Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Monteverdia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multequina     Open Access  
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nano Select     Open Access  
Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Nativa     Open Access  
Natur und Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Natural Resources     Open Access  
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources and Environmental Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Nature-Based Solutions     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
NeuroToxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Neurotoxicology and Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Environmental Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
NJAS : Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Observatorio Medioambiental     Open Access  
Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ochrona Srodowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych : Environmental Protection and Natural Resources     Open Access  
Oecologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Oikos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
One Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Open Environmental Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Our Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pace Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Particle and Fibre Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastos y Forrajes     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physio-Géo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pittsburgh Journal of Environmental and Public Health Law     Open Access  
Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Planeta Amazônia : Revista Internacional de Direito Ambiental e Políticas Públicas     Open Access  
Planning & Environmental Law: Issues and decisions that impact the built and natural environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Plant Ecology & Diversity     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant, Cell & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Plant-Environment Interactions     Open Access  
Plants, People, Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Political Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Population and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Population Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Presence: Virtual and Augmented Reality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Producción + Limpia     Open Access  
Progress in Disaster Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Projets de Paysage     Open Access  
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Public Money & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Quaternary     Open Access  
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
REDER : Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos sobre Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres     Open Access  
Regional Environmental Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access  
Rekayasa     Open Access  
Remediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Renewable Energy and Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Resources     Open Access  
Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rethinking Ecology     Open Access  
Reuse/Recycle Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista AIDIS de Ingeniería y Ciencias Ambientales. Investigación, desarrollo y práctica     Open Access  
Revista Ambivalências     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Meio Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Ciência, Tecnologia & Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Ambiental e Socioambientalismo     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade - GeAS     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación en Agroproducción Sustentable     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Ambiental     Open Access  
Revista ECOVIDA     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista Eletrônica de Gestão e Tecnologias Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista Geama     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana Ambiente & Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
Revista Kawsaypacha: Sociedad y Medio Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Laborativa     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Mundi Meio Ambiente e Agrárias     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sociedad y Ambiente     Open Access  
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
South Australian Geographical Journal     Open Access  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern African Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure     Hybrid Journal  
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Horizons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sustainable Technology and Entrepreneurship     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sustinere : Journal of Environment and Sustainability     Open Access  
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Ring     Open Access  
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Transactions on Environment and Electrical Engineering     Open Access  
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 255)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
UNM Environmental Journals     Open Access  
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Urban Transformations     Open Access  
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

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Resources
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.688
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2079-9276
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 69: Approaching the Study of Corruption and
           Natural Resources through Qualitative System Dynamics

    • Authors: Johanna Gisladottir, Sigurbjörg Sigurgeirsdottir, Ingrid Stjernquist, Kristin Vala Ragnarsdottir
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The complexity and scale of the challenges posed by the climate crisis demand knowledge sharing and collaboration between a variety of academic disciplines to address them. In that regard, the way in which natural resources are used matters, and more information is needed on which regulatory framework and policy instruments foster their sustainable management. There is consensus that corruption can seriously obstruct social, economic, and political development. However, research on corruption has tended to be fragmented and investigating the concept itself is a challenging endeavor. Due to the complexity of corruption as a research subject, we argue that in seeking to explore and understand corruption, researchers would benefit from using a framework that facilitates an interdisciplinary and process-oriented approach. This paper suggests that the method of system dynamics can be applied to advance the academic discourse on corruption in relation to natural resources, since it seeks to improve understanding and learning in complex systems in an illustrative manner. More specifically, it offers a platform to explore feedback processes between the different social, economic, and ecological dimensions which ultimately produce undesirable behavior or patterns. The paper outlines how corruption has been approached previously in the academic discourse. It then offers a tool to bridge knowledge from different fields on natural resources, in a way that allows for research from different fields to be integrated, and thus gaps are better identified. A process-oriented approach to exploring corruption in natural resource systems based on qualitative system dynamics methods can inform new questions and thus improve understanding about the conditions under which corruption occurs or corrupt behavior thrives.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11080069
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 70: Vulnerability in a Populated Coastal Zone
           and Its Influence by Oil Wells in Santa Elena, Ecuador

    • Authors: Gricelda Herrera-Franco, F. Javier Montalván, Andrés Velastegui-Montoya, Jhon Caicedo-Potosí
      First page: 70
      Abstract: The oil industry requires studies of the possible impacts and risks that exploration, exploitation, and industrialization can cause to the environment and communities. The main objective of this study was to assess the vulnerability caused by oil wells of the Salinas and La Libertad cantons in Ecuador by proposing a multi-criteria spatial analysis methodology that would aid in land-use planning and management. The proposed methodology relates the variables of distance, identification of gas emission from oil wells, permeability, and the state of oil wells (DIPS). The methodology consists of: (i) the diagnosis of oilfield wells; (ii) environmental considerations of productive wells, wells in temporary abandonment, and wells in permanent abandonment; (iii) the vulnerability assessment of both intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of the wells; and (iv) the development of a vulnerability map and recommendations for land management. The results showed 462 wells in the study area, of which 92% were shown to be located in urban areas. Of the total, 114 wells were considered to be productive wells, 89% of which are in urban areas. The vulnerability map identified the areas to be addressed, which coincided with coastal and urban areas associated with oil production. Our main recommendation is to elaborate land-use planning regulations and build safety infrastructure around the wells to guarantee their distance from houses, beaches, and tourism-development sites. The vulnerability map was shown to serve as an essential diagnostic for decision making in managing oil territories, especially in coastal areas.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11080070
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 71: Eucalyptus Succession on Croplands in the
           Highlands of Northwestern Ethiopia: Economic Impact Analysis Using Farm
           Household Model

    • Authors: Amare Tesfaw, Dawit Alemu, Feyera Senbeta, Ermias Teferi
      First page: 71
      Abstract: The northwestern highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by severe land degradation and apparently low agricultural productivity. This situation is continuously threatening the livelihoods of smallholder farmers who mainly sustain their living from the cultivation of annual crops. In recent years, however, smallholder farmers have started converting their croplands to plantations of Eucalyptus, a non-native tree species to Africa, for its rewarding economic contributions. In this study, we aggregated data from 388 smallholder Eucalyptus growers located in three agroecology zones (onwards called farm typologies). We measured the economic impact of Eucalyptus succession on croplands using a farm household model which is provided in the GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System) platform. The results of the model varied between farm typologies and showed that households’ gross margins increased with a corresponding increase in the conversion of croplands. Results also showed that gross margins from plantations of Eucalyptus were higher than that of cultivation of food crops. Furthermore, evaluation of farm portfolios indicated a higher benefit-cost ratio (BCR) for the plantation of Eucalyptus. We concluded that the conversion of croplands in the study area is an incentive-driven process in a dynamic farming system, which strongly demands bringing policy-emanated livelihood alternatives. With this arena, the expansion of Eucalyptus is recommended for lands of terrain features, high marginality and low suitability for the cultivation of food crops and setting aside fertile arable lands. We generalized that an increase in Eucalyptus plantation pays off given the implementation of proper land resource management and the apparent impacts of Eucalyptus on biodiversity and cultural landscape is managed with sustainability perspectives. However, it demands collaborative policy efforts that can especially meet socioeconomic, environmental and public interests.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11080071
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 72: A Database for the Stocks and Flows of Sand
           and Gravel

    • Authors: John D. Morley, Rupert J. Myers, Yves Plancherel, Pablo R. Brito-Parada
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Increasing demand for sand and gravel globally is leading to social, environmental, and political issues that are becoming more widely recognised. Lack of data and poor accessibility of the few available data contribute to exacerbating these issues and impair evidence-based management efforts. This paper presents a database to store stocks and flows data for sand and gravel from different sources. The classification system underlying within it builds on the Universal Materials Information System (UMIS) nomenclature, which is used to construct hierarchical order in the data and in the same manner as the Yale Stocks and Flow Database (YSTAFDB), a common data format. To illustrate how the database is built and used, a case study using UK data is presented. The UK is chosen owing to relatively better access to data compared to other locations. Quantitative analyses of the data show the supply chain of these materials to be currently stable for the UK as indigenous extraction contributes 95.6% to UK sand and gravel production, with imports accounting for the rest of the inputs, of which 50% is reliant on only one nation.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11080072
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 73: Wise Management or Mismatch' Lessons
           from Japan

    • Authors: Guangwei Huang, Shiwen Chen, Jia Wang
      First page: 73
      Abstract: As a precious resource, wetlands support human life in various profound ways, either explicitly or implicitly. However, the values of wetlands have not been sufficiently recognized and greatly appreciated. Their management approaches are often sectoral, and wise use of wetlands is still more of a catchphrase than a well-used management practice. This paper presents a cross-sectoral case study for the evaluation of the primary management practices in a Ramsar-registered wetland in Japan. It employed a literature review, field and laboratory experiments, and a questionnaire survey as well for assessing the wetland conditions and identifying management problems. It revealed that the management of the wetland is still flood regulation–oriented, without sufficient consideration of bird habitats, and the water level drawdown operation for Lake Yanaka inside the wetland may lead to mass fish deaths. Furthermore, the reed burning practice is effective in maintaining the plant structure in the wetland but controversial from different perspectives. Moreover, the questionnaire survey results indicated that the public were not well informed of the wetland conditions and not convinced of the appropriateness of reed burning. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the registration under the Ramsar Convention did not lead to new strategies for the conservation and wise use of the wetland.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11080073
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 74: Spatial Planning of the Coastal Marine
           Socioecological System—Case Study: Punta Carnero, Ecuador

    • Authors: Jenny Escandón-Panchana, Rafael Elao Vallejo, Paulo Escandón-Panchana, Andrés Velastegui-Montoya, Gricelda Herrera-Franco
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Marine-coastal ecosystems are productive and valuable habitats worldwide due to their significant contributions to human wellbeing. However, human activities, limited territorial planning, and unsustainable demand and consumption of natural goods and services put pressure on marine-coastal ecosystems. In this sense, marine-coastal planning is a management tool to contrast these forces because it manages different human activities on the coast and in the oceans over space and time, strengthening political, social, and tourist development and the economy of the territory. Our objective is to propose marine-coastal spatial planning strategies through an ecosystem-based approach for allocating a mangrove and estuarine zone conservation area. The study methodology is: (i) Compilation of information from the study area with an emphasis on regulations and protected areas. (ii) Analysis of human relations with marine-coastal ecosystems. (iii) Mapping and zoning of the conservation area. (iv) Analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats and threats, weaknesses, opportunities, strengths (SWOT–TWOS) matrix to recommend strategies and guarantee the viability of marine-coastal protection. The results show zoning maps of the sector proposed as a conservation area comprising mangroves and an estuarine zone. It also approaches governance strategies or conservation management measures and protection of the marine-coastal space. Finally, as a recommendation, we propose improvements to the current municipal ordinances, guaranteeing the management and protection of the study area, and furthering achievements in the comprehensive development of land-use planning.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11080074
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 75: Plant Biomass Conversion to Vehicle Liquid
           Fuel as a Path to Sustainability

    • Authors: Aleksandr Ketov, Natalia Sliusar, Anna Tsybina, Iurii Ketov, Sergei Chudinov, Marina Krasnovskikh, Vladimir Bosnic
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Biofuel such as linseed oil has an energy potential of 48.8 MJ/kg, which is much lower than fossil diesel fuel 57.14 MJ/kg. Existing biofuels need to increase the energy potential for use in traditional engines. Moreover, biofuel production demands cheap feedstock, for example, sawdust. The present paper shows that the technology to synthesize high-energy liquid vehicle fuels with a gross calorific value up to 53.6 MJ/kg from renewable sources of plant origin is possible. Slow pyrolysis was used to produce high-energy biofuel from sawdust and linseed oil. The proposed approach will allow not only to preserve the existing high-tech energy sources of high unit capacity based on the combustion of liquid fuels, but also to make the transition to reducing the carbon footprint and, in the future, to carbon neutrality by replacing fossil carbon of liquid hydrocarbon fuels with the carbon produced from biomass.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11080075
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 76: Absolute Environmental Sustainability of
           Materials Dissipation: Application for Construction Sector

    • Authors: Wafaa Baabou, Anders Bjørn, Cécile Bulle
      First page: 76
      Abstract: The materials used globally in the construction sector are projected to more than double in 2060, causing some to deplete. We argue that access to the services that the resources provide must be protected, thus implying that a carrying capacity (CC) for resource dissipation must be set. Dissipation accrues when the resource becomes inaccessible to users. The CC allows defining a maximum dissipation rate that allows to maintain those resources’ availability in the future. The CC of the dissipation of the resource may be operationalized to characterize the resource use impact, using absolute environmental sustainability assessments principles. The study makes it possible to determine a dissipation CC as the world dissipation rate that would enable all users to adapt to using an alternative resource before the material’s reserve is entirely dissipated. The allocation of a fraction of this CC to the building sector was performed using equal per capita and grandfathering sharing principles. Finally, we applied the method to the case of steel in a school life cycle. The results show that the actual dissipation rates of iron, copper and manganese in the building sector exceed the dissipation CC by 70%, 56% and 68%, respectively. However, aluminum dissipation is 90% less than the assigned CC. The allocation to schools shows that the results are influenced by the choice of allocation principle. The application in the case of steel use of the school life cycle shows an exceedance of the CC that decreases when increasing the building life span.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11080076
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 77: Coping Strategies, Cultural Practices and
           Policy Implications on Domestic Water Supply in an Erosion Susceptible
           Rural Community, Nigeria

    • Authors: Obiora B. Ezeudu, Tochukwu S. Ezeudu, Uzochukwu C. Ugochukwu, Obiageli J. Okolo, Chinedu D. Ani, Agbaji P. Ajogu, Charles C. Ajaero, Uchenna I. Mbakwe, Nixon N. Nduji
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Solving water-related problems in remote regions, especially in the developing world, is context-specific and demands knowledge and attendant support of local processes and practices. Most rural communities in developing countries have basic water and other socioeconomic challenges common to them. However, the additional constraints that come with incessant landslides and gully erosion menace necessitates a holistic investigation of how the inhabitants of Nanka, a rural community in the southeastern part of Nigeria, tend to cope with shortages in the domestic water supply and other stress associated with water. This work tries to examine the domestic water coping strategies in the community in terms of water access, sources, practices, barriers, cultural influences, and other environmental issues. These factors were investigated through qualitative research methods. Major water sources in the community include surface sources, rainwater harvesting, and sachet water, while the main water coping practices are water storage, water sharing, and buying water from vendors. The current study further makes policy recommendations along the way forward.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11080077
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 60: Exploring Ocean Floor Geodiversity in
           Relation to Mineral Resources in the Southwest Pacific Ocean

    • Authors: Arie Christoffel Seijmonsbergen, Sanne Valentijn, Lisan Westerhof, Kenneth Frank Rijsdijk
      First page: 60
      Abstract: The future extraction of mineral resources may irreversibly damage ocean floor geodiversity in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. Therefore, understanding of the spatial distribution of ocean floor geodiversity in relation to mineral resources is important. For that purpose, we first developed a geodiversity index map of the western Pacific Ocean including spatial information of openly available digital layers of four components: seafloor geomorphology, sediment thickness, bathymetry and seafloor roughness. Second, we analysed how these components contributed to the geodiversity index. Finally, correlations between three mineral resources (seafloor massive sulphides, polymetallic nodules and cobalt-rich crusts) and the geodiversity index, its components, and the ocean floor age were calculated. The results showed that the ocean floor environment and the time necessary for the formation of the three mineral resources were predominantly related to the bathymetry component and the age of the ocean floor, and to a lesser extent to the seafloor roughness, geomorphology and sediment thickness components. We conclude that the ocean floor geodiversity index and its components contribute to an improved understanding of the spatial distribution of abiotic seafloor diversity and can be optimized by using higher resolution data. We suggest that ocean floor geodiversity could be considered in future resource extraction to support responsible mining and help limit environmental damage.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11070060
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 61: Groundwater Characteristics and Quality in
           the Cascades Region of Burkina Faso

    • Authors: Moussa Diagne Faye, Moussa Bruno Kafando, Boukary Sawadogo, Romeal Panga, Souleymane Ouédraogo, Hamma Yacouba
      First page: 61
      Abstract: In the context of low rainfall, groundwater abstraction is the main source of water, especially in rural areas. For better water management, a good knowledge of water resources is necessary. The Cascades region depends, like most regions, on the use of groundwater, especially in rural areas. However, this region has been subject to a strong anthropogenic impact in recent years, in association with mineralization. This study aims to establish the status of groundwater quality in order to strengthen the knowledge of groundwater resources, for better planning of preservation strategies and sustainability of actions. Fifty-eight borehole water samples were collected using techniques and methods for assessing groundwater properties. The results indicate that the electrical conductivity (EC) values of the water show slight mineralization. The waters are aggressive, with severe-to-significant corrosion, and with calcite saturation in relation to the geological facies. Principal component analysis allowed us to conclude that residence time and leaching due to anthropogenic activities have an impact on quality. The chemical and bacteriological quality of the groundwater systems is of great concern, as some parameters exceed the Burkina Faso guidelines.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11070061
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 62: The Impact of Inefficient Urban Growth on
           Spatial Inequality of Urban Green Resources (Case Study: Urmia City)

    • Authors: Majid Ramezani Mehrian, Ayoub Manouchehri Miandoab, Asghar Abedini, Farshid Aram
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Urban green spaces are essential for improving the livability of cities. Urban parks as green and public open spaces and signs of nature in cities have special economic and social value. The existence of neighborhood parks and their proper distribution is a key element for improving the quality of life in the cities. Spatial equity and accessibility to parks are factors influencing the performance of parks. This study was conducted to determine the current situation of Urmia city in this regard by using the travel cost approach and network analysis, and also examining the impact of rapid urban growth on spatial inequalities. According to the results, 18% of the residential land in Urmia city is located outside of the park service area, and 68% of residential lands outside the park’s service area are areas that have developed as a result of urban growth in the last two decades. Based on the analysis, in 23 neighborhoods of Urmia city, the entire neighborhood is located in the service area of parks and has pedestrian access to this service. Other neighborhoods—to address the issue of spatial justice related to urban parks—fall into three categories: high, medium, and low priority.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11070062
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 63: Fleur de sel: How Does a Pinch of Suitable
           Choice Practices Value This Sustainable Natural Resource'

    • Authors: Jorge Ramos
      First page: 63
      Abstract: As mechanized processes developed, small producers of traditional sea salt ceased to be competitive. However, when the valuable salt flower (a.k.a. fleur de sel, flower of salt) market appeared, it gave new breath to the activity of traditional salt pan production. Salt flower sensitivity and delicateness became a part of modern food habits. Its crystals present some grain differentiation and these can fulfill diversified consumer tastes. In cooking art, a regular fine flower of salt can be used to finish dishes, whereas a longer and thin grain known as ‘scale’ (a.k.a. écaille de fleur de sel in French) can be used for a more gourmet-like palate. Here a suitable method is presented to sort and grade flower of salt to satisfy different palates. The method of salt flower selection is based on four main characteristics, which should be considered: cleansing, moisture, color, and size. It is the grain size that contributes most to demand allocation. The results show that what is produced (supply) and the demand from customers do not exactly match. The tiniest types of salt flower are usually completely absorbed by the market, whereas the largest types have no market at all.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11070063
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 64: Neighborhood-Scale Urban Water Reclamation
           with Integrated Resource Recovery for Establishing Nexus City in Munich,
           Germany: Pipe Dream or Reality'

    • Authors: Mohammed S. M. Al-Azzawi, Daphne Gondhalekar, Jörg E. Drewes
      First page: 64
      Abstract: With the rapid expansion of cities due to population growth and urbanization, conventional centralized wastewater collection and treatment systems are slowly becoming a burden; expensive maintenance is required for aging plants and piping infrastructure, the cost of expanding the capacity to cover demand from population growth, and new regulations for tighter control over certain pollutants such as micropollutants. As an alternative to this system, this study discusses the feasibility of decentralized treatment systems at the neighborhood scale. Taking a Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus approach, such systems can support water and energy conservation, recovery of water, energy, and nutrients as well as generation of energy from wastewater, be customized to individual water and energy requirements, and eliminate the need for lengthy pipe networks. The method employed in this study is comparing the economic feasibility of the status quo to a proposed decentralized solution. The study finds that the costs of implementing a hypothetical decentralized water reclamation with an integrated resource recovery system using an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) in a downtown high-density neighborhood of the city of Munich, Germany, can theoretically be recuperated within two years. This alternative system may cost 60% of what it costs to run the centralized system. By linking the AnMBR to a biogas digestor and using systematically harvested organic waste as a co-substrate, the decentralized system can generate enough energy to run itself and even feed some energy to the grid. This study is highly hypothetical, yet generating evidence such as this can support a systemic socio-technical transition towards a more circular economy with optimal resource recovery.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11070064
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 65: Mining Industry Corporate Social
           Responsibility to Education Development

    • Authors: Elżbieta Jasińska, Michał Jasiński
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The impact of mining industries’ operations on different areas is easy to be noticed. Thus, nowadays different research considering ecology, economy, society, or engineering is performed in light of mining industries. However, the impact on education development is not the first choice. Thus, the aim of this paper is the verification of possibility to indicate the main key factors (activities) in the mining industry, that are in accordance with the CSR doctrine and are capable of ensuring education development. To reach this purpose, KGHM Polska Miedź SA was selected for the research, as an example of a mining company operating on a global scale. Then, the appropriate CSR standard “Principles for Global Corporate Responsibility, Bench Marks for Measuring Business Performance” was a basis for the operationalization process to assure the research tool, that defines the list of the activities in accordance with CSR doctrine. The obtained research tool was used to perform the survey, which indicated the key factors that assure education development. As a result, over 65 key factors were indicated. Generally, the factors considered, e.g., free access to education for workers, suppliers, and vendors, do not affect the education of children and young workers, as does preparing company documents in language adequate to the operating area.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11070065
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 66: A Quantitative Sustainability Assessment for
           Mine Closure and Repurposing Alternatives in Colorado, USA

    • Authors: Cansu Perdeli Demirkan, Nicole M. Smith, Sebnem Duzgun
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Responsible mine closure and repurposing are key to contributing to sustainable development by ensuring successful environmental rehabilitation and reducing socioeconomic risks. However, mine closure has primarily focused on remediation and rehabilitation of mined lands with limited consideration of stakeholder perspectives and the broader social, economic, and cultural impacts of closure. In this paper, we use stakeholder input to evaluate and compare three different repurposing alternatives for the tailings dam area of a mine in the state of Colorado, USA, which is expected to close in the next twenty years. By using multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), we determine which alternative better reflects stakeholder preferences and results in the most economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable outcome. Our results show that although stakeholder groups have different ideas about what constitutes sustainable development in the context of mine closure and repurposing, it is possible to identify to what extent different scenarios can address these perspectives. We argue that integrating stakeholder views into mine closure design and repurposing can lead to more responsible and sustainable mine closure that is unique to a particular setting and stakeholder needs, and we provide a methodology that mining companies may use to understand stakeholder priorities and preferences.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11070066
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 67: Multi-Product Productions from Malaysian Oil
           Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB): Selection for Optimal Process and
           Transportation Mode

    • Authors: Abdulhalim Abdulrazik, Roziah Zailan, Marwen Elkamel, Ali Elkamel
      First page: 67
      Abstract: In Malaysia, palm oil industries have played significant roles in the economic sectors and the nation’s developments. One aspect of these industries that is gaining growing interest is oil palm residue management and bio-based product generations. EFB has been identified to be a feasible raw material for the production of bio-energy, bio-chemicals, and bio-materials. In this paper, our previous deterministic mathematical programming model was extended to include decisions for selecting optimal transportation modes and processes at each level of the processing stage in the supply chain. The superstructure of alternatives was extended to show states of produced products whether solid, liquid, or gaseous, and for which truck, train, barge, or pipeline would be possible modes of transportation. The objective function was to maximize profit which accounts for associated costs including the emission treatment costs from production and transportation. The optimal profit was USD 1,561,106,613 per year for single ownership of all facilities in the supply chain.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11070067
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 68: Implementation of Circular Business Models
           for Olive Oil Waste and By-Product Valorization

    • Authors: Mechthild Donner, Ivana Radić, Yamna Erraach, Fatima El Hadad-Gauthier
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Mediterranean olive oil producers have multiple incentives for adopting circular business models and better resource management, facing water scarcity and huge amounts of waste, but also seeing new opportunities for value creation. This article aimed to understand how circular business models valorizing olive oil waste and by-products are implemented. Ten business cases from six Mediterranean countries were studied, mainly based on semi-structured interviews with enterprise managers. Data were analyzed according to the business model canvas elements, success factors, and barriers while considering the institutional context. The results highlight the diversity of activities, types of resources used, and partnerships and products offered in different market segments. The principles of biowaste conversion and circularity, such as cascading, upcycling, recycling, and recovering, are all applied. The key success factors comprise an environmental concern, knowledge about biotechnologies, markets and logistics, a long-term commitment to the sector, local availability of resources, legislation, subsidies, and product acceptance by consumers. The main barriers include a lack of specific public financial support, an insufficient knowledge transfer from research to olive oil producers, and a lack of articulation of needs for research by the enterprises. More public-private collaborations and multi-stakeholder projects are needed for further shifting to a circular economy in the olive oil sector.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11070068
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 51: Multivariate Analysis of Geological Data for
           Regional Studies of Geodiversity

    • Authors: Lars Erikstad, Vegar Bakkestuen, Rolv Dahl, Mari Lie Arntsen, Annina Margreth, Tine Larsen Angvik, Linda Wickström
      First page: 51
      Abstract: In Norway, a landscape map exists which gives the opportunity to collect data in landscape units for further analysis. This study covers parts of Norway and Sweden, so the landscape map was extended into Sweden to form a unified landscape structure. A collection of geological and terrain data within landscape units can serve as a tool to describe the geodiversity profile of the units, study their geographical distribution and analyse similarities and dissimilarities between them. We collected geological and terrain data for an area covering large parts of southern Norway and Sweden. The data were collected as attributes in landscape polygons. The data were then analysed using multivariate techniques (Principle component analyses) where the first four axes of variation were definable. The first axis is a terrain axis, the second a bedrock unit axis, the third a bedrock diversity axis and the fourth a soil/sediment axis. In total, the four gradients answer for 54.9% of the total variation in the material. Links are found between the terrain data and geological units, but these links are relatively weak. The four gradients represent a step-less model of the geodiversity profile of the landscape areas but are dependent on the quality and scale of the input data. Norwegian and Swedish data had to be harmonised in order to be analysed together; however, because of this they ended up having a coarser resolution than desired, both spatially and scientifically. The stepless model was clustered to form 16 geodiversity profile groups for easy comparison and regional overview. The procedure can serve as a baseline for more detailed and field-based studies of geodiversity profiles, and give the opportunity to make analytical maps through simple overlay techniques and to compare areas with each other with respect to their geodiversity profile. This can be carried out both alone and in a wider landscape setting.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11060051
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 52: Enhancement of the ESSENZ Method and
           Application in a Case Study on Batteries

    • Authors: Julia Pelzeter, Vanessa Bach, Martin Henßler, Klaus Ruhland, Matthias Finkbeiner
      First page: 52
      Abstract: With a growing awareness of the impact of resource exploitation, issues such as mine site certification and recyclate use in products come to the fore. These aspects are incorporated into the ESSENZ method which assesses resource criticality. Moreover, the method is enhanced by addressing further shortcomings and considering the SCARCE method. The resultant so-called ESSENZ+ method is tested in a case study on batteries involving a data update concerning the characterization factors of eight raw materials. The comparison of the results, using the original ESSENZ versus the updated ESSENZ+ characterization factors, shows significant changes regarding the demand growth (an increase of four times due to the inclusion of future trends) and price fluctuations (an increase of fourteen times due to a data update). The impact of the introduction of the aspects of mine site certification and recyclate use are examined via sensitivity analyses showing a reduced supply risk, yet to different extents in the different categories. A comparison of nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) batteries with different NMC ratios shows a decreasing supply risk per kWh, along with technological advancement, due to lower material requirements and smaller cobalt shares. ESSENZ+ enables users to include relevant developments in their assessment such as increasing mine site certifications and recyclate use.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11060052
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 53: Fluid Production Dataset for the Assessment
           of the Anthropogenic Subsidence in the Po Plain Area (Northern Italy)

    • Authors: Celine Eid, Christoforos Benetatos, Vera Rocca
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Fluid produced/injected volumes from/into underground natural formations and their spatial allocation play a key role in addressing the superposition of anthropogenic subsidence effects, but the definition of coherent datasets is usually very challenging. In this paper, the creation of a gas and water production dataset for the Po Plain area in northern Italy is presented, focusing on the Emilia-Romagna region (an industrialized, highly-populated area characterized by rapid subsidence). The produced volumes and their spatial/temporal allocation are gathered from different sources, analyzed, and organized via dedicated georeferenced maps. The geological framework of the Po Plain is delineated, with attention to the superficial aquifers. Reference ranges of petrophysical and pseudo-elastic parameters are reported for both aquifer and reservoir formations. Water extractions from the superficial unconsolidated sediments are widespread, both in space and time; instead, primary gas production and underground storage of natural gas, involving deeper formations, are spatially and temporally well constrained. Drastic increases in water production and high concentrations of gas production temporally coincided between the 1950s and 1970s. The ‘hotspots’ of the strongest superposition are recognized in Piacenza, Ferrara, Bologna, and Ravenna provinces. Qualitative and quantitative information represent a reference source for both Oil and Gas Societies and Regional/National authorities in addressing the subsidence analysis to plan the field production life and predict the environmental consequences.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11060053
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 54: Wetland Resources in South Africa: Threats
           and Metadata Study

    • Authors: Adeyemi O. Adeeyo, Stanley S. Ndlovu, Linda M. Ngwagwe, Mulalo Mudau, Mercy A. Alabi, Joshua N. Edokpayi
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Wetlands are important ecosystems with physical and economic benefits. However, many reports confirm the drastic loss of wetlands due to urbanisation and anthropogenic activities in many parts of the world. This study focused on the present-day state of wetlands in the Republic of South Africa. A meta-analysis was performed to elucidate the distribution and level of protection of selected wetlands. The classification of existing wetlands and the threat against wetlands were reported. Wetlands in South Africa are grossly endangered by human pollution, developmental activities, and invasive plants. From data obtained, about 47.89% of reported wetlands have a low level of protection and are thus susceptible to threats. The South African Department of Environmental Affairs protects most of the wetlands (28.17%) in the country. Major weaknesses identified for wetland degradation are the ignorance of people about the benefits of wetlands and the weak implementation of frameworks and policies that currently exist. The impact of legislations and policies on the preservation of wetlands is presented as well as the need for community education on environmental degradation. Therefore, the current state of several wetlands calls for urgent attention, and there is need for a strengthening of existing laws and policies in order to prevent wetland damage and extinction.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11060054
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 55: Analysis of Extreme Hydrometeorological
           Events

    • Authors: Brunella Bonaccorso, David J. Peres
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Extreme hydrometeorological events (e [...]
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11060055
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 56: Biotic Part of the Product Material
           Footprint: Comparison of Indicators Regarding Their Interpretation and
           Applicability

    • Authors: Clemens Mostert, Stefan Bringezu
      First page: 56
      Abstract: The product material footprint (PMF) represents a central instrument to assess the potential environmental impacts of products and services based on their life-cycle-wide material use. Within the life cycle impact assessment framework, the indicators raw material input (RMI) and total material requirement (TMR) have been used for its calculation, but so far, only abiotic materials have been considered. This research analyses the requirements and indicators for the assessment of the biotic part of the PMF. The central question is whether the indicators RMI biotic and TMR biotic are suitable for this purpose or if they need to be adapted. For comparison, the indicator cumulative raw material demand (CRD) is applied. The indicator concepts of RMI, TMR, and CRD are compared by defining the system boundaries for determining the biotic parts of the footprint. To test the applicability, the production of wheat bread is assessed as a case study. The characterization factors of wheat grains are determined and each of the three indicators is implemented in the software openLCA for use with the ecoinvent database. The results show that RMI biotic and TMR biotic are suitable indicators for the quantification and assessment of the biotic part of the PMF. While CRD abiotic provides the same information as RMI abiotic, both indicators differ regarding the biotic part. The CRD per definition does not consider biotic inputs from agriculture and forestry and thus conveys insufficient information on the used and unused biomass extraction for the product LCA. The ratio of RMI biotic to the net annual increment and TMR biotic to the net primary production could be used for absolute sustainability assessment.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11060056
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 57: Biomass Energy Resources: Feedstock Quality
           and Bioenergy Sustainability

    • Authors: Daniele Duca, Giuseppe Toscano
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The fossil fuel society is facing environmental, socio-economic, and geopolitical issues [...]
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11060057
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 58: Community Seedbanks in Uganda: Fostering
           Access to Genetic Diversity and Its Conservation

    • Authors: Rose Nankya, Abdel Kader Naino Jika, Paola De Santis, Hannington Lwandasa, Devra Ivy Jarvis, John Wasswa Mulumba
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Community seedbanks promote conservation and the use of crop genetic diversity, as well as supporting farmer seed systems. This study analyses seed flow and access to crop genetic diversity over time in the Nakaseke, Rubaya, and Kibuga seedbanks of Uganda. The modes of operation of the banks were compared through scrutinizing records of crops and varieties being conserved, quantities of seed distributed, to whom, and quantities returned. The Nakaseke seed bank distributed the highest varietal diversity of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), whereas the Rubaya seedbank distributed the highest quantity of common bean seed, followed by the Kibuga seedbank. There were no significant differences between the type of variety of seed, quantities of seed accessed, and seed returned to the seedbanks by women and men—except for the Nakaseke seedbank, where women returned significantly higher quantities of common bean seed. The Kibuga and Rubaya seedbanks dealt with individual farmers, whereas the Nakaseke seedbank dealt with individual farmers and groups. The extent to which core functions were achieved by a particular seedbank depended on the mode of operation, including actors, management, degree of development, socio-economic setting, among others. Further research is recommended to unpack these factors and come up with the most appropriate combinations for greater seedbank effectiveness.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11060058
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 59: Will a Geopolitical Conflict Accelerate
           Energy Transition in Oil-Importing Countries' A Case Study of the
           Philippines from a Real Options Perspective

    • Authors: Casper Boongaling Agaton
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Geopolitical conflicts, involving a major player in the world market, affect the prices of oil and commodities, particularly in oil-importing countries. Consequently, the unprecedented changes in oil prices impact investments in energy transition projects. This study aims to analyze the dynamics of investment decisions in energy transition under uncertainties in geopolitical risks. This research applies the Black-Scholes-based real options valuation to value the flexibility in postponing energy transition investments considering the repercussions of the Russia-Ukraine war. Applying the proposed model to the case of the Philippines, the valuation result with a net present value of USD 231 million for a 1 GW capacity shows that energy transition is a viable project when the cost savings from using fossil fuels to renewables are considered. On the other hand, real options valuation finds a higher flexibility value of USD 990 million, which implies a better decision to postpone the project. The uncertainty in geopolitical conflicts further increases this value causing a longer waiting period to implement the energy transition project. Sensitivity analysis shows that the results are robust to changes in the explanatory variables. Results provide policy implications on making an oil-importing country energy self-sufficient and robust from economic and geopolitical shocks.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11060059
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 39: The Role of Mineral Raw Materials Education
           in a Social License to Operate—A Case of Poland

    • Authors: Alicja Kot-Niewiadomska
      First page: 39
      Abstract: The Social License to Operate (SLO), understood as the consent of a wide group of stakeholders to mining activities, has become an important element in the process of obtaining a mining license in recent years. Such a pattern of increasing importance is common, both in Poland and throughout the EU. Therefore, it should be of key importance to prevent society’s reluctance to this industry. The article indicates that a very important tool in this matter should be reliable and knowledge-based raw materials education, carried out as early as at the stage of school education. Deficiencies in this respect were revealed through a survey conducted among children and youth up to 15 years of age. The results of the survey were discussed in the context of the development of raw materials education in Poland, which results indicate should focus on emphasizing the benefits of mining, both in terms of the general public and individuals. Shaping and strengthening the mineral raw materials awareness of the inhabitants of Poland is also of key importance for the implementation of standards for the protection of mineral deposits and ensuring the country’s resource security.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050039
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 40: Growth Development, Physiological Status and
           Water Footprint Assessment of Nursery Young Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.
           ‘Konservolea’) Irrigated with Urban Treated Wastewater

    • Authors: Konstantina Fotia, George Nanos, Pantelis Barouchas, Markos Giannelos, Aikaterini Linardi, Aikaterini Vallianatou, Paraskevi Mpeza, Ioannis Tsirogiannis
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Application of urban treated wastewater (TWW) has been practiced globally as an alternative irrigation water source in areas where access to safe and abundant freshwater is limited. Water footprint (WF) has been employed over the last decades as a tool for the assessment of the sustainable management of water resources. In the present study, the suitability of TWW for the irrigation of nursery young olive trees (Olea europaea L. ‘Konservolea’), one of the main table olive cultivars in Greece, the second global table olive exporter, was tested and compared to tap water irrigation and application of zeolite on soil. Plant growth and physiological parameters and stress indicators were measured. Additionally, a WF assessment was performed, distinguishing TWW from freshwater (blue water) resources in order to examine the possibility of minimizing the environmental impact through the limitation of freshwater use. Plants irrigated with TWW performed better in most of the growth and physiological parameters measured compared to the other treatments. Stress indicators revealed that TWW did not induce any additional stress. TWW could be used as an irrigation water source for young olive trees for at least a short period during their growth as a safe and sustainable alternate of blue water resources. Additionally, the WF assessment showed that the application of TWW could be a significant blue water saving measure.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050040
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 41: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of
           MWool® Recycled Wool Fibers

    • Authors: Isabella Bianco, Raffaella Gerboni, Giuseppe Picerno, Gian Andrea Blengini
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Textile industries are in the spotlight due to the heavy environmental impacts along their products’ life cycle and, at the same time, they are a priority sector in the new circular economy action plan of the European Commission. In this framework, the Italian company Manteco SpA has developed a value chain based on the recycling of pre- and post-consumer discarded textiles, wh0se output is a secondary wool fiber named MWool®. This study develops an environmental analysis of recycled wool fibers through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, mainly using primary data. A parallel LCA is developed of virgin wool fiber, mostly based on literature data. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out: (i) to capture the uncertainty associated with virgin fibers’ impacts and (ii) to evaluate how MWool® impacts vary according to the origin and treatment of recycled textiles. Finally, the Circular Footprint Formula (CFF) has been applied to consider also a possible decay in quality typically affecting recycled fibers. Results show that recycled wool fibers have significantly lower environmental impacts than virgin fibers, even when the most unfavorable scenarios are considered. As climate change is concerned, 1 kg of MWool® has a carbon footprint of 0.1–0.9 kg CO2 eq., while producing virgin fibers releases 10–103 kg CO2 eq. Using the CFF, it emerges that recycled wool fibers can save about 60% of the impacts of virgin fibers. This study contributes to filling data gaps regarding LCAs applied to the textile sector, which is more and more in the spotlight and needs to address these environmental issues.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050041
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 42: Managerial Issues Regarding the Role of
           Natural Gas in the Transition of Energy and the Impact of Natural Gas
           Consumption on the GDP of Selected Countries

    • Authors: Eleftherios Thalassinos, Marta Kadłubek, Le Minh Thong, Tran Van Hiep, Erginbay Ugurlu
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Natural gas is considered an important bridge in the transition of energy in the world. However, the development and management of unconventional gas now face many challenges. This paper aims to provide an overview of what would be required to formulate and implement the trend of energy transition and natural gas use in the world. Selected managerial issues regarding the role of natural gas are presented, including chosen statistical data on natural gas consumption, forecasts for the demand for natural gas, and the potential of unconventional gas. The empirical part of the study examines the impact of natural gas consumption on the GDP of 14 G20 countries during the period of 1994 to 2018. The pooled mean group model (PMG) is employed in this study. Based on the cointegration test results, it was found that natural gas consumption and population have a long-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Consistent with other studies, we found a positive relationship between CO2 emissions and natural gas consumption, GDP, and population.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050042
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 43: Activated Carbons from Hydrothermal
           Carbonization and Chemical Activation of Olive Stones: Application in
           Sulfamethoxazole Adsorption

    • Authors: Elena Diaz, Ines Sanchis, Charles J. Coronella, Angel F. Mohedano
      First page: 43
      Abstract: This work focuses on the production of activated carbons by hydrothermal carbonization of olive stones at 220 °C, followed by chemical activation with KOH, FeCl3 and H3PO4 of the hydrochar obtained. In addition, N-doped hydrochars were also obtained by performing the hydrothermal carbonization process with the addition of (NH4)2SO4. All hydrochars, N-doped and non-doped, showed low BET surface areas (4–18 m2 g−1). Activated hydrochars prepared using H3PO4 or KOH as activating agents presented BET surface areas of 1115 and 2122 m2 g−1, respectively, and those prepared from N-doped hydrochar showed BET surface area values between 1116 and 2048 m2 g−1 with an important contribution of mesoporosity (0.55–1.24 cm3 g−1). The preparation procedure also derived inactivated hydrochars with predominantly acidic or basic groups on their surface. The resulting materials were tested in the adsorption of sulfamethoxazole in water. The adsorption capacity depended on both the porous texture and the electrostatic interactions between the adsorbent and the adsorbate. The adsorption equilibrium data (20 °C) fitted fairly well to the Langmuir equation, and even better to the Freundlich equation, resulting in the non-doped hydrochar activated with the KOH as the best adsorbent.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050043
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 44: Societal Evaluation of Bioeconomy Scenarios
           for Germany

    • Authors: Katrin Zander, Sabine Will, Jan Göpel, Christopher Jung, Rüdiger Schaldach
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Transitioning to a bio-based economy is widely perceived as a necessary way to tackle climate change and other key environmental challenges. Given the major socio-economic consequences that such a transition entails for people’s everyday lives, it is crucial to take account of citizens’ perceptions and levels of acceptance of these changes. This study applies a holistic approach to gain an understanding of how citizens in Germany assess possible developments associated with transitioning to a bioeconomy. We developed three future scenarios modelling the impacts on people’s day-to-day lives of adopting different elements of a bioeconomy and of replacing fossil resources with biogenic resources to a lesser or greater extent by 2050. German citizens were asked to evaluate the different scenarios through a quantitative online survey. Although the respondents largely preferred the scenario of “Bioeconomy Change” entailing the most substantial changes in resource use, many also expressed concerns about the possible negative socio-economic effects of this scenario, including fears of increased product prices, declining living standards, and greater social injustice. The results show that younger people and women are more in favour of changes towards a bioeconomy than men and older people. Since the acceptance of bio-technical innovations increases with greater knowledge about such innovations and their usefulness, the transformation process must make use of sound communication strategies that involve all societal groups by engaging them in constructive dialogue.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050044
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 45: Understanding the Socio-Demographic Profile
           of Waste Re-Users in a Suburban Setting in South Africa

    • Authors: Samantha Louise Lange, Mpinane Flory Senekane, Nisha Naicker
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Minimising waste through re-use thereof is the third tier of the waste minimisation hierarchy. Understanding the socio-demographic profile of waste re-users can assist in developing effective waste minimisation strategies and programmes. The objective of this paper was to understand the socio-demographic profile of waste re-users and determine whether this affected their re-use activities and pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). This was a cross-sectional study conducted in three randomly selected suburbs in Gauteng, South Africa (n = 150). The data was retrieved using a questionnaire and multivariate analysis using a MAONVA test was conducted to assess which factors were associated with PEB and waste re-use. Women re-used plastic containers more than males and homeowners re-used glass jars more than tenants. The level of education had no significant bearing on specific re-use activities. Multivariate analysis results indicate that gender, age groups and type/status of homeownership played a significant role in statements that negatively influence waste re-use. Based on the results of this study, the best candidates for re-use activities and PEB in suburban communities in South Africa are women homeowners aged between 31 and 50 years.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050045
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 46: The Key to Sustainable Economic Development:
           A Triple Bottom Line Approach

    • Authors: Elisabete Nogueira, Sofia Gomes, João M. Lopes
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Concerns about improving social, environmental, and economic living standards are the basis of the triple bottom line (TBL) link to economic development (ED). Aware of the importance of studying their relationship, this article analysed the influence of TBL on ED. A quantitative methodology was used. The sample comprised a panel of data from 2006 to 2019 for OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries. Five multiple linear regression models were estimated by the generalised method of moments. The results of this study revealed that the social dimension of TBL boosts ED, the environmental dimension of TBL slows down ED, and the economic dimension of TBL contains conflicting synergies in ED. The Human Development Index (HDI) should now include indicators of environmental wellbeing. Governments should adopt policies to improve social wellbeing to boost ED, work to coordinate the objectives of environmental protection and ED, and combat vulnerabilities arising from public debt. As one of the first studies to assess the influence of TBL on ED at the country level, the present findings contribute to the reflection about the influence of TBL on a country’s ED and strengthens the discussion around the influence of different dimensions of TBL.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050046
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 47: The Ratio of Biologically Vital Areas as a
           Measure of the Sustainability of Urban Parks Using the Example of
           Budapest, Hungary

    • Authors: Kinga Kimic, Albert Fekete
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Biologically vital areas (BVAs) indicate regions with ecological functions within cities. Their presence in green spaces helps to counteract the negative impacts of built-up areas and impermeable structures on urban environments and city dwellers. The main objective of this study was to examine the level of sustainability of urban parks based on their real ratio of biologically vital areas (RBVA). The preliminary research was conducted in 2021 on six randomly selected parks in Budapest, Hungary, which are examples either of site rehabilitation or of new designs based on a sustainable approach. The areas of the main types of landcover with ecological functions, such as greenery planted on the ground, green roofs, permeable pavement, and water reservoirs, were measured and compared to the area of hard structures as well as the entire area of each park. The results show that the RBVA was below 50% in four of the six studied cases (ranging from 22.97% in MOM Park to 44.13% in Millenáris Park) and above 50% in two cases (51.52% in Graphisoft Park and 79.31% in Nehru Park). This diversity resulted from the need to reconcile ecological and social functions in urban parks; however, the implementation of sustainable solutions should be increased in further development.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050047
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 48: Trends and Opportunities of Bivalve
           Shells’ Waste Valorization in a Prospect of Circular Blue Bioeconomy
           

    • Authors: Daniela Summa, Mattia Lanzoni, Giuseppe Castaldelli, Elisa Anna Fano, Elena Tamburini
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Bivalves aquaculture is already considered a very sustainable for of food production and might become an essential pillar on which to develop future global food security. However, with the increase in production, a correspondingly great amount of waste will be produced all around the earth, principally in the form of shells, which can represent up to 90% of the fresh mollusk weight. Nowadays, shell waste has no notable use and is commonly regarded as waste, often dumped in landfill, or thrown back into the sea, causing a significant level of environmental concern, and resulting in a loss of natural and valuable resources. Bivalve shells are mainly formed by CaCO3, giving them the potential to become a promising secondary raw material for several applications, from a circular economy perspective. This paper aims to review the scientific literature of the last twenty years and the principal recent trends in shell waste reuse, describing applications that are already in place on a large scale in agriculture and livestock, soils, water and wastewater remediation, biodiesel production and biofilters, as well as niche applications that now simply have the potential to be scaled up.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050048
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 49: Elastic Wave Propagation in a
           Stainless-Steel Standard and Verification of a COMSOL Multiphysics
           Numerical Elastic Wave Toolbox

    • Authors: Mohsen Bazargan, Bjarne S. G. Almqvist, Hem Bahadur Motra, Pooyan Broumand, Tobias Schmiedel, Christoph F. Hieronymus
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Laboratory-based elastic wave measurements are commonly used to quantify the seismic properties of Earth’s crust and upper mantle. Different types of laboratory apparatuses are available for such measurements, simulating seismic properties at different pressure and temperature. To complement such laboratory measurements, we present a numerical toolbox to investigate the seismic properties of rock samples. The numerical model is benchmarked against experimental results from a multi-anvil apparatus, using measurements of a stainless steel calibration standard. Measured values of the mean compressional- and shear-wave velocities at room conditions of the steel block were 6.03 km/s and 3.26 km/s, respectively. Calculated numerical results predicted 6.12 km/s and 3.30 km/s for compressional and shear-wave velocities. Subsequently, we measured Vp and Vs up to 600 MPa hydrostatic confining pressure and 600 °C. These measurements, at pressure and temperature, were then used as the basis to predict numerical wave speeds. There is, in general, good agreement between measurement and predicted numerical results. The numerical method presented in this study serves as a flexible toolbox, allowing for the easy setup of different model geometries and composite materials.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050049
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 50: Retraction: Morley et al. A Database for the
           Extraction, Trade, and Use of Sand and Gravel. Resources 2022, 11, 38

    • Authors: John D. Morley, Rupert J. Myers, Yves Plancherel, Pablo R. Brito-Parada
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The published article [...]
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11050050
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 35: Residual Biomass: A Comprehensive Review on
           the Importance, Uses and Potential in a Circular Bioeconomy Approach

    • Authors: Margarida Casau, Marta Ferreira Dias, João C. O. Matias, Leonel J. R. Nunes
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The paradigm shift towards sustainable growth is urgent, and biomass, which is the oldest energy source that humans have used since the discovery of fire, might play an important role. Biomass waste from forestry and agriculture is expected to fuel part of the increasing demand for biomass, and its valorization allows for more the efficient use of nutrients and resources. In this study, we carried out an extensive literature review on the valorization of residual agroforestry biomass since the 1970s to understand the leading research focuses on the subject over the last few decades, identify the most recent trends, and establish a possible solution path for the future of biomass. It was observed that most studies focused on biomass as being capable of replacing fossil energy sources. According to the literature, biomass has the most significant potential to meet requirements and ensure fuel supplies in the future. The developments of the last decades have significantly improved the conversion processes, leading to greener solutions, but there is still much to be studied and put into practice. Closing the loop into biomass waste recovery will be essential for a genuinely circular bioeconomy.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11040035
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 36: Study and Evaluation of Surface Water
           Resources Affected by Ancient and Illegal Mining in the Upper Part of the
           Milluni Micro-Basin, Bolivia

    • Authors: Paola Andrea Alvizuri-Tintaya, Marco Rios-Ruiz, Jaime Lora-Garcia, Juan Ignacio Torregrosa-López, Vanesa G. Lo-Iacono-Ferreira
      First page: 36
      Abstract: One of the factors with the most significant impact due to pollution caused by mining activities is water. Surface water resources are limited, and in many cases, they are the primary water source for consumption; thus, its quality is a fundamental subject of study. The traditional way of studying water quality is to measure parameters and compare the results with tables of values established in the regulations. The quality of drinking water is characterized and controlled. However, this traditional comparison method may be subjective and insufficient to classify water quality as safe. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and complement the conventional monitoring, linking physicochemical analysis with remote perception. The different variables analyzed can be integrated and result in much more complete water quality indices, achieving the evolution of the monitoring programs of the water quality of the surface bodies. This research combines remote sensing with traditional monitoring to obtain a more robust and affordable indicator, resulting in a study of the central water bodies of Milluni. The main finding—the alarming contamination in the Milluni Chico and Milluni Grande lagoons—provides more accurate information to decision-makers to improve water management in Bolivia.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11040036
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 37: Long-Term Sustainability of Copper and Iron
           Based on a System Dynamics Model

    • Authors: Larona S. Teseletso, Tsuyoshi Adachi
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Copper and iron are critical to the economic growth of modern society. Nations depend on these metals for the development of infrastructure, transportation, and other industries. However, concerns regarding future availability of “peak minerals” with a “limit to growth” have been extensively debated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the amount of potential resources and the recycling rate from secondary metal scrap recycling for the sustainable development of mineral resources. The long-term mineral supply and demand balance with respect to recycling for copper and iron were developed for the next 50 years at the regional and global levels. The results indicate that the supply of copper would increase four-fold by 2070 compared to 1991, with primary copper remaining the main contributing source. For iron, the total supply would increase by nine times from 2000 to 2070, with secondary recycling surpassing the primary iron supply by 2033 and becoming the main contributor by 2070. Even though there is no future resource constraint, further promotion of scrap recycling, especially for copper, is necessary to address environmental concerns through reduction in material extraction. Emphasizing the importance of metals in society is essential for stock accountability through resource efficiency and resource conservation.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11040037
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 38: A Database for the Extraction, Trade, and
           Use of Sand and Gravel

    • Authors: John D. Morley, Rupert J. Myers, Yves Plancherel, Pablo R. Brito-Parada
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Increasing demand for sand and gravel globally is leading to social, environmental, and political issues that are becoming more widely recognised. Lack of data and poor accessibility of the few available data contribute to exacerbating these issues and impair evidence-based management efforts. This article presents a database framework designed to describe stocks and flows data for sand and gravel from different sources. The classification system underlying the database builds on the Universal Materials Information System (UMIS) nomenclature, which is used to construct hierarchical order in the data. The common classification system is used to structure sand and gravel data records into a database formatted in the same manner as the Yale Stocks and Flow Database (YSTAFDB), a common data format. To illustrate how the database is built and used, a case study using UK data is presented. The UK is chosen owing to its relatively better access to data compared to other locations. Quantitative analyses of the UK data highlight possible risks in the supply chain of these materials for the UK. Results show that indigenous extraction only contributes 11% to UK sand and gravel production, with trade accounting for the rest of the inputs, of which 50% is reliant on only one nation.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11040038
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 25: Geotouristic Route Proposal for Touristic
           Development in a Mining Area—Case Study

    • Authors: Paúl Carrión-Mero, Magner Turner-Carrión, Gricelda Herrera-Franco, Gianella Bravo-Murillo, Maribel Aguilar-Aguilar, Nataly Paz-Salas, Edgar Berrezueta
      First page: 25
      Abstract: In recent decades, geotourism has been presented as an alternative for the sustainable socioeconomic development of the community. In addition, it shows significant growth. Portovelo canton, located in the south of Ecuador, is characterised by a significant geological importance complemented by the mining culture and history interest, turning into the first mining centre. Mining is the main economic activity in the area. However, the development of illegal mining without technical considerations affects the canton and its surroundings. Faced with this problem, the need arises for alternatives to improve the inhabitants’ quality of life and protect their geological heritage. This work aims to propose a geotouristic route (GR) in the course of the Amarillo River through the characterisation and quantitative assessment of 10 interest sites (four geosites and six touristic sites), which enhance the geotourism development of the canton, including geoconservation strategies. The methodological process includes (i) characterisation of sites and GR proposal, (ii) sites and GR assessment using the Geotouristic Route Assessment Matrix method (GtRAM, acronym in Spanish) and Brilha method for geosites, and (iii) proposal of geotourism development and geoconservation strategies in a sustainability framework through the analysis of strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats (SWOT). The results obtained from the proposed GR reflect that 60% of the proposed sites have a tourist interest classified as high, of which the Museo Mineralógico Magner Turner was the best-rated geoheritage element. Similarly, the high scientific, educational, and tourist values of the proposed geoheritage sites are highlighted. Strategies have been established to enhance the GR value: (i) Promoting geotourism through different activities and (ii) proposals for geoconservation and conditioning of geoheritage sites and tourist interest sites considering the geological and environmental impact. The methodology used in the study made it possible to establish geo-guidelines focused on local development, which are coupled with the knowledge of two main groups: Geo-experts and the community.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11030025
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 26: Characteristics and Use Patterns of Outdoor
           Recreationists on Public Lands in Alabama—Case Study of Bankhead
           National Forest and Sipsey Wilderness Area

    • Authors: Colmore S. Christian, Chelsea N. Scott
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Like many other states in south-east USA, Alabama is blessed with a high percentage of natural areas. These areas support vital nature tourism and the outdoor recreation sector. This study was undertaken at the Bankhead National Forest (BNF) and Sipsey Wilderness Area (SWA), significant hubs for outdoor recreation in northwestern Alabama. The goal of this study was to collect baseline information that could be used to develop tools and strategies for increasing the diversity of users participating in outdoor recreation at BNF/SWA. A pretested questionnaire was administered to visitors at eight outdoor recreation sites in the BNF/SWA. Adults encountered at study locations were invited, after their visit, to participate in the study. The study found that (a) the majority of visitors to the BNF/SWA were Caucasians and the least encountered race was African American; (b) the most common reason for visiting BNF/SWA was for family outings, whereas activities with friends or coworkers were the second most important reason for visiting; (c) hiking (39.6%), camping (29.1%), picnicking (23.3%), and horseback riding (22.5%) were the most popular outdoor recreation activities pursued by visitors. It was concluded that a study aimed at identifying the constraints which negatively impact the use of the BNF/SWA by minorities should be a critical step in the process of trying to diversify the BNF/SWA’s user base. Increased efforts must be made to identify the reasons for the low usage of the BNF/SWA by minorities.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11030026
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 27: Environmental Factors Influencing the
           

    • Authors: Steve N. Machan, Jones F. Agwata, Nicholas O. Oguge
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Dryland areas in northern Kenya experience challenges due to various factors, including environmental degradation associated with unstable weather conditions and climate change. These and related risks and stressors are threats to the sustenance of camel milk production for many of Kenya’s northern communities. We conducted a study among the pastoral communities in Isiolo County whose principal source of livelihood is dependent on camel production. In this paper, we discuss the drivers of the environmental factors influencing the resilience and sustainability of the camel milk value chain in Isiolo County, northern Kenya. We analyzed (i) the internal factors that influence the system, which includes: the categories and economic contributions of livestock-based value chains, the occupation of the camel milk value chain micro players, and land-use practices in Isiolo County, and (ii) the external factors influencing the system: the climatic variability (2014–2017) and its effect on the camel milk value chain, and the vegetation condition index (VCI) indicating drought trends for Isiolo County (2002–2020). The study adopted a field survey through interviews with randomly selected households involved in the camel milk value chain by using a survey questionnaire and a survey guide for focus group discussions (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII). The results from the study showed camel milk as a dominant value chain among the livestock-based value chain products in Isiolo County, the variations in quantities of camel milk supplied due to changes in seasonality, and we show that the current system is not sustainable. We conclude with recommendations to establish a modernized camel milk value chain based on improved natural resources management for a resilient and sustainable system.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11030027
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 28: Land Resource Depletion, Regional
           Disparities, and the Claim for a Renewed ‘Sustainability
           Thinking’ under Early Desertification Conditions

    • Authors: Rosanna Salvia, Valentina Quaranta, Adele Sateriano, Giovanni Quaranta
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The present contribution discusses recent findings in environmental issues dealing with desertification risk and regional disparities in the Mediterranean basin. By focusing on key socioeconomic factors underlying land and soil degradation (population growth, urban sprawl, coastalization, agricultural intensification, and land abandonment), this commentary highlights the intimate linkage between socioeconomic processes, rural poverty, and territorial disparities based on complex dynamics of demographic and economic factors. The increasing complexity in the spatial distribution of land vulnerable to degradation has also been pointed out with special reference to post-war Italy, a Mediterranean country considered as particularly affected in the UNCCD Annex IV, as the results of non-linear biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics. The lack in multi-target and multi-scale policies approaching land degradation and territorial disparities together is finally discussed as an original contribution to the study of Mediterranean desertification.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11030028
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 29: Digital Technologies in Arctic Oil and Gas
           Resources Extraction: Global Trends and Russian Experience

    • Authors: Ekaterina Samylovskaya, Alexey Makhovikov, Alexander Lutonin, Dmitry Medvedev, Regina-Elizaveta Kudryavtseva
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The paper is devoted to the analysis of the current and the forecast of the prospective state of introducing digital technologies into the oil and gas mining industry of the Russian Arctic. The authors of the paper analyzed the global trends that define the process of digital technologies’ introduction into the oil and gas mining industry. They also reviewed the Russian companies’ experience in this sphere. The main trends and prospects for the development of oil and gas resources extraction in the Russian Arctic in the digitalization sphere were identified. Together with this, the researchers considered prospects for digital technologies’ introduction into the oil and gas industry, observing their competition with RES. As a result, the authors have come to the following conclusions: (1) in Russian companies, digitalization is being more actively introduced into the processes of general enterprise management. (2) The main purpose of Russian oil and gas sector digitalization is to increase the efficiency of business process management, while the key constraining factors of digitalization are the lack of qualified personnel, lack of material and technical base and cyber-security threats aggravation. (3) The prospects of introducing a new package of sanctions can become both an incentive for a qualitative leap in Russian software development/implementation and an obstacle to the development of Arctic projects due to their rise in price. (4) The COVID-19 pandemic factor is one of the incentives for the widespread introduction of production and various business processes automation in the oil and gas industry, as well as the development of digital communications. (5) The leader in the digital technology development industry among Russian oil and gas companies is “Gazprom Neft” PJSC, followed by “NK Rosneft” PJSC. (6) “Gazprom” PJSC continues to lag behind in the sphere of digitalization; however, qualitative changes here should be expected in 2022. (7) The “sensitivity parameters” influencing the industry digitalization process in the Arctic region are the high dependence on foreign technological solutions and software, characteristics of the entire Russian oil and gas industry, and the problem of ensuring cybersecurity in Arctic oil and gas projects and power outages. (8) For the Arctic regions, the use of RES as the main source of electricity is the most optimal and promising solution; however, hydrocarbon energy will still dominate the market in the foreseeable future.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11030029
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 30: Environmental, Social and Governance
           Credentials of Agricultural Companies—The Interplay with Company
           Size

    • Authors: Mirela Cristea, Graţiela Georgiana Noja, Eleftherios Thalassinos, Daniel Cîrciumaru, Constantin Ștefan Ponea, Carmen Claudia Durău
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Based on the significance of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, respectively, the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) measures, for companies’ advancement in the fields of agriculture, the purpose of our study is to appraise how the ESG measures influence the size of public companies from the agricultural sectors, with particular attention on the environmental pillar. The research methodology consists in applying two econometric procedures to assess the direct effects of the ESG activities on the size of public agricultural firms by models of robust regression (RREG) and to appraise global implications of ESG measures on companies’ dimension by models of structural equations (SEM). Data encloses the ESG indicators, focusing on environmental indicators and agricultural companies’ size (proxied by total assets), extracted from the Thomson Reuters Refinitiv Eikon database for the fiscal year 2020. Main results reveal that several components of the ESG measures, especially the environmental ones, may influence the size of the agricultural companies, given the significant companies’ strengths in implementing CSR actions to ensure sustainable resource management. We propose adequate strategies for companies to provide robust resource management and proper integration of the environmental credentials.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11030030
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 31: The Effect of Autotrophic Cultivation of
           Platymonas subcordiformis in Waters from the Natural Aquatic Reservoir on
           Hydrogen Yield

    • Authors: Magda Dudek, Marcin Dębowski, Anna Nowicka, Joanna Kazimierowicz, Marcin Zieliński
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Biological processes run by microalgae are prospective but still little known methods of hydrogen production. A prerequisite for their increased advancement is the development of economically viable and efficient technologies. The study presented in this manuscript focused on determining the efficiency of biohydrogen production by P. subcordiformis using a culture medium prepared based on natural waters. The rate of P. subcordiformis biomass growth reached 317.6 ± 42.3 mgODM/dm3·d and ensured a biomass concentration of 3493 ± 465 mgODM/dm3. The percentage concentration of hydrogen in the biogas reached 63.2 ± 1.4%, and its production rate ranged from 0.53 ± 0.05 cm3/h to 0.70 ± 0.01 cm3/h.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11030031
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 32: Mechanical Behavior of Briquettes Made from
           a Mixture of Sawdust and Rice Husks for Commercialization

    • Authors: Oscar Araque, Nelson Arzola, Laura Gallego
      First page: 32
      Abstract: The development of this research work seeks to determine the mechanical behavior of the compacted mixture of pine sawdust and rice husk by varying the mass percentages of these biomasses obtained in briquettes, with the purpose of being marketed. The finite element software ANSYS is used to corroborate the results obtained for the samples named AIO, BIO and CIO with rice husk mass percentages of 25, 50 and 75, respectively. In the computational simulations, Young’s moduli of between 651 and 813 MPa and a Poisson’s ratio of 0.8 were found for all samples. In compression tests, Von Mises stresses of between 87 and 90 MPa and Von Mises strains between 0.09 and 0.12 m/m were found. Free-fall tests showed von Mises stresses below 4.24 MPa. It was determined that increasing the percentage of rice husk mass in the simulation models increased the value of Young’s modulus and compressive strength, this is a positive indication in relation to the strength of the formed briquettes, in case they are required to be transported for commercial purposes, however no defined stress and strain behavior was obtained for the impact tests, since the heights of 2 m and 5 m together with the masses established for the specimens do not cause high impact forces.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11030032
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 33: Study of Unpicked Grapes Valorization: A
           Natural Source of Polyphenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Their
           Antioxidant Capacity

    • Authors: Edurne Elejalde, María Villarán, Iratxe Lopez-de-Armentia, Daniel Ramón, Raquel Murillo, Rosa Alonso
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Every year great amounts of high-quality wine grapes are left on the vine unpicked, and consequently lost, to control the overproduction in wine areas with limited appellation production yield. In the context of circular bioeconomy, the valorization of these grapes as a potential source of natural antioxidants is of great interest. The study carried out is focused on the polyphenolic profile characterization of different unpicked grape varieties using the ultrasound-assisted extraction technique to extract the polyphenolic fractions. Moreover, the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity by several assays was carried out: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), stability of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and stability of 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) assays. The results showed a strong relationship between total phenolic content and hydroxycinnamic acids (R2 = 0.9088) followed by flavan-3-ols (R2 = 0.8792) and tannins (R2 = 0.7705). The antioxidant capacity of the grapes was dependent on the total phenolic content. These results supply new information for a better understanding of the importance of giving an added value to the unpicked grapes due to their high content of polyphenols. These findings help the wine sector to consider the valorization of the unpicked grapes, classified as wastes, as an interesting source of natural antioxidants to be used as food supplements and with potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11030033
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 34: Using Outsourcing Services in Manufacturing
           Companies

    • Authors: Judyta Kabus, Michał Dziadkiewicz, Ireneusz Miciuła, Marcin Mastalerz
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Contemporary economic entities function in various types of cooperation systems, which are primarily aimed at creating a competitive advantage and strengthening themselves in order to meet the requirements of competitors. One solution that can make a significant difference to one’s market advantage is outsourcing. It is a response of enterprises to the constantly changing conditions of functioning in a turbulent environment and the emerging new directions and concepts in management. It should be stressed that the choice of outsourcing as a strategy means not only to outsource selected work to external entities, but first of all to retain those competencies of the company that cannot be replaced by anyone. This means that a company must retain a certain sphere of the so-called key areas of activity, which in a positive way distinguish it from the competition and allow it to build an effective market advantage. The main objective of the article is to identify the areas of operation that are the most common subject of outsourcing and the determinants that affect the choice of an outsourcing operator in manufacturing companies in Poland. The variety of aspects of the research subject matter, oscillating around the main objective, has made it necessary to formulate the following research hypotheses: Research Hypothesis H1—The basic criteria determining the selection of an outsourcing operator are: price, quality of services provided and reputation; Research Hypothesis H2—The most common subject of outsourcing is finance and security. The survey was conducted in 2020, in the pre-pandemic period, on a sample of N = 120, including owners/managers of manufacturing enterprises. A non-random sample selection was used. The questionnaires were sent to 200 companies, however, only 126 were completed, of which 6 were not completed in full and were therefore rejected. The verification of the hypothesis was carried out using the chi-square test.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11030034
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 7: Carbon Footprint and Feedstock Quality of a
           Real Biomass Power Plant Fed with Forestry and Agricultural Residues

    • Authors: Alessio Ilari, Daniele Duca, Kofi Armah Boakye-Yiadom, Thomas Gasperini, Giuseppe Toscano
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Phasing out fossil fuels to renewables is currently a global priority due to the climate change threat. Advocacy for biomass use as an energy source requires assessing the quality biomass and ecological impacts of bioenergy supply chains. This study evaluated the quality of biomass residues from orchards and silviculture transported from different Northern and Central Italy locations and the carbon footprint of a biomass power plant. The total greenhouse emissions were calculated based on primary data for 2017 according to the ISO/TS 14067. All the residue samples showed their suitability for biofuel use. Ash content was relatively low on average (3–5% d.m.), except for grapevine residues (18% d.m.). The lower heating value was within the expected range of 15–21 MJ kg−1 for plant species. The average GHG emission from the power plant was 17.4 g CO2 eq./MJ of electrical energy, with the energy conversion (38%) and transportation of biomass (34%) phases being the main impact contributors. For this study, impacts of residual agricultural residue were about half that of residues from forest management, mainly due to chipping and greater transport distance. Results show that sourcing residual biomass materials for electricity generation close to power plants significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to conventional fossil fuels.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020007
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 8: Application of New Hyperspectral Sensors in
           the Remote Sensing of Aquatic Ecosystem Health: Exploiting PRISMA and
           DESIS for Four Italian Lakes

    • Authors: Mariano Bresciani, Claudia Giardino, Alice Fabbretto, Andrea Pellegrino, Salvatore Mangano, Gary Free, Monica Pinardi
      First page: 8
      Abstract: The monitoring of water bio-physical parameters and the management of aquatic ecosystems are crucial to cope with the current state of inland water degradation. Not only does water quality monitoring support management decision making, it also provides vital insights to better understand changing structural and functional lake processes. Remote sensing has been widely recognized as an essential integrating technique for water quality monitoring, thanks to its capabilities to utilize both historical archive data for thousands of lakes as well as near-real time observations at multiple scales. To date, most of the applications developed for inland water have been based on multispectral and mid to coarse spatial resolution satellites, while a new generation of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy is now available, and future missions are under development. This review aims to present the exploitation of data gathered from two currently orbiting hyperspectral sensors (i.e., PRISMA and DESIS) to retrieve water quality parameters across different aquatic ecosystems, encompassing deep clear lakes and river dammed reservoirs.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020008
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 9: Composite Aluminosilicate Materials for
           Sorption Extraction of Impurity Substances of Vegetable Oils

    • Authors: Aleksey A. Ignatyev, Pavel B. Razgovorov, Roman S. Nagornov, Natalya A. Politaeva, Liliya R. Mukhametova, Svetlana B. Ilyashenko
      First page: 9
      Abstract: This paper considers mineral compositions and prospects for the processing of natural blue montmorillonite clay, pink Fe (III)-containing clay, and green Fe (II)-containing clay into composite aluminosilicate materials suitable for the sorption of related substances of vegetable oils. New Brønsted and Lewis centers were found on the surface of the materials obtained when solutions of oxalic and succinic acids and sodium carbonate in scientifically-substantiated amounts were used as modifying additives. The established changes in the surface states are in correlation with the assessed affinity degree of active sites towards fatty acids, peroxide compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in vegetable oils (flaxseed, olive, mustard), which are rarely refined in world production. These findings are of practical value for the development of a new direction of medical chemistry. It was revealed that the presence of impure hydromuscovite in natural raw materials and the resulting materials reduces the effect of extracting dyes from vegetable oils.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020009
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 10: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Resources in
           2021

    • Authors: Resources Editorial Office Resources Editorial Office
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020010
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 11: European Hophornbeam Biomass for Energy
           Application: Influence of Different Production Processes and Heating
           Devices on Environmental Sustainability

    • Authors: Alessio Ilari, Sara Fabrizi, Ester Foppa Pedretti
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Environmental sustainability has recently shifted towards biodiversity protection via governmental and intergovernmental initiatives (e.g., the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, MA). The life cycle assessment, the widespread method for assessing environmental sustainability, was not created to evaluate impacts on biodiversity. However, several authors recognize its ability to estimate biodiversity loss drivers (impact indices on land use change and ecosystem). The study aims to apply LCA to the forest sector, precisely to the wood–energy chain of Hophornbeam, to cover suggestions of the MA for the biodiversity impact assessment. Six different scenarios for stove (3) and fireplace (3) wood production were analyzed, evaluating two baselines and four alternative scenarios, including sensitivity analyses related to transport distances for the raw materials. The functional unit is 1 MJ of energy. The fireplace combustion scenarios are relatively more sustainable than the stove ones are (2.95–3.21% less). The global warming potential (around 3 g CO2 eq/MJ) is consistent with current European directives on the sustainability of biofuels and scientific literature. The scenarios showed similarities regarding the impact of the categories related to MA drivers. Although biodiversity is protected by limiting forest management, some authors argue that for some species (e.g., Hophornbeam), a rational tree felling could produce biofuels, increasing biodiversity.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020011
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 12: Predicting Ice Phenomena in a River Using
           the Artificial Neural Network and Extreme Gradient Boosting

    • Authors: Renata Graf, Tomasz Kolerski, Senlin Zhu
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Forecasting ice phenomena in river systems is of great importance because these phenomena are a fundamental part of the hydrological regime. Due to the stochasticity of ice phenomena, their prediction is a difficult process, especially when data sets are sparse or incomplete. In this study, two machine learning models—Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost)—were developed to predict ice phenomena in the Warta River in Poland in a temperate climate zone. Observational data from eight river gauges during the period 1983–2013 were used. The performance of the model was evaluated using four model fit measures. The results showed that the choice of input variables influenced the accuracy of the developed models. The most important predictors were the nature of phenomena on the day before an observation, as well as water and air temperatures; river flow and water level were less important for predicting the formation of ice phenomena. The modeling results showed that both MLPNN and XGBoost provided promising results for the prediction of ice phenomena. The research results of the present study could also be useful for predicting ice phenomena in other regions.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020012
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 13: Geoturist Evaluation of Geosites in the
           Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve (N Poland)

    • Authors: Arkadiusz Krawiec, Włodzimierz Wysocki, Izabela Jamorska, Szymon Belzyt
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The geotourist evaluation of 32 geosites, including mineral deposits occurrence (1), petrological (12), sedimentological (2), and geomorphological (9), as well as hydrological and hydrogeological (8) sites, located in the area of Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve (TFBR), has been carried out. The study aims to provide a qualitative assessment of geodiversity via the evaluation of abiotic nature objects, as well as propose modifications in geotourist valuation criteria, for the purpose of applying it to the areas located in the Central European Plains. The evaluated geosites represent both perfect examples of typical features for the physiography of the TFBR, as a young glacial landscape, e.g., erratic boulders, glaciofluvial landforms, postglacial landforms, and lakes or peatbogs, as well as values proving the uniqueness of the area on both regional and international scales, e.g., disused underground lignite mine “Montania”. High scores of geotourist attractiveness (between 36 and 44 points) have been received by 14 evaluated geosites (1 mineral deposits occurrence geosite, 4 petrological geosites, 1 sedimentological geosite, and 5 geomorphological geosites, as well as 3 hydrological and hydrogeological geosites). The remaining 18 geosites have received a medium score (between 25 and 34 points). Three areas of high concentration of geosites, which overlap with the boundaries of Tuchola, Wdecki, and Zaborski (area of the greatest diversity of highly-ranked geosites) landscape parks, were distinguished. The authors proposed geosites that require improving their accessibility to enhance the geotourist attractiveness, recognized the necessity of marking out geotourist trails in the most attractive and diversified areas, and noticed the influence of extreme weather phenomena (whirwinds) on changes in the geotourist attractiveness of some geosites. It is believed that the results of the conducted evaluation may favorably affect the importance, position, and publicity of the whole area by supplementing the well-recognized biodiversity with the geodiversity presented in the study.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020013
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 14: Assessment of Rainwater Retention Efficiency
           in Urban Drainage Systems—Model Studies

    • Authors: Kamil Pochwat
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Around the world, there is growing interest in the use of rainwater retention, and in particular channel retention, as part of urban drainage systems. This is made possible by means of intentional damming of rainwater in the existing sewer collectors in order to maximise the use of gravitational spaces in the channels. This approach is particularly favourable for drainage types related to high levels of urban development, where construction of a building is difficult due to the low amount of space available. This article explains the results of a study concerning the efficiency assessment of three retention devices characterised by different hydraulic systems, one of which uses channel retention in its operation. The analysis conducted within the simulation study has demonstrated that the use of standard single-chamber reservoirs is the least efficient solution. A comparison of the functions of different hydraulic systems of retention reservoirs under equal conditions has shown that the necessary retention capacity of a single-chamber reservoir is many times greater in comparison to highly efficient solutions and it may constitute up to 582% of the reservoir’s capacity and works in conjunction with the channel retention system. At the same time, it has been demonstrated that the application of channel retention is not the most efficient solution for all hydraulic conditions for a drainage system or for all hydrological conditions. In addition, the article proposes a set of retention efficiency indices that may be used in the future assessment of individual rainwater storage solutions. Estimation of the necessary capacity of the retention facilities operating in specific hydraulic conditions was made on the basis of model tests—hydrodynamic modelling with the use of SWMM 5.0 software. The course of the research was planned using the theory of experiment planning (DOE) with the use of Statistica software, whereas efficiency indices were developed with the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The study results include practical and cognitive aspects. These may constitute guidelines for the designers and potential investors, as well as a tool with the aim of promoting the most efficient rainwater retention solutions in urban drainage systems.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020014
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 15: Phycoremediation as a Strategy for the
           Recovery of Marsh and Wetland with Potential in Colombia

    • Authors: Yani Aranguren Díaz, Edy Monterroza Martínez, Laura Carillo García, María C. Serrano, Elwi Machado Sierra
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Colombia is the country with the sixth highest amount of water reserves in the world, and 25% of its territory is covered by wetlands. However, approximately 50% of the country’s water is estimated to exhibit some type of contamination related to anthropic activities. An alternative for the treatment and the recovery of its bodies of water is the use of microalgae, unicellular, and mixotrophic microorganisms, as these bioreactors are highly adaptable to the environment, and their maintenance costs are minimal, because they feed on almost any substrate. In fact, different countries have already reported using microalgae as bioremediators for bodies of water. The use of these microphytes is efficient because they metabolize, degrade, or bioaccumulate heavy metals, pesticides, emerging pollutants, and antibiotics. In general, strategies relying on microalgae to eliminate pollutants are very similar to one another. For example, the first stage often includes a process of bioadsorption, consumption, degradation, and accumulation, wherein the microalgae use molecules generated from their own cellular metabolism. Some pilot studies focusing on the phycoremediation of marshes and other bodies of water have already been conducted in Colombia; however, more studies on process optimization, effectively leveraging the biodiversity of the existing microalgae, and better adapting microalgae to the region are still required.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020015
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 16: Financial and Social Factors Influencing the
           Use of Unconventional Water Systems in Single-Family Houses in Eight
           European Countries

    • Authors: Agnieszka Stec, Daniel Słyś
      First page: 16
      Abstract: A modern model of water management should take into account, first of all, its responsible consumption of both tap water and water from unconventional sources. With this in mind, a study was conducted to determine the financial efficiency of rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs) and greywater recycling systems (GWRSs) in residential buildings located in eight European countries. At the first stage, volumetric reliability was determined for different tank capacities for actual precipitation data. An economic analysis was carried out for six variants in which rainwater and greywater were used in various combinations for toilet flushing, washing, and garden watering. The implementation of alternative water systems was found to be financially unprofitable in four cities: Warsaw, Bratislava, Budapest, and Stockholm. For these cities, the variant with the lowest life cycle cost (LCC) level was always Variant 0, with conventional installations. The opposite situation was observed in the other four locations (Lisbon, Madrid, Rome, and Prague), where Variant 0 was not found to be financially profitable for any of the calculation cases analyzed. Additionally, a survey was conducted to determine the effect of social aspects, which is often the greatest barrier to the implementation of new or unknown technologies. In most of the countries surveyed, rainwater is more acceptable to society as an alternative water source than greywater. For hygiene reasons, the use of these two systems for washing clothes was of greatest concern.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020016
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 17: A New Concept of Crisis Water Management in
           Urban Areas Based on the Risk Maps of Lack of Water Supply in Response to
           European Law

    • Authors: Izabela Piegdoń
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The paper presents issues related to ensuring the safety of water supply, based on the analysis and assessment of the risk of the lack of water supply to consumers using risk maps, in accordance with the current global trend recommended by guidelines and procedures, compliance with which should be a priority activity in the struggle against adverse events, related to the functioning of every collective water supply system (CWSS). The work contribution is the development of an original methodology of risk analysis and assessment for the needs of mapping the risk of a lack of water supply in the normal operation of the water supply network, as well as during a crisis. The presented methods take into account the quantitative aspect of the lack of water supply, with the possibility of extending the proposed solutions with a qualitative aspect. The article will contribute to the development of knowledge in the area of analysis and assessment of the risk of a water supply failure in PsDyW, and will determine new standards in its graphical presentation. It is a response to the World Health Organization (WHO) requirements of providing protection for the critical infrastructure and ensuring access to water for all citizens in the European Union.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020017
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 18: End-of-Use vs. End-of-Life: When Do Consumer
           Electronics Become Waste'

    • Authors: Jenni Ylä-Mella, Riitta L. Keiski, Eva Pongrácz
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This study focuses on the lifespan of consumer electronics. The article reviews end-of-life terminology in scientific literature and suggests distinguishing end-of-use and end-of-life stages. The question, when electronics become waste, is approached using the concept of a system called PSSP language, which classifies artefacts based on their attributes of purpose, structure, state and performance. It is highlighted that waste as a concept is dynamic; the same thing can be waste or non-waste at different times and places and for different people. Further, the article reviews the impact of storage behavior on the realization of the waste hierarchy, using mobile phones as a case study. Evidence suggests that over half of customers use their mobile phones for only two years, and there is little incentive to keep them in use longer. Surveys also indicate that over half of the customers do not return their phones for reuse or recycling but keep them at home. The article suggests that the three key factors, promoting the storing of an old phone, are the shortness of usage time, perceived residual value of replaced equipment and concerns of personal information security. It is also indicated that memories and the personal attachment to the device contribute to consumers’ storage decision. It is concluded that, to prolong the use of mobile phones, there is a demand for changing consumers attitudes towards the return of electronics for reuse and repair to be more positive.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020018
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 19: Green Resources for Safety Improvement and
           Sustainable Landscape Design: The Case of a Dangerous Tehran-Dizin Road
           Bend

    • Authors: Mahsa Habibi, Elnaz Chitsazzadeh, Amir Mosavi
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Improving road safety is not only reliant on engineering aspects but also on the surrounding landscape, which plays an indispensable role in drivers’ visual perception. As a part of road landscapes, green areas affect road safety by screening or framing views. While vistas could be highlighted in safe spots in order for road users to enjoy their travel, in dangerous scenic points, visual attractions need to be concealed to lessen visual distractions and the risk of accidents. This study aims at optimizing road safety through sustainable landscape design in one of the dangerous Tehran–Dizin road bends to meet both road safety and environmental requirements. In doing so, cone of vision formulas have been applied to calculate measures of green landscape features so as to hide visual distractions and upgrade safety. To design such a green landscape, green resources and their characteristics have been elaborated, and native species have been suggested in plant composition, which can improve the sense of place, enhance the environment, and create a sustainable landscape. The research shows that a cone of vision could functionally be employed to increase the success of a designed green landscape, especially in situations where two-dimensional approaches are not sufficient.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020019
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 20: Obtaining DHA–EPA Oil Concentrates
           from the Biomass of Microalga Chlorella sorokiniana

    • Authors: Amira Toumi, Natalia Politaeva, Saša Đurović, Liliya Mukhametova, Svetlana Ilyashenko
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Microalgae have attracted growing interest all around the world due to their potential applications in multiple sectors of industry, such as energetics, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and ecology. Concepts of biorefinery of microalgae lipids for biodiesel production coupled with other applications have been suggested in several studies. However, very few studies focus on overcoming the degree of unsaturation of microalgae lipids using methods of fractionation. This study presents a method for obtaining two oil fractions from microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana suitable for food and biofuels via urea complex formation with further production of a long-chain PUFA concentrated oil suitable for the nutraceutical industry. A DHA–EPA-rich fraction was obtained from the dry microalga biomass using a succession of extraction, urea-complexation, fractionation, and esterification with glycerol. Analytical and organoleptic methods were used to assess the quality of the final product. Results show that the urea-complexation method allowed the obtaining of two lipid fractions with different fatty acid profiles. The urea complexed fraction (UCF) contained a majority of saturated fatty acids (54.46%); thus, it could find applications in the biofuels or food industry. The non-urea complexed fraction (NUCF) was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (81.00%), especially long-chain PUFA with 16.52% EPA and 35.08% DHA. The recovery rates of EPA and DHA in the NUCF reached 59% and 87.14%, respectively. Finally, the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of the DHA–EPA oil concentrate were determined and found conform to the norms recommended by the WHO/FAO standards for edible oils and the Russian State Standard GOST 1129-2013.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020020
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 21: Comparison of Effects of Chemical and Food
           Waste-Derived Fertilizers on the Growth and Nutrient Content of Lettuce
           (Lactuca sativa L.)

    • Authors: Sang-Mo Kang, Arjun Adhikari, Dibya Bhatta, Ho-Jun Gam, Min-Ji Gim, Joon-Ik Son, Jin Y. Shin, In-Jung Lee
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The current high rate of food waste production, concomitant with the global increase in population and food demand, has adverse effects on environmental and socio-economic conditions. However, food waste has been shown to be an efficient and safe source of fertilizer in agriculture practice. Moreover, minimizing the application of chemical fertilizers is a goal of sustainable agriculture. Considering these facts, we aimed to compare the effect of chemical fertilizer (CF-3,8 g·pot−1) and different doses of mixed food waste-derived fertilizer (MF-10.6 g·pot−1), two-fold MF (MF × 2), four-fold MF (MF × 4), and six-fold MF (MF × 6) in a popular salad crop, Lactuca sativa (lettuce). Our results showed the growth rates of lettuce plants receiving CF, MF, and MF×2 applications were essentially the same; however, plant biomass significantly dropped with MF × 6 treatment. The CF, MF, and MF × 2 treatments enhanced the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic rate of the plants and improved transpiration efficiency and stomatal conductance. With respect to mineral elements, the K+ content was significantly enhanced with MF × 2 and MF × 4 treatment, whereas MF × 6-treated plants showed lower concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, and K+ as well as higher Na+ concentration. Biochemical analysis showed the elevation of abscisic acid level with increasing dose of MF, except in the MF × 6 treatment. The level of super oxide dismutase (SOD) dropped with CF treatment, was unchanged with MF, and significantly increased in MF×2 and MF × 4 treated plants. Subsequently, higher flavonoid content was observed in MF×2 and MF×4 plants. The current results demonstrate the potential of food waste as a source of organic fertilizer and a significant substitute for chemical fertilizer in the conventional agricultural practice driven by high production cost and environmental pollution.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020021
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 22: Towards Transferable Use of Terrain
           Ruggedness Component in the Geodiversity Index

    • Authors: Borut Stojilković
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Geodiversity, as diversity of the abiotic environment, includes terrain ruggedness (or roughness), which is one of the essential parts of geodiversity evaluation. The terrain ruggedness index (R) represents the value of one of the main geodiversity components. The purpose of the study is to discuss the characteristics of R in the scope of geodiversity, and to show how R differs within two specific study areas if we study them using a data scale that covers both areas and only site-specific data. Hence, the main methods include geodiversity element mapping, calculating R based on either the study area or broader-scale data and discussing the differences that arise. The findings show that R should not be calculated only within individual study areas if the results among different study areas are to be compared; rather, it should first be calculated on a larger scale for the whole region in which we are about to compare the specific study areas. The applied value of these results is that such data are then suitable for calculating the geodiversity index (G) according to specific methodological steps and for further analyses.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020022
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 23: Analysis of Regulatory Possibilities and
           Obstacles to Expand Renewable Energy and Preserve Landscape Quality in the
           Silesian Voivodship

    • Authors: Hanna Szumilas-Kowalczyk, Renata Giedych
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Current international works on strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation cite energy transition as one of the main challenges of the 21st century. Many social, economic, and ecological aspects have to be addressed, especially in regions which, for decades, relied on coal energy. One of those are changes in spatial planning and land use, which will significantly affect the landscape of those regions. One of these examples is Silesian Voivodship in Poland, where the coal-mining tradition dates back to the 17th century. This research focuses on the question of how and where renewable energy development is planned in the Silesian Voivodship, based on provisions from local spatial polices and to what extent post-mining and industrial sites are planned to be reused and how many other types of landscapes would be transformed into renewable energy landscapes. We argue that permitting development of renewable energy (RE) without appropriate regulations on where and how it should be developed may contribute to irreversible changes in the landscape and, as a result, to its degradation. Methods consisted of query and analyses of available publications, datasets, strategy and planning documents, both at regional and municipal level. The main results show that existing renewable energy and its development is mainly planned away from mining and post-mining industrial areas. In the future, this will have a significant impact on the transformation of, e.g., rural, natural and agricultural landscapes into new industrial energy landscapes, changing views and perception of these places.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020023
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 24: Using New Spare Parts for Repair of Waste
           Electrical and Electronic Equipment' The Material Footprint of
           Individual Components

    • Authors: Nadja von Gries, Stefan Bringezu
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The growing production of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) requires close loop management to protect the environment and save resources. Repair and reuse can extend the product’s life span. However, debates on the differences seen in resource consumption linked to the different ways of repairing devices have received a limited amount of attention. This article demonstrates quantification of the resource consumption (cradle-to-gate) of five types of appliances on a component level based on life-cycle assessment within the framework of the product-material-footprint. The data for this assessment is based on the dismantling of these products, weighing their components, and determining their material composition. The results show that the resource relevance of all devices is dominated by a few individual components. For example, for flat-screen monitors, 5 out of 17 components per device account for more than 90% of resource consumption (abiotic total material requirement). Hence, repairing devices while using new spare parts is not always the most resource-efficient way of handling WEEE. The results of this investigation suggest that the resource consumption in repairs should be taken into account at different levels, e.g., regulatory, with regard to eco-design requirements, or for informational purposes with a view to the consideration of the repair and reuse practices.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11020024
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 4: Evaluating the Downstream Development
           Strategy of Oil Companies: The Case of Rosneft

    • Authors: Oksana Marinina, Anna Tsvetkova, Yurii Vasilev, Nadejda Komendantova, Anna Parfenova
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The relevance of this study is due to the low rate of development of the downstream sectors of Russian oil companies. Against a background of the sale of significant volumes of oil and gas raw materials, Russia lags behind world leaders in the production and consumption of petrochemical and chemical products, with their share in the gross domestic product of the country being only 1.1%. Connected to this is the issue of substantiating strategies of development for the downstream sectors of Russian oil companies, which requires detailed research. In this light, it is necessary to take into account current trends in the worldwide demand on petroleum products and also the opportunities and competitive advantages of Russian oil and gas companies in the creation and development of refineries with a consideration of modern technological, environmental, social and market criteria. The paper tests hypotheses about modernisation as a process of increasing efficiency in the development of the industry as a whole. The results of the study show that the planned pace of development in the industry by means of modernisation proves to be insufficient and requires additional investments in innovative development and new construction. The value of the research lies in the modelling of modernisation strategy options by the example of a large oil company, the estimation of results by the criteria of world average indices of technological efficiency of production and the analysis of these results by state indicators of branch development. The theoretical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using this research approach as an analogue.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11010004
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 5: From Old Habits to New Routines—A Case
           Study of Food Waste Generation and Reduction in Four Swedish Schools

    • Authors: Christine Persson Osowski, Dariusz Osowski, Kristina Johansson, Niina Sundin, Christopher Malefors, Mattias Eriksson
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Public food service organizations are large producers of food waste, which leads to greenhouse gas emissions and the waste of natural resources. The aim of the present article was to gain insight into reasons for food waste and possible solutions for lowering food waste in schools in Sweden. In order to do so, food waste quantification in school canteens in two Swedish municipalities and nine qualitative interviews with key actors were conducted. Both municipalities displayed a high degree of variation in food waste, but the common pattern was that serving waste constituted the largest fraction of food waste, followed by plate waste and storage waste, as well as a gradual decrease in food waste over time. Food waste was mainly a result of old, disadvantageous habits, such as overproduction due to forecasting difficulties, whereas new, better routines such as serving fewer options, better planning, and a less stressful environment are the key to lowering food waste. Because food waste varies from one case to the next, it becomes important to identify and measure the causes of food waste in each school in order to be able to establish tailor-made, conscious, and flexible food waste mitigation routines.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11010005
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Resources, Vol. 11, Pages 6: Changes in Terrestrial Evaporation across
           

    • Authors: Urszula Somorowska
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Given the importance of terrestrial evaporation (ET) for the water cycle, a fundamental understanding of the water quantity involved in this process is required. As recent observations reveal a widespread ET intensification across the world, it is important to evaluate regional ET variability. The specific objectives of this study are the following: (1) to assess annual and monthly ET trends across Poland, and (2) to reveal seasons and regions with significant ET changes. This study uses the ET estimates acquired from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) dataset allowing for multi-year analysis (1980–2020). The Mann–Kendall test and the Sen’s slope were applied to estimate the significance and magnitude of the trends. The results show that a rising temperature, along with small precipitation increase, led to the accelerated ET of 1.36 mm/y. This was revealed by increased transpiration and interception loss not compensated by a decrease in bare soil evaporation and sublimation. The wide-spread higher water consumption especially occurred during the summer months of June, July, and August. Comparing the two subperiods of 1980–2020, it was found that in 2007–2020, the annual ET increased by 7% compared to the reference period of 1980–2006. These results can serve as an important reference for formulating a water resources management strategy in Poland.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/resources11010006
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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