Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACS Environmental Au     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access  
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agroecological journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
Animal - Open Space     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access  
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access  
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Carbon Capture Science & Technology     Open Access  
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Chinese Journal of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleaner and Circular Bioeconomy (CLCB)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cleaner Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cleaner Environmental Systems     Open Access  
Cleaner Production Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Cleaner Waste Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access  
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Earth System Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Environment & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 162)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 390)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access  
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecotrophic : Journal of Environmental Science     Open Access  
Ecozon@ : European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Éducation relative à l'environnement     Open Access  
Electronic Green Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Empowering Sustainability International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Energy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Energy & Environmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Energy and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Current Environmental Health Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.899
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2196-5412
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • The Utility of Machine Learning Models for Predicting Chemical
           Contaminants in Drinking Water: Promise, Challenges, and Opportunities

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review aims to better understand the utility of machine learning algorithms for predicting spatial patterns of contaminants in the United States (U.S.) drinking water. Recent Findings We found 27 U.S. drinking water studies in the past ten years that used machine learning algorithms to predict water quality. Most studies (42%) developed random forest classification models for groundwater. Continuous models show low predictive power, suggesting that larger datasets and additional predictors are needed. Categorical/classification models for arsenic and nitrate that predict exceedances of pollution thresholds are most common in the literature because of good national scale data coverage and priority as environmental health concerns. Most groundwater data used to develop models were obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS). Predictors were similar across contaminants but challenges are posed by the lack of a standard methodology for imputation, pre-processing, and differing availability of data across regions. Summary We reviewed 27 articles that focused on seven drinking water contaminants. Good performance metrics were reported for binary models that classified chemical concentrations above a threshold value by finding significant predictors. Classification models are especially useful for assisting in the design of sampling efforts by identifying high-risk areas. Only a few studies have developed continuous models and obtaining good predictive performance for such models is still challenging. Improving continuous models is important for potential future use in epidemiological studies to supplement data gaps in exposure assessments for drinking water contaminants. While significant progress has been made over the past decade, methodological advances are still needed for selecting appropriate model performance metrics and accounting for spatial autocorrelations in data. Finally, improved infrastructure for code and data sharing would spearhead more rapid advances in machine-learning models for drinking water quality.
      PubDate: 2022-12-17
       
  • Select Early-Life Environmental Exposures and DNA Methylation in the
           Placenta

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review To summarize recent literature relating early-life environmental exposures on DNA methylation in the placenta, to identify how variation in placental methylation is regulated in an exposure-specific manner, and to encourage additional work in this area. Recent Findings Multiple studies have evaluated associations between prenatal environmental exposures and placental methylation in both gene-specific and epigenome-wide frameworks. Specific exposures lead to unique variability in methylation, and cross-exposure assessments have uncovered certain genes that demonstrate consistency in differential placental methylation. Exposure studies that assess methylation effects in a trimester-specific approach tend to find larger effects during the 1st trimester exposure. Earlier studies have more targeted gene-specific approaches to methylation, while later studies have shifted towards epigenome-wide, array-based approaches. Studies focusing on exposures such as air pollution, maternal smoking, environmental contaminants, and trace metals appear to be more abundant, while studies of socioeconomic adversity and circadian disruption are scarce but demonstrate remarkable effects. Summary Understanding the impacts of early-life environmental exposures on placental methylation is critical to establishing the link between the maternal environment, epigenetic variation, and long-term health. Future studies into this field should incorporate repeated measures of exposure throughout pregnancy, in order to determine the critical windows in which placental methylation is most heavily affected. Additionally, the use of methylation-based scores and sequencing technology could provide important insights into epigenetic gestational age and uncovering more genomic regions where methylation is affected. Studies examining the impact of other exposures on methylation, including pesticides, alcohol, and other chemicals are also warranted.
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
       
  • Perinatal Metal and Metalloid Exposures and Offspring Cardiovascular
           Health Risk

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      Abstract:   Purpose of Review Toxic metal exposures have been associated with cardiovascular disease in adults and growing evidence suggests metal exposures also adversely affect cardiovascular phenotypes in childhood and adolescence. However, to our knowledge, the influence of perinatal metals exposure, particularly metal mixtures, in relation to cardiovascular-related outcomes have not been comprehensively reviewed. Recent findings We summarized 17 contemporary studies (2017–2021) that investigated the impact of perinatal metal exposures on measures of cardiovascular health in children. Accumulating evidence supports a potential adverse impact of perinatal Pb exposure on BP in children. Fewer recent studies have focused on perinatal As, Hg, and Cd; thus, the cardiovascular impacts of these metals are less clear. Studies of metal mixtures demonstrate that interactions between metals may be complex and have identified numerous understudied elements and essential metals, including Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Zn, and Mn, which may influence cardiovascular risk. Summary A key question that remains is whether perinatal metals exposure influences cardiovascular health into adulthood. Comparisons across studies remain challenging due to several factors, including differences in the timing of exposure/outcome assessments and exposure biomarkers, as well as variability in exposure levels and mixture compositions across populations. Future studies longitudinally investigating trajectories of cardiovascular outcomes could help determine the influence of perinatal metals exposure on long-term effects of clinical relevance in later life and whether interventions, which reduce metals exposures during this key developmental window, could alter disease development.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Is Greenness Associated with Dementia' A Systematic Review and
           Dose–Response Meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review We assessed the relation between environmental greenness and risk of dementia and cognitive impairment, based on a systematic review and meta-analysis up to March 30, 2022, characterizing whenever possible the shape of the association using dose–response meta-analysis. Recent Findings Twelve studies were included in this review, either using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) or land use/cover (LU/LC) methodology to assess greenness. Comparing the highest versus lowest exposure categories of greenness assessed using the NDVI (6 studies) or LU/LC (6 studies), we found no association with dementia. Dose–response meta-analysis of the association between greenness measured by LU/LC and dementia, based on only 3 studies, indicated a U-shaped association, but estimates were imprecise. Summary Our systematic review and meta-analysis provided some evidence of a slight inverse association between greenness and dementia at intermediate exposure levels, but not at high levels. Potential methodological limitations, such as exposure misclassification and unmeasured confounding, may have affected the results.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • PIWI-Interacting RNA (piRNA) and Epigenetic Editing in Environmental
           Health Sciences

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The epigenome modulates gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Modifications to the epigenome are potentially reversible, making them a promising therapeutic approach to mitigate environmental exposure effects on human health. This review details currently available genome and epigenome editing technologies and highlights ncRNA, including piRNA, as potential tools for targeted epigenome editing. Recent Findings Zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas) research has significantly advanced genome editing technology, with broad promise in genetic research and targeted therapies. Initial epigenome-directed therapies relied on global modification and suffered from limited specificity. Adapted from current genome editing tools, zinc finger protein (ZFP), TALE, and CRISPR/nuclease-deactivated Cas (dCas) systems now confer locus-specific epigenome editing, with promising applicability in the field of environmental health sciences. However, high incidence of off-target effects and time taken for screening limit their use. Future Development ncRNA serve as a versatile biomarker with well-characterized regulatory mechanisms that can easily be adapted to edit the epigenome. For instance, the transposon silencing mechanism of germline PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNA) could be engineered to specifically methylate a given gene, overcoming pitfalls of current global modifiers. Future developments in epigenome editing technologies will inform risk assessment through mechanistic investigation and serve as potential modes of intervention to mitigate environmentally induced adverse health outcomes later in life.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Environmental Metal Exposure, Neurodevelopment, and the Role of Iron
           Status: a Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Exposure to environmental metals, like lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and methylmercury (Me-Hg), has consistently been implicated in neurodevelopmental dysfunction. Recent research has focused on identifying modifying factors of metal neurotoxicity in childhood, such as age, sex, and co-exposures. Iron (Fe) status is critical for normal cognitive development during childhood, and current mechanistic, animal, and human evidence suggests that Fe status may be a modifier or mediator of associations between environmental metals and neurodevelopment. The goals of this review are to describe the current state of the epidemiologic literature on the role of Fe status (i.e., hemoglobin, ferritin, blood Fe concentrations) and Fe supplementation in the relationship between metals and children’s neurodevelopment, and to identify research gaps. Recent Findings We identified 30 studies in PubMed and EMBASE that assessed Fe status as a modifier, mediator, or co-exposure of associations of Pb, Me-Hg, Mn, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), or metal mixtures measured in early life (prenatal period through 8 years of age) with cognition in children. In experimental studies, co-supplementation of Fe and Zn was associated with better memory and cognition than supplementation with either metal alone. Several observational studies reported interactions between Fe status and Pb, Mn, Zn, or As in relation to developmental indices, memory, attention, and behavior, whereby adverse associations of metals with cognition were worse among Fe-deficient children compared to Fe-sufficient children. Only two studies quantified joint associations of complex metal mixtures that included Fe with neurodevelopment, though findings from these studies were not consistent. Summary Findings support memory and attention as two possible cognitive domains that may be both vulnerable to Fe deficiency and a target of metals toxicity. Major gaps in the literature remain, including evaluating Fe status as a modifier or mediator of metal mixtures and cognition. Given that Fe deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide, characterizing Fe status in studies of metals toxicity is important for informing public health interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Phenols, Parabens, Phthalates and Puberty: a Systematic Review of
           Synthetic Chemicals Commonly Found in Personal Care Products and Girls’
           Pubertal Development

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals through personal care products (PCPs) is widespread and may disrupt hormone-sensitive endpoints, such as timing of puberty. Given the well-documented (and ongoing) decline in age at menarche in many populations, we conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological literature on exposure to chemicals commonly found in PCPs (including certain phthalates, phenols, and parabens) in relation to girls’ pubertal development. Recent Findings The preponderance of research on this topic has examined phthalate exposures with the strongest evidence indicating that prenatal monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations may be associated with slightly earlier timing of puberty, including age at menarche. Findings examining peri-pubertal phthalate exposures and pubertal outcomes were less consistent as were studies of prenatal and peri-pubertal phenol exposures. Very few studies had examined parabens in relation to girls’ pubertal development. Common study limitations included potential exposure misclassification related to use of spot samples and/or mistimed biomarker assessment with respect to the outcomes. The role of body size as a mediator in these relationships remains unresolved. Summary Overall, evidence of associations between chemical exposures in PCPs and girls’ pubertal development was conflicting. When associations were observed, effect sizes were small. Nevertheless, given the many environmental, social, and behavioral factors in the modern environment that may act synergistically to accelerate timing of puberty, even marginal changes may be cause for concern, with implications for cancer risk, mental health, and cardiometabolic disease in later life.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Epigenetics as a Biomarker for Early-Life Environmental Exposure

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review There is interest in evaluating the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) which emphasizes the role of prenatal and early-life environments on non-communicable health outcomes throughout the life course. The ability to rigorously assess and identify early-life risk factors for later health outcomes, including those with childhood onset, in large population samples is often limited due to measurement challenges such as impractical costs associated with prospective studies with a long follow-up duration, short half-lives for some environmental toxicants, and lack of biomarkers that capture inter-individual differences in biologic response to external environments. Recent Findings Epigenomic patterns, and DNA methylation in particular, have emerged as a potential objective biomarker to address some of these study design and exposure measurement challenges. In this article, we summarize the literature to date on epigenetic changes associated with specific prenatal and early-life exposure domains as well as exposure mixtures in human observational studies and their biomarker potential. Additionally, we highlight evidence for other types of epigenetic patterns to serve as exposure biomarkers. Summary Evidence strongly supports epigenomic biomarkers of exposure that are detectable across the lifespan and across a range of exposure domains. Current and future areas of research in this field seek to expand these lines of evidence to other environmental exposures, to determine their specificity, and to develop predictive algorithms and methylation scores that can be used to evaluate early-life risk factors for health outcomes across the life span.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Chemical Effects on Breast Development, Function, and Cancer Risk:
           Existing Knowledge and New Opportunities

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      Abstract: Abstract Population studies show worrisome trends towards earlier breast development, difficulty in breastfeeding, and increasing rates of breast cancer in young women. Multiple epidemiological studies have linked these outcomes with chemical exposures, and experimental studies have shown that many of these chemicals generate similar effects in rodents, often by disrupting hormonal regulation. These endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter the progression of mammary gland (MG) development, impair the ability to nourish offspring via lactation, increase mammary tissue density, and increase the propensity to develop cancer. However, current toxicological approaches to measuring the effects of chemical exposures on the MG are often inadequate to detect these effects, impairing our ability to identify exposures harmful to the breast and limiting opportunities for prevention. This paper describes key adverse outcomes for the MG, including impaired lactation, altered pubertal development, altered morphology (such as increased mammographic density), and cancer. It also summarizes evidence from humans and rodent models for exposures associated with these effects. We also review current toxicological practices for evaluating MG effects, highlight limitations of current methods, summarize debates related to how effects are interpreted in risk assessment, and make recommendations to strengthen assessment approaches. Increasing the rigor of MG assessment would improve our ability to identify chemicals of concern, regulate those chemicals based on their effects, and prevent exposures and associated adverse health effects.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Environmental Chemical Exposures and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: a Review
           of Recent Literature

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Mitochondria play various roles that are important for cell function and survival; therefore, significant mitochondrial dysfunction may have chronic consequences that extend beyond the cell. Mitochondria are already susceptible to damage, which may be exacerbated by environmental exposures. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the recent literature (2012–2022) looking at the effects of six ubiquitous classes of compounds on mitochondrial dysfunction in human populations. Recent Findings The literature suggests that there are a number of biomarkers that are commonly used to identify mitochondrial dysfunction, each with certain advantages and limitations. Classes of environmental toxicants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, air pollutants, heavy metals, endocrine-disrupting compounds, pesticides, and nanomaterials can damage the mitochondria in varied ways, with changes in mtDNA copy number and measures of oxidative damage the most commonly measured in human populations. Other significant biomarkers include changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium levels, and ATP levels. Summary This review identifies the biomarkers that are commonly used to characterize mitochondrial dysfunction but suggests that emerging mitochondrial biomarkers, such as cell-free mitochondria and blood cardiolipin levels, may provide greater insight into the impacts of exposures on mitochondrial function. This review identifies that the mtDNA copy number and measures of oxidative damage are commonly used to characterize mitochondrial dysfunction, but suggests using novel approaches in addition to well-characterized ones to create standardized protocols. We identified a dearth of studies on mitochondrial dysfunction in human populations exposed to metals, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, pesticides, and nanoparticles as a gap in knowledge that needs attention.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Assessing Differential Variability of High-Throughput DNA Methylation Data

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review DNA methylation (DNAm) is essential to human development and plays an important role as a biomarker due to its susceptibility to environmental exposures. This article reviews the current state of statistical methods developed for differential variability analysis focusing on DNAm data. Recent Findings With the advent of high-throughput technologies allowing for highly reliable and cost-effective measurements of DNAm, many epigenome studies have analyzed DNAm levels to uncover biological mechanisms underlying past environmental exposures and subsequent health outcomes. These studies typically focused on detecting sites or regions which differ in their mean DNAm levels among exposure groups. However, more recent studies highlighted the importance of identifying differentially variable sites or regions as biologically relevant features. Summary Currently, the analysis of differentially variable DNAm sites has not yet gained widespread adoption in environmental studies; yet, it is important to examine the effects of environmental exposures on inter-individual epigenetic variability. In this article, we describe six of the most widely used statistical approaches for analyzing differential variability of DNAm levels and provide a discussion of their advantages and current limitations.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Validity of Geolocation and Distance to Exposure Sources from Geographical
           Information Systems for Environmental Monitoring of Toxic Metal Exposures
           Based on Correlation with Biological Samples: a Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review In epidemiologic studies, biomarkers are the best possible choice to assess individual exposure to toxic metals since they integrate all exposure sources. However, measuring biomarkers is not always feasible, given potential budgetary and time constraints or limited availability of samples. Alternatively, approximations to individual metal exposure obtained from geographic information systems (GIS) have become popular to evaluate diverse metal-related health outcomes. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiological studies that evaluated the validity of GIS-based geolocation and distance to pollutant sources as an approximation of individual metal exposure based on correlation with biological samples. Recent Findings We considered 11 toxic metals: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), tungsten (W), uranium (U), and vanadium (V). The final review included 12 manuscripts which included seven metals (Pb, Cd, Al, As, Cr, Hg, and Ni). Many studies used geolocation of the individuals to compare exposed (industrial, urban, agricultural, or landfill sources) and unexposed areas and not so many studies used distance to a source. For all metals, except lead, there was more animal than human biosampling to conduct biological validation. Summary We observed a trend towards higher levels of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in biosamples collected closer to exposure sources, supporting that GIS-based proxies for these metals might approximate individual exposure. However, given the low number and heterogeneity of the retrieved studies, the accumulated evidence is, overall, not sufficient. Given the practical benefits and potential of modern GIS technologies, which allow environmental monitoring at a reasonable cost, additional validation studies that include human biosampling are needed to support the use of GIS-based individual exposure measures in epidemiologic studies.
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
       
  • Estimating Causal Effects of Interventions on Early-life Environmental
           Exposures Using Observational Data

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review We discuss how epidemiologic studies have used observational data to estimate the effects of potential interventions on early-life environmental exposures. We summarize the value of posing questions about interventions, how a group of techniques known as “g-methods” can provide advantages for estimating intervention effects, and how investigators have grappled with the strong assumptions required for causal inference. Recent Findings We identified nine studies that estimated health effects of hypothetical interventions on early-life environmental exposures. Of these, six examined air pollution. Interventions evaluated by these studies included setting exposure levels at a specific value, shifting exposure distributions, and limiting exposure levels to less than a threshold value. Only one study linked exposure contrasts to a specific intervention on an exposure source, however. Summary There is growing interest in estimating intervention effects of early-life environmental exposures, in part because intervention effects are directly related to possible public health actions. Future studies can build on existing work by linking research questions to specific hypothetical interventions that could reduce exposure levels. We discuss how framing questions around interventions can help overcome some of the barriers to causal inference and how advances related to machine learning may strengthen studies by sidestepping the overly restrictive assumptions of parametric regression models. By leveraging advancements in causal inference and exposure science, an intervention framework for environmental epidemiology can guide actionable solutions to improve children’s environmental health.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
       
  • What Happens In Utero Does Not Stay In Utero: a Review of Evidence for
           Prenatal Epigenetic Programming by Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances
           (PFAS) in Infants, Children, and Adolescents

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Review human literature on the relationship between prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and epigenetic modifications in infants, children, and adolescents < 18 years of age. Recent Findings Eleven studies were identified, with study populations located in the U.S., Taiwan, Japan, and the Kingdom of Denmark. Many studies (n = 5) were cross-sectional, with PFAS exposure and epigenetic outcomes measured in the same tissue collected at delivery via cord blood or dried newborn blood spots. The other six studies were prospective, with prenatal PFAS measured on maternal blood during pregnancy and DNA methylation (DNAm) assessed in cord blood and childhood peripheral leukocytes (n = 1 study). Epigenetic marks of interest included global DNAm measures (LINE-1, Alu, and an ELISA-based method), candidate genes (IFG2, H19, and MEST), and epigenome-wide DNA methylation via array-based methods (Infinium 450 K and EPIC). Two studies using array-based methods employed discovery and validation paradigms, in which a small subset of loci (n = 6 and n = 4) were replicated in the discovery population. One site (TNXB) was a hit in two independent studies. Collectively, loci associated with PFAS were in regions involved in growth and development, lipid metabolism, and nutrient metabolism. Summary There is moderate human evidence supporting associations of prenatal PFAS exposure on DNAm at birth, with one study suggesting sustained effects into childhood. Future studies are warranted to link PFAS-associated DNAm to health outcomes, as well as to investigate the role of other epigenetic marks such as hydroxymethylation, miRNA expression, and histone modifications.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
       
  • The Association Between High Ambient Temperature and Mortality in the
           Mediterranean Basin: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review The Mediterranean basin is highly vulnerable to climate change. This study is aimed at quantifying the risk of mortality associated with exposure to high ambient temperature in the Mediterranean basin in the general population and in vulnerable sub-populations. Recent Findings We retrieved effect estimates from studies linking temperature and mortality in the Mediterranean basin, between 2000 and 2021. In a meta-analysis of 16 studies, we found an increased risk of all-cause mortality due to ambient heat/high temperature exposure in the Mediterranean basin, with a pooled RR of 1.035 (95%CI 1.028–1.041) per 1 °C increase in temperature above local thresholds (I2 = 79%). Risk was highest for respiratory mortality (RR = 1.063, 95% CI 1.052–1.074) and cardiovascular mortality (RR = 1.046, 95% CI 1.036–1.057). Summary Hot ambient temperatures increase the mortality risk across the Mediterranean basin. Further studies, especially in North African, Asian Mediterranean, and eastern European countries, are needed to bolster regional preparedness against future heat-related health burdens.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
       
  • Genetics and Epigenetics of Manganese Toxicity

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review At elevated levels, the essential element manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic and increasing evidence indicates that environmental Mn exposure early in life negatively affects neurodevelopment. In this review, we describe how underlying genetics may confer susceptibility to elevated Mn concentrations and how the epigenetic effects of Mn may explain the association between Mn exposure early in life and its toxic effects later in life. Recent Findings Common polymorphisms in the Mn transporter genes SLC30A10 and SLC39A8 seem to have a large impact on intracellular Mn levels and, in turn, neurotoxicity. Genetic variation in iron regulatory genes may to lesser extent also influence Mn levels and toxicity. Recent studies on Mn and epigenetic mechanisms indicate that Mn-related changes in DNA methylation occur early in life. One human and two animal studies found persistent changes from in utero exposure to Mn but whether these changes have functional effects remains unknown. Summary Genetics seems to play a major role in susceptibility to Mn toxicity and should therefore be considered in risk assessment. Mn appears to interfere with epigenetic processes, potentially leading to persistent changes in developmental programming, which warrants further study.
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40572-022-00384-2
       
  • Metals Exposures and DNA Methylation: Current Evidence and Future
           Directions

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      Abstract: Purpose of the Review Exposure to essential and non-essential metals is widespread. Metals exposure is linked to epigenetic, particularly DNA methylation, differences. The strength of evidence with respect to the metal exposure type, timing, and level, as well as the DNA methylation association magnitude, and reproducibility are not clear. Focusing on the most recent 3 years, we reviewed the human epidemiologic evidence (n = 26 studies) and the toxicologic animal model evidence (n = 18 studies) for associations between metals exposure and DNA methylation. Recent Findings In humans, the greatest number of studies focused on lead exposure, followed by studies examining cadmium and arsenic. Approximately half of studies considered metals exposure during the in utero period and measured DNA methylation with the genome-wide Illumina arrays in newborn blood or placenta. Few studies performed formal replication testing or meta-analyses. Toxicology studies of metals and epigenetics had diversity in model systems (mice, rats, drosophila, tilapia, and zebrafish were represented), high heterogeneity of tissues used for DNA methylation measure (liver, testis, ovary, heart, blood, brain, muscle, lung, kidney, whole embryo), and a variety of technologies used for DNA methylation assessment (global, gene specific, genome-wide). The most common metals tested in toxicologic studies were lead and cadmium. Summary Together, the recent studies reviewed provide the strongest evidence for DNA methylation signatures with prenatal metals exposures. There is also mounting epidemiologic evidence supporting lead, arsenic, and cadmium exposures with DNA methylation signatures in adults. The field of metals and DNA methylation is strengthened by the inclusion of both epidemiology and toxicology approaches, and further advancements can be made by coordinating efforts or integrating analyses across studies. Future advances in understanding the molecular basis of sequence specific epigenetic responses to metals exposures, methods for handling exposure mixtures in a genome-wide analytic framework, and pipelines to facilitate collaborative testing will continue to advance the field.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s40572-022-00382-4
       
  • Occurrence and Risks of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Shellfish

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a diverse class of persistent, fluorinated surfactants used widely in industrial and commercial applications with known adverse health effects. Seafood consumption is thought to be an underappreciated source of PFAS exposure in the general population. This review synthesizes the current understanding of PFAS occurrence in shellfish, a term used to describe animals such as mollusk bivalves, certain gastropods (snails), cephalopods (e.g., octopuses and squid), and crustaceans, and highlights scientific gaps relative to bioaccumulation and the protection of shellfish consumers. Recent findings A range of sampling methodologies are used across studies, and the suite of PFAS surveyed across studies is highly variable. Concentrations of PFAS observed in shellfish vary by geographic location, shellfish species, habitat, and across PFAS compounds, and studies informing estimates of bioaccumulation of PFAS in shellfish are extremely limited at this time. Summary This review identifies several important opportunities for researchers to standardize PFAS sampling techniques, sample preparation, and analytical methodologies to allow for better comparison of PFAS analytes both within and across future studies. Increasing the range of geographic locations where samples are collected is also a critical priority to support a greater knowledge of worldwide PFAS contamination. When put into the context of risk to consumer, concentrations of PFAS, especially PFOS, found in shellfish collected from sites containing aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) and industrial contamination may present risks to frequent consumers. Further research is needed to protect shellfish consumers and to inform shellfish advisories and health protective policies.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40572-022-00379-z
       
  • Childhood Trauma and Epigenetics: State of the Science and Future

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review There is a great deal of interest regarding the biological embedding of childhood trauma and social exposures through epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation (DNAm), but a comprehensive understanding has been hindered by issues of limited reproducibility between studies. This review presents a summary of the literature on childhood trauma and DNAm, highlights issues in the field, and proposes some potential solutions. Recent Findings Investigations of the associations between DNAm and childhood trauma are commonly performed using candidate gene approaches, specifically involving genes related to neurological and stress pathways. Childhood trauma is defined in a wide range of ways in several societal contexts. However, although variations in DNAm are frequently found in stress-related genes, unsupervised epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have shown limited reproducibility both between studies and in relating these changes to exposures. Summary The reproducibility of childhood trauma DNAm studies, and the field of social epigenetics in general, may be improved by increasing sample sizes, standardizing variables, making use of effect size thresholds, collecting longitudinal and intervention samples, appropriately accounting for known confounding factors, and applying causal analysis wherever possible, such as “two-step epigenetic Mendelian randomization.”
      PubDate: 2022-10-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40572-022-00381-5
       
  • Sex Differences in Dopaminergic Vulnerability to Environmental Toxicants
           — Implications for Parkinson’s Disease

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      Abstract: Purpose of Review Sex dimorphism in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an ostensible feature of the neurological disorder, particularly as men are 1.5–2 times more likely to develop PD than women. Clinical features of the disease, such as presentation at onset, most prevalent symptoms, and response to treatment, are also affected by sex. Despite these well-known sex differences in PD risk and phenotype, the mechanisms that impart sex dimorphisms in PD remain poorly understood. Recent Findings As PD incidence is influenced by environmental factors, an intriguing pattern has recently emerged in research studies suggesting a male-specific vulnerability to dopaminergic neurodegeneration caused by neurotoxicant exposure, with relative protection in females. These new experimental data have uncovered potential mechanisms that provide clues to the source of sex differences in dopaminergic neurodegeneration and other PD pathology such as alpha-synuclein toxicity. Summary In this review, we discuss the emerging evidence of increased male sensitivity to neurodegeneration from environmental exposures. We examine mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neurodegeneration and PD-related pathologies with evidence supporting the roles of estrogen, SRY expression, the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT2, and the microbiome as prospective catalysts for male vulnerability. We also highlight the importance of including sex as a biological variable, particularly when evaluating dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the context of PD.
      PubDate: 2022-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40572-022-00380-6
       
 
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