Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy, Ecology and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues     Open Access  
EnviroLab Asia     Open Access  
Environment & Ecosystem Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environment and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Environment and Ecology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment and Natural Resources Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environment and Planning A : Economy and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57)
Environment and Planning B : Urban Analytics and City Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Environment and Planning C : Politics and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Environment and Planning D : Society and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environment and Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environment International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Environment, Space, Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Environmental & Engineering Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental & Socio-economic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Advances     Open Access  
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Bioindicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access  
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Claims Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental DNA     Open Access  
Environmental Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Forensics     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Health Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental Impact Assessment Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Environmental Management and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Environmental Modelling & Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability     Open Access  
Environmental Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Science & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Environmental Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science : Atmospheres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science and Ecotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Science: Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Skeptics and Critics     Open Access  
Environmental Smoke     Open Access  
Environmental Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Systems Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Technology & Innovation     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Technology Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Values     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Environments     Open Access  
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
eScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ethics & the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethics, Policy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études caribéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration     Hybrid Journal  
European Energy and Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
European Environment: The Journal of European Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evolutionary Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Working and Living Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fire Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fordham Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Freshwater Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Fronteiras : Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science     Open Access  
Frontier of Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Frontiers in Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Water     Open Access  
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Future Cities and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Geo : Geography and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Geo-Image     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geochemical Transactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
GeoHealth     Open Access  
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GeoScience Engineering     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geosystems and Geoenvironment     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Environmental Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Journal of Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Green Energy & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management     Hybrid Journal  
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Harvard Environmental Law Review     Free   (Followers: 12)
Health Services Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health, Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hidrobiológica     Open Access  
Historia Ambiental Latinoamericana y Caribeña     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
História, Natureza e Espaço - Revista Eletrônica do Grupo de Pesquisa NIESBF     Open Access  
Home Health Care Management & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IMA Journal of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Green Technology Journal     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Indoor Air     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Information Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Informs Journal on Applied Analytics:     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental     Open Access  
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Innovative Infrastructure Solutions     Hybrid Journal  
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Aquatic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ecology & Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environment and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Environment and Ecology Research
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2331-625X - ISSN (Online) 2331-6268
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [50 journals]
  • Numerical Simulations of a Two-dimensional Vertically Averaged Air
           Pollution Measurement in a Street Canyon

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Hasakarn Thongzunhor   and Nopparat Pochai   Air pollution is the release of pollutants into the atmosphere that are harmful to human health and the ecosystem as a whole. Initially, urban air pollution was considered to be a regional problem caused largely by domestic heating and industrial emissions, both of which are now well under control. The building's canyon structure and the geometry of the streets in urban areas are street canyons. Side Street connects the two sides of the street, which are made up of portions of buildings. Street canyons, which are urban streets bordered on both sides by structures, have shown high levels of pollution. Pedestrians, cyclists, vehicles, and residents will most likely be surrounded by pollution concentrations higher than current air quality limits on these walkways. The research is focused on detecting air pollution in a street canyon. There will be an introduction to a transient two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. A two-dimensional vertically averaged air pollution measurement model is utilized to characterize the air pollution concentration along a street canyon. The model delivers the pollutant concentration in the air each and every time. The model's air pollutant concentration is approximated using a finite difference technique. An approximation approach to open and closed boundary conditions is proposed. Wind direction effects are also modelled. The suggested numerical approaches performed well in producing a high level of agreement. Simple explicit schemes have the benefit of being simple to compute. These techniques may be used to simulate air pollution measurements in a variety of street canyons.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Analysis of Wind Speed Characteristics Using Probability Distribution in

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Nor Hafizah Hussin   and Fadhilah Yusof   Renewable energy and energy efficiency are the key factors to ensure a safe, reliable, affordable as well as sustainable energy system for a better future. One of the most congruous, environment-friendly, and renewable energy sources is wind energy. However, it is consequential to examine the suitable probability distribution function to study the wind speed characteristics before the element can be harnessed as a source of energy. In this study, five probability distributions, Gamma, Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), Lognormal, Rayleigh and Weibull distribution were selected to model the wind speed data from four wind stations in Johor in a ten-year period. In addition, the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was applied to obtain the parameter estimation for each selected distribution function, followed by the plotting the graphical representation of probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) for the theoretical distributions against the provided wind speed data. To determine the best-fitted model of the probability distribution, the Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS) test and Anderson Darling (AD) test were employed to assess the goodness-of-fit for each model distribution. Based on the plotted graph and calculated goodness-of-fit results, GEV distribution was found to be the best-fitted model for the wind speed dataset in Senai, Mersing, and Batu Pahat wind station, while Gamma distribution established the optimum model for the actual wind speed dataset in Kluang station.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Vector Autoregressive Model with Seasonal Indicator and Feed Forward
           Neural Network for Modeling Rainfall in Malang and Karangkates

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Eni Sumarminingsih   Solimun   Djihan Wahyuni   and Triardy Satria Wibawa   Water is a basic need for the survival of every living thing. Rainfall is the main source of water availability. Lack of water supply can have a tremendous negative impact. On the other hand, heavy rainfall can cause flooding which has a bad impact. Accuracy in rainfall prediction is useful in crop planning strategies and flood and drought prevention. Research on rainfall used several models including Autoregressive (ARIMA), Seasonal ARIMA (SARIMA), Vector Autoregressive (VAR) and Feed Forward Neural – Network (FFNN). The purpose of this study is to establish a VAR with Seasonal Indicator and FFNN model for rainfall in Malang and Karangkates and compare the performance of the models. The novelty of this research is that we added the seasonal indicator variable to the VAR model as an exogenous variable and as an input to the feed forward neural network model. The best VAR model for rainfall in Malang and Karangkates is the first order VAR model (VAR(1)) with seasonal indicator variables. While the FFNN model for rainfall in Malang and Karangkates is the FFNN model with the tangent hyperbolic activation function and the number of units in the hidden layer is 15 and the inputs are seasonal indicator variables, rainfall in Malang the previous day and rainfall in Karangkates the previous day. The result of this study is VAR (1) with indicator variables model which is better than the VAR - NN with indicator variables model based on RMSE, especially on testing data.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Charles Darwin's Traverse of the South Pacific: A New Appraisal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Patrick Armstrong   H.M.S. Beagle in 1835-36 spent 127 days on the transect of the South Pacific Ocean with Charles Darwin aboard. 54 of those days were spent in or near island environments as the ship visited several of the Islands of the Galápagos, the main island of Tahiti and the Bay of Islands, New Zealand: Darwin also had good views of about a dozen other islands. His methods of working were largely similar to that adopted on other sectors of the voyage – the transects of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. He was relatively well-equipped, observed and recorded carefully, constantly revising his notes as new information came to hand and as he compared one island environment with another. Although there are few signs of evolutionary insights at this stage, he was using conceptual frameworks that were important to him later. Thus, he was interested in the behaviour of animals, sometimes adopted an ecological approach, and was considering landscapes in the context of change through geological time. There are signs that he was already adopting a ‘Lyellian' or gradualist viewpoint, particularly in the context of the development of volcanic and coral islands. This paper evaluates these visits, where appropriate, making comparisons with recent visits by the present author, in which he has attempted ‘to take the archives to the field' comparing the present situation with Darwin's records.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Effects of Fertilization to Groundwater Contamination

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Zawari Muian   and Woei Keong Kuan   Agricultural activities have been identified as one of the major sources of groundwater pollution. The large quantities of agrochemicals discharged from the agricultural land into the water bodies had posed risks to the aquatic ecosystems and human health. Nitrate is the most common chemical contaminant discharging into the aquifer system from agricultural area. A numerical model was developed in this study to investigate the influence of fertilization on the groundwater contamination in a paddy field in Langkawi Island. The investigation on the nutrient transport was conducted by applying an instantaneous injection of nutrient to mimic the fertilization under two different scenarios: low flow condition (dry season) and high flow conditions (wet season). The results showed that the extent and transport of nutrient plume in both study cases under short-term transport simulation (≤ 1 year) was not significant. The concentration of nutrient was found to take approximately 5 years to reduce to less than 10% of its initial concentration at its release location in the study area. The relative concentration of the dispersed nutrient plume was remained at 16.7% and 8.6% under low flow and high flow condition respectively after 30 years. The results suggested that the best practice of minimizing groundwater contamination in agricultural activities is to match the fertilizer usage with the crop requirement so that the cumulative impact of nitrate leaching into the groundwater system can be reduced.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Performance of Treated and Untreated Spent Coffee Ground on the Removal of
           Cu (II) in Aqueous Solution: A Comparative Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Aini Sofia Md Isa   and Zadariana Jamil   The performance of two types of spent coffee ground (SCG), (i) untreated spent coffee ground (USCG) and (ii) acid-treated spent coffee ground (TSCG) on the Cu (II) removal from aqueous solution was investigated and compared in this study. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, contact time and initial Cu (II) concentration on the adsorption rate were studied in batch adsorption mode. The USCG showed better results than the TSCG. The highest removal efficiency of Cu (II) (50 mg/L) by USCG was 91.03% with an adsorption capacity of 45.52 mg/g, which was achieved at pH 6 and 90 min of contact time. The TSCG showed lower performance with a removal efficiency of 44.18% and adsorption capacity of 37.06 mg/g. This may be due to the flushed off in the functional groups of SCG that used for metal binding in the adsorption during acid treatment and the existence of Cl- ions on the TSCG surface, interfering the Cu (II) adsorption and reduces its adsorption capacity. Freundlich fitted well with the equilibrium data for copper (II) removal, as indicated by the R2 coefficient, for USCG and TSCG were 0.9912 and 0.9622, respectively. These data indicate that both USCG and TSCG have high sorption capacity and affinity for metal ions. The USCG showed a better Cu (II) removal than the TSCG, indicating a promising function as a low-cost natural adsorbent for Cu (II) and also other heavy metals removals.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Removal of Mn and Cu Ions in Synthetic Wastewater Using Dried Cockle Shell

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Nur Fatin Aiman Ahmad Ridzwan   Norrahilah Abdul Aziz   Nor Azliza Akbar   Zaidi Abdul Ghani   Nurakmal Hamzah   and Nur Shaylinda Mohd Zin   The potential of the dried cockle shell had been studied using an adsorption experiment to determine the effectiveness of Mn and Cu removal from wastewater. A continuous batch adsorption study was carried out to determine the optimum dosage with a range of 3 g to 24 g of dried cockle shell and contact time from 15 minutes to 150 minutes. The equilibrium data for adsorption were analysed by three isotherm models (i.e., Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin) and three kinetic models (i.e., Pseudo-First Order, Pseudo-Second Order, Elovich) to define the best correlation for each metal adsorption. The result shows that the highest percentage removal of Mn and Cu using dried cockle shells were 77.8% and 88.9%, respectively, with an optimum dosage of 15 g and 105 minutes of optimum contact time. Among these three isotherm models, the Temkin model fitted with the equilibrium isotherm for Cu with the value of r2 of 0.963, while the Langmuir model best described the experimental data for Mn with a recorded value of r2 of 0.953. From the result, the cockle shell has the ability to adsorb heavy metals such as Mn by the process of a monolayer on the outer layer of the adsorbent and Cu with a Gaussian energy distribution onto a heterogeneous surface. Kinetic studies have shown that the adsorption of Cu and Mn towards the cockle shell follows Pseudo-Second Order with the determination of coefficients of 1 and 0.997, respectively. The findings from characterisation analysis found that a high percentage of CaCO3 with 95.47% influences the adsorption of Mn and Cu from wastewater. The SEM image of dried cockle shell exhibits needle-like aragonite morphology and cubic-like calcite. Cockle shells have a great potential for removing Mn and Cu from industrial effluent. Thus, it can be used as a filter material and helps increase the economy at a modest pace by recycling low-cost waste for wastewater treatment.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Performance of Recovered Coagulant from Water Treatment Sludge by
           Acidification Process

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Nurakmal Hamzah   Muhammad Arif Fahmi Roshisham   Md Faizal Zakaria   Muhamad Hasbullah Hassan Basri   and Nor Azliza Akbar   Aluminium sulphate (Al2SO4)3 or commonly known as alum has been used as a coagulation-flocculation agent by water treatment industries around the world, including Malaysia. Regardless of its effectiveness in purifying the raw water, it produces a large volume of alum sludge. In Malaysia, alum sludge is categorized as scheduled waste where it requires to be transported only to approved landfills and the costs could be high. Hence, reusing and recycling the alum sludge may be beneficial for water treatment industries in reducing the disposal cost. In this study, acidification method using nitric acid at a molarity of 0.5M – 2.0M is employed to recover a maximum percentage of aluminium from alum sludge. The findings showed that the difference in molarity of nitric acid is proportional to the recovery rate of aluminium up to 99% of the recovery. The performance of recovered coagulant in removing turbidity from raw water was evaluated at variations of dosage (0.5 – 12 mg/l) and pH (2 – 13). At an optimum dosage of 2 mg/l, the recovered coagulant efficiently removes the turbidity of raw water at 93.32% and achieved 99.47% at pH 7. Consequently, the use of recovered coagulant can promote a sustainable environmental approach to converting waterworks residuals into usable resources, particularly in water/wastewater treatment industries.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Harmony of Ecological Development in the Conditions of the Circular
           Economy Formation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  1  Olena Kryvda   Svitlana Tulchynska   Serhii Smerichevskyi   Nataliia Lagodiienko   Maksym Marych   and Aysel Naghiyeva   The research is devoted to the actual problem of harmony of ecological development in the conditions of the circular economy formation. The aim of the study is to develop methodological principles for determining harmony of the environmental development in the circular economy formation. To achieve this goal, the main principles of the concept of circular economy were identified, a step-by-step methodological approach to assessing harmony of the environmental development was developed and the proposed developments were tested on the example of the regions of Ukraine. Harmony of ecological development of regions in the conditions of the circular economy formation gives a chance to define a certain balance of the condition of environment that further provides development of directions of circular economy for reception of bigger efficiency of economic and ecological processes. In order to determine harmony of ecological development of regions in the conditions of the circular economy formation, it is offered to define the integrated index of ecological development, and on its base to calculate harmony of ecological development. To determine harmony, it is proposed to apply the " golden section " method using a modified formula of the hyperbolic Fibonacci cone. According to the results of the analysis, the regions are grouped depending on the level of the ecological development harmonization. Calculated and presented data on harmony of ecological development in the circular economy formation demonstrate that the highest average value of harmony have: Odessa (=0.402), Lviv (=0.349), Khmelnytsky (=0.347), Zhytomyr (=0.343), Ivano-Frankivsk (=0.343) regions. The regions with the lowest level of harmony are Dnipropetrovsk (=0.248), Donetsk (=0.157), Transcarpathian (=0.156), Luhansk (=0.143), Kherson (=0.171) regions. It is suggested within the study that not necessarily a high value of the integrated index of ecological development guarantees a high value of harmony of ecological development in circular economy, and vice versa.
      PubDate: Feb 2022
  • Using Anaerobic Digesters as a Sustainable Approach in Creating
           Sustainable Cities in Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Rania Rushdy Moussa   and Laila Atef Elsawaf   The first digestion plant was built in Bombay, India, in 1859. But since 1895, anaerobic digestion has been used to recover gas as a waste management system in England. Anaerobic digesters are one of the most well-known systems that are used worldwide to get rid of waste and generate energy, yet they have never been employed in Egypt. This research aims to determine the economic, social, and environmental impacts of anaerobic digesters in Egyptian cities and districts. From an economic perspective, the study estimates the energy produced from storing organic wastes in anaerobic digesters, using a quantitative approach to measure the efficiency of anaerobic digesters in Egyptian districts. In this study, the data were collected using surveys among residents and cleaners in the study area. The information gathered in this study was used to estimate the amount of organic waste (OW) produced by area 4 El-korba in Heliopolis, which will be stored in an anaerobic digester (AD) and used to generate heat, electricity, and fertilizer. In terms of social impact, the study relied on a site questionnaire to measure the impact of waste accumulation on the Egyptians. The aim of this paper is to study the storage of the OW collected from El Korba district in AD and how it can save electricity consumed by the district residential sector. Finally, the study applied a quantitative method to measure the amount of waste disposed of and burned in one Egyptian district from an environmental standpoint.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Factors Affecting CO2 Emissions in Vietnam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Nguyen Thi Phan Thu   Pham Hong Hanh   Nguyen Van Dinh   Hoang Dinh Luong   and Do Thi Minh Hue   In recent years, the signs and consequences of climate change have become increasingly evident in every continent and country, and are expected to increase in the coming years, posing risks to human health, food security, and global economic development. Therefore, controlling and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the basic cause of climate change, has become a hot issue for all countries, including Vietnam. CO2 emission is considered one of the main components of greenhouse gases. This paper was conducted to identify factors driving the change in CO2 emissions in Vietnam based on the extended IPAT model, decomposition method, and OLS regression analysis. The cross-sectional data in the model (including population, GDP per capita, energy intensity, emission intensity) were collected mainly from the World Bank and during the period 1986 - 2016. The analysis results show that GDP per capita is the variable that has the most significant influence on the increase in CO2, followed by energy intensity and population, while emission intensity is the only factor that contributes to the reduction of CO2 emissions. Based on these results, the study has proposed a number of policy recommendations to control and cut CO2 emissions in Vietnam, better orienting future decisions to deal with the threat of climate change.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Wetland Monitoring Programme and Techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Nisha Khatik   Wetlands are the areas where water covers the ground or is accessible at or near the ground's edge throughout the year or for varying periods of the year, including the developing season. Wetlands, the supports of biodiversity and key constituent of our climate, are among the most useful biological systems lodging more or less all botanical and faunal taxonomic units. Wetlands are an important part of our natural habitat; they protect our shores from wave action, mitigate the effects of floods, assimilate toxins, and improve the water quality. They provide habitat for plants and creatures, and various encompass a diverse range of life, supporting creatures and plants found nowhere else. Wetlands provide an essential range of social, natural, and monetary administrations. Wetlands environments are essential pieces of hydrological cycle, exceptionally useful in supporting rich biodiversity and supplying a wide scope of biological system administrations like water stockpiling, water decontamination, flood relief, storm cushions, disintegration control, spring re-energize, miniature environment guideline, tasteful upgrade of scenes while at the same time supporting numerous huge sporting, and social exercises. Assessment, monitoring, and reporting of wetlands in the country is critical for protecting and managing the country's remaining wetlands. Wetland monitoring is the assortment of explicit data for the executive's purposes and the utilization of these observing outcomes for execution purposes. Monitoring comprises of making foreordained estimations of chose physical or organic components at standard stretches. Normal components to gauge incorporate water profundity, disintegrated supplements, and number of calling creatures of land and water or birds.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Chemical-Bacteriological Composition and Assessment of Ecological
           Condition of Two Natural Lagoon-Type Lakes in Batumi (Adjara AR)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Nino Kiknadze   Nani Gvarishvili   Nunu Nakashidze   Gultamze Tavdgiridze   Darejan Jashi   and Svitlana Shvydka   Seasonal research of two relict lagoon-type lakes of Batumi (Adjara Autonomous Republic, Georgia) – Nuri-Gel and Ardagan waters has been carried out to assess their modern ecological condition. To assess the eco-situation of the lake waters, some physical, organoleptic, biochemical, chemical microbiological qualitative parameters have been experimentally determined. The topicality of the research is due to the fact that people often have an irreversible negative impact on the current sanitary-bacteriological condition of the waters of Lake Nuri-Gel and Ardagan. Based on the research, it has been revealed that in many cases the environmental quality mitigation parameters of the above-mentioned lakes are not within the maximum permissible concentration (MPC), which is caused by the negative impact of anthropogenic factors (such as draining faecal water fecal waters and various waste in lakes, caused, in many cases, by negative human activities). Due to the strategic importance of the research lakes, it is necessary to systematically research the ecological condition of their waters in order to assess the degree of cleanliness of these important ecosystems and to take timely preventive measures. At the same time, it should be noted that both lakes have recreational value and they are used for fishing, water sports and active relaxation, which further exacerbates the problem. To solve the ecological problems of Nuri-Geli and Ardagan lakes, we consider it necessary to carry out systematic cleaning works on them and to carry out periodic sanitary-bacteriological and hydrochemical control over their waters. It is necessary to work in a complex way to successfully overcome the tasks of rational use of their resources.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Influences of Problem Awareness, Awareness of Consequences and Ascription
           of Responsibility on Consumer's Personal Norm to Prevent Water Wastage

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Nabsiah Abdul Wahid   Sharifah Fairuz Syed Fadzil   and Shaizatulaqma Kamalul Ariffin   The issue of consumer water wastage is a serious issue in Malaysia. A reason for wastage behavior, particularly in Penang state, may be because water is a public good and the population enjoys paying low price for this natural resource. Wastage reflects not only the population's unsustainable behavior; it also reflects the difficult position faced by water providers in managing the nation's increasing demand and related costs. The aim of this study is to identify whether problem awareness (PA), awareness of consequences (AC) and ascription of responsibility (AR) influence an individual's personal norm (PN) in preventing water wastage behavior as theorized in the norm activation model (NAM). NAM is a popular theory applied by researchers in the investigation of individual pro-environmentalist behaviors. The study distributed a total of 500 questionnaires online and managed to collect 262 usable responses. The study respondents were mainly from Malaysian households who pay for water they consume. According to NAM, all moral norms factors (PA, AC, AR) are proposed to influence individual's personal norm. This study treats personal norm as a proxy variable for a consumer's pro-environmental behavior (water wastage prevention). Results from Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) analyses show significant relations to Malaysian consumers' personal norm by all three moral obliged factors tested. In addition, AC also influences consumers' AR. From these findings, the government and water providers will obtain insights into how Malaysian household consumers have developed their personal norms on prevention of water wastage behavior. It is now known that Malaysian consumers' moral obligations, including problem awareness, awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility, play important roles in shaping their personal norms in terms of the prevention of water wastage. From these insights, state governments and providers like Perbadanan Bekalan Air Pulau Pinang could use these moral obligations when planning for educational campaigns for the public at large to accept changing their water wastage behavior for the better.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Small Scale Rainwater Harvesting Design for External Usage

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Sharifah Meryam Shareh Musa   Muhamad Faizal Mostaffa   Norpazlihatun Manap   Azlina Md Yassin   and Rozlin Zainal   Water is a life-sustaining resource for humans and all other creatures. Humans, animals, and plants all need water to survive. A proper rainwater harvesting system (RWH) could produce clean and efficient water resources. This study aims to identify outdoor water consumption in UTHM main campus, to choose the appropriate capacity for RWH tank, and to suggest a rainwater harvesting design for outdoor water consumption in UTHM's main campus. This study involved fieldwork, literature study, collection of rainfall data, simulations using Tangki NAHRIM software, and a semi-structured interview with UTHM's assistant engineer. The results of this study identified a few outdoor water consumption in the UTHM's main campus, namely vehicle cleaning and watering the garden. Based on the rainfall data and the catchment area, the average daily harvested rainwater for a week is 2286.3ℓ. Therefore, a water tank system with capacity of 3000ℓ has been proposed as a solution. The results demonstrated two possible RWH designs, first, a stainless steel tank with a capacity of 3000ℓ, second, two polyethene tanks, each with 1500ℓ in capacity. Simulation results from Tangki NAHRIM showed that the proposed RWH system has high storage efficiency up to 97.86%. This research could serve as a guide for future researchers, the Center of Development and Maintenance UTHM (PPP UTHM), and contractors in designing future small-scale rainwater harvesting systems for outdoor water consumption in the UTHM Main Campus.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Sediment Properties of Eroded Coastal Area at Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Mardiha Mokhtar   Muhammad Azri Fikri B. Ariffin   Mohd Effendi Daud   Masiri Kaamin   Mohamad Azim Mohammad Azmi   and Nor Baizura Hamid   This paper was carried out to identify the sediment properties at eroded areas where Sungai Lurus and Pantai Punggur located in Batu Pahat were selected as the study area for this research. This study is prompted by the factors from climate changes which lead to the increase of sea level and vicious behaviour of sea waves. These factors are related to the erosion of coastline or the coastal changes along the south-west coast of Malaysia. The vulnerability of Malaysian coastline towards the coastal changes is something that is vital to deal with as Malaysia is surrounded by sea, and the coastal region plays a great role towards the socio-economic activities. In order to fathom the erosion at the coastline, it is crucial to grasp the fundamental of the soil physical properties which will clarify how the sediments might be transported. Based on the soil samples collected, Pantai Sungai Lurus can be classified as sandy clay with moisture content between 92% to 158% and 8.41% to 20.9% of organic content. Meanwhile, Pantai Punggur can be classified as silty clay with moisture content between 109% to 134% and 14.29% to 14.52% of organic content. The specific gravity of the samples is found to be between 2.624 to 2.651. The settling velocity at Pantai Sungai Lurus is about 79682x10-5 m/s to 0.088x10-5 m/s, and Pantai Punggur about 433x10-5 m/s to 0.552x10-5 m/s. The soil erodibility at Pantai Sungai Lurus is about 0.05776 (ton/ha) (, while at Pantai Punggur about 0.01264 (ton/ha)( The erosion rate is estimated to be 2.91x10-3 kg/m2/s at Pantai Sungai Lurus, and 0.812x10-3 kg/m2/s at Pantai Punggur. It can be concluded that the erosion rate of selected points at Pantai Sungai Lurus is higher than Pantai Punggur.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Environmental Information and Management of Ensuring Access to it (On the
           Example of Uzbekistan)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Robiya Sobirovna Toshboeva   The importance of environmental information in public administration in the field of environmental protection in the context of the digitalization of the economy is increasing every day, which is directly related to the improvement of the economic. The article reveals the concept of "environmental information" and the importance of reliable information about the qualitative and quantitative state of natural resources as one of its main parts in the context of aggravated environmental crises. In this regard, an important place is occupied by international norms regarding the formation and provision of environmental information. Analyzing the problem of the implementation of international legal norms in the field of formation of environmental information and ensuring access to it for interested bodies and persons in national legislation, the author substantiates the advisability of Uzbekistan's accession to the Aarhus Convention, which regulates, in particular, the issue of providing access to environmental information. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the current legislation in the field of obtaining and using information, as well as international law, the author analyzed some problems of national legislation (the distinction between the concepts of "request" and "appeal", lack of detailing the grounds for refusing to provide environmental information, etc.) and proposals were developed to further improve legislation in the field of formation of environmental information and ensure access to it, which are aimed at legal regulation of the collection, storage, updating and provision of global information about the natural resources of the planet, as well as further improvement of the information environmental resource. At the same time, the author proposes to adopt a law "On environmental information", which provides for the concept and types of environmental information and information resources, regulating the right of access to environmental information and its restrictions, as well as transfer the function providing environmental information of state bodies to the Unified Register of Electronic State Services, thus ensuring the possibility of obtaining environmental information about the country's natural resources through the "Electronic Government".
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • An Exchange Market of Water Rights for Irrigation in Tunisia: Case of
           Asymmetric Information on Water Quality

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Intissar Askri   Tunisia, due to its location between the Mediterranean and the Sahara, is an arid country on most of its territory. Indeed, there is a marked difference between the availability of water in the North of the country and its use for irrigation in the Center. This difference, combined with the variability of the Mediterranean climate, makes water resources scarce and unequally distributed in time and space. These problems led me to search for an alternative that reduces water consumption. The present paper heads towards the creation of markets for irrigation water rights in asymmetric information on the quality of this resource to minimize water consumption. Since important consequences result from the asymmetry of information in a water market, in the case where one of the parties in a market (buyer or seller) has more information than those of the other side. The purpose of this work is therefore to consider the exchange market of water rights to measure the economic efficiency of water markets on the one hand in the presence of total asymmetry of information on water quality and on the other hand in the presence of variable costs of information. And then to see what better strategy can reduce water consumption during years of scarcity. In response, we proposed to conduct a laboratory experiment (we used 8 sessions included 32 exchange periods), to test a variety of auction treatments and to measure the impact of unequal distribution of the cost of information on water quality between the different users (buyers and sellers). Results show that small changes in the distribution of information can have a large and considerable impact on the economy. The higher the information cost, the lower the number of high-quality permits sold, and thus the lower the efficiency of the market. Thus, it can be concluded that the high responsiveness of the demand for information on the quality of the resource suggests that pricing policies can be a potential instrument to minimize water consumption.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Performance of Water Level Forecasting Based on Chaos Approach Using Data

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Adib Mashuri   Nur Hamiza Adenan   Nor Suriya Abd Karim   Mohd Shahriman Adenan   and Nurulhuda Che Abd Rani   Forecasting accuracy should be prioritised in flood plain areas. This research focuses on data split of water level time series datasets in producing excellent forecasts as measured by coefficient correlation (CC). The datasets involved 6000 hours chosen from a recent research location at Sungai Dungun water level, which the data was split into different ratio datasets (50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10). A recent study has proved that the chaotic dynamic existed in time series data when running the data using the Cao method. The dataset used was divided into training and testing data to evaluate the performance based on the local linear approximation method. Those sets of data required a combination of parameters for prediction. In this study, the data split of water level time series data gave impacts to the combination of parameters for prediction. The result obtained was in the range of strong forecast using chaos approach with over 95% accuracy in every dataset. In addition, the dataset with a 50:50 ratio showed the highest CC obtained, and its values decreased in ascending order of 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, and 90:10. It showed that the splitting data of training and testing had an impact on prediction results. The higher number of training data ran, the lower number of CC was obtained. However, the chaos method still gives excellent prediction results, even when forecasting using different ratios of data set.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Statistical Analysis of Surface Tension and Viscosity of Heavy Oil Crude
           by Mixing Rule

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Mayda Lam-Maldonado   Yolanda G. Aranda-Jiménez   Edgardo J. Suárez-Domínguez   Kenya Suárez-Domínguez   Carlos A. Fuentes-Pérez   and Ruth C. Galindo-Lopez   Crude oil data analysis is necessary to know the possibilities in energy reduction in transport and some uses in many areas, such as materials construction or emissions reduction. Currently, extra-heavy crude oil is produced in Mexico and other countries like Canada, Venezuela, and the United States. For Mexico, in many cases, it is found as a part of "chapopote" in soils; solids and oils can be mixed to produce valuable materials on building construction. Models and representations of oils and many liquids are essential in the industry, allowing to predict a priori the characterization in many application cases. This first paper presents the experimental results related to the behavior of the surface tension of crude oil and a mixture of crude oil and a flow improver and the behavior of the viscosity concerning the temperature and the improver fraction in volume by statistical analysis and application of a mixing-rule for two liquids. From these results, statistical models were adjusted to be taken as a basis for interpreting the physical-chemical mechanism. It is possible to improve the transport and extraction of heavy crudes through chemical additives that act as flow improvers opening the possibility to combine with solids for some proposes as permeability change.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Exploring Strategies Applied in Promoting Community Agreements on
           Conservation in Lore Lindu National Park, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Marhawati Mappatoba   Chairil Anwar   Fachruddin Z. Olilingo   Sahlan Ilyas   Saharia Kassa   Hadayani   and Mustainah Mappatoba   The community agreements on conservation in the villages surrounding the LLNP are promoted by NGOs that differ in their objectives and value orientations. The objective of this article was to explore the strategies applied by different NGOs and the contents of the agreements. Descriptive analysis had been used to analyse both the negotiation process and the contents of the agreement. Interviews with stakeholders were conducted in these 6 villages as basis for the selection of research locations. In view of the comparatively small number of villages to choose from the large variation among them, a purposive sampling method was applied. The criteria included the coverage of the three districts where agreements had been signed and coverage of the three NGOs promoting agreements that were already signed. The result shows that these three NGOs played a pioneering role in establishing the agreements: (1) Yayasan Tanah Merdeka (Free Earth foundation – YTM), an NGO which concentrates on advocacy for indigenous rights, (2) The Nature Conservancy (TNC), an international NGO which deals with conservation, and (3) CARE, an international NGO which concerns on rural development.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Role of Vegetation for the Protection of Phewa Watershed, Kaski, Nepal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Bimal Bahadur Kunwar   Basanta Raj Adhikari   Nantakan Muensit   Kuaanan Techato   and Saroj Gyawali   Natural resources as well as watersheds are vulnerable all over the world by a variety of natural and anthropogenic activities. Mountain watersheds in the Nepal Himalaya are severely degraded due to active tectonics and Asian Monsoon. The Phewa watershed is one of the vulnerable watersheds in this region, which is also included in the Ramsar sites. This watershed has degraded due to soil erosion, weak geology, fragile landscape, encroachment and climate change. Therefore, this research focuses on the status of the watershed and the role of vegetation for preserving it from further degradation. Protecting and conserving water, vegetation, and soil, as well as reforesting, have been the most common means of preventing watershed risks. Vegetation can help with slope stability, velocity reduction of water, and surface roughness, as well as soil infiltration, better soil structure, and increased soil strength. Species that are native to the area offer superior erosion control because of their fast growing properties and the ability to reproduce quickly, which are important for the watershed's protection.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Children's Independent Mobility: A Study of Middle Childhood Home Ranges
           in Two Different Socio-Physical Settings in El-Shorouk City, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Summer S. Hamad   Yasser M. Moustafa   and Marwa H. Khalil   Independent mobility has a positive impact on children's cognitive, physical, and social development. Many factors affect how children utilize spaces surrounding their homes. The characteristics of both the physical and the social environments are important influencing factors. The aim of this study was to explore children's independent mobility and free exploration within their home range extent. The study investigated children's home range extent and independent mobility-related activities in two different settings selected to represent two of the most common socio-physical contexts in the new settlements being developed around Cairo. Methods of data collection included semi-structured interviews with children and parents in addition to neighborhood walk-through observations. The forty children interviewed were categorized into two age groups, 7 to 9 and 10 to 12-year-old and included an equal number of girls and boys. The findings of the study appear to confirm the influence of gender, age, socio-economic context, and physical characteristics of the neighborhood environment on middle-aged children's independent mobility in the Egyptian context. The study suggests that land use diversity and residential density are issues that are closely related to parents' perceptions about the safety of their children around the neighborhood and need to be carefully considered in the planning of new settlements and housing projects.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Features of the Pre-trial Investigation of Air Pollution

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  Yuriy Tymoshenko   Dmytro Kyslenko   Elizaveta Kuzmichova-Kyslenko   Ihor Leonenko   and Ivan Servetsky   Concern for the regulation of relations between man and nature cannot be only an internal affair of an individual country, especially in matters of atmospheric air and the commission of crimes in this area. Most current environmental problems have a global aspect, which means they can be solved only through international cooperation. In today's reality, the European Union is taking decisive legal and organizational steps towards combating air pollution as a crime against the environment. At the same time, the legal regulation in this area needs to be updated, and the methods of conducting investigative actions need to be generalized, coordinated and involve more experts. The aim of the article was to conduct a comparative analysis of the procedural actions of competent authorities during the pre-trial investigation of air pollution in the territory of EU Member States and identify their typical features. The leading practical methodological tools were methods of observation and comparison. The study revealed the imperfection of the procedural actions of law enforcement agencies in the EU and the low level of crime detection in this area. At the same time, the involvement of experts by law enforcement agencies at the stage of the initial inspection of the scene can help to qualitatively increase the effectiveness of the investigation. As part of the research, it was proposed for the Member States to establish independent institutions in the environmental field at the national level. The reasonability of developing a unified EU Coordination Program for pre-trial investigation of air pollution in the national and transboundary context at the interstate level is substantiated. The gradual implementation of the changes proposed by the author in the territory of the EU member states will be a vector of further research in the long run.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Bioremediation Studies on Melanoidin Containing Distillery Spent Wash by
           Using Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2022
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  10  Number  2  S. A. Bhamare   and V. R. Kakulte   Melanoidins are the natural condensation products present in distillery spent wash. It is the result of Millard reaction which occurs between glucose and glycine. From environmental aspects, melanoidins are very important because of the complex structure and caliginous colour and objectionable odour, which can cause damage to the surroundings. All these characteristics of melanoidin modify the photosynthetic activity of plants, reduce the dissolved oxygen of aquatic ecosystem, soil fertility is affected to a large extent, and it also slows down the sprouting of seeds. Bioremediation is an environmentally friendly technology for the treatment of chemical and hazardous waste. Bacteria from the nearby contaminated soil have a high potential to convert complex bioorganic substances to simpler absorbable form. With reference to this utilization of bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides is an economical technology for the treatment of contaminated water having melanoidin. After treatment, the distillery spent wash was tested by using the analytical techniques as spectrophotometry, modified spectroscopy as Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), chromatography with high performance i.e. (HPLC). In the present research paper, the results of above-mentioned techniques helped to make conclusions, as distillery spent wash polluted site contains a novel microorganism, which would be effective for the decolourisation as well as degradation of distillery spent wash. Application of Leuconostoc mesenteroids showed 40% distillery spent wash which contains melanoidin. Thus, the use of this novel microorganism in the field of environmental biotechnology will be an effective way to solve the biggest problem of water and soil pollution.
      PubDate: Apr 2022
  • Economic Instrument in Environmental Management: A Case Study of
           Environmental Protection Tax in Vietnam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Dinh Duc Truong   Because of its fast economic expansion in recent decades, Vietnam, a developing country, is increasingly plagued by environmental degradation. Vietnam is also one of the five countries most affected by climate change. In 2012, the government enacted the Environmental Protection Tax Law, which included a broad-based package of environmental levies. The implementation of the Environment Protection Tax (EPT) is one component of a larger process of greening the Vietnamese economy. Environmental taxes have the potential to alleviate some of the environmental issues that developing countries face. At the same time, it promotes long-term patterns of production and consumption. This offers financial resources required to enhance social and environmental indices. However, environmental taxes may have both direct and indirect consequences, such as increased prices for products and services, which have a detrimental impact on social justice, particularly in low-income households. This page will give a more in-depth explanation of environmental protection tax implementation, accomplishments, and impacts. It is also responsible for analyzing issues and making recommendations for future EPT improvements.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • Environmental Analysis Impact Reduction from Replacing a Traditional
           Mortar with an Earth-Fiber Plaster

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Laura C. Moreno-Chimely   M. Teresa. Sánchez-Medrano   Yolanda G. Aranda-Jiménez   Eduardo Arvizu-Sanchez   Kenya Suarez-Dominguez   and Edgardo J. Suarez-Dominguez   Mortars based on cement and sand are common in buildings; however, cement is characterized by consuming large amounts of energy. It is stated that there is possibility of reducing emissions to the environment if soil-based mixtures are obtained from the land near the house where they are used, but this is not generally demonstrated through a functional life cycle analysis. The life cycle analysis is carried out "from the cradle to the grave." In this research, we analyzed the environmental impact of materials used in earth-buildings in Mexico, which are typical in rural houses; three coatings cases were used: one traditional cement-sand, a second based on Earth with lime and fiber, considering that it is transferred manually from the surrounding soil, and another modifying the transfer but with industrial machinery. The fiber was produced from Agave lechuguilla torrey, a plant grown in the same field of housing location; the experimental part was developed at Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico, to obtain the selected composition and coating thickness. The results show that the impact on the environment and climate change can be reduced by up to 65%. Using transport processes with fossil fuel-based equipment considerably increases the impact, so nearby material collection areas should be considered to reduce environmental impact effectively.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • Land Use Policy of Agroforestry: Case Study of Protected Area Changes in
           Sekaroh Forest, East Lombok West Nusa Tenggara

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Aminah   Nur Adhim   and I Gusti Ayu Gangga Santi Dewi   The condition of existing forest use in Sekaroh, East Lombok is dominated by forest change function to increase the production of corn, leading to the massive deforestation. The research is to analyze the deforestation and land use conversion in Sekaroh, East Lombok. It is also to analyze local government policies in facing the rampant conversion of forest function to corn plantations in East Lombok. The research was conducted using the socio legal method with a qualitative approach with evidence-based data analysis to demonstrate the deforestation and economic interest of corn production in local level. The results showed that forest protection is part of forest management which falls under the authority of the central government and local governments. The implementation of forest protection aims to protect the forest area and its environment so that the protection function, conservation function and production function can be achieved optimally and sustainably. Moreover, the policy also needs to consider the limited production forest and geographic conditions in local context considering that the function of production forest is limited to maize plantations.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • Geographic Information Systems Applications in the Tourism Planning of
           Archaeological Sites in Fatimid Cairo

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Hany Ahmed Aly Ibrahim Khattab   and Ramadan Ahmed Mohammed El-Sayed   Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is one of the modern methods that contributed extensively to facilitating the tasks and performance of planners during decisions related to the development or analysis of a particular problem with a spatial dimension, and this technique has been used in many different scientific fields such as the study of the distribution of services, analysis of land uses, or the division of transportation. The paper aims to highlight the benefits of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in tourism planning, identify the basic stages of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications in tourism planning, and to identify the importance of using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the tourism planning of archaeological sites in Fatimid Cairo. This study was based on a descriptive analytical approach and the field survey method was applied in the sample method to reach conclusions that serve the objectives of the study. This study was finalized by several results, most notably: The need to use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in documenting the monuments by transferring all images, data and written inscriptions on them and illustrating them through pictures and videos, to form a database to be available to the tourist, researcher and planner. The planning of archaeological sites using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the study area (Fatimid Cairo), saves time and effort by relying on aerial and space images and topographic maps with high accuracy and conducting analysis and reaching accurate results in a very short period, compared to the time required using traditional methods.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • The Level of Ecological and Hydrobiological Indicators in the Cheboksary

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Andrey Vladimirovich Kozlov   Nataliya Nikolaevna Koposova   Irina Pavlovna Uromova   Elena Aleksandrovna Krotova   Anna Vladimirovna Matveeva   and Nadezhda Vasilevna Polyakova   The paper assesses the ecological state of the Cheboksary reservoir based on the criteria of the total abundance, biomass, and species diversity of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos. During the study period, no significant changes in the indicators of the development of algocenoses, their distribution over the water area of the reservoir were noted. The average phytoplankton biomass for the reservoir turned out to be in the dynamic norm, the trophic status was assessed as eutrophic; The revealed ratios of the leading systematic groups of planktonic algae and the composition of cenosis-forming species had also been in the previous years of the study. According to the level of the saprobity index, all sampling stations belong to class III (moderately polluted waters). The benthos of the reservoir was also characterized by sufficient diversity with the dominance of mollusks and chironomid larvae in the taxonomic composition. Thus, despite the presence of a certain anthropogenic impact on the water area of the Cheboksary reservoir, its hydrobiological state remains satisfactory, which is determined by a wide buffer limit to the level of pollution of the water body.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • A Review of Hazardous Compounds Present in Construction Waste Materials

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Elamaran Manoharan   Norazli Othman   Roslina Mohammad   Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan   and Siti Uzairiah Mohd Tobi   Construction industry around the world is well-known as a massive contributor of waste materials and environmental impacts. Among the types of waste materials generated by this industry are concrete, plastic, wood, ceramic, and asbestos. These waste materials, in general, are chemically fused through various manufacturing processes before being transported for the construction usage. Addition of chemical compounds such as arsenic, copper, cyanide, nickel, chromium, lead, sulphate, and zinc are mainly for enhancing the mechanical and physical properties of the materials so that the materials could last longer, perform well and withstand external forces. However, construction materials that are made up of these chemical compounds are threatening the nature and human beings once the materials are used up and the leftover from the construction industry are thrown away without proper waste management practice. The aim of the study was to review hazardous compounds presented in construction waste materials and suggest ways to manage it effectively. The methodology is literature review, data collection from published articles, and data analysis. Findings from this study showed that concrete, plastic, wood, ceramic, and asbestos are among the waste materials that are made up of hazardous compounds, which impact the environment and mankind living today. As a mitigation measure, a proper waste management practice is necessary among the construction practitioners to protect humans and biological factors, save some landfill spaces, preserve some natural resources, prevent soil and underground water channel contamination, avoiding illegal dumping activities, and promotes sustainability factors. Obeying the enforced rules and regulations, utilisation of various waste management technologies, on-site waste segregation and proper storage, waste substitutions, and making use of well-structured framework developed by researchers and construction consultancy are among the methods that can be adopted in polishing the current waste management practice.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • Deficit in Leadership Qualities Negating Efforts in Curtailing Climate

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Rasheed Adeniyi Tiamiyu   and Umar Taiwo Salman   Continuing generation of carbon dioxide by some nations in flagrant disobedient to the Paris Agreement of 2015 on greenhouse gas emission limitation is a matter of great concern to those who know the negative impact of climate change on the planet and human immunity in particular. The disobedient to the content of the Paris Agreement of 2015 is observed to be a resultant effect of deficit in the qualities of leaders of countries. Therefore, this paper examined the literature on climate change with a view to extracting what could be done to bring the nations acting against the interest of the world in limiting greenhouse gas generation to cooperate and collaborate with other nations in making the planet better for the living. It discovered that the collaborative efforts displayed by the World Health Organisation and individual nations in combating COVID-19 should be adopted to combat climate change as it has shown that no nation is independent of other nations in solving the problem of climate change since action/inaction of a nation has effects across the globe and that heads of countries must be educated and persuaded to be humane and relate with all human race as one to address climate change and make the planet a save abode for the livings.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • The Role of the State in Providing Public Services for the Utilization of
           Marine Resources

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  5  Marlina Br Purba   Lazarus Tri Setyawanta Rebala   and Nanik Trihastuti   This paper aims to describe the role of the state in carrying out its public services for the utilization of natural resources by using the outlook of Indonesian philosophical insight of Pancasila in managing archipelagic state. This paper was conducted by using normative juridical approach to describe national management of marine resources. The management of marine resources is carried out through a legal framework to provide legal certainty and benefits for all communities as an archipelagic country characterized by an archipelago. The findings highlight that policies to maintain and manage marine natural resources, which will then be written about marine resources, must provide legal certainty and benefit value. The main contribution of this research is to explain the intersection of interests between uses within the national scope and at the same time containing the interests of use within the scope for the international community. This paper qualitatively examines the role of state as the main public service provider in administering institutions, corporations, independent institutions established by law for public service activities, and other legal entities established solely for public service activities in the context of utilization of marine resource. Empirical relationship between public sector performance and marine resource utilization was not tested in this study. The results encourage the state to maintain the integration of the nation and state both ideologically and territorially by realizing reliable public service through the improvement of utilizing marine resource as a means of increasing people welfare, especially in an archipelagic state such as Indonesia. The description is in relation to the role of the state in implementing public services in the utilization of marine resources in an archipelagic country based on national insight.
      PubDate: Oct 2021
  • Projections of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Peninsular Malaysia
           Using Statistical Downscaling Based on Cluster Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  3  Aina Izzati Mohd Esa   Syafrina Abdul Halim   and Norhaslinda Ali   Projecting the mortality of cardiovascular disease in future is crucial in preparing the mitigation strategies. The purpose of this research is to estimate number of deaths of the cardiovascular disease in Peninsular Malaysia based on future temperature projections using the cluster approach. Ward's method is used to identify the number of clusters of 45 meteorological stations by calculating the shortest distance between the two coordinates of the stations. The output of global climate model (GCM) is incredibly useful for the projection of future temperature, but the large bias in the observational datasets may lead to inaccurate projection. To tackle the bias, a good fitted model for temperature series is important in order to ensure that the mean and variability of the observed series are well captured. It is important to estimate the parameters for each cluster precisely. Furthermore, a good fitted model for temperature series is also crucial in order to ensure that the mean and variability of the observations are well captured. Thus, this study proposed the appropriate statistical distribution for the temperature series to be associated in the bias correction method (BCM) using the quantile mapping (QM) technique to reduce the biases between observations and historical GCM temperature data series. Next, Ward's method is applied to determine the optimal number of clusters for Peninsular Malaysia. The results have shown that the proposed model is able to reduce the temperature series biases between the GCM and the observations. Six clusters throughout Peninsular Malaysia have been selected based on Ward's method. The projection number of deaths of cardiovascular disease under is estimated to increase between 2006 and 2100 in all clusters across Peninsular Malaysia, based on the temperature projections.
      PubDate: Jun 2021
  • A RPCA-Based Tukey's Biweight for Clustering Identification on Extreme
           Rainfall Data

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  3  Siti Mariana Che Mat Nor   Shazlyn Milleana Shaharudin   Shuhaida Ismail   and Kismiantini   In high dimensional data, Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based Pearson correlation remains broadly employed to reduce the data dimensions and to improve the effectiveness of the clustering partitions. Besides being prone to sensitivity on non-Gaussian distributed data, in a high dimensional data analysis, this algorithm may influence the partitions of cluster as well as generate exceptionally imbalanced clusters due to its assigned equal weight to each observation pairs. To solve the unbalanced clusters in hydrological study caused by skewed character of the dataset, this study came out with a robust method of PCA in term of the correlation. This study will explain a RPCA to be proposed as an alternative to classical PCA in reducing high dimensional dataset to a lower form as well as obtain balance clustering result. This study improved where RPCA managed to downweigh the far-from-center outliers and develop the cluster partitions. The results for both methods are compared in term of number of components and clusters obtained as well as the clustering validity. Regarding the internal and stability validation criteria, this study focuses on the cluster's quality in order to validate the results of clusters obtained for both methods. From the findings, the amount of clusters had improved significantly by using RPCA compared to classical PCA. This proved that the proposed approach are outliers resistant than classical PCA as the proposed approach made a thorough observation assessment and downweigh the ones which were distant from the data center.
      PubDate: Jun 2021
  • A Numerical Model of Carbon Dioxide Concentration Measurement in a Room
           with an Opened Ventilation System

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  3  Wasu Timpitak   and Nopparat Pochai   A vast number of patients visit the facility every day, causing a major air pollution issue that may pose a risk of exposure of respiratory infectious diseases in outpatient rooms and harm human health. TB, COVID-19, MERS, and SARS are dangerous communicable diseases that transmit from person to person through the air or aerosol in a variety of forms, such as coughing, spitting, sneezing, speaking, or through wounds. COVID-19, TB, MERS and SARS are risks and the chances of success toward lethal infection make more patients ill in the hospital. We should also be notified of the care and control of these diseases. As a result, effective air quality monitoring is needed to monitor and reduce the potential for infected air, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Measuring and controlling carbon dioxide in a hospital with a ventilation system where the number of patients in each room varies in time is challenging. In this research, the numerical model of carbon dioxide concentration measurement in a space with an opened ventilation system is proposed. The model sets the concentration of carbon dioxide at any point when the number of people and the rate of ventilation varies. The classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is employed to approximate the model solution. There are many cases of scenarios for improving air quality in the proposed simulations. In the air quality management process, the proposed model provides a balance between the number of persons allowed to stay in the room and the capacity of the air ventilation system.
      PubDate: Jun 2021
  • The Impact of Population and Deforestation on Climate Change in Malaysia:
           A Causal Loop Diagram

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Musthaza Mohammad   Wan Laailatul Hanim Mat Desa   Norazura Ahmad   and Norhaslinda Zainal Abidin   It is well recognised that numerous demands from the human population, such as food and housing, have resulted in widespread deforestation, which has been directly linked to climate change. These demands impose negative impacts on the environment, resulting in the problem of global warming and eventually climate change, hence inflicting an existential threat to our environment. Therefore, this paper discussed the development of a hypothesis of the cause-and-effect relationships between population and deforestation towards climate change in Malaysia. Using a causal loop diagram (CLD), a hypothetical framework depicting the cause-and-effect interactions of the connected variables of deforestation and population on climate change was built based on various reports from government agencies and a review of existing literature. The developed CLD shows that the impact of population and deforestation on climate change has negatively affected the sea level and excessive rainfall. The dynamic hypothesis enables the modeller to grasp the complex behaviour of the interrelated variables. This dynamic hypothesis will be used as a basis for the development of a dynamic simulation model in future work.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • The Resilience of Small-Scale Fishing Households to the Anthropogenic
           Environmental Shocks

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Le Thi Hong Phuong   Truong Quang Dung   Duong Ngoc Phuoc   Le Thi Thanh Thuy   Tran Cao Uy   and Truong Van Tuyen   The marine environmental incident causing mass fish death in Central Vietnam by Formosa Ha Tinh Steel Plant in 2016 severely impacted people's livelihoods in four provinces. Several previous studies have indicated that diversifying livelihoods is one of the best solutions to increase the resilience of households to overcome such incidents. This study investigated the relationship between livelihood diversification and the stability of small-scale fishing households. Our findings showed that impact levels and resilience capacity under family perception are important aspects for impact assessment in the context of the environmental shock. Local families can diversify their livelihoods based on their resources as well as through government-supporting policies. The livelihood diversification of impacted households is significantly valuable in increasing the resilience process after the Formosa incident. Families with more livelihood activities related to income sources have better resilience than families with less livelihood activities. By the effort of households and government support policies, impacted households have gradually improved their livelihood resilience.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • Atlantic Ocean Circulation as the Driving Force for the Holocene Thermal
           Maximum and Millennial Scale Climatic Variability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Kari Hänninen   The aim of this meta-study is to provide an understanding of the Atlantic Ocean Circulation as the driving force for the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and Millennial Scale Climatic Variability. In addition to continental ice sheets, during the Great Ice Age (GIA) there was also a 900-m thick floating ice shelf (FIS) in the Arctic Ocean. Below the FIS, it was likely freshwater. It is plausible that around 11,700 BP the Gulf Stream established the present flow route. Until around 10,800 BP the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (GBN) diverted part of the Gulf Stream flow west towards the north-eastern American coast, where the HTM existed between ca. 11,600 and 10,800 BP. Soon after the Gulf Stream was able to flow over the GBN, the HTM started in Ireland ca. 10,700 BP. By ca. 10,000 BP, the Gulf Stream arrived on the coast of Norway, which diverted the outflow south through the English Channel for approximately 2,000 years. In Northern and Central Europe, the HTM existed between ca. 9,500 and 7,000 BP. Due to the melting of ice, the outflow turned brackish, and was mainly surface currents, having a temperature of around 0℃. The formation of descending salty water (DSW), which creates the suction of the Gulf Stream, was low. Between ca. 6,000 and 4,500 BP, there was Mid-Holocene cooling. Then the Arctic Ocean water was salinated by double diffusive convection (DDC). When DSW formation increased to its present-day volume, the Neoglacial period started ca. 4,500 BP. Since then, outflow has taken place mainly through cold (approximately –2℃) undercurrents. At this time, the intensive millennial scale cycling of warmer and colder periods also started. When increasingly larger areas in Arctic Ocean are covered by insulating multi-year ice (MYI), DSW formation and the suction of the Gulf Stream decrease, and vice versa. The amplitude of the cycle is approximately 750 to 800 years.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • The Responsibility of Private Pawnshops in Facilitating
           Ecologically-Friendly Marine Economies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Siti Malikhatun Badriyah   Siti Mahmudah   Amiek Soemarmi   R. Suharto   Marjo   Muhammad Haidar Fakhri Allam   and Adina Larasati   As the largest maritime country in the world, Indonesia has extremely large and diverse natural resources, both in the form of renewable and non-renewable natural resources. The natural wealth must be managed optimally to improve the welfare and prosperity of the Indonesian people. In the operation of marine economy, financial services also have a huge effect on the development of marine industry as a whole. This paper aims to analyze the supporting activities of auxiliary operations of financial services, especially pawnshops, in supporting the development of the ecologically friendly marine economies, particularly for vulnerable small fishermen. The research method used is empirical juridical by conducting library research related to legal principles, legal rules and legal norms related to private pawning. In addition, field research was also conducted to obtain primary data related to the existence of private pawnshops in the development of the fishing industry and its environmentally friendly approaches. The results of the study show that pawning has actually great potential for industrial development, including the fishing industry; but even though there are arrangements to facilitate the supervision of private pawning businesses, in practice there are still not many private pawns registered. Although not many have been registered, from time to time it shows progress. The existence of private pawnshops in Indonesia in the direct development of the fishing industry is still not widely used.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • Medical Plant Species: Distribution, Traditional Utilization, Conservation
           and Role in Tourism Development in the Forest of Taman Gumi Banten,
           Wanagiri Village, Buleleng, Bali

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Nyoman Wijana   Desak Made Citrawathi   Sanusi Mulyadiharja   Ketut Srie Marhaeni Julyasih   and Ni Putu Sri Ratna Dewi   Taman Gumi Banten Forest is located in Wanagiri Village, Sukasada District, Buleleng Regency, Bali Province. This forest was previously managed by the local government. When managed by the government, illegal logging occurred and expansion of cultivated plants into the forest. The government then grants the forest for its management to the customary village. The forest that is managed by this customary village is based on local wisdom so that this forest remains sustainable until now and there is no illegal logging and expansion of cultivated plants into the middle of the forest. The purpose of this study was to determine the various species of medicinal plants and their mapping in the perspective of traditional medicinal plant use, processing methods, usage methods, designation of medicinal plants, tourism perspectives, and local wisdom-based conservation. The research population was all plant species in the forest of Taman Gumi Banten. The research sample for (1) mapping study was the entire forest area of Taman Gumi Banten. (2) Plant species samples are all plant species covered by squares with a size of 20x20 m2 (for trees), 5x5 m2 (for saplings), and 1x1 m2 for seeds / seedlings). To find out the various types of plants that can be used as medicinal plants, deep interview methods, observation, questionnaires, and check lists are used. The informants were Balian / Shaman (2 people), Village Head and staff (5 people), Traditional Village Head staff (5 people), Stakeholders / Pastors (3 people), General Community (10 people). Total informants were 25 people. The collected data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed: (1) The overall plant species and medicinal plants in the Taman Gumi Banten forest, Wanagiri Village, Sukasada District, Buleleng Regency have been mapped. (2) The traditional use of medicinal plants by the Balinese people generally has three properties, namely tis (cold), dumelade (not cold and not hot), and anget (hot). (3) In the perspective of developing forest tourism, there are opportunities to be developed as a tourism object.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • Steps towards Sustainability: Relationships between Neighborhood
           Environment and Physical Activity

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  6  Yasmeen Gul   Gul A. Jokhio   and Zahid Sultan   Physical activity (PA) is pivotal for health, and Neighborhood Environment (NE) is understood to play a significant role in increasing physical activity. The investigation into the combined effects of NE on PA considering the differences between gated and non-gated types of neighborhoods in developing countries is relatively scarce. As an effort towards filling this gap, this paper reports an investigation that focuses on the association of PA with NE; moreover, it compares the PA in gated and non-gated neighborhoods in Karachi, Pakistan. Data were calculated through objective and subjective methods. 8 out of 16 neighborhoods were gated. 499 out of total 1042 participants were from the gated neighborhoods. Partial correlation and binary logistic regression analyses were carried out. The effects of age, gender, and employment status were controlled for the purpose of statistical analysis. Positive relationships were identified between walking and street connectivity and land-use mix. The relationship between walking and housing density was negative. The number of physical activity facilities (PAF) was found to positively influence vigorous physical activity (VPA). It was noted that there were more PAF in gated neighborhoods, hence an enhanced VPA there, but only among young age group people. Therefore, it has been concluded that new policies for neighborhoods design should be formulated to provide multiple choices for every individual so that they can achieve the required levels of physical activity.
      PubDate: Dec 2021
  • Agro-ecological Influence on the Nutrient Status and Physico-Chemical
           Dynamics of the Ultisols of Rural Ehom, Cross River State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Egbai O. O.   Oba D. O.   Ambe B. A.   Abang P. O.   Eneyo V.   and Ocheche C. A.   A study on the agro-ecological influence on nutrient status and physicochemical dynamics of ultisols was conducted in Ehom in Cross River State, Nigeria. The objective was to ascertain the effect of key traditional farming practices on nutrients and physicochemical properties of soils in the area. Soil samples were manually collected for laboratory determination of these properties. Descriptive statistics was used to determine variation in the textural characteristics of soil while Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test variation in soil chemical characteristics. Results proved that traditional bush burning has beneficial effects of adding potassium (K) into the soil while nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were adequately enhanced through the application of artificial fertilizer on one hand and the incorporation of plant's residues into the soil on the other. Tillage and slashed treatments facilitated soil organic carbon and other plant's nutrients absorption but exerted little or no influence on the textural characteristics of soil. The reason is the value of soil textural classes was not statistically different across treatment blocks. Descriptive statistics also proved that all nutrients/chemical properties of soil were altered considerably as mean pH values of 5.32 B/F and 6.62 A/F in burn treatment practice and the soil Organic carbon content also altered considerably from a mean of 2.8 to 4.56. Analysis of variance indicates that there was a significant difference in all nutrients/chemical properties of soil at 0.05 probability level indicating that on farm treatment methods altered soil nutrient and chemical properties considerably. The study recommends adoption of sound agricultural practices taking into consideration the prevailing soil and environmental condition.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • Removal of Hazardous Organic Pollutants Using Fly Ash

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Ahmed Eteba   M. Bassyouni   and Mamdouh Saleh   This study aims to achieve the highest removal efficiency of direct blue dye using a low-cost adsorbent. The adsorption of direct blue 78 dye (DB78) with commercial name (Tubantin blue GLL 300) from a synthetic wastewater using a raw coal fly ash was studied. The ability of coal fly ash (industrial by product) as cost-effective adsorbent to remove dyes from textile wastewater effluent was investigated in detail. A series of batch experiments were conducted in terms of adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, and initial concentration of dye. The raw coal fly ash was characterized by physico-chemical analysis namely; X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). It was found that the major phases for coal fly ash are quartz and hematite. Loss of ignition percentage and surface area are 36% and 9.6113 m2g-1 respectively with average particles size 624 nm. The adsorption tests showed that the removal efficiency increases with increasing adsorbent dosage and contact time. Removal efficiency decreases at high initial concentration of direct blue 78 dye. The maximum capacities for dyes removal reached to 99.1% with initial concentration 10 mg/l and fly ash dose 3 g/l. Dyes removal (98.4%) was obtained using initial concentration 20 mg/l and fly ash dose 4 g/l. At higher initial concentration (30 mg/l) using fly ash dose 5 g/l, lower removal efficiency was obtained with 97.2%. The Langmuir isotherm model was shown to have a higher coefficient of determination R2 than the Freundlich isotherm model in representing the fly ash adsorption process.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • Assessment of Chronological Records of Rare Earth Elements in Sidi Moussa
           Lagoon Sediment (North-Western Morocco)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Ayoub Benmhammed   Abdelmourhit Laissaoui   Nezha Mejjad   El Mahjoub Chakir   Nadia Ziad   Azzouz Benkdad   Adil El Yahyaoui   and Hasna Ait Bouh   Rare Earth Elements and yttrium (REEs+Y) were measured by inductively Coupled Plasmas – Mass Spectrometry in two previously dated sediment cores collected from Sidi Moussa lagoon, located in the Moroccan Atlantic coast, in order to establish the historical inputs of these elements and to determine the contribution of anthropogenic activities. In an attempt to clarify the phase associations of REE+Y, the Ce anomaly profiles were partitioned into three parts: the upper part with negative anomalies, except for a positive Ce/Ce* peak in 1983, the middle part with positive anomalies rising to high Ce/Ce*, and the lower part with also fairly increasing positive anomalies. Pearson correlations were calculated between REE+Y and major elements (Mn, Fe and Al) in different parts of Core-1. REE+Ys, except for Pr, were significantly correlated only with Mn, which suggests that the associated phase in the upper part consists of Mn oxides. The central part is characterized by a negative correlation of REE+Y with Mn and a positive correlation with Fe. The maximal concentrations were observed in two horizons in the sediment cores being attributed to both natural and industrial sources. The association of REEs with manganese oxides, iron-rich minerals and detritus material was changing in different parts of the cores. Only in specific layers, all REEs were weakly to moderately enriched, while yttrium was moderately to strongly enriched. The notable reduction in the upper layers is a reflection of the environmental management plan implemented by the phosphate company and the change in the morphology of the lagoon, which has reduced communication with the ocean.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • Regional Trend in Ambient Air Quality Footprints in Calabar Urban, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Josiah Nwabueze Obiefuna   Gertrude Nnanjar Njar   and Francis Ebuta Bisong   Poor air quality is widely considered as one of the major environmental hazards confronting several urban centres worldwide. This study examined regional trend in ambient air quality footprints in Calabar Metropolis. Data on emission level of CO, NO2, SO2, H2S, and SPM2.5 were collected using Crowcon Gasman, while point coordinates were collected using Garmin GPSMap 60CSx device. Interpolation algorithm in Geographic Information Systems infrastructure was used to generate the regional trend maps for the metropolis. Parametric analytical techniques such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were employed to test the hypotheses, while descriptive statistics including tables, maps and standard deviation were also used to present the data based on the objectives of the study. The results of the trend surface analysis for the five (5) measured parameters show that CO and SPM2.5 were not significant at P˃0.05 with F-ratio of 0.99 and 2.45 respectively. Thus, the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant change in the regional trend in air quality across Calabar Metropolis was therefore accepted. Analysis for NO2, SO2 and H2S, were significant at P < 0.05 with F-ratio of 3.47, 3.35 and 7.79 respectively, causing the null hypothesis to be rejected. It was therefore recommended that mitigatory measures should be employed for the purpose of ensuring a sustainable, clean and green urban environment.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • Effects of Lead on Petrol Degradation Efficiency of Bacteria Isolated from
           Soils in Zhuhai, Guangdong, China

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  4  S. Y. P. Liu   X. M. Peng   X. Y. Zhang   and B. B. H. Yuen   Soil pollution, particularly of petroleum hydrocarbons and lead contamination, has become increasingly concerned due to rapid urbanization and industrial development. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution using microorganisms is a promising solution due to the absence of secondary contamination. In this study, two bacterial isolates (B-7 and B-10), with distinctive colony characteristics, were screened from petroleum contaminated soil collected in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, China. Using 16S rRNA sequencing technique and biochemical analyses, B-7 and B-10 were identified to be closely related to Achromobacter denitrificans, and Mycolicibacterium phocaicum N4, respectively. Petrol degrading rates of the two isolates were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer in this study. With consideration of recovery rate and background evaporation rate, in the absence of lead, in a five-day interval study, the petrol degradation rate of B-7 and B-10 was observed at approximately 2.4g petrol/L for both isolates. Co-contamination with lead at 1, 5, 10 and 20ppm significantly inhibited petrol degrading potential of both isolates, with B-10 demonstrated significantly higher lead tolerance. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effects of other abiotic factors, such as pH, temperature, nutrient contents and concomitant exposure to other pollutants and biotic factors, such as microbial community, on the petroleum hydrocarbons degrading efficiency of these isolates.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and Linear Alkylbenzene
           Sulphonates (LAS) in Urban and Suburban Atmospheric Aerosol

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Nurul Bahiyah Abd Wahid   Helmiah Abdul Razak   Intan Idura Mohamad Isa   Mohd Talib Latif   Noorlin Mohamad   Thunwadee Srithawirat   Doreena Dominick   Suzita Ramli   Nor Zila Abd Hamid   and Tengku Noor Arbaee Tg Azhar   Surfactant is one of the pollutants derived from atmospheric aerosol that can adversely affect the human health and environment. This study aims to characterize the level of anionic surfactants as Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) extracted from atmospheric aerosol from urban (Kuala Lumpur) and suburban (Bangi) area of Malaysia. For aerosol sampling, a high volume sampler (HVAS) with a cascade impactor was used to collect atmospheric aerosol sample according to particle size (coarse mode (> 1.5 µm) and fine mode (< 1.5 µm)). The level of MBAS was determined using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer based on colorimetric method, while the concentration of LAS was determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that the composition of MBAS and LAS for both sampling stations was dominated by fine mode particles compared to coarse mode with a significant difference (p < 0.05). Kuala Lumpur showed higher concentration of MBAS (81.69 ± 13.01 ng m-3) compared to LAS (2.96 ± 1.22 ng m-3), while Bangi recorded lower level of both MBAS and LAS (44.58 ± 10.05 ng m-3, 2.48 ± 1.28 ng m-3), respectively. In terms of monsoonal effect, the highest level of surfactants as MBAS and LAS in both stations was recorded during southwest monsoon. A positive correlation was detected between MBAS and LAS. However, it was not significantly correlated (p> 0.05). From this study, it can be concluded that MBAS concentrations in urban and suburban atmosphere are not fully affected by commercial LAS. Majority of MBAS may be presented from other natural activities and anthropogenic sources such as motor vehicle emission, combustion of biomass, and the earth's crust. The management of surfactants' use needs to be reconsidered to enhance a better atmosphere especially in urban and suburban area in the future.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • Chaos Theory Modelling for Temperature Time Series at Malaysian High
           Population Area during Dry Season

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Nor Zila Abd Hamid   Nur Hamiza Adenan   Nurul Bahiyah Abd Wahid   Siti Hidayah Muhad Saleh   and Biliana Bidin   The aim of this study is to model the temperature time series at Malaysian high population area during dry season through chaos theory. The selected high population area is Shah Alam located in Selangor state of Malaysia. Chaos theory modelling is categorized into two parts namely analysis and prediction. Analysis by the phase space plot showed that the nature of the observed temperature time series is chaos. Hence, the time series is predicted via the chaotic model. Results from the chaotic model showed that the temperature time series is well predicted with Pearson correlation coefficient near to 1. The result is compared with the traditional method of autoregressive linear model. Based on the computed values of average absolute error, root mean squared error and Pearson correlation coefficient, the chaotic model is found better in predicting temperature time series at Shah Alam area during dry season. This indicates that the chaos theory is applicable for temperature time series at Malaysian high population area. This finding is expected to facilitate stakeholders such as Malaysian Meteorological Department and Department of Environment Malaysia in managing temperature and climate change problem.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • Investigation of Interaction between Age and Gender Effects of Car Users
           by using Log-Linear Model: A Bayesian Inference Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  4  Fazilatulaili Ali   SAS Ali   SB Rahayu   ND Kamarudin   and ASA Rahman   The growth in car ownership, demand for personal mobility and traffic congestion all generate negative impacts on the environment. In addition to adverse impacts, car use contributes to urban sprawl, unhealthy micro environments and increased accidents. In western countries, chronic traffic congestion due to increasing travel demand resulting from economic growth is placing governments under pressure to promote and incentivise mode shift to non-motorised modes. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the relationships of car users' perceptions and attitudes with age-gender factors to investigate respondents' willingness to reduce car use for the sake of the environment. A log linear model for categorical data was developed using Bayesian inference approach. Models were constructed separately with and without interaction between age and gender effect. Attitudinal data from British Social Attitudes (BSA) surveys from 2011 to 2014 were used in this study. The application of the Bayesian inference approach to the BSA data demonstrated useful properties shared by population groups. The results indicate that significant differences exist among different age and gender groups. The knowledge is useful to policy makers and transport managers in designing targeted solutions to specific population groups. The outcome of this research will be vital from a policy-making perspective, as appropriate clusters of the population can be targeted when implementing sustainability policies.
      PubDate: Aug 2021
  • The Formation of the Sahara Desert: Evidence for the Slow Ending of the
           Great Ice Age

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  2  Kari Hänninen   The aim of this meta-study is to provide an understanding of the events which slowly ended the Great Ice Age (GIA) and caused the formation of the Sahara Desert. During the GIA, a layer of floating ice 900 m thick in the Arctic Ocean and grounded ice in the North Sea prevented the flow of the Gulf Stream into the Arctic Ocean. An 8-km layer of salt at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico suggests that the gulf has been an inland sea for a long period. It might have been separated from the Atlantic Ocean by an overflow via the Straits of Florida and a land bridge in the Yucatan Channel, which was reflected the North Equatorial Current (NEC) flow towards the coast of Northwest Africa as the GIA-Gulf Stream (GIA-GS). During the GIA, the return waters by the GIA-GS were warm, and the Sahara was "green." About 11,300 to 11,600 years ago, an earthquake might have cut the land bridge connecting the gulf to the Atlantic Ocean. This allowed the Gulf Stream Currents (GSC) to occupy their present flow route. Within 4,000 to 5,000 years, grounded and floating ice and continental glaciers had melted and the global sea level risen by 10 to 15 meters. By then, the return flow of water carried by the GSC into the Arctic Ocean was fully developed: first via undercurrents (mainly) into the Labrador Sea, and then from there to the coast of Northwest Africa as the North Atlantic Undercurrent (NAUC). Its upwelling waters desiccated the sea-air entering the Sahara. Paleobiological, paleohydrological, and paleontological observations confirm that the drying of the Sahara started in earnest about 6,000 years ago.
      PubDate: Apr 2021
  • Assessment of Water Demand in Al-Anbar Province- Iraq

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  2  Ameen M. Noon   Hany G. I. Ahmed   and Sadeq O. Sulaiman   The water issue has posed a great challenge in the past twenty years in most Arab countries, including Iraq in particular, due to the establishment of many dams by Turkey, which led to a decrease in the annual rate of water resources and non-compliance with international law of trans-boundary water management. The west of Iraq is considered as an arid region and suffers scarcity of rain, which has led to severe drought and seriously affected water resources in terms of quality and quantity. In this study, a numerical model of water resources management for the Euphrates River is applied by using Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP). Anbar Province is selected to apply this model, in order to assess past trends in water resources management and to simulate current demand scenarios which must be known for the decision-makers and water resources managers, namely the reference scenario and the water tax scenario. The results showed that the demand for water in the reference scenario (2040) will be 2819.35 million cubic meters per year while the corresponding demand in the other scenario will be 2639.54 million cubic meters per year, which amounts to 179.81 million cubic meters per year saving that can be exploited.
      PubDate: Apr 2021
  • Assessing Households' Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste
           Management Services in Jigjiga, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2021
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  9  Number  2  Abdi Shukri Yasin   This study examined household’s willingness to pay for improved solid waste management services in Jigjijga town, capital of Somali Regional State, Ethiopia. Using a semi structured questionnaire, primary data were collected from 178 household heads in Kebeles 10, 16, 17, 7, 5 and 8 that were selected purposively based on their income group. The socioeconomic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while the independent variables were assessed using Logit Regression Model. The average willingness to pay amount was found to be nearly 4 United States Dollar (150 Ethiopian Birr), and the logit regression model results showed that income, and family sizes were statistically significant at 1%, where occupation and quantity of waste generated were also statistically significant at 5%. Furthermore, educational levels, period of stay, and environmental awareness of households were statistically insignificant. Lack of sustainable waste management financing is the major challenge (51%) reported by waste managing bodies followed by household’s unwillingness to pay, Inadequate protective equipment’s of staffs, poor connection between the kebelle administration & the waste collecting companies, less access to roads , and lack of recycling centers in the study sites. Private agencies should, therefore, be empowered via providing them incentives and necessary materials. Waste managing companies should increase the frequency of collection, while at the same time modifying their service price according to the average amount which most household are willing to pay. Finally, serious measures must be taken against households that illegally dispose their waste in unwanted places.
      PubDate: Apr 2021
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Heriot-Watt University
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