatment analyzed at the most critical condition as well. The numerical model presented in computer code FLAC, is properly able to simulate the soil and foundation behavior. Comparing the results obtained from numerical model with experimental data also confirms well, because this model predicts the boiling observations with reasonable accuracy and it was possible to predict heaving mechanism based on the stress analysis before performing the plan.
  • Comparison between the performance of four metaheuristic algorithms in
           training a multilayer perceptron machine for gold grade estimation

    • Abstract: Reserve evaluation is a very difficult and complex process. The most important and yet most challenging part of this process is grade estimation. Its difficulty derived from challenges in obtaining required data from the deposit by drilling boreholes, which is a very time consuming and costly act itself. Classic methods which are used to model the deposit are based on some preliminary assumptions about reserve continuity and grade spatial distribution which are not true about all kind of reserves. In this paper, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network (ANN) is applied to solve the problem of ore grade estimation of highly sparse data from zarshouran gold deposit in Iran. The network is trained using four metaheuristic algorithms in separate stages for each algorithm. These algorithms are artificial bee colony (ABC), genetic algorithm (GA), imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The accuracy of predictions obtained from each algorithm in each stage of experiments were compared with real gold grade values. We used unskillful value to check the accuracy and stability of each network. Results showed that the network trained with ABC algorithm outperforms other networks that trained with other algorithms in all stages having least unskillful value of 13.91 for validation data. Therefore, it can be more suitable for solving the problem of predicting ore grade values using highly sparse data.
  • Effect of Water Quality on Formation of Hydrogen Peroxide and Its Behavior
           on Flotation

    • Abstract: Water is one of the important parameters in flotation and represents 80–85% of the volume of mineral pulp processed in flotation circuits. In our recent studies revealed was found that sulphide minerals generated H2O2 in pulp liquid during wet grinding and also the solids when placed in water immediately after dry grinding but effect of type of water on the oxidation of pulp components and hence in deteriorating the concentrate grade and recovery in flotation has not been explored yet. In this study, effect of two types of water on formation of H2O2 as an oxidizing agent stronger than oxygen was investigated. process water is water that is used for a flotation processes in Bama Company. It was shown that process water generated 482 µM H2O2 but deionized water generated 16 µM. The result shows recovery of chalcopyrite in pH 6 is 60% and 40% in process water and deionized water respectively. Also, recovery of galena in pH 6 is 30% and 20% in process water and deionized water respectively.
  • Solving 2-D gravity inversion problems using a PDE model in geophysics

    • Abstract: Inverse modeling is one of the useful solutions to create a logical model with relationships between observed and measured values. In geophysical and subsurface investigations such as cavities or mineral explorations, solving inverse problems using problem physics in a partial differential equation (PDE) system is very important. In this research, COMSOL multiphysics’ optimization interface, combined with a PDE or physics interface, was used to solve inverse-modeling problems. Also, a framework is presented to solve undetermined inverse problems using COMSOL multiphysics’ optimization. COMSOL multiphysics does not include a gravity calculation module. However, since Poisson’s equation governs gravity and electrostatics, a gravity model can be created in the electrostatics module by changing the electrical permittivity value. We present a general adjoint state formulation which may be used in this framework and allows for faster calculation of sensitivity matrices in a variety of commonly encountered underdetermined problems. First of all, 2D inversion of gravity data has been run and validated in COMSOL multiphysics software using one synthetic model and synthetic data in a forward modeling process. Afterward, using real gravity data surveyed along a cross-section of the sinkholes in the NW of Abarkuh, the lateral structure and subsurface cavities were estimated. The inverted gravitational acceleration values, then cross-correlated with observed gravity data and available surface pieces of evidence such as sinkholes and circular structures. The results indicated that our COMSOL-based routines for the solution of PDE-basedinverse problems using adjoint states, while high in computational speed, can be used in modeling a wide range of physical systems governed by the partial differential equation laws and also can accurately discriminate between low-density contrast regions and background.
  • Aeromagnetic Mapping of Basement Structures and Gold Mineralization
           Characterization of Kirk range Area, Southern Malawi

    • Abstract: A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was conducted in the Kirk Range region in southern Malawi with the goal of obtaining comprehensive geological and structural information. This newly collected data was analyzed and interpreted in order to gain a better understanding of the mode of occurrence of gold mineralization and related structural characteristics. To un-derstand the distribution of magnetic sources, many analytic approaches were applied to the aeromagnetic data, including reduction to the pole, Euler deconvolution, Spectrum analysis, Tilt and Vertical Derivatives filtering. Spectral analysis and Euler deconvolution were used to determine the depth of magnetic sources. The study reveals that the studied region is charac-terized by NE-SW and roughly E-W direction structures and that the gold occurrence is re-stricted within these structures, implying that mineralization is structurally controlled. These structures are found at depths of 200-1000 meters, according to Euler solutions produced from this work. Based on the calculated depths the structures controlling mineralization, in the Kirk Range are interpreted to occur at a depth range of 200 to 1000m and the structures trend in the NE-SW and E-W direction. However current gold mining is taking place at a fairly shallow depth of less than 50m and no gold mine has gone deeper than that. The struc-tural pattern and depth extent estimations show that gold mineralization in the Kirk range is expected to continue up to 1000 meters because the majority of the structures controlling mineralization in the region are located within that depth range. It is therefore recommended that future exploration should go deeper to a depth of about 200-1000 meters or more focus-ing on these NE-SW and E-W structures, because it is expected that at that depth range more mineralization should be intercepted.
  • A New Method for Determining Geochemical Anomalies: U-N and U-A Fractal

    • Abstract: Undoubtedly, determining the threshold of anomalies and separating geochemical anomalies from background is one of the most important stages of minerals exploration. In the discussion of the separation of geochemical anomalies from background, there are different methods that structural methods have shown much greater efficiency than nonstructural methods. Among structural methods (methods that consider the position and location of samples), U-statistic and fractal methods have a special place. In this study, by using the algorithm of the abovementioned methods and combining them with each other, a new method as U values fractal model (U-N and U-A) is introduced at the first time. Then, the proposed method is employed to determine the boundaries of background and anomalous populations (about the gold (Au) and arsenic (As) elements in Susanvar district). Results show that in U-N and U-A fractal models, the first fracture boundary is much clearer and more accurate than previous fractal models (C-N and C-A) in the same condition. In U-N model, due to the nature of the U method algorithm, there is a discontinuity as exact threshold between background and anomaly that in U-A model, this does not exist due to the homogenization of U values. In this method, the exact threshold between background and anomaly is determined by U-statistic method and by its combination with the fractal method, in each population, sub-populations are identified more accurately and simply than concentration fractal model. Finally, lithogeochemical map of the study area is provided for Au and As which has been prepared using U-N and U-A fractal methods. In these maps (especially the prepared maps by U-A model), the delineated Au-As mineralization is closely associated with the defined Au ore indications in the study area.
  • Removal of copper ions from dilute sulfuric acid solutions: Effect of
           solution composition and applied potential

    • Abstract: Removal of copper from synthesized and real dilute sulfuric acid solutions was investigated. Effects of copper and iron concentrations and applied potential were studied. In pure copper solutions, increasing the Cu (II) concentration from 1000 to 5000 mg.L-1 increased the copper recovery from about 30-300% depending on the cathode potential and decreased the energy consumption by about 30%. Also, with increasing the acid concentration from 15 to 50 g.L-1 an about 25% increase in copper recovery and a 30% decrease in energy consumption were observed. The addition of Fe (II) to the solution improved the ionic conductivity and so that the copper recovery. The specified energy consumption for the real leaching solutions increased to 31-47
  • Using the mass-radius method to quantify the disturbed zones in Sidi
           Chennane mine through geoelectrical images

    • Abstract: This paper presents a new approach to quantify the rate of the disturbances within the phosphate series in an area of 50 hectares located in Sidi Chennane deposit, Ouled Abdoun, Morocco. The proposed approach consists in applying the mass-radius fractal method on the geo-electrical images to estimate the fractal dimension FD as an index of the rate of the disturbances. The result of this study shows a strong correlation between the measured disturbed surfaces displayed on the studied geo-electrical images and their corresponding fractal dimensions. The calculated FD’s values were found in the range of 2.081 to 2.719 and correspond to the range of the disturbances rates of 4.1 % to 17.7 % respectively. Therefore, the highest fractal dimension values reveal a high rate of disturbances and vice-versa. This analysis has confirmed that the fractal dimension may offers significant implications to distinguishing between the phosphate deposit at high disturbances rate and the deposit at low disturbances rate. This may lead to important implications for the mining engineers to obtain an accurate phosphate reserve estimate and make the best exploration and exploitation planning in Sidi Chennane mine.
  • Comparison of clayey soil characteristics treated with lime and water base

    • Abstract: This paper presents results of laboratory tests to explicate the mechanism of the Poly Vinyl Acetate (PVA) and hydrated lime on the engineering properties of the treated soil. Soil improvement is a time and cost saving method that enables unsatisfactory in-situ materials to obtaining higher strength, obviating the need for costly excavation and replacement with suitable material. Laboratory test, including consistency limits, compaction, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and direct shear tests were carried out on treated soils. The results show that the addition of 4% PVA and 6% lime can improve soil properties, but lime had higher UCS on long period. Moreover, optimum percentage of PVA has a small effect on the cohesion and UCS of treated soil, but its effect on friction angle is significant.
  • Selective precipitation of iron from multi-element PLS produced by
           atmospheric leaching of Ni-Co bearing laterite

    • Abstract: Laterites are the main resources of oxidized nickel in the world. Nickel and cobalt are embedded in limonite laterites within the goethite structure. Therefore, the removal of iron ions will lead to the simultaneous precipitation of iron, nickel, and cobalt. In our previous study investigating atmospheric leaching of laterite ore using sulfuric acid with the addition of NaCl to the solution, we determined the optimal parameters to minimize the co-dissolution of iron. Based on the determined optimum conditions, a PLS was prepared. In the current study, the effect of pH on iron precipitation from the PLS was investigated using sodium hydroxide as a neutralizing agent. Results indicated that a pH=4 can result in the highest removal of iron from the leaching solution (around 90%) while minimizing loss of nickel and cobalt. The SEM analysis revealed ferrihydrite as the most important mineral in the final precipitation obtained at pH=4. Results of this study can be used for benchmarking more efficient methods for iron removal from the solution and improving the dissolution kinetics of nickel and cobalt.
  • Model development for prediction of autogenous mill power consumption in
           Sangan iron ore processing plant

    • Abstract: The variables including ore hardness based on the SAG power index (SPI), particle size of mill product (P80), trunnion pressure of the mill free head (p) and working time period of mill liner (H) were considered as variables for development of an adequate model for the prediction of autogenous (AG) mill power consumption in Sangan iron ore processing plant. The one-parameter models (SPI as variable) showed no adequate precision for the prediction of Sangan AG mill power consumption. Two-parameter models (SPI and P80 as variables), proposed by Starkey and Dobby, showed no adequate precision for the Sangan AG mill power consumption. Nonetheless, by exerting an adjustment factor in the model (0.604513 which obtained by what-if analysis using Solver Add-Ins program), the model precision increased significantly (an error of 7.11%). Finally, a four-parameter model in which the Sangan AG mill power consumption is predicated as a function of SPI, P80, p, and H was developed. Hence, initially the relationship between the mill power consumption and each of the variables was obtained and then the four-parameter model was developed by summation of these four equations and applying a similar coefficient of 0.25 for all of them. This model was modified through finding the best coefficients by what-if analysis using solver Add-Ins program through minimizing the ARE error function. The error function for the training and testing data sets was determined to be 2.93% and 2.39%, respectively.
  • Microwave-Assisted Leaching for Copper Recovery from the Chalcopyrite
           Concentrate of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex

    • Abstract: Microwave applications in mining and process metallurgy have been the subject of many studies over the past two decades. This paper reviews microwave-assisted leaching of copper from high-grade sulfide concentrate of the Sarcheshmeh copper complex. Response surface methodology (RSM) is used to optimize the leaching process. In this research, leaching experiments were carried out in a multi-mode cavity and times in the presence of varying concentrations of H2O2 with microwave assistance after the leaching process parameters including type and concentration of the oxidizing agent, NaCl concentration, and leaching temperature, were optimized using Taguchi orthogonal array design method. The conventional leaching experiments were also performed to evaluate the influence of microwave radiation. It has been recognized that microwave technology has great potential to improve the extraction efficiency of metals in terms of both reductions in required leaching time and the recovery of valuable metals. Under the optimized conditions, the leaching efficiencies of copper were 75.3% and 42.5% in 3 hours by microwave assistance and conventional leaching methods, respectively.
  • Prediction of rockburst in water conveyance tunnel: A case study of Gelas

    • Abstract: At the presence of undesirable geological conditions, including rock masses with high overburden, crushed zones and faults, folds, dikes and other abnormalities, rockburst has become a critical safety problem in Gelas tunnel, a water conveyance tunnel, wherein some sections overlying strata exceed 600 m. The main goal of this study is to determine the possibility of rockburst and its level along the second part of the Gelas tunnel. In order to study the mechanisms of rockburst occurrence in Gelas tunnel, measurements of in situ stress, geological investigation, uniaxial compression tests, and analytical approaches are carried. So, in this study, some analytical approaches, including Linear elastic index, Tangential stresses criterion, Brittleness coefficient of rocks, and method of stresses are used to predict rockburst in 17 sections of the tunnel path. The average result shows that all the selected sections in the tunnel path have the potential of occurring rockburst at a range of low to moderate. About 65 percent of the sections are exposed to moderate risk of rockburst occurrence; and the remaining 35 percent are exposed to low risk of rockburst occurrence. The comparison between applied methods shows a lack of consensus conformity among them. The brittleness coefficient of rocks method turned out to be as the most conservative approaches for predicting rockburst occurrence since by this approach most of the sections in the tunnel path are susceptible to high risk of rockburst occurrence. According to the average result, fault and Dolomitic zones with high overburden have the highest risk of rockburst occurrence.
  • Modeling the Effect of the Striker Geometry on the Wave Propagation
           Pattern in the Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Test Using the Discrete
           Element Method

    • Abstract: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) test is widely used among the various methods for investigating the dynamic behavior of rocks at high strain rates. Various factors affect the waveform and the results of this test. In this study, the aim was to investigate the effect of geometrical parameters of striker including the effect of shape, length, and impact cross-section width (ICSW) on the waveform induced in the SHPB test using numerical modeling. For this purpose, in the first stage, the required information including geometrical properties and the required micro-parameters have been collected from two laboratory and numerical modeling studies. Then, the initial model was constructed using the discrete element numerical method (DEM), and its results were compared with laboratory and numerical results. Evaluation of the effect of striker shape demonstrated that SS strikers have induced a semi-sinusoidal wave and CS strikers have induced a quasi-rectangular wave. Among the waveform properties, the wavelength was strongly related to the geometric properties of the strikers in both CS and SS types in a way that was directly related to the striker’s length and inversely related to the ICSW. On the other hand, the maximum amplitude is directly related to the striker’s length and ICSW in both CS and SS types. According to the results, the use of SS strikers is more appropriate according to the waveform, and its geometric properties can be determined according to the problem requirement, using numerical modeling results.
  • Modeling of Unconfined Compressive Strength and Young's Modulus of
           Lime and Cement Stabilized Clayey Subgrade Soil using Evolutionary
           Polynomial Regression (EPR)

    • Abstract: In this study, the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR) method has been employed to develop simple models with reasonable accuracy to predict the compressive strength and Young's modulus of the lime/cement stabilized clayey subgrade soil. For this purpose, the different specimens with the various cement and lime contents, at three moisture contents (dry side, wet side, and optimum moisture content) were fabricated and were cured for 7, 14, 21, 28 and, 60 days to conduct the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test. According to the test results, a dataset consisting of 75 records for each additive was prepared. Results of this study show that the R2 value of the developed model for predicting UCS of cement-stabilized clay soil is equal to 0.96 and 0.95 for training and testing sets, respectively. These two values for lime-stabilized soil are 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. Moreover, the R2 for predicting Young's modulus of cement-stabilized clay soil is equal to 0.90 and 0.89 for training and testing set, respectively. These two values for predicting Young's modulus of lime-stabilized soil are 0.88 and 0.94, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that for the Portland cement stabilized clayey subgrade, the percentage of the Portland cement and moisture content are the most significant parameters for predicting the UCS and Young's modulus, respectively. In contrast, for the lime-stabilized clayey subgrade soil, the most important parameters are the moisture content and the UCS, respectively.
  • Photogrammetry and Monte Carlo Simulation based statistical
           characterization of rock mass discontinuity parameters

    • Abstract: Discontinuities within the rock mass are present in a wide range of networks. Their characterization and analysis exist with considerable diversity. Prior research appraises the significance of mechanical discontinuities and their effect on geotechnical structures and deficient with integral discontinuities. The variability and uncertainty related to rock mass discontinuity parameters such as spacing, persistence and aperture size cannot be present in a single value; it exhibits variability between specific range values. The use of a statistical method to present the discontinuity parameters provides a basis for Monte Carlo (MC) based stochastic modeling of discontinuity parameters to evaluate the stability of rock mass. The road cut slope of Bukit Merah, Malaysia, was investigated using close-range photogrammetry. Details of high precision rock mass discontinuities (mechanical and integral) parameters such as spacing, persistence and aperture were captured. To evaluate the best fit distribution for discontinuity parameters, Chi-Square test, Modified Kolmogorov Smirnov (K-S) and Anderson-Darling tests were employed. According to the findings, the discontinuity spacing is subjected to a lognormal distribution. In contrast, discontinuity persistence and aperture size followed loglogistic distribution. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is a promising approach for assessing the variability and uncertainty of discontinuity parameter relationships.
  • Weathering Induced Brazilian Tensile Strength and Fracture Characteristics
           of Sandstone and their Prevailing Mutual Association

    • Abstract: This paper evaluates the variation and relationship of Brazilian tensile strength and fracture characteristics of sandstone under different weathering grades. Brazilian tensile strength experiments were performed on Fresh and slightly weathered sandstone specimens using an automated compression measuring machine UTC-5431. Image-based fracture characterization was carried out using public domain open-source software ImageJ. Furthermore, SPSS and Microsoft Excel were used to analyze the relationship between Brazilian tensile strength and fracture characteristics. Results demonstrate that sandstone tensile strength decreases as fracture maximum deviation distance (FMDD), fracture deviation area (FDA) and fracture length (FL), and weathering grades increases. Additionally, fracture deviation distance, fracture deviation area, and fracture length increase with an increase in weathering grade. The correlation results revealed that the tensile strength of fresh sandstone has a strong relationship with FMDD, FDA, and FL. Whereas, in the case of slightly weathered sandstone, BTS has a strong correlation with FMDD and FDA. Whereas multiple regression analysis shows that BTS has a strong relationship with fracture characteristics. Therefore, estimating the fracture characteristics of sandstone using its tensile strength is convenient, however, the sensitivity of sandstone strength properties and fracture characteristics to weathering must be acknowledged.
  • Evaluation of Scale and Loading Direction Effects on Strength and

    • Abstract: Determining strength and deformation of jointed rock masses is an inevitable part of geomechanical projects. Strength and deformability of a rock mass with stochastic joint sets is conceivably anisotropic and is mainly controlled by joints mechanical and geometrical properties. In this paper, strength and deformation behavior of jointed rock masses has been evaluated at Tazareh coal mine, Iran. Field mappings through scanline method have been used to collect joints spatial features on rock surfaces. A statistical evaluation has been carried out on field data using Dips software. Then, geomechanical properties of intact blocks have been measured conducting uniaxial compressive strength test. Finally, the rock mass is modelled using 3DEC, and its behavior is analyzed in some cases with different loading directions and block sizes to obtain representative elementary volume (REV) based on strength and deformation, respectively.
  • Utilization of Calcium Rich Mine Wastes and Bone Ash for the Improvement
           of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Soft Soil

    • Abstract: The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of the addition of mine wastes and bone ash on some geotechnical properties of soft soil. The properties investigated include modified proctor compaction characteristics, California bearing ratio (CBR), uniaxial compression strength (UCS), internal friction angle (ϕ), maximum high density and maximum moisture contents of a characteristic soft soil. The study evaluated the ability of self-cementing properties of iron ore tailings, steel slag and coal ash which are by-product wastes from mining activities and bone ash at low proportion replacements to soft soil to improve the bearing capacity of the soil. The use of these calcium rich waste materials to stabilise and improve the bearing capacity of soil is a cost efficient and environmentally friendly disposal method of handling wastes. The candidate wastes, coal ash, bone ash, iron ore tailing, and steel slag were used to stabilise the soil separately at 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% replacements with soft soil. Based on performance tests conducted, considerable increase in the soil maximum dry density, compaction, UCS and CBR values were observed at different percentages of the additives. The results show that iron ore tailing is the candidate additive with highest property value of CBR of 11 over the soft soil of 7.5. Iron ore tailings also give maximum dry density and maximum moisture content values of 2500.73Kg/m3 and 22.45% respectively higher than other additives. All the candidate additives show improvement in properties evaluated over the soft soil. Therefore, these mine wastes can be used to enhance the stability of earthy materials of structural foundation such as highways, railways, embankments, reclamation and backfill etc. at low percentage replacements.
  • Estimation of mining time-span to improve the solution time in long-term
           production planning

    • Abstract: Abstract – Long-term production planning in open-pit mines is a precedence-constraint knapsack problem. A spatial representation of the mining region (called the block-model) is the primary input of mine planning models. One should note that as the number of blocks and periods to be planned increases, the number of decision variables increases. This paper presents a fast yet straightforward algorithm to reduce binary variables in open-pit mine production planning models. The algorithm considers mining capacity, processing capacity, and pit deepening rate to estimate the time-span within which a block is mineable. This paper applies the algorithm in 12 different cases. The number of blocks varies from 1000 to 240000, and the mining periods range from 6 to 30 years. According to the results, this algorithm is helpful for problem size reduction.
  • The Influence of Thermal breakage on Physio-mechanical behavior of Ghulmet
           Marble North Pakistan

    • Abstract: Geotechnical engineering applications comprises high temperature such as deep geological disposal of nuclear waste, exploitation of geothermal process, etc. High temperature and thermal environments can affect the mechanical properties of building materials used in civil engineering (concrete, building rock, steel, etc.). The constant action of regular thermal changes in situations of excess temperature is the main source of the alteration of marble in monumental and artistic buildings. In this study, the effect of both the specimen size and temperature on the physio-mechanical characteristics of dolomitic marble has been investigated. The temperature range selected was 20-600°C. It was observed that the color of samples changes with temperature rise. The Uniaxial compression strength (UCS), P-wave velocity (Vp) and Young’s modulus decreased with temperature rise. While the peak strain increases with temperature. The UCS and the peak strain showed a decreasing trend at the high diameter specimens. In the case of 43mm diameter specimens the peak stress reduced from 60MPa-26MPa with a rise in temperature from 20-600°C. While at the same temperature range the peak strain was observed as 1.7-3.3 and Young’s modulus was 34-8GPa. For 75mm diameter, the peak stress is reduced to 17MPa when the temperature rises to 600°C and Young’s modulus decreased to 4GPa while the peak strain increased from 2.3 to 3.9. The pulse velocity decreased from 2.75 km/s to 0.8km/ and the porosity value increased from 0.9 to 1.5%.
  • Influence of fabric and mineralogy on the mechanics of dolomitic rocks

    • Abstract: A detailed study into engineering mechanics of rocks is very crucial due to their nature and widespread applications as well as the fact that they are encountered in daily activities of practising engineers and designs and constructions are made in and/or on them. A comprehensive investigations have been made into influence of fabric and mineralogy on the behaviour of dolomitic rock by conducting series of laboratory tests. Also, extensive analyses have been made to determine suitable indices to predict parameters needed for engineering design and construction particularly at the beginning of projects when data may not be readily available. The parameters considered were porosity, rebound hardness, strength and modulus and the indices considered were fabric (particle shape, packing density) and mineralogical indices (quartz and dolomite). The rock is characterised by low porosity (0.64-1.50%), medium durability (65.4-73.3%), heterogeneous and sub-angular particles (0.60-0.77) with very few voids. The mineralogy comprises quartz (0-64%), dolomite (10-87%) and other minerals. The strength varies from low to relatively high strength (12-43 MPa). The variability of parameters and indices of dolomitic rock is low except for quartz. Although mineralogy has little influence on porosity of samples, fabric and mineralogy have significant influence on mechanics of dolomitic rock. It is very interesting to observe that fabric and mineralogical indices can be used to predict physical and mechanical parameters of dolomitic rock based on significant regression statistics. The fabric and mineralogical indices are suitable and are recommended for practitioners working on the materials.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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