Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 960 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (58 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 85)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Boletín Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Casopis Slezskeho Zemskeho Muzea - serie A - vedy prirodni     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
China Population, Resources and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access  
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access  
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Earth Surface Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Environmental Modelling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Divulgación Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dynamiques Environnementales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 214)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Engineering : X     Open Access  
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 484)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Forestry Reports
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2198-6436
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Effects of Forest Harvesting on Water and Sediment Yields: a Review Toward
           Better Mitigation and Rehabilitation Strategies

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      Abstract: Purposeof Review Paired catchment studies have documented the extent to which forest harvesting impairs forested watersheds. Adverse effects on stream water quality and aquatic ecosystems following ground-based harvesting operations that open forest canopies and compact soils have spurred the implementation of best management practices (BMPs) that are intended to limit runoff volumes (i.e., water yield increase, WYI) and total sediment yields (TSY) into streams. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent insights from water and sediment yield studies, ranging in scale from hillslope plots to catchments, that reveal the sources and mechanisms of hydrological impairment and recovery, and point to specific strategies for developing more targeted BMPs that help prevent, mitigate, and rehabilitate forested watersheds. Recent Findings In the context of forested watersheds, contemporary BMPs have successfully lowered runoff (WYI) and total sediment yields (TSY) relative to previously reported values. Recent research strongly indicates that the delivery of WYIs and TSYs to streams following forest harvesting is still high. Because many factors such as the intensity and extent of management activities and headwater catchment activities interact, improving the effectiveness of generic, inflexible BMPs will be challenging. Recent findings indicate that a site-specific, highly tailored application of a combination of BMP measures before, during, and after the harvesting operation is needed if a further reduction of runoff and sediment delivery to streams is to be achieved. Summary Analyses of 155 paired catchment studies and 39 hillslope plots revealed that forest harvesting resulted in average increases of WYI by 180 mm (+ 46%) and TSY by 477 t km−2 year−1 (+ 700%). Smaller hillslope plots established on forest roads, skid trails, and harvested areas underestimate these values (WYI of 8.2 mm, TSY was 42.2 t km−2 year−1). In extreme circumstances such as clearcutting, enhanced WYI and TSY may persist up to several decades before returning to pre-harvest levels. WY increased with increasing precipitation and with, and proportional to, the catchment area harvested, regardless of climatic zone or tree species composition; TSY increased with increasing rainfall and catchment area. Both the impact of harvesting and the time required for natural recovery of hydrologic responses depended on the response but can be shortened when applying contemporary forestry BMPs.
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
       
  • Canopy Exchange and Modification of Nitrogen Fluxes in Forest Ecosystems

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review We provide an overview of the main processes occurring during the interactions between atmospheric nitrogen and forest canopies, by bringing together what we have learned in recent decades, identifying knowledge gaps, and how they can be addressed with future research thanks to new technologies and approaches. Recent Findings There is mounting evidence that tree canopies retain a significant percentage of incoming atmospheric nitrogen, a process involving not only foliage, but also branches, microbes, and epiphytes (and their associated micro-environments). A number of studies have demonstrated that some of the retained nitrogen can be assimilated by foliage, but more studies are needed to better quantify its contribution to plant metabolism and how these fluxes vary across different forest types. By merging different approaches (e.g., next-generation sequence analyzes and stable isotopes, particularly oxygen isotope ratios) it is now possible to unveil the highly diverse microbial communities hidden in forest canopies and their ability to process atmospheric nitrogen through processes such as nitrification and nitrogen fixation. Future work should address the contribution of both foliar nitrogen uptake and biological transformations within forest canopies to whole ecosystem nitrogen cycling budgets. Summary Scientists have studied for decades the role of forest canopies in altering nitrogen derived from atmospheric inputs before they reach the forest floor, showing that tree canopies are not just passive filters for precipitation water and dissolved nutrients. We now have the technological capability to go beyond an understanding of tree canopy itself to better elucidate its role as sink or source of nutrients, as well as the epiphytes and microbial communities hidden within them.
      PubDate: 2021-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00141-y
       
  • Bark Beetle Outbreaks in Europe: State of Knowledge and Ways Forward for
           Management

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Outbreaks of tree-killing bark beetles have reached unprecedented levels in conifer forests in the northern hemisphere and are expected to further intensify due to climate change. In parts of Europe, bark beetle outbreaks and efforts to manage them have even triggered social unrests and political instability. These events have increasingly challenged traditional responses to outbreaks, and highlight the need for a more comprehensive management framework. Recent Findings Several synthesis papers on different aspects of bark beetle ecology and management exist. However, our understanding of outbreak drivers and impacts, principles of ecosystem management, governance, and the role of climate change in the dynamics of ecological and social systems has rapidly advanced in recent years. These advances are suggesting a reconsideration of previous management strategies. Summary We synthesize the state of knowledge on drivers and impacts of bark beetle outbreaks in Europe and propose a comprehensive context-dependent framework for their management. We illustrate our ideas for two contrasting societal objectives that represent the end-members of a continuum of forest management goals: wood and biomass production and the conservation of biodiversity and natural processes. For production forests, we propose a management approach addressing economic, social, ecological, infrastructural, and legislative aspects of bark beetle disturbances. In conservation forests, where non-intervention is the default option, we elaborate under which circumstances an active intervention is necessary, and whether such an intervention is in conflict with the objective to conserve biodiversity. Our approach revises the current management response to bark beetles in Europe and promotes an interdisciplinary social-ecological approach to dealing with disturbances.
      PubDate: 2021-07-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00142-x
       
  • Trees and Insects Have Microbiomes: Consequences for Forest Health and
           Management

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Forest research has shown for a long time that microorganisms influence tree-insect interactions, but the complexity of microbial communities, as well as the holobiont nature of both trees and insect herbivores, has only recently been taken fully into account by forest entomologists and ecologists. In this article, we review recent findings on the effects of tree-insect-microbiome interactions on the health of tree individuals and discuss whether and how knowledge about tree and insect microbiomes could be integrated into forest health management strategies. We then examine the effects tree-insect-microbiome interactions on forest biodiversity and regeneration, highlighting gaps in our knowledge at the ecosystem scale. Recent Findings Multiple studies show that herbivore damage in forest ecosystems is clearly influenced by tripartite interactions between trees, insects and their microbiomes. Recent research on the plant microbiome indicates that microbiomes of planted trees could be managed at several stages of production, from seed orchards to mature forests, to improve the resistance of forest plantations to insect pests. Therefore, the tree microbiome could potentially be fully integrated into forest health management strategies. Summary To achieve this aim, future studies will have to combine, as has long been done in forest research, holistic goals with reductionist approaches. Efforts should be made to improve our understanding of how microbial fluxes between trees and insects determine the health of forest ecosystems, and to decipher the underlying mechanisms, through the development of experimental systems in which microbial communities can be manipulated. Knowledge about tree-insect-microbiome interactions should then be integrated into spatial models of forest dynamics to move from small-scale mechanisms to forest ecosystem-scale predictions.
      PubDate: 2021-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00136-9
       
  • The Vision of Managing for Pest-Resistant Landscapes: Realistic or
           Utopic'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Forest managers have long suggested that forests can be made more resilient to insect pests by reducing the abundance of hosts, yet this has rarely been done. The goal of our paper is to review whether recent scientific evidence supports forest manipulation to decrease vulnerability. To achieve this goal, we first ask if outbreaks of forest insect pests have been more severe in recent decades. Next, we assess the relative importance of climate change and forest management–induced changes in forest composition/structure in driving these changes in severity. Recent Findings Forest structure and composition continue to be implicated in pest outbreak severity. Mechanisms, however, remain elusive. Recent research elucidates how forest compositional and structural diversity at neighbourhood, stand, and landscape scales can increase forest resistance to outbreaks. Many recent outbreaks of herbivorous forest insects have been unprecedented in terms of duration and spatial extent. Climate change may be a contributing factor, but forest structure and composition have been clearly identified as contributing to these unprecedented outbreaks. Summary Current research supports using silviculture to create pest-resistant forest landscapes. However, the precise mechanisms by which silviculture can increase resistance remains uncertain. Further, humans tend to more often create pest-prone forests due to political, economic, and human resistance to change and a short-sighted risk management perspective that focuses on reactive rather than proactive responses to insect outbreak threats. Future research efforts need to focus on social, political, cultural, and educational mechanisms to motivate implementation of proven ecological solutions if pest-resistant forests are to be favoured by management.
      PubDate: 2021-04-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00140-z
       
  • Publisher Correction: Estimating Changes in Forest Attributes and
           Enhancing Growth Projections: a Review of Existing Approaches and Future
           Directions Using Airborne 3D Point Cloud Data

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      Abstract: A Publisher Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40725-021-00139-6
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00139-6
       
  • Tree Vitality and Forest Health: Can Tree-Ring Stable Isotopes Be Used as
           Indicators'

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Society is concerned about the long-term condition of the forests. Although a clear definition of forest health is still missing, to evaluate forest health, monitoring efforts in the past 40 years have concentrated on the assessment of tree vitality, trying to estimate tree photosynthesis rates and productivity. Used in monitoring forest decline in Central Europe since the 1980s, crown foliage transparency has been commonly believed to be the best indicator of tree condition in relation to air pollution, although annual variations appear more closely related to water stress. Although crown transparency is not a good indicator of tree photosynthesis rates, defoliation is still one of the most used indicators of tree vitality. Tree rings have been often used as indicators of past productivity. However, long-term tree growth trends are difficult to interpret because of sampling bias, and ring width patterns do not provide any information about tree physiological processes. Recent Findings In the past two decades, tree-ring stable isotopes have been used not only to reconstruct the impact of past climatic events, such as drought, but also in the study of forest decline induced by air pollution episodes, and other natural disturbances and environmental stress, such as pest outbreaks and wildfires. They have proven to be useful tools for understanding physiological processes and tree response to such stress factors. Summary Tree-ring stable isotopes integrate crown transpiration rates and photosynthesis rates and may enhance our understanding of tree vitality. They are promising indicators of tree vitality. We call for the use of tree-ring stable isotopes in future monitoring programmes.
      PubDate: 2021-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00137-8
       
  • Estimating Changes in Forest Attributes and Enhancing Growth Projections:
           a Review of Existing Approaches and Future Directions Using Airborne 3D
           Point Cloud Data

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The increasing availability of three-dimensional point clouds, including both airborne laser scanning and digital aerial photogrammetry, allow for the derivation of forest inventory information with a high level of attribute accuracy and spatial detail. When available at two points in time, point cloud datasets offer a rich source of information for detailed analysis of change in forest structure. Recent Findings Existing research across a broad range of forest types has demonstrated that those analyses can be performed using different approaches, levels of detail, or source data. By reviewing the relevant findings, we highlight the potential that bi- and multi-temporal point clouds have for enhanced analysis of forest growth. We divide the existing approaches into two broad categories— – approaches that focus on estimating change based on predictions of two or more forest inventory attributes over time, and approaches for forecasting forest inventory attributes. We describe how point clouds acquired at two or more points in time can be used for both categories of analysis by comparing input airborne datasets, before discussing the methods that were used, and resulting accuracies. Summary To conclude, we outline outstanding research gaps that require further investigation, including the need for an improved understanding of which three-dimensional datasets can be applied using certain methods. We also discuss the likely implications of these datasets on the expected outcomes, improvements in tree-to-tree matching and analysis, integration with growth simulators, and ultimately, the development of growth models driven entirely with point cloud data.
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00135-w
       
  • Recalibrating Best Practices, Challenges, and Limitations of Estimating
           Tree Transpiration Via Sap Flow

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      Abstract: Purpose Transpiration dominates hydrologic fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Sap flow is the most widely used method to quantify transpiration, and calibrations can improve the accuracy of these estimates. Despite numerous suggestions to perform and apply sap flow calibrations, seemingly few reports apply these recommendations. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of calibration across sap flow methodology. Recent Findings We reviewed tree sap flow literature over the past 9 years and determined that only 5.3% of these publications documented the performance of calibrations, the application of coefficients from previous calibrations, or the application of correction factors using calibration data to ensure or improve accuracy of transpiration estimates. These data indicate that calibration has not been adopted as a best practice. However, these data may also reflect challenges to the performance and application of calibration indicating fundamental limitations of sap flow methods. Summary We highlight the need for testing critical assumptions regarding calibration; specifically, that coefficients derived from calibrations on small stems are suitable for application to large stems and that different calibration approaches yield similar transpiration estimates. We encourage researchers to adopt calibration as a best practice for sap flow data and to explain how calibration was performed, how calibration data were applied, and to acknowledge and justify circumstances that preclude or do not necessitate calibration. Without the adoption of calibration and an improved understanding of its limitations, our understanding of transpiration and ability to quantify it using this technology will remain inadequate.
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00134-x
       
  • Inventory of Forest Attributes to Support the Integration of
           Non-provisioning Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity into Forest
           Planning—from Collecting Data to Providing Information

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Our review provides an overview of forest attributes measurable by forest inventory that may support the integration of non-provisioning ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity into forest planning. The review identifies appropriate forest attributes to quantify the opportunity for recreation, biodiversity promotion and carbon storage, and describes new criteria that future forest inventories may include. As a source of information, we analyse recent papers on forest inventory and ES to show if and how they address these criteria. We further discuss how mapping ES could benefit from such new criteria and conclude with three case studies illustrating the importance of selected criteria delivered by forest inventory. Recent Findings Recent studies on forest inventory focus mainly on carbon storage and biodiversity promotion, while very few studies address the opportunity of recreation. Field sampling still dominates the data collection, despite the fact that airborne laser scanning (ALS) has much improved the precision of large-scale estimates of the level of forest ES provision. However, recent inventory studies have hardly addressed criteria such as visible distance in stands, presence of open water bodies and soil damages (important for the opportunity of recreation) and naturalness (here understood as the similarity of the forest to its natural state) and habitat trees and natural clearings (important for biodiversity promotion). The problem of quantifying carbon stock changes with appropriate precision has not been addressed. In addition, the reviewed studies have hardly explored the potential of inventory information to support mapping of the demand for ES. Summary We identify challenges with estimating a number of criteria associated with rare events, relevant for both the opportunity of recreation and biodiversity promotion. These include deadwood, rare species and habitat trees. Such rare events require innovative inventory technology, such as point-transect sampling or ALS. The ALS technology needs relatively open canopies, to achieve reliable estimates for deadwood or understorey vegetation. For the opportunity of recreation, the diversity among forest stands (possibly quantified by geoinformatics) and information on the presence of open water bodies (provided by RADAR, ALS data or use of existing maps) may be important. Naturalness is a crucial criterion for native biodiversity promotion but hard to quantify and assess until now. Tree species identification would be crucial for this criterion, which is still a challenge for remote sensing techniques. Estimating carbon storage may build on biomass estimates from terrestrial samples or on remotely sensed data, but major problems exist with the precision of estimates for carbon stock changes. Recent approaches for mapping the supply side of forest ES are promising, while providing so far uncommon structural information by revised inventory concepts could be helpful also for mapping the demand for ES. We conclude that future studies must find holistic inventory management systems to couple various inventory technologies in support of the integration of non-provisioning ES and biodiversity into forest planning.
      PubDate: 2021-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-021-00138-7
       
  • The Use of Tree-Related Microhabitats as Forest Biodiversity Indicators
           and to Guide Integrated Forest Management

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      Abstract: Purpose of the Review The concept of tree-related microhabitats (TreMs) is an approach to assess and manage multi-taxon species richness in forest ecosystems. Owing to their provision of special habitat features, TreMs are of special interest as a surrogate biodiversity indicator. In particular, in retention forestry, TreMs have gained attention over the past decade as a selection criterion for retained structural elements such as habitat trees. This review seeks to (a) address the suitability of TreMs as biodiversity indicator in the context of retention forestry, (b) summarize drivers of TreM occurrence and the status quo of the implementation of TreM-based retention concepts in forest management, and (c) discuss current and future challenges to the use of TreMs as biodiversity indicator. Recent Findings The TreM concept originated in Europe where it is now increasingly implemented. Most studies of the quantity, quality, and diversity of TreMs are focused on tree species from this region, although it is increasingly applied in other contexts. In addition to tree species, tree dimensions and live status have been identified as the main drivers of TreM occurrence. One major remaining research challenge is to verify relationships between the occurrence and abundance of forest-dwelling species from different taxonomic groups and TreMs to improve the evidence basis of this concept and thus increase its integration in forest conservation approaches. Summary TreMs are not the “silver bullet” indicator to quantify biodiversity of forest dwelling species, but they provide an important tool for forest managers to guide the selection of habitat trees for the conservation of the associated biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-020-00132-5
       
  • Why Can We Make Anything from Lignin Except Money' Towards a Broader
           Economic Perspective in Lignin Research

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review As a major component of wood, lignin is regarded as a promising, bio-based compound which could strongly influence the forest-based circular bioeconomy. Much research has been conducted on the material use of lignin, but the lignin commercialization process is still under development; few commercial production facilities and larger-scale applications are available. Therefore, we present a review of recent research papers on the economic perspectives on lignin. Recent Findings Research has been conducted on lignin application areas such as lignin-derived polymeric materials, polymer and composite systems, applications for microsized and nanosized lignin, energy storage, and renewable chemicals. On the whole, the life cycle assessment results indicate that lignin-based innovations can be environmentally beneficial. Techno-economic studies identified the lignin feedstock cost and the achievable product price as the most sensitive factors. Recently, researchers pointed out information asymmetries between different stakeholder groups concerning lignin-containing products. Summary Although most of the relevant papers presented a technical perspective of lignin, a smaller set of general economic statements about lignin appear in these papers. These statements refer to lignin underutilization, limited markets, resource abundancy, and barriers to utilization. The literature on technical lignin with an economic perspective can be divided into two different streams: several techno-economic papers and fewer socio-economic papers. The former placed a primary focus on production processes from a profit maximization perspective, but attempts were also made in the latter to explain the socio-technical innovation system. To date, lignin researchers have focused mainly on internal (direct) factors but have not yet sufficiently considered external (indirect) factors.
      PubDate: 2020-10-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-020-00126-3
       
  • Growing Non-native Trees in European Forests Brings Benefits and
           Opportunities but Also Has Its Risks and Limits

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Non-native tree species (NNT) raise a range of different associations and emotions—to many citizens they are just an exotic curiosity in parks, to many conservationists they are an evil to native ecosystems that should be eradicated, to a rising group of foresters they are part of the solution to climate change and an increasing timber demand, and to others they are already daily forestry business. In this review, where we also summarise the findings of the recent COST Action FP1403 (NNEXT) ‘Non-native tree species for European forests: experiences, risks and opportunities’, we highlight opportunities and challenges in the light of climate change, ecological risks and legislative limits of growing non-native tree species in Europe. Recent Findings Few NNT in Europe show invasive behaviour and are listed as prohibited species or as species to be monitored. A larger number of NNT is utilised in productive forestry and forest restoration due to their superior growth, valuable timber properties and good performance under harsh growing conditions. Current species distribution, experiences with success and failures and environmental concerns differ profoundly across Europe, with Western Europe overall revealing higher shares in NNT and showing a stronger interest of forestry related stakeholder groups to continue planting NNT. Summary Many more NNT are already used in forestry than previously thought, but relatively few species have major importance in terms of area, mainly in western European countries. Diversification, mixing and avoidance of invasion in relation to NNT are necessities that are relatively new on the agenda. In contrast, provenance research of major NNT has been going on for many decades and now provides important information for climate change adaptation. Despite the limitations to the use of NNT either through legal restrictions or forest certification that differ considerably across Europe, the careful integration of a range of tested NNT also into future forest management planning shows a high potential for climate change adaptation and mitigation.
      PubDate: 2020-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-020-00129-0
       
  • The Use of Science in Wildland Fire Management: a Review of Barriers and
           Facilitators

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Science plays a critical role in natural resource management, and the use of science in decision-making is mandated by several policy initiatives. Other disciplines have documented the challenges associated with applying science to management and possible solutions to overcoming challenges, but the evaluation of science use in wildland fire management is relatively immature. In this paper, we reviewed the available literature that evaluates science use in wildland fire management and common barriers and facilitators to science use in decision-making. Recent Findings We developed a conceptual model that describes the possible uses of science in fire management (perception, planning, forecasting, implementation, assessment, communication, and policy), common barriers to science use (lack of science, uncertainty, funding/capacity, conflict), common facilitators to fire science use (collaboration, trust, boundary organizations, co-production), and factors that can act as facilitators or barriers to science use depending on their presence or absence (awareness, accessibility, relevance). In the context of our conceptual model, we reviewed 67 papers that examined fire science use between 1986 and 2019. Summary Most studies were conducted in the USA in the last 10 years and demonstrated that science is commonly used in fire management and that the maturation of organizations devoted to science translation and communication in the last 10 years has likely facilitated the application of fire science. The evaluation of fire science use, however, is still relatively immature, with studies needed on the use of fire science in countries outside the USA, the use of science in the management of wildfires, and in the crafting of policy related to wildland fire management.
      PubDate: 2020-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-020-00127-2
       
  • Modelling Non-timber Forest Products for Forest Management Planning in
           Europe

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The increased popularity and commercial use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) calls for the development of models for NTFPs to include their predicted yields in forest management planning and to evaluate the potential of multi-functional forest management. This study assesses and discusses the current state of the art and trends in NTFP yield modelling in Europe and the integration of the models in multi-functional forest management planning at different spatial scales. Recent Findings Climate-sensitive empirical yield models already exist not only for a variety of NTFPs that are economically important to forest owners (e.g. cork and pine nuts) but also for wild-gathered berries and mushrooms, the harvesting of which cannot be controlled by the forest landowner in all European countries. Several studies on multi-functional forest management planning consider the economic profitability of the joint production of timber and NTFP. Harvesting NTFPs can create significant additional incomes for forest owners, compared with timber production only. However, maximizing the economic returns from the joint production of timber and NTFPs often calls for changes in forest management practices. Summary Continued efforts in modelling and predicting the yields of NTFPs have enabled forest managers to further expand the analyses of multi-functional forest planning and management in Europe. Climate-sensitive models also allow analyses on the potential effects of climate change on NTFP yields. New models and forest management practices are still needed for tree fruits, birch sap, a wider variety of wild edible mushrooms, specialty mushrooms cultivated on live trees as well as medicinal and edible forest herbs harvested for commercial value in Europe.
      PubDate: 2020-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-020-00130-7
       
  • A Review of the Concepts and Measurements for Connection to Nature and
           Environmentally Responsible Behaviour—a Call for Research on
           Human-Forest Relationships

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The review examines recent scientific discussion on the concepts and measurements of human connection to nature (CTN) and pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). In addition to that, we explore the environmental contexts in which study populations are exposed to nature or nature experiences, particularly the contexts in which forests emerge from these studies, and lastly outline gaps in research. Recent Findings Outlining the association between CTN and PEB has been widely researched over the past 5 years. The concepts and measurements referring to these terms vary, but a few commonly used concepts were identified. The review classifies the approaches used for exploring the relationship between CTN and PEB into four categories. The review indicates that the interconnection between CTN and PEB is mostly studied as a part of the wider concept. Approximately half of the reviewed articles explored the actual exposure to some natural environment or nature activity either directly or indirectly. Forests only played a small role as a natural environment in the reviewed articles. Summary Forests appear to be of very little weight or under-represented in CTN and PEB literature as an explicitly identified natural environment. Results also indicate that the human-forest relationship has not been defined precisely in empirically based scientific literature. The paper discusses implications for the future research focusing on emphasizing the role of forests as natural environments in the research of CTN and PEB.
      PubDate: 2020-10-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-020-00131-6
       
  • Merging Multiple Equilibrium Models and Adaptive Cycle Theory in Forest
           Ecosystems: Implications for Managing Succession

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review We review the dynamics of multiple equilibrium models with the adaptive cycle concept and propose a unified theoretical framework. We highlight how the shape of basins of attraction changes along secondary succession and how the shape is influenced by the properties of the adaptive cycle (i.e., potential, connectedness, and resilience) and by ecological traps such as poverty, rigidity, and lock-in. We use degraded forest ecosystems undergoing arrested succession as an example, how the new framework can improve our understanding of restoration and management options. Recent Findings Here, we highlight how the adaptive cycle uses three properties to describe ecosystem dynamics and how this information can be useful for management decisions at the stand level. “Potential” is related to biomass accumulation along succession; “connectedness” to the rigidity of internal control to resist external influences (e.g., disturbances), as quantified by the depth of the basin of attraction; and “resilience” to the ability of ecosystems to stay in a basin of attraction, as determined by the basin width. We integrate these aspects of the adaptive cycle with the basins of attraction model, ecological trap properties, and succession and disturbance concepts into a conceptual framework and highlight the resulting conceptual insights by contrasting forests that follow typical successional development (and associated provision of multiple ecosystem services) and forests that have arrested succession (e.g., degraded forests that do not provide desired ecosystem services). We use restoration practices aimed at overcoming arrested succession as examples how our framework can be downscaled to stand-level conditions. The framework views restoration practices as disturbances of different severities that may modify connectedness and resilience through the manipulation of species composition and the enhancement or constraint of resources (i.e., modifying a desirable basin of attraction by deepening and widening its shape to facilitate typical successional development or vice versa for an undesirable basin). Summary Our review led to a unified theoretical framework. The resulting conceptual basis will improve the general understanding of vegetation development, which is especially important for restoration efforts in novel, no-analog conditions, as expected under global change.
      PubDate: 2020-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-020-00128-1
       
  • Revisiting the Functional Basis of Sclerophylly Within the Leaf Economics
           Spectrum of Oaks: Different Roads to Rome

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Defining the mechanisms behind and the leaf economic consequences of the development of sclerophylly in woody plants will allow us to understand its ecological implications, anticipate the potential for adaptation of different tree species to global change, and define new woody plant ideotypes for stress tolerance. Recent Findings Sclerophylly has evolved independently in different woody plant genera and has been traditionally considered as a stress-tolerance trait. However, the underlying drivers for this functional trait are still a matter of debate; it has been proposed as an adaptive response to miscellaneous stress factors, such as nutrient scarcity, drought stress, herbivory, and cold tolerance, and due to the large investment costs of sclerophylly, it is generally associated with a longer leaf life span. Summary The genus Quercus constitutes a unique living laboratory to understand global adaptive patterns along the leaf economic spectrum in forest trees. With more than 400 species, oaks are distributed along six zonobiomes and its versatility has resulted in a wide range of variations in leaf functional traits and contrasting adaptive strategies. However, although this wide variability cannot be explained alone by any of the ecological factors considered, such as drought, nutrient scarcity, low temperatures during vegetative period, and physical damage, neither any of them could be fully discarded. Noteworthy, our study also suggests that these constraints may have a synergistic effect, and from a functional point of view, we can conclude that in oaks leaf habit largely modulates the physiological implications of sclerophylly.
      PubDate: 2020-08-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-020-00122-7
       
  • Correction: Xylem Functional Traits as Indicators of Health in
           Mediterranean Forests

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      Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The figures previously used are the old version and some symbols in the figure captions were displayed incorrectly. Final versions of figures with their captions are provided here.
      PubDate: 2020-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-020-00125-4
       
  • The Influence of Tree Diversity on Natural Enemies—a Review of the
           “Enemies” Hypothesis in Forests

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Natural enemies are an important component for forest functioning. By consuming herbivores, they can be effective top-down regulators of potential pest species. Tree mixtures are generally expected to have larger predator and parasitoid populations compared to monocultures. This assumption is based on the “enemies” hypothesis, a classical ecological concept predicting a positive relationship between plant diversity (and complexity) and natural enemies, which, in turn, should increase top-down control in more diverse environments. However, the “enemies” hypothesis has mostly been tested and supported in relatively simple agricultural ecosystems. Until recently, research in forests was sparse. We summarize the upcoming knowledge-base for forests and identify forest characteristics likely shaping relationships between tree diversity, natural enemies (abundance, species richness, diversity), and top-down control. We further identify possible implications for mixed species forestry and key knowledge gaps. Recent Findings Tree diversity (almost exclusively quantified as tree species richness) does not consistently increase enemy abundance, diversity, or result in herbivore control. Tests of the “enemies” hypothesis are largely based on aboveground natural enemies (mainly generalists) and have highly variable outcomes across taxa and study systems, sometimes even finding a decrease in predator diversity with increasing tree diversity. Recurrent effects of tree species identity and composition indicate that a closer focus on tree functional and phylogenetic diversity might help to foster a mechanistic understanding of the specific circumstances under which tree diversity can promote top-down control. Summary Our review suggests that the “enemies” hypothesis may not unambiguously apply to forests. With trees as structurally complex organisms, even low-diversity forests can maintain a high degree of habitat heterogeneity and may provide niches for many predator and parasitoid species, possibly blurring correlations between tree and natural enemy diversity. Several further factors, such as latitude, identity effects, intraguild predation, or functional and phylogenetic components of biodiversity, may confound the predictions of the “enemies” hypothesis. We identify topics needing more research to fully understand under which conditions tree diversity increases natural enemy diversity and top-down control—knowledge that will be crucial for forest management.
      PubDate: 2020-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40725-020-00123-6
       
 
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