Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Microplastics and Nanoplastics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mine Water and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monteverdia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multequina     Open Access  
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nano Select     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Nativa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natur und Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Natural Resources     Open Access  
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources and Environmental Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Nature-Based Solutions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Nepal Journal of Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
NeuroToxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Neurotoxicology and Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Environmental Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
NJAS : Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Observatorio Medioambiental     Open Access  
Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ochrona Srodowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych : Environmental Protection and Natural Resources     Open Access  
Oecologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Oikos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
One Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Open Environmental Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Open Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Our Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pace Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Particle and Fibre Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastos y Forrajes     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physio-Géo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pittsburgh Journal of Environmental and Public Health Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Planeta Amazônia : Revista Internacional de Direito Ambiental e Políticas Públicas     Open Access  
Planning & Environmental Law: Issues and decisions that impact the built and natural environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Plant Ecology & Diversity     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Plant, Cell & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Plant-Environment Interactions     Open Access  
Plants, People, Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Political Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Population and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Population Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Presence: Virtual and Augmented Reality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Producción + Limpia     Open Access  
Progress in Disaster Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Projets de Paysage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Public Money & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Quaternary     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
REDER : Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos sobre Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres     Open Access  
Regional Environmental Change     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access  
Rekayasa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Remediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Renewable Energy and Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Resources     Open Access  
Resources and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Rethinking Ecology     Open Access  
Reuse/Recycle Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista AIDIS de Ingeniería y Ciencias Ambientales. Investigación, desarrollo y práctica     Open Access  
Revista Ambivalências     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Brasileira de Meio Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Ciência, Tecnologia & Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Ambiental e Socioambientalismo     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade - GeAS     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación en Agroproducción Sustentable     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Ambiental     Open Access  
Revista ECOVIDA     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Revista Eletrônica de Gestão e Tecnologias Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista Geama     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana Ambiente & Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
Revista Kawsaypacha: Sociedad y Medio Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Laborativa     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Mundi Meio Ambiente e Agrárias     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sociedad y Ambiente     Open Access  
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
South Australian Geographical Journal     Open Access  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern African Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure     Hybrid Journal  
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Horizons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sustainable Technology and Entrepreneurship     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Sustinere : Journal of Environment and Sustainability     Open Access  
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Ring     Open Access  
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Transactions on Environment and Electrical Engineering     Open Access  
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 277)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
UNM Environmental Journals     Open Access  
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Urban Transformations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)

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ISSN (Online) 2079-9276
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 97: Double-Layer Membranes of Chitosan and
           Sodium Alginate Added to Natural Olive Leaf Extract for Potential Use in
           Skin Lesions

    • Authors: Larah Gondim Santos Paulino, Luisa Bataglin Avila, Caroline Costa Moraes, Mohammad Rizwan Khan, Salim Manoharadas, Glaydson Simões dos Reis, Guilherme Luiz Dotto, Gabriela Silveira da Rosa
      First page: 97
      Abstract: This study seeks to enhance bilayer membranes using a combination of chitosan and sodium alginate (CS/SA) with phytochemical compounds extracted from olive leaves (CS/SA-OLE), intended for use as a skin dressing. Olive leaf extracts (OLE) were sustainably obtained and showed a phenolic composition of 114.49 mgGAE·g−1 and antioxidant activity of 94.25%. CS/AS and CS/SA-OLE were prepared using the casting method. The results showed that the addition of OLE improved the mechanical and barrier properties of the membranes. The elongation at break increased from 9.99 to 14.68%, and the water transmission rate reduced from 2207.78 to 2094.33 (g·m−2·24 h−1) after the addition of OLE. The FTIR spectra showed functional groups of phenolic compounds, and the thermogravimetric analysis showed that the addition of OLE improved the thermal stability of the membranes. In addition, the CS/SA-OLE membranes showed active potential with inhibition halos (12.19 mm) against the microorganism Escherichia coli. The membranes generated in this research, particularly those with the addition of natural extracts, exhibit significant promise for utilization as wound dressings.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090097
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 98: Quantitative Study of the Lateral Sealing
           Ability of Faults Considering the Diagenesis Degree of the Fault Rock: An
           Example from the Nantun Formation in the Wuerxun-Beier Sag in the Hailar
           Basin, China

    • Authors: Xinlei Hu, Yanfang Lv, Yang Liu, Junqiao Liu
      First page: 98
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to accurately evaluate the lateral sealing ability of a fault in siliciclastic stratum based on previous analysis of the lateral sealing of faults by a large number of scholars in the published literature and physical simulation experiments. Content of the clay mineral phase and the diagenetic degree of fault rock were investigated as the main factors to evaluate the lateral sealing of faults. Based on this theory, the configuration relationship between the clay content and burial depth of fault rock (SGR&H) threshold evaluation method for the lateral sealing of faults was established. Then, we applied these results to evaluate the lateral sealing ability of faults in the Beixi, Beier, Wuerxun, and Surennuoer areas in the Hailar Basin, China. The variation in SGR boundary values with burial depth between the lateral opening and moderate sealing area, as well as between the moderate and strong sealing area of the faults, are obtained. Compared with the previous methods, the SGR&H threshold method transforms the static SGR value of a formation or even a region into a dynamic SGR value that changes with the burial depth, which can fully characterize the differences in the conditions required for sealing faults with different internal structures at different depths. In determining the lateral sealing ability of faults by comparing the evaluation results, we discovered the following. (1) In the same area, the sealing thresholds of faults within different layers are different because the deep strata are subjected to greater pressures and longer loading times, so these faults are more likely to seal laterally. (2) In the same layer, the sealing thresholds of faults in different areas are also different. The higher the thickness ratio between the sandstone and the formation (RSF), the smaller the entry pressure of the fault rock when it has reached a critical seal state, so the SGR&H thresholds are relatively small. Compared to the previous methods, the SGR&H threshold method in this article reduces the exploration risk of faults with relatively low diagenetic degree in shallow strata, and also increases the exploration potential of faults with relatively high diagenetic degree in deep strata. The evaluation results are more consistent with the actual underground situation.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090098
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 99: A Comprehensive Approach to Assess the
           Impact of Agricultural Production Factors on Selected Ecosystem Services
           in Poland

    • Authors: Waldemar Bojar, Wojciech Żarski, Renata Kuśmierek-Tomaszewska, Jacek Żarski, Piotr Baranowski, Jaromir Krzyszczak, Krzysztof Lamorski, Cezary Sławiński, Konstadinos Mattas, Christos Staboulis, Dimitrios Natos, Ahmet Ali Koç, Ahmet Bayaner, Álvaro Ojeda Roldán, Obdulia Parra Rivero
      First page: 99
      Abstract: The conservation of environmental resources is aimed at ensuring the continuity of ecosystem services for future generations and maintaining ecosystem integrity. Given the extensive reliance of agriculture on the environment, it is crucial to identify factors that impact the quality of ecosystem services (ESs), which can be regulated at large and heterogeneous national or European scales. This research, conducted within the Polish use case of the AGRICORE project, aims to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing indicators depicted in three ES categories, which can be shaped under the actions of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The study was conducted based on national sources, mostly the database of the Central Statistical Office. The analyses of regression showed a significant impact of selected agricultural productivity factors on the key performance indicators (KPIs) assessing the level of selected ESs. The yield of cereal grains, which quantitatively expresses the potential of current crop production, depended to the greatest extent (r = 0.81) on a comprehensive indicator of the agricultural production space suitability, as well as on the rise of the level of nitrogen fertilization (r = 0.68), and also on the reduced share of permanent grassland in the agricultural area (r = −0.53). It was proved that in territorial units, in which the level of nitrogen fertilization per 1 ha was greater, the share of soils with favorable pH > 5.5 was also greater. The gross nitrogen balance had a positive and significant correlation with the level of investment subsidies (r = 0.86), the share of agricultural land in the total area (r = 0.67), and the level of nitrogen fertilization (r = 0.66). Notably, there were positive correlations between the level of environmental subsidies and the increase in forestation (r = 0.68) and also between air quality and the share of cereals in the sowing structure (r = 0.86). Additionally, the impact of agricultural productivity factors on cultural eco-services was found, e.g., the share of ecological land had a positive impact on the number of natural monuments, the area of nature reserves, the number of agritourists, and agritourism nights, while the share of cereals in the sowing structure negatively correlated with the most of analyzed cultural indicators. These results are useful for the development of a module for the ABM model that employs the desired environmental parameters to provide different assessments of the impact of selected agricultural productivity factors and ecosystem services on the economic farm status.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-28
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090099
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 100: Analysis of the Life Cycle Cost of a Heat
           Recovery System from Greywater Using a Vertical “Tube-In-Tube”
           Heat Exchanger: Case Study of Poland

    • Authors: Beata Piotrowska, Daniel Słyś
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Significant amounts of waste heat are deposited in greywater, which can be utilized, among other things, for heating domestic hot water in residential buildings. The manuscript presents an economic analysis of a greywater heat recovery system using a vertical heat exchanger of the “tube-in-tube” type in a single-family building. The analysis is based on the results of experimental research on the energy efficiency of three domestic hot water preparation systems equipped with a vertical heat exchange unit. The analyzed systems had different concepts for the flow of preheated water and cold water. The research showed that the implementation of a vertical “tube-in-tube” heat exchanger can reduce the energy consumption for domestic hot water preparation by approximately 45.7% to 60.8%, depending on the system variant. Furthermore, it was determined that the energy savings associated with reducing domestic hot water consumption can cover the investment costs related to the purchase and system of the heat exchanger within a period of 2 to 5 years of system operation, depending on the design variant and the unit price of electricity.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090100
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 101: In Vitro Efficacy of Hungarian Propolis
           against Bacteria, Yeast, and Trichomonas gallinae Isolated from
           Pigeons—A Possible Antibiotic Alternative'

    • Authors: Ádám Kerek, Péter Csanády, Barbara Tuska-Szalay, László Kovács, Ákos Jerzsele
      First page: 101
      Abstract: The spread of antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious human and animal health problems of our time. Propolis is a natural substance with antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activity, the most active components of which are polyphenols and terpenoids. In the present study, the authors investigated the efficacy of propolis against Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, Candida albicans fungi, and Trichomonas gallinae isolated from pigeons. For each pathogen, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum eradication concentration (MEC) of eight isolates were determined for 96%, 90%, 80%, 70%, and 60% ethanolic extracts of propolis from the region of Észak-Alföld. Propolis was shown to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Candida albicans, and Trichomonas gallinae strains. Propolis showed a much better efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria (1.56–400 µg/mL) than against Gram-negative bacteria (>13,000 µg/mL). For Staphylococcus spp., MIC values ranged within 1.56–400 µg/mL and MEC values within 12.5–3260 µg/mL, while for Enterococcus spp. MIC values ranged within 1.56–400 µg/mL and MEC values within 12.5–800 µg/mL. MIC values > 13,000 µg/mL were found for Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica species. For Candida albicans, MIC values ranging from 1.56 to 400 µg/mL and MEC values ranging from 3.125 to 800 µg/mL were effective. MEC values between 2.5 and 5 mg/mL were observed for three Trichomonas gallinae strains. The effectiveness against Gram-positive bacteria has, in some cases, approached that of antibiotics, making propolis a potential alternative in the treatment of wound infections. Its outstanding efficacy against Trichomonas gallinae holds promise as a potential alternative for treating this widespread infection in pigeons.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090101
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 102: Immediate Socioeconomic Impacts of Mindoro
           Oil Spill on Fisherfolk of Naujan, Philippines

    • Authors: Casper Boongaling Agaton, Charmaine Samala Guno, Russel Añonuevo Labog, Angelie Azcuna Collera
      First page: 102
      Abstract: In February 2023, an oil tanker carrying 5660 bbl of industrial fuel oil sank off Naujan in the Philippines, causing an oil spill in the waters of Oriental Mindoro and nearby provinces. The disaster affected fishing communities as well as marine ecosystems including the Verde Island Passage, which is at the “center of the world’s marine biodiversity”. This study assessed the immediate social and economic impacts of this oil spill on various communities of the Naujan coast. We conducted semi-structured interviews and employed a narrative analysis to explore the lived experiences of fisherfolk after the oil spill and to understand the socioeconomic impacts. With the prohibition of fishing and other aquatic activities, the participants lost up to USD 1300 of income per week from fishing. The participants had no other source of income due to the lack of other skills or an opportunity for an alternative livelihood in the community. While the government provided food packs and financial assistance, the participants found these insufficient to sustain their basic family needs including food, utilities, education, and health. Traces of oil were also found in the sources of potable water affecting their daily household activities. The fisherfolk, who live in communities that are vulnerable to natural and human-made hazards, had their subsistence, food security, and human well-being highly compromised. The findings provided recommendations for government interventions to mitigate the impacts of an oil spill and other future disasters, considering social, economic, and human ecological perspectives.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090102
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 103: Transformation Processes for Energy
           Production Alternatives from Different Biomass Sources in the Highlands
           and Semi-Desert Areas of Mexico

    • Authors: Salvador Carlos-Hernández, Artemio Carrillo-Parra, Lourdes Díaz-Jiménez, Lidia Rosaura Salas-Cruz, Rigoberto Rosales-Serna, Maginot Ngangyo-Heya
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Biomass revalorization is a worldwide trend which can contribute to diversifying the energy sector and to obtaining added value products. The objective of the present review is to discern potential sources of biomass and their corresponding alternatives for transformation, with a particular emphasis on energy generation within the Mexican highlands and semi-desert regions. Methodologically, this review was conducted by reviewing various search engines, identifying articles related to energy production, the transformation processes, and the obtained product, establishing the relevance of each contribution, and including the information that was deemed pertinent. From this information analysis, it was found that most of the studies are conducted at theoretical and laboratory levels; then, scientific knowledge has been generated in this topic. However, low interaction with the social and industrial sectors is observed. It is required to develop strategies to transfer the generated knowledge and to scale up the studied transformation processes to generate ecological, economic, and social benefits. According to the information obtained it can be concluded that the agricultural and forestry sectors in the highlands and semi-desert regions of Mexico hold significant promise for generating bioenergy via the utilization of residual biomass, including stubble, straw, branches, stems, and sawdust. Moreover, the implementation of these sophisticated techniques for the conversion of residual biomass into biofuels and other forms of bioenergy contribute to the improvement of the adverse effects associated with the use of fossil fuels while fostering a more environmentally sustainable economy.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090103
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 104: Thermal Properties and Temporal Dynamics of
           Red Latosol (Oxisol) in Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental

    • Authors: Rodrigo Aparecido Jordan, Rodrigo Couto Santos, Ricardo Lordelo Freitas, Anamari Viegas de Araújo Motomiya, Luciano Oliveira Geisenhoff, Arthur Carniato Sanches, Hélio Ávalo, Marcio Mesquita, Maria Beatriz Ferreira, Patrícia Costa Silva, Ítalo Sabião Sanches, Édipo Sabião Sanches, Jhon Lennon Bezerra Da Silva, Marcos Vinícius da Silva
      First page: 104
      Abstract: Understanding and characterizing the relationship between soil and environmental temperatures is crucial for developing effective agricultural management strategies, promoting natural resource conservation, and developing sustainable production systems. Despite the direct impact of the thermal properties of Oxisols on global food production and sustainable agriculture, there is a dearth of research in this area. Therefore, this study aimed to monitor and analyze the thermal behavior of a Red Latosol (Oxisol) in Dracena-SP, Brazil, over two years (from 28 July 2020 to 27 July 2022). Using R software (version 4.3.0) and paired group comparisons, we organized the data into twelve-month sets to estimate monthly soil thermal diffusivity using amplitude, arctangent, and logarithm methods. Soil depth and thermal amplitude showed a temporal pattern characterized by inversely proportional magnitudes that followed an exponential behavior. The thermal amplitude of the Oxisol evaluated decreased with increasing depth, indicating soil thermal damping. In conclusion, the relationship between Oxisol and environmental temperature has significant implications for achieving sustainable agriculture and efficient water and plant resource management.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090104
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 105: Editorial Note: Decision Making in Resource
           Management: Exploring Problems, Methods, and Tools

    • Authors: Eleftherios Thalassinos, Kesra Nermend, Anna Borawska
      First page: 105
      Abstract: The field of resource management plays a crucial role in addressing the complex challenges of allocating resources within societal frameworks while considering ecological, legal, and practical considerations [...]
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090105
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 106: Historical Analysis and Prediction of the
           Magnitude and Scale of Natural Disasters Globally

    • Authors: Julia Buszta, Katarzyna Wójcik, Celso Augusto Guimarães Santos, Krystian Kozioł, Kamil Maciuk
      First page: 106
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to conduct a geospatial analysis of natural disasters occurring worldwide between 1960 and 2018. A total of 9962 disasters were considered, covering 39,953 locations. These phenomena were analysed in terms of frequency and number to determine changes over time and predict future trends. The data included information such as location and year of occurrence. The following natural disasters were included in the analyses: droughts, earthquakes, extreme temperatures, floods, landslides, earth mass movements, storms, and volcanic activity. The analyses were carried out across three dimensions: by continent, by number of disasters in relation to population, and in relation to the area of the continents concerned. An additional objective was to visualise the distribution of disasters by affected countries. This aspect shows the incidence of disasters by year during the period under study, with a 20-year forecast for the coming years.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090106
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 107: How Do Extreme Lake Water Temperatures in
           Poland Respond to Climate Change'

    • Authors: Temidayo Olowoyeye, Mariusz Ptak, Mariusz Sojka
      First page: 107
      Abstract: Lakes are vital components of the Earth’s hydrological cycle and are susceptible to the impacts of climate change. Understanding the changes in terms of minimum and maximum lake surface temperatures is crucial for assessing the effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems. This study focuses on ten lakes in Poland to investigate the impacts of climate change on lake temperatures in different geographical regions. The Mann–Kendall (MK) and Sen tests were employed to analyze trends and changes in minimum and maximum water temperatures, respectively. The results reveal significant increases in the minimum and maximum temperatures, particularly in May and June. Different lakes exhibit varying trends and variability in temperature changes over time, indicating the vulnerability of these ecosystems. The current study also examines the magnitude of annual temperature changes and classifies them into different levels. This analysis highlights the complex relationship between air temperature, seasonal cycles, and lake morphometric characteristics in shaping variations in lake surface water temperature. These findings contribute to understanding the impacts of climate change on Poland’s lakes and provide valuable insights for developing conservation strategies and adaptive measures to protect freshwater resources.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090107
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 108: A Pilot Project Using Sensors in the
           Municipal Solid Waste Collection of a Medium-Sized City

    • Authors: Jerónimo Franco-González, Antonio Gallardo, Mar Carlos, Natalia Edo-Alcón
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Municipal solid waste collection must reach the recycling rates required by new regulations, like with the introduction of new bins to collect the organic fraction. The filling pattern of those bins is unknown, and the collection frequency and collection routes can change. Sensors can help to identify the filling degree and to reorganize the waste collection routes. Yet, equipping all the bins with new technologies can represent a significant amount of money for enterprises and public authorities. The aim of this work is to analyze the use of sensors in waste collection systems where the collection frequency is high. Bins from two zones of a town (a residential and a commercial zone) were selected, and a volumetric sensor was installed to study the filling pattern. In the first scenario, the organic fraction and the mixed waste bin were monitored. In the second experiment, data from mixed waste bins were recorded during two days of the week. Results show that the filling degree pattern is similar in all the cases and that citizens do not respect the recommended times for taking their waste out. Additionally, the cost of the sensors represents a significant amount for a medium-sized town. Although sensors can provide a great amount of information, it is not necessary to install them in all the bins but only at the points to be analyzed. This work proposes a new way to use sensors to validate and calibrate the containerization network of a town with a high collection frequency.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090108
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 109: Combined Remediation towards
           Cadmium–Arsenic-Contaminated Soil via Phytoremediation and

    • Authors: Chenxu Zhang, Jiamei Wu, Jian Cao
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Using a phytoremediation technique for soil remediation usually takes many years, which increases the risk that heavy metals spread into the environment during the project period. Currently, the combined remediation technique (phytoremediation and stabilization) is known as the solution to reduce this risk. In this study, the combined remediation of cadmium–arsenic-contaminated soil via phytoremediation and stabilization was studied. The pot experiment was carried out using modified fly ash (MFA) and solid waste material (steel slag (SS): pyrolusite (PY): ferrous sulfide (FS) = 1:2:8) as stabilization materials and Bidens pilosa as the accumulative plant. The characteristics of B. pilosa, including its water content, biomass, root length, plant height, and heavy metal content, were obtained after harvesting, and the reduction rate of the bioavailability of Cd and As and their physico-chemical properties, including the pH, Eh, and Ec values of the soil, were also measured. The remediation effect was evaluated according to the above indexes, and the mechanism of combined remediation was studied through the FTIR, XRD, and XPS analyses. These experiments have shown that adding an appropriate amount of MFA can enhance the absorption of heavy metals by plants in the soil and reduce the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soil. In addition, the mechanism study revealed that Cd2+/Cd(OH)+ was easily adsorbed on Si-OH and MnOOH, while AsO43− was more easily adsorbed on Fe-OH and Al-OH.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090109
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 110: A Century of Changes in the Surface Area of
           Lakes in West Poland

    • Authors: Mariusz Ptak, Katarzyna Szyga-Pluta, Salim Heddam, Senlin Zhu, Mariusz Sojka
      First page: 110
      Abstract: Lakes are an important element of the hydrosphere that contribute to the stabilisation of water circulation by providing biodiversity conditions or supporting the development of different branches of the economy. All these properties depend on the longevity of lakes in the environment and the processes related to their evolution. Based on archival morphometric data from historical maps and modern cartographic studies, this paper presents an analysis of changes in their surface area over a period of 100 years. Among 169 lakes, a decrease in surface area was recorded in 156 cases (including the complete disappearance of two lakes); no change was observed in four lakes; and seven lakes increased their surface area. The total surface area of all the lakes has decreased by 11.4% in comparison with the initial state in the early 20th century. The highest rate of decline concerned the shallowest lakes with a maximum depth of up to 5.0 m and lakes with the smallest surface area of up to 20 ha, averaging 24.1% and 22.2%, respectively. The spatial distribution of changes in the surface area of lakes is variable, and at a larger scale it presents no similarities. This suggests that factors determining the rate and direction of changes in the surface area of lakes depend on their individual features and local conditions, which is in accordance with similar studies from the territory of Poland. The obtained results reveal the scale of the changes in the surface area of the lakes, potentially providing important information for authorities in charge of water management in the context of activities aimed at slowing down the disappearance of these valuable ecosystems.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090110
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 111: Assessment of Energy and Heat Consumption
           Trends and Forecasting in the Small Consumer Sector in Poland Based on
           Historical Data

    • Authors: Bożena Gajdzik, Magdalena Jaciow, Radosław Wolniak, Robert Wolny, Wieslaw Wes Grebski
      First page: 111
      Abstract: The paper outlines the methodology employed for desk-based research, which involved gathering and analyzing empirical data on energy and heating consumption in the Polish small consumer sector. Secondary sources, including reports, documents, scientific publications, and public statistics, were utilized to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter. The research methodology ensured the acquisition and examination of reliable and extensive data regarding energy and heat consumption among small consumers in Poland. The study investigated consumption trends of hard coal, electricity, and natural gas in Polish households from 2006 to 2021. The findings revealed an increasing pattern in electricity and natural gas consumption, alongside a simultaneous decline in the usage of hard coal. Future consumption was estimated using trend models, and factors contributing to changes in energy consumption patterns were examined, with forecasts to 2027. To achieve decarbonization and address climate objectives, the study underscores the need to increase the proportion of renewable energy sources and boost energy efficiency. The significance of reducing household energy consumption through enhanced insulation, smart energy management systems, and low-carbon alternatives is emphasized. Additionally, the study addresses Poland’s future energy plans as a proactive step toward decarbonizing the national economy. In summary, the study furnishes valuable insights into energy consumption trends and their determinants in the Polish small consumer sector.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12090111
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 9 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 86: Methodology for the Formation of a Digital
           Model of the Life Cycle of an Offshore Oil and Gas Platform

    • Authors: Nikolay Didenko, Djamilia Skripnuk, Viktor Merkulov, Kseniia N. Kikkas, Konstantin Skripniuk
      First page: 86
      Abstract: This article systematizes scientific views on the problems associated with the conditions and patterns of creating a digital model of a sophisticated engineering and technical complex. The main elements of a digital model of the life cycle of an offshore oil and gas platform are considered. An interdisciplinary approach to the study of the essence of the subject space of the life cycle of an offshore oil and gas platform is substantiated on the basis of modeling the subject space of the life cycle of an offshore oil and gas platform using alternative graphs and information technologies. New concepts have been introduced into scientific circulation that reveal the essence of a digital model of the life cycle of an offshore oil and gas platform: life cycle cost, life cycle duration, and the scientific and technical level of the offshore oil and gas platform. The main provisions of the concept of the virtual life cycle of an offshore oil and gas platform are considered. Based on modeling the subject area of the life cycle of an offshore oil and gas platform by alternative graphs, is shown the relationship between the stages of the life cycle. The technology of model-based design of the virtual life cycle of an offshore oil and gas platform is proposed. The developed model of the life cycle of an offshore oil and gas platform based on the display of the life cycle by alternative graphs makes it possible to choose solutions for each stage based on criteria common to the life cycle of an offshore oil and gas platform. A cyclic procedure for managing a virtual life cycle model of an offshore oil and gas platform has been developed. The digital model of the life cycle of an offshore oil and gas platform is constantly updated following the change in physical prototypes, which increases the accuracy of decisions based on it. The application of the model in practice will significantly reduce the number of full-scale tests of everything related to the manufacture of the real material part of a platform.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080086
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 87: Hydrological Model Performance in the Verde
           River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    • Authors: Conceição de M. M. de Oliveira, Lívia A. Alvarenga, Samuel Beskow, Zandra Almeida da Cunha, Marcelle Martins Vargas, Pâmela A. Melo, Javier Tomasella, Ana Carolina N. Santos, Vinicius S. O. Carvalho, Vinicius Oliveira Silva
      First page: 87
      Abstract: In hydrological modelling, it is important to consider the uncertainties related to a model’s structures and parameters when different hydrological models are used to represent a system. Therefore, an adequate analysis of daily discharge forecasts that takes into account the performance of hydrological models can assist in identifying the best extreme discharge forecasts. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the performance of three hydrological models—Lavras Simulation of Hydrology (LASH), Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), and Distributed Hydrological Model (MHD-INPE) in the Verde River basin. The results demonstrate that LASH and MHD can accurately simulate discharges, thereby establishing them as crucial tools for managing water resources in the study region’s basins. Moreover, these findings could serve as a cornerstone for future studies focusing on food and water security, particularly when examining their connection to climate change scenarios.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080087
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 88: Motives for the Use of Photovoltaic
           Installations in Poland against the Background of the Share of Solar
           Energy in the Structure of Energy Resources in the Developing Economies of
           Central and Eastern Europe

    • Authors: Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Increasing the use of renewable energy sources (RES) is one of the greatest challenges faced by modern emerging and developing economies. Its effective implementation largely depends on the acceptance and involvement of consumers in the process of sustainable energy transformation. Bearing in mind the above premises, the purpose of this article is to identify the motives for the use of photovoltaic installations in Poland against the background of the share of solar energy in the structure of energy consumption in the developing economies of Central and Eastern Europe. In order to achieve this goal, the scope of the use of renewable energy sources in 11 countries of the analyzed region was determined in the course of the research; then, on the basis of the results of the survey, the motives for using solar energy by 754 Polish prosumers were identified (a statistically representative sample). The results indicate a low and relatively slow-growing use and a very different structure of RES in the surveyed economies. From the pro-consumer perspective, the decision to use solar energy is primarily influenced by economic motives, including, above all, the possibility of reducing costs and using energy also for heating. Independence factors related to the possibility of at least partial independence from energy suppliers and diversification of energy sources are also important. Ecological motivation and promotion of RES, including government incentives, are definitely less important.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080088
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 89: Organizational, Economic and Regulatory
           Aspects of Groundwater Resources Extraction by Individuals (Case of the
           Russian Federation)

    • Authors: Ekaterina Golovina, Vera Khloponina, Pavel Tsiglianu, Runchu Zhu
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Fresh groundwater, as an essential component of global water resources and a special type of mineral wealth, has a whole set of features that affect social infrastructure, the economy and the environmental well-being of the population. At the same time, groundwater is vulnerable and limited despite its replenishable nature and vast reserves. Recently, in some countries, the practice of extracting groundwater resources by private individuals on their territory has been actively spreading, but not in all states. This is considered acceptable and is enshrined in national regulations. Uncontrolled exploitation of aquifers by small water users can affect the safety of ecosystems and the depletion of drinking groundwater reserves. In this regard, the state policy and system for regulating access to groundwater resources for all subsoil users should be based on a well-thought-out concept. This article is devoted to the organizational, economic, and regulatory issues of groundwater extraction by individuals for their own needs in the Russian Federation. A comparative analysis of the state approach to groundwater extraction by private individuals in other states (mainly in the example of Germany and China) is made. The latest trends in legislation in this area are analyzed, shortcomings in the system of state regulation of groundwater use are identified, and mechanisms for legalizing the activities of individual water users are proposed. Global groundwater regulation should be based on rationality, control, safety, protection, sustainability, and future generations’ care.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080089
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 90: Assessment of Aerodynamic Plates Subjected
           to Von Kármán Vortex Street for Enhancing the Wind Energy
           Generation in Blade-Less Devices

    • Authors: John Zuluaga, Santiago Ricardo, Andrés Oostra, Gilberto Materano, Apostolos Spanelis
      First page: 90
      Abstract: This study explores the feasibility of using an oscillating plate downstream of a cylindrical body to produce mechanical energy from a Von Kármán vortex street under sub-critical flow conditions (Re = 72,500). The study aims to quantify the impact of the plate length, its separation from the cylinder, and a machine damping factor on the power coefficient and the blade’s displacement to identify the optimal configuration. This preliminary assessment assumes that the plate oscillation is small enough to avoid changes in the vortex dynamics. This assumption allows the construction of a surrogate model using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to evaluate the effect of plate length and separation from the cylinder on the fluctuating lift forces over the plate. Later, the surrogate model, combined with varying machine damping factors, facilitates the description of the device’s dynamics through the numerical integration of an angular momentum equation. The results showed that a plate with a length of 0.52D, a separation of 5.548D from the cylinder, and a damping factor of 0.013 achieved a power coefficient of 0.147 and a perpendicular displacement of 0.226D. These results demonstrate a substantial improvement in the performance of blade-less generators.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080090
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 91: A Techno-Economic Analysis of Natural Gas
           Valuation in the Amazon Region to Increase the Liquefied Petroleum Gas
           (LPG) Production in Ecuador

    • Authors: Darwin Ortiz, Damián Calderón, Alfredo Viloria, Marvin Ricaurte
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a C3/C4’s hydrocarbon mixture used as fuel gas, obtained through natural gas processing or crude oil refining. The Ecuadorian LPG production (~1.88 MMbbl/year) comes from the Shushufindi gas plant and the Esmeraldas refinery. However, LPG production cannot meet the Ecuadorian market demand, and over 90% of this commodity is imported. At the same time, the natural gas produced in the Amazon region is not fully valued. A significant quantity of the associated gas is flared (~100 MMscfd), representing wasted energy with a significant environmental impact. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a technical and economic assessment of the potential natural gas valuation in the Amazon region to increase LPG production. The study started with a detailed review of the associated gas produced in the Amazon region. The data were analyzed considering the geographic location of the hydrocarbon fields, molar composition, flowrates, and operational conditions. Then, a natural gas value chain visualization was proposed and technically analyzed. Finally, an economic feasibility (class V) study was conducted, considering a preliminary analysis of capital expenditure (CAPEX) and an economic balance. The outcome of this study showed that by processing 21.50 MMscfd of associated gas from the Sacha field, domestic LPG production could increase by 30.9%. The required infrastructure consists of conventional processes for natural gas processing, with an estimated CAPEX of 36.6 MMUSD. Furthermore, despite the domestic subsidies of commodities, the potential savings for the country would be 32.13 MMUSD/year, an alternative more economically viable than the current LPG imports. Thus, the investment cost will be justified.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080091
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 92: Adapting the ESSENZ Method to Assess the
           Criticality of Construction Materials: Case Study of Herne, Germany

    • Authors: Inka Randebrock, Sylvia Marinova, Vanessa Bach, Rosalie Arendt, Matthias Finkbeiner
      First page: 92
      Abstract: The steady increase in the world’s population combined with the globally growing need for living space by each individual is leading to an ever-faster consumption of limited resources by the construction industry, particularly sand and gravel. While a consensus exists regarding the sand and gravel resource availability on a global level for long-term supply, it is important to note that local supply shortages may still occur. Thus, this study aims to identify critical aspects of both locally and globally traded construction materials by adapting the ESSENZ method, which evaluates the criticality of globally traded abiotic resources. For the specific case of the local availability of construction materials, a new indicator is introduced: The Surface Squared Driven Indicator (SSDI), which is adapted to the specific conditions of the German market. The modified ESSENZ method is applied in a case study of materials needed for maintaining the material stock of the city of Herne, Germany. The results indicate that raw materials for concrete production in Germany, such as aggregates, are expected to be sufficient in the long term, but silica sand for glass production is only guaranteed for a few decades. Concrete poses the highest supply risk due to its high material demand, with steel and concrete dominating the environmental impacts. Limitations include data availability and the exclusion of certain materials. The adapted ESSENZ method allows for the comparison of criticality results for materials traded globally and locally, offering valuable insights for decision-makers seeking to promote sustainable construction practices.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080092
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 93: Factors of Food Waste Reduction Underlying
           the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior: A Study of Consumer Behavior
           towards the Intention to Reduce Food Waste

    • Authors: Johannes Schrank, Aphinya Hanchai, Sahapob Thongsalab, Narakorn Sawaddee, Kirana Chanrattanagorn, Chavis Ketkaew
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Food waste represents an economic, environmental, and social threat, which makes it an important subject of investigation. Food waste behavior has a crucial effect on everyone’s food security, food safety, economic growth, and the environment; hence, it requires further analysis. The article’s objective is to study the food waste reduction behavior of individual consumers and to examine factors which can explain the intention to reduce food waste. The study’s conceptual foundation is the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which aims to explain the relationship between an individual’s attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The paper extends the TPB by including new factors such as environmental concern, perceived ascription of responsibility, marketing addiction, moral norm, and waste preventing behavior. The data were collected via quota sampling and examined using the structural equation modeling (SEM). The study employed a sample of 369 people in Thailand. The results show that waste preventing behavior, attitude, and perceived behavioral control significantly impact the intention to reduce food waste. The subjective norm and environmental concern positively affects the attitude, which subsequently impacts the intention to reduce food waste. Marketing addiction negatively impacts perceived behavioral control and, hence, increases food waste. This research paper enlarges the understanding of the intention to minimize food waste. Moreover, it points out the implications on how consumers and the government may improve the desire to decrease food waste.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080093
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 94: Investigating the Potential Adoption of

    • Authors: Donald Wilson, Eleni Iacovidou
      First page: 94
      Abstract: The travel-goods industry is an essential part of the larger travel and tourism sector, but it allegedly creates significant environmental impacts due to resource and energy consumption. This study investigates the potential of the product-service system (PSS) models to promote the transition to a sustainable travel industry in the future. It explores the drivers and barriers to PSS adoption within the luggage industry from a theoretical perspective and identifies opportunities for value creation using both consumer and luggage industry viewpoints. Four hypothetical PSS models are developed to highlight different pathways to PSS adoption, underpinned with empirical data collected via a consumer survey and semi-structured interviews with industry experts. Even though the analysis revealed shifting consumer attitudes towards servitisation concepts within the travel-goods market, at present, the widespread adoption of PSS is hindered by the fragmented nature of global supply chains and entrenched ownership values. Addressing supply chain issues in a way that empowers end-of-life systems to sustainably manage products beyond their functional obsolescence is critical. In parallel, product-oriented PSS models are more likely to increase, driven by a burgeoning resale market and supported by digital technologies, which in turn can lead to greater prospects for use-oriented PSS adoption in the long-term that would eventually promote sustainability.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080094
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 95: Continuous Assessment of the Environmental
           Impact and Economic Viability of Decarbonization Improvements in Cement

    • Authors: Olurotimi Oguntola, Steven Simske
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Growing awareness of the importance of mitigating climate change is driving research efforts toward developing economically viable technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The high energy consumption and carbon-intensive nature of cement manufacturing make it worthwhile to examine the environmental and economic characteristics of process improvements in cement production. This study examines the environmental impact of cement production and its economic considerations and demonstrates an IoT-inspired deployment framework for continuously assessing these. It contributes a practical approach to integrating sustainability into cement manufacturing and analyzes four different scenarios from a combination of two cement types (ordinary Portland cement, Portland-limestone cement) and two energy sources for thermal heating (coal, dried biosolids). It indicates that increased production and adoption of blended cement that has up to 15% limestone as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement can significantly reduce climate change effects from cement production (6.4% lower carbon footprint). In addition, significant emission reduction is possible with the use of waste from sewage sludge as a combustion fuel for heating in the cement production process (7.9% reduction compared with baseline). The information on environmental and financial trade-offs helps informed decisions on cement production improvements and can potentially contribute to greenhouse gas reduction targets.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080095
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 96: Development of Wind Energy in EU Countries
           as an Alternative Resource to Fossil Fuels in the Years 2016–2022

    • Authors: Radosław Wolniak, Bożena Skotnicka-Zasadzień
      First page: 96
      Abstract: The aim of this article is to present solutions related to wind energy in EU countries as an alternative to fossil fuels. This article is based on secondary information and statistical data regarding the development of wind power engineering in EU countries for the years 2016–2022. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze of the relations between the development of wind energy in European Union countries and GPD (gross domestic product) per capita and selected factors. The following hypotheses were formulated: H1—There is a statistically significant correlation between GDP per capita and the use of wind energy in European Union countries. H2—There is a relationship between the length of the coastline and the use of wind energy in European Union countries. H3—There is a statistically significant correlation between the attitude to uncertainty of the inhabitants of a given country and the use of wind energy in said country. The presented research results support all these hypotheses. The results of the research regarding H2 are as follows: in the case of northern European countries (Ireland and Finland) and the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal), the development of wind power engineering in the study period was faster than could be inferred from the length of the coastline in these countries. Regarding hypothesis H1, it was concluded on the basis of the analysis that the involvement of countries in the development of wind power engineering is correlated with their wealth. The novelty of this paper emerges from its innovative approach to analyzing wind power engineering, its incorporation of cultural factors, its quantitative assessment of correlations, and its actionable policy recommendations. These elements collectively contribute to a comprehensive and impactful study that advances our understanding of wind energy adoption in the European Union.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12080096
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 8 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 74: The Geo-Cultural Heritage of Kos Revisited:
           Web-GIS Applications and Storytelling Promoting the Well-Known Island of
           Dodecanese, Greece

    • Authors: Varvara Antoniou, Dimitris Panousis, Elisavet Nikoli, Anna Katsigera, Othonas Vlasopoulos, Paraskevi Nomikou
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Kos is the third largest island of the Dodecanese, located in the southeastern Aegean Sea, Greece. The island’s remarkable location both in a prominent geodynamic space and at a crossroads of East, West and South has endowed it with a unique wealth of geological, biological, cultural, and traditional heritage. Steep mountain ranges consisting of Alpine Mesozoic rocks alternate with low-altitude plateaus featuring marine and lacustrine sediments that contain fossils of past life. In addition, the transition of barren land to lush forests where numerous species of flora and fauna thrive is unique to Greek ecosystems. This environment hosted civilizations and activities that gradually led to the present-day cultural and religious state of the island, where people and nature coexist respectfully on one of the country’s most favourite destinations. In an effort to further enhance the public’s awareness of the geo-cultural heritage of Kos, an online ESRI Hub was created, featuring several individual ESRI StoryMaps web apps regarding each specific aspect of the island’s heritage. The goal of this paper is to discuss the importance of using such means for disseminating geoscientific information to the public, to describe the methods used and to give a brief presentation of its content.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070074
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 75: Global Warming Potential and Waste Handling
           of Pearl Farming in Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, Japan

    • Authors: Dheanara Pinka, Kazuyo Matsubae
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Pearl farming (PF) represents a significant portion of the world’s total aquaculture production and is a growing multibillion-dollar sector of mollusk aquaculture. However, PF in Mie Prefecture, Japan, has resulted in the deterioration of environmental conditions in Ago Bay, and its environmental impacts are yet to be evaluated using a life-cycle assessment (LCA). Thus, in this study, a cradle-to-gate LCA using 1 kg of pearl produced in Ago Bay was conducted. The key results showed that the global warming potential (GWP) was equivalent to 4.98 kg CO2, which is lower than the GWPs of metals, such as gold and silver, commonly used in jewelry production. Meanwhile, the waste handling of PF is progressing, with current efforts being focused on extracting calcium carbonate, exporting shell waste, and reducing plastic waste. These findings provide critical insights for achieving sustainable pearl production aquaculture.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070075
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 76: Sustainable Municipal Waste Management
           during the COVID-19 Pandemic—A Case Study of Poland

    • Authors: Weronika Urbańska, Anna Janda, Magdalena Osial, Mateusz Słowikowski
      First page: 76
      Abstract: With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the waste management sector had to face new challenges, e.g., changes in the size and composition of the waste stream, or the presence of potentially infectious waste. This article is based on a case study in Poland. The data analysis showed that the increase in municipal waste mass during the pandemic did not differ from statistics observed in previous years and ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 million tons per year. Lifestyle changes caused a decrease in the amount of waste generated outside households. Social migrations contributed to rapid changes in the mass of waste generated in selected agglomerations by up to 80 kg/capita. In the waste stream, significant amounts of specific groups of waste related to the pandemic (“corona waste”) as well as packaging and food waste were noted. Despite the pandemic, in 2020, Poland recorded an increase in selective waste collection by 6.7 percentage points (pp.) Data on municipal waste management showed an increase in the mass of waste sent for recycling by 0.7 million tons, while the mass of landfilled waste decreased by 0.3 million tons. The observed positive changes in waste management allow the implementation of sustainable development assumptions to a greater extent.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070076
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 77: The Recovery of Bioactive Compounds from
           Olive Pomace Using Green Extraction Processes

    • Authors: Marina Stramarkou, Theodora-Venetia Missirli, Konstantina Kyriakopoulou, Sofia Papadaki, Athanasios Angelis-Dimakis, Magdalini Krokida
      First page: 77
      Abstract: In this study, solid olive mill waste (SOMW) was used to obtain antioxidant compounds using solid–liquid extraction. The effect of different extraction methods, namely microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), Soxhlet, and conventional solvent extraction, on the yield, total phenolics, and total antioxidant activity of SOMW extracts was investigated. Untreated and dried SOMW were subjected to extraction with water and methanol. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using the DPPH assay, while their total phenolic content was measured using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. For the characterisation of the extracts, HPLC-DAD analysis was performed. The results showed that the extraction yield was significantly influenced (p < 0.05) by the solvent used, the material treatment prior to extraction, the moisture content of SOMW samples, and the extraction time. The optimised parameters were water, as the extraction solvent, and MAE as the extraction technique (extraction temperature of 50 °C and time of 1 h). The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the extracts indicated that phenolics were the dominant bioactive compounds. The extracts were found to be rich in several hydroxytyrosol derivatives. Therefore, SOMW can be a valuable resource for bioactive compounds using conventional and innovative extraction techniques.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070077
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 78: Inter-Sectoral Economic Linkages in the
           Mining Industries of Botswana and Tanzania: Analysis Using Partial
           Hypothetical Extraction Method

    • Authors: Fitsum Semere Weldegiorgis, Evelyn Dietsche, Shabbir Ahmad
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Fiscal and local content policies aimed at promoting linkages between mining and other economic sectors have been informed by theories built on historical observations dating back to the 1950s. This paper contends that there is a need to rethink theories about mining-based economic linkages and the prospects for structural change based on an improved understanding of existing and potential inter-sectoral linkages. Using the input–output tables for Tanzania and Botswana, we apply the Partial Hypothetical Extraction Method within the Leontief and Gosh input–output frameworks to examine the linkages between the mining and quarrying sector and other economic sectors within these two economies. We find that, for Botswana, possible linkage pathways lie in scaling-up coal, soda ash and salt mining and investing in glass, polymer, and chemicals manufacturing. For Tanzania, opportunities for linkage pathways lie with the mining and manufacturing of non-metallic and construction materials as well as metallic minerals and natural gas. For both countries, the prospects for transforming their economies away from a heavy reliance on mineral extraction hinges on leveraging extractives for infrastructure, innovative technology, and technical skills, as well as capturing business opportunities, knowledge, and financial returns to invest in more diversified economic activities.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070078
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 79: Investigation of the Usability of Reduced
           Alkalinity Red Mud in the Building Material Industry

    • Authors: Miklós Jakab, Gergely Balázs Patthy, Tamás Korim, Éva Makó
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Untreated and pH-reduced red mud is used as a potential raw material in ceramic technology. During the alkalinity reduction process, CO2 is bubbled through the untreated red mud, which is particularly important as it can reduce the CO2 content of the atmosphere, and the pH of the red mud. Therefore, this method serves as a CO2 capture technique that utilizes waste as a raw material with low costs. Besides, reducing CO2 emission, it allows the production of material suitable for brick manufacturing from waste. In this study, treated and reduced alkalinity red mud was mixed with clay in the range of 5–30 wt%, and the physical, chemical, mechanical, and technologically important properties of the dried and sintered bricks were examined. The application of reduced alkalinity red mud as an additive offers advantages, as the resulting bricks require less water for processing, are less sensitive to drying, and their strength values exceed those of the commercially available bricks. Therefore, the technique presented in the study enables the production of bricks and roof tiles with advantageous properties using waste materials.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070079
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 80: Study of the Relationship between Economic
           Growth and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of the Shanghai Cooperation
           Organization Countries on the Basis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

    • Authors: Amina Andreichyk, Pavel Tsvetkov
      First page: 80
      Abstract: The present study contributes to the ongoing debate on environmental sustainability and the low-carbon agenda in terms of an analysis of a relatively new international association, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Based on panel data from SCO countries from 2000 to 2020, the hypothesis of the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) was tested. The results showed the validity of the EKC hypothesis for the SCO countries; in particular, the gross domestic product and natural resource rents have a connection with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while trade openness, foreign direct investment and the use of renewable energy sources reduce GHG emissions in the long term. It was also found that the effect of economic growth on GHG emissions in the long term in the SCO countries has the form of an inverse N-curve. Based on the analysis performed, recommendations are offered to improve energy policy in the field of alternative energy sources, natural resources—rents on them, openness to foreign markets and attracting foreign investment.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070080
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 81: Improvement of MBBR Performance by the
           Addition of 3D-Printed Biocarriers Fabricated with 13X and Bentonite

    • Authors: Dimitra C. Banti, Petros Samaras, Afroditi G. Chioti, Anastasios Mitsopoulos, Michail Tsangas, Antonis Zorpas, Themistoklis Sfetsas
      First page: 81
      Abstract: The current study investigated the performance of a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), when adding 3D-printed biocarriers fabricated with 13X and bentonite (MBBR 3D), when using K1 commercial biocarriers (MBBR K1) and when not adding biocarriers at all (control MBBR). For the evaluation of the MBBR efficiency, various physicochemical parameters were measured, while biofilm extracted from the biocarriers was evaluated. The findings suggest that there is an optimal biodegradation of the organic load in all MBBR units. The nitrification and denitrification processes were improved in MBBR 3D as compared to the control MBBR and MBBR K1. The dry mass of the biofilm in the 3D-printed biocarriers was two orders of magnitude larger than in the K1 biocarriers. Moreover, in the K1 biocarriers the mass of the biofilm varied in relation to time, since it could not be protected inside the holes, something that did not happen with the 3D-printed biocarriers. Finally, it was found, mostly in MBBR 3D and less in MBBR K1, that the growth of nitrifying bacteria and heterotrophs inside the units increased the biomass production in the form of soluble microbial products, which in turn favored the adhesion of biomass on the surface of biocarriers.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070081
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 82: New Bioretention Drainage Channel as One of
           the Low-Impact Development Solutions: A Case Study from Poland

    • Authors: Agnieszka Stec, Daniel Słyś
      First page: 82
      Abstract: In recent years, as a result of intensive urbanisation, a significant increase in the surface of impermeable areas has been observed, which results in changes in the hydrological cycle of catchments. In order to counteract these changes, low-impact development (LID) solutions are increasingly being implemented in urban catchments, including bioretention systems. Taking this into account, a new bioretention drainage channel (BRC) was designed, whose main task is retention, infiltration, and pre-treatment of rainwater. The pilot laboratory tests carried out on two BRC prototypes (K1 and K2) showed that the average rate of reduction of mineral-suspended solids from rainwater was 69% and 57%, respectively, for K1 and K2. Analysing the results of the research, it was found that the bioretention drainage channel is characterised by very high efficiency in removing petroleum hydrocarbons from rainwater, and the reduction rate of these pollutants for both the K1 and K2 channels was close to 100%. In turn, hydrodynamic studies carried out on the model of the urban catchment showed that the implementation of BRCs will reduce the peak runoff by more than 82%, and the maximum flow in the sewage network by 83%.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070082
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 83: Comparative Study of the Yield and Chemical
           Profile of Rose Oils and Hydrosols Obtained by Industrial Plantations of
           Oil-Bearing Roses in Bulgaria

    • Authors: Ana Dobreva, Deyana Nedeva, Milka Mileva
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Bulgaria is famous for its oil-bearing rose. R. damascena Mill. and R. alba L. are mainly cultivated in the country, but a recent survey of industrial plantations in 2020 revealed that R. centifolia L. and hybrids of R. damascena Mill. X R. gallica L. are also common in the rose valley. Although their essential oil cannot be compared in quality with the classic, these species are preferred by farmers with high yields of flowers and resistance to diseases and pests. All these roses are also used to produce rose water and extracts. The aim of this investigation was to compare the yield and chromatographic fingerprints of seven rose oils and hydrosols produced in Bulgaria. The quantitative composition of the main components of the oils was compared with the norms of the world standards. Our study showed that the yield of essential oil from these roses was in the range of 0.015–0.048%. The main group in the chemical composition is terpene alcohols, which vary in range: geraniol (15.85–34.02%), citronellol (6.70–28.72%), and nerol (5.80–11.90%) but with a different ratio. Hydrocarbons are represented by saturated aliphatic homologs with an odd number of carbon atoms, the main ones being nonadecane (8.10–22.67%), heneicosane (4.37–10.21%), heptadecane (1.07–2.98%), and triclosan (0.81–5.90%). In contrast, the chemical profile of the hydrosols was performed using phenylethyl alcohol (27.45–69.88%), geraniol (13.72–28.67%), and citronelol+nerol (4.56–17.37%). The results show that the presence of plantations with a genotype different from that of R. damascena implies differences in the quality of rose oils and hydrosols. This determines their properties of use.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070083
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 84: Fluoride Removal from Aqueous Medium Using
           Biochar Produced from Coffee Ground

    • Authors: Hellem Victoria Ribeiro dos Santos, Paulo Sérgio Scalize, Francisco Javier Cuba Teran, Renata Medici Frayne Cuba
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Low concentrations of fluoride (F−) in drinking water are beneficial for oral health, but the natural occurrence of high F- content has been reported in various groundwater sources, posing a continuous ingestion threat to humans. The utilization of biochar (BC) produced from residual biomass has emerged as a technically, economically, and environmentally sustainable alternative for fluoride removal through adsorption. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of BC derived from coffee grounds and the influence of various factors on the adsorption process of F- in aqueous media, including pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, and initial F- concentration. The BC exhibited a surface area of 12.94 m2·g−1 and a pore volume of 0.0349 cm3·g−1. The adsorption process was strongly pH dependent, demonstrating a significant decline in performance as pH increased from 2.0 onwards. The majority of F- removal occurred within the first 5 min, reaching adsorption equilibrium after 1 h of testing, regardless of the initial F- concentration employed. The data fitting to the Webber–Morris model indicated a two-step adsorption process on BC, with the first step being external surface sorption and the second step being intra-articular diffusion. The process was determined to be endergonic, and the data satisfactorily matched both the Freundlich and Langmuir models, with a qm of 0.53 mg·L−1 (T = 55 °C), indicating the predominance of physisorption. The findings suggest the potential of coffee grounds for BC production; nevertheless, surface structure modifications are necessary to enhance F− affinity and subsequently improve adsorption capacity.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-17
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070084
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 85: Co-Hydrothermal Carbonization of Grass and
           Olive Stone as a Means to Lower Water Input to HTC

    • Authors: Rocío García-Morato, Silvia Román, Beatriz Ledesma, Charles Coronella
      First page: 85
      Abstract: One drawback of biomass hydrothermal treatment (HTC) is the need of a water supply, which is especially important in the case of lignocellulosic biomass. This study has investigated the synergy resulting from co-HTC of two residual biomass materials that significantly differ in their physico-chemical compositions: (a) olive stone, OS, a hard and high-quality biomass, with low N content, whose potential to give a high heating value briquette by HTC has been proven, and (b) fresh grass pruning, GP, as it is gathered from gardens, with a high water content, moderate N fraction, and low calorific value. The work specifically focuses on the water saving that can be attained when the liquid product produced by one of them (grass, with 80% of moisture) can supply part of the water needed by the other (olive stone) when both are subjected to HTC simultaneously. It was found that, when instead of water, an additional amount of fresh GP is added (in particular 40 out of 110 g of water was provided by 54 g of GP), and a more basic processing water is obtained (pH of co-HTC increased by 40%, in relation of single OS processes). This in turn did not have a remarkable effect on OS final SY at any of the two temperatures studied (200 and 220 °C), not on the C densification. Other features such as N content of resulting OS hydrochars showed a rise in the case of hybrid processes, from 0.2% to 3.3%. Other features that were affected on OS HTC products because of the presence of the GP in co-HTC were the HC surface structure, hydrophobicity, and the presence of surface functionalities and their thermal stability towards pyrolysis; processing water also showed changes on mineral content when both biomasses there blended. Proving that a biomass like OS can be hydrothermally treated by a hybrid process involving less water, without being detrimental in terms of final SY and energy densification, can open a field of research aimed to make HTC processes more efficient in terms of hydric balance.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12070085
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 7 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 62: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Two Different
           Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Farming Strategies in the Sacca di Goro,
           Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy

    • Authors: Daniela Summa, Edoardo Turolla, Mattia Lanzoni, Elena Tamisari, Giuseppe Castaldelli, Elena Tamburini
      First page: 62
      Abstract: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is one of the world’s most cultivated and prized molluscs. Although it is usually considered a luxury product, it meets all the requirements to be included in a sustainable diet, and its production and consumption have great potential for growth in the coming years. Oyster farming is a worldwide activity, with China and France as the main producers, but recently, the possibility of implementing the Italian production, mainly focused on clams and mussels, has been considered an interesting issue, especially due to the growing local and global demand. The present study has been carried out by collecting data from the Sacca di Goro, north-east Italy, the most important national mollusc farming area. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to two different farming scenarios in order to improve the overall sustainability of the process. Using OpenLCA™ software (GreenDelta, Berlin, Germany) and the ReCiPe® midpoint (H) v.1.12 method, the environmental impacts of the traditional Italian farming technique, carried out entirely offshore in longlines, and the alternative option, in which the oyster seed pre-fattening phase was carried out in the lagoon, were calculated and compared. The results show that replacing the current pre-fattening phase with pre-fattening in a lagoon reduces CO2 emissions by approximately 12% and all other impact categories by approximately 9%. In addition, non-recyclable plastic materials and fuel consumption emerged as the main environmental hotspots.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060062
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 63: A Conceptual Model for the Sustainable
           Development of the Arctic’s Mineral Resources Considering Current
           Global Trends: Future Scenarios, Key Actors, and Recommendations

    • Authors: Diana Dmitrieva, Amina Chanysheva, Victoria Solovyova
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Today, the issues of sustainable development are among the most pressing ones. They are particularly relevant in the context of mineral resource development as operations in this sector always have an impact on the environment and socioeconomic development. Developing the mineral resource base of the Arctic presents a difficult task, as it requires finding a balance between the growing demand in resources and the acute climatic and geopolitical challenges. In view of both the specific features of the region and the pressure caused by various trends and challenges, ensuring the sustainable development of the Arctic’s mineral resource base is highly important. In 2022, the global landscape that consists of sustainable development trends, ESG agendas, and environmental awareness was supplemented by national import substitution policies introduced in many strategic industries, which led to an inevitable increase in demand for mineral resources. This substantiates the importance of the research goal—developing a model for the sustainable development of the Arctic’s mineral resource base that will produce quantitative results and provide key actors with reasonable recommendations for restructuring the priority areas of development.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060063
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 64: Conceptual Management Framework for Oil and
           Gas Engineering Project Implementation

    • Authors: Pavel Tsiglianu, Natalia Romasheva, Artem Nenko
      First page: 64
      Abstract: More than half of the global demand for energy resources is covered today by oil and natural gas, and according to various forecasts, it is expected to grow 1.5–2 times greater over the next 30–50 years. This creates serious prospects for the development of the national oil and gas sectors of various countries, including Russia. Modern industry challenges create significant restrictions for the development of Russian oil and gas resources, and considering their predominant technological nature, the key solution is the increase in internal technological potential, in particular through the implementation of engineering projects aimed at creating the necessary technological solutions. This article presents an approach to the development of a conceptual management framework that will allow for the effective implementation of oil and gas engineering projects. The methodology of the research includes desk studies, systematization, the expert method (including interviews and questionnaires), grouping, generalization, and algorithm design techniques. The results of the study showed that effective implementation of engineering projects should be based on a systematic management approach, one of which is the TRA process. This article analyzes the TRA methods, on the basis of which key project readiness indicators are identified. Based on a literature review and the expert method, the relevant readiness indicators necessary for the assessment of oil and gas engineering projects are substantiated. Given these indicators, the authors proposed a framework for a comprehensive readiness assessment of oil and gas engineering projects and developed an algorithm for management decision-making on project implementation.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060064
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 65: Identifying Optimal Cell Size for
           Geodiversity Quantitative Assessment with Richness, Diversity and Evenness

    • Authors: Catarina Lopes, Zara Teixeira, Diamantino I. Pereira, Paulo Pereira
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The importance of quantitatively assessing the spatial patterns of geodiversity, and their intrinsic relationship with biodiversity and the ecosystem services provided to society, has been signalized by several authors, due to the relevance of this information in territorial management, the planning of environmental and conservation strategies. Within geodiversity method assessments, the grid system is the most widely used GIS spatial approach to calculate a geodiversity index. Preferred for its simplicity, it implies the fundamental decision of choosing the scale of the analysis, defined by the selection of cell size, determinant for the accuracy and correctness of the final maps. Although this topic has been occasionally approached by some authors within geodiversity assessments, there is no formal procedure for cell size selection. This is a key issue, and, in the scope of the present work, an empirical procedure to select optimal cell size(s) was tested on the national scale in Portugal, in lithology and geomorphology datasets. The quantitative method based on geodiversity indices was applied, using richness, diversity and evenness indices, in a hexagonal analytical grid, through eight cell dimensions. Several descriptive statistical parameters were analyzed, with particular emphasis on dispersion statistical measures. Optimal cell size corresponded to the minimum cell size, once dispersion values were significatively reduced or stabilized, and distributions from evenness and diversity indices were closer to symmetry, which provided more accurate results and higher spatial differentiation, although the final decision should always consider the main purposes of the analysis.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060065
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 66: Carbon-Energy Impact Analysis of Heavy
           Residue Gasification Plant Integration into Oil Refinery

    • Authors: Slavomír Podolský, Miroslav Variny, Tomáš Kurák
      First page: 66
      Abstract: A gasification plant may partially replace an industrial thermal plant and hydrogen production plant by polygenerating valuable products (hydrogen, power, steam) from low-value materials. Carbon energy analysis is one way of conceptually evaluating such processes. In this paper, the integration of a heavy residue (HR) gasification plant into a mid-size oil refinery (5 million t per year crude processing rate) is conceptually assessed via the comparison of electricity, natural gas and heavy residue consumption, and CO2 emissions. The main purpose of the integration is to reduce the consumption of natural gas currently used for hydrogen production at the expense of increased HR consumption and to achieve a reduction in CO2 emissions. Two case studies with different modes of operation were compared to base case showing that annual reduction of 2280 GWh in natural gas consumption with constant heat and hydrogen production is possible, accompanied with a slight increase in electricity purchase by 28 GWh per year. HR processing in the refinery increases by over 2800 GWh per year. The refinery’s CO2 emissions increase by more than 20% (up to 350 kt per year) as a result, while, after incorporating external emissions into the balance, a decrease of more than 460 kt CO2 per year can be achieved. This confirms that the integration of gasification plants within industrial enterprises and clusters has a positive environmental and energy impact and supports the idea of converting low-value material to more valuable products in polygeneration plants. The economics of HR gasifier integration in varying operations under real refinery conditions remain to be explored.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060066
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 67: Microplastic Pollution in Terrestrial
           Ecosystems and Its Interaction with Other Soil Pollutants: A Potential
           Threat to Soil Ecosystem Sustainability

    • Authors: Meera Rai, Gaurav Pant, Kumud Pant, Becky N. Aloo, Gaurav Kumar, Harikesh Bahadur Singh, Vishal Tripathi
      First page: 67
      Abstract: The production and disposal of plastics have become significant concerns for the sustainability of the planet. During the past 75 years, around 80% of plastic waste has either ended up in landfills or been released into the environment. Plastic debris released into the environment breaks down into smaller particles through fragmentation, weathering, and other disintegration processes, generating microplastics (plastic particles ≤ 5 mm in size). Although marine and aquatic ecosystems have been the primary focus of microplastic pollution research, a growing body of evidence suggests that terrestrial ecosystems are equally at risk. Microplastic contamination has been reported in various terrestrial environments from several sources such as plastics mulch, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, tire abrasions (tire wear particles), textiles industries (microfibers), sewage sludge, and plastic dumping. Recent studies suggest that the soil has become a significant sink for pollutants released into terrestrial ecosystems and is often contaminated with a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants. This has gradually caused adverse impacts on soil health and fertility by affecting soil pH, porosity, water-holding capacity, and soil microbial enzymatic activities. Microplastics can interact with the co-existing pollutants of the environments by adsorbing the contaminants onto their surfaces through various intermolecular forces, including electrostatic, hydrophobic, non-covalent, partition effects, van der Waals forces, and microporous filling mechanisms. This subsequently delays the degradation process of existing contaminants, thereby affecting the soil and various ecological activities of the ecosystem. Thus, the present article aims to elucidate the deleterious impact of microplastics and their interactions with other pollutants in the terrestrial ecosystem. This review also addresses the impact of microplastics in disrupting the soil sustainability of the planet.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060067
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 68: A Review of Critical Element Concentrations
           in High Enthalpy Geothermal Fluids in New Zealand

    • Authors: Lucjan Sajkowski, Rose Turnbull, Karyne Rogers
      First page: 68
      Abstract: This review compiles publicly available datasets describing the chemical composition of geothermal fluids from eight wells in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) and Ngāwhā, New Zealand. Our review allows previously reported geothermal reservoir water compositions at various locations around the TVZ (and Ngāwhā) to be assessed and compared for the first time. The combined data present a new perspective on potential critical elements of geothermal resources and will be a valuable tool for future research projects and investment opportunities. Composition data were used to estimate the annual flux of different elements in New Zealand geothermal systems. Several elements found in New Zealand geothermal fluids are currently considered ‘critical’ for the transition to a carbon-neutral economy and are present in economically extractable quantities. We estimate that each year, approximately 1100 tons of lithium pass as heat exchange fluids through Wairakei geothermal power station. An overview of the critical elemental capture and extractive potential from New Zealand’s geothermal fields is provided.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060068
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 69: Quality Assessment and Classification of
           Feedstock for Bioenergy Applications Considering ISO 17225 Standard on
           Solid Biofuels

    • Authors: Giuseppe Toscano, Carmine De Francesco, Thomas Gasperini, Sara Fabrizi, Daniele Duca, Alessio Ilari
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Biomass materials play a key role in the renewable energy market as they can serve as a suitable alternative to fossil fuels. However, the quality of the material entering bioenergy plants is often a cause of technical concern. Biomass quality assessment is crucial not only for energy characterization but also for environmental and operational aspects. The goal of this study is to characterize and classify the biomasses used by Italian power plants with reference to the quality classes stated by the ISO standard 17225:2021. A further objective is to verify the ability of the standard to classify heterogeneous and specific biomasses. In this study, more than 900 biomass samples were analyzed. The samples were collected from several Italian power plants with >5 MWe between 2010 and 2020, and the most important physical and chemical parameters were analyzed according to the international standards of reference. The results of the analyses were collected in a large dataset used for subsequent statistical analyses. Statistical analyses applied are Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation maps, which showed that the ash content is a fundamental and ideal parameter to assess the biomass quality. Results obtained demonstrate that herbaceous biomasses are of low quality mainly due to the high ash content; a relatively low ash content was found for woody biomasses.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060069
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 70: Everyday Energy Information Literacy and
           Attitudes towards Energy-Related Decisions: Gender Differences among Finns

    • Authors: Teija Keränen, Heidi Enwald
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Many household-level decisions are made in families and, in studies, gender has been found to be an important factor affecting both household energy consumption behavior and household-level decisions related to energy use. This article scrutinizes everyday energy information literacy (EEIL) based on qualitative data collected from Finnish households in 2018 and reflects the findings by the gender differences that emerged from the quantitative analysis. The data (n = 415) included Finnish households (n = 323) and the residents of Ii municipality (n = 92), a pioneering municipality striving for carbon neutrality. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the dimensions of EEIL. Scrutinizing the qualitative data revealed the nuances of the differences. The qualitative data brought depth to the analysis by deciphering examples of respondents’ views and perceived challenges in improving energy efficiency at home. The examples also illustrate the respondents’ need for energy counselling and trusted parties from whom they hope information and advice. The article provides new information on gender differences in EEIL. Gaining more information on different groups and their attitudes, capabilities, and preferences helps to achieve carbon neutrality targets as a society. The results may be utilized in tailored communication for specific target groups and in communities’ decision making and policies.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060070
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 71: A New Geosite as a Contribution to the
           Sustainable Development of Urban Geotourism in a Tourist Peripheral
           Region—Central Poland

    • Authors: Maria Górska-Zabielska
      First page: 71
      Abstract: The article presents a new geosite in a small provincial town in central Poland. It contains twelve Scandinavian erratic boulders from the area, deposited by the Pleistocene ice sheet about 130,000 years ago. The geotrail is equipped with three informative boards, a folder, and each boulder has its own identifier. The article also draws attention to petrographic types and types of erratic boulders among the collected boulders. Their basic dimensions, age, and source area are given. Specific features of rock morphology are discussed. Records of sub/inglacial processes, periglacial processes affecting the forefield of the melting ice sheet, and contemporary morphogenetic processes are also analyzed. The recipient/beneficiary of such information can be anyone who is sensitive to the beauty of abiotic nature, feels heir to the geological past of his region, or wants to broaden his horizons with knowledge from the ice age. The recognized and disseminated heritage of abiotic objects in nature through the transfer of expert knowledge has great potential to become an effective generator of sustainable socio-economic development of peripheral tourist areas. The paper presents in detail expert knowledge and specific examples of improving the quality of life with the creation of this geosite. The tool to be used here is geotourism; it deals with the study of geodiversity and the development of elements of abiotic nature to perform tourist functions in accordance with the principles of nature protection. It protects the geological heritage by effectively securing geosites, widely disseminating geological sciences, and promoting their educational and tourist functions.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060071
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 72: Sustainable Valorisation of Peach and
           Apricot Waste Using Green Extraction Technique with Conventional and Deep
           Eutectic Solvents

    • Authors: Marina Stramarkou, Vasiliki Oikonomopoulou, Margarita Panagiotopoulou, Sofia Papadaki, Magdalini Krokida
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Worldwide, fruit processing industries reject high volumes of fruit waste, which represent rich sources of phenolic compounds and can be valorised through extraction, and then be reused for food, nutraceutical or cosmetic applications. In the present work, the optimisation of the recovery of phenolic compounds from apricot kernels and pulp, as well as peach pulp, through the green method of ultrasound and microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) is performed. Prior to extraction, a drying step of the pulps is conducted using freeze, vacuum and hot air drying. Except for the conventional extraction solvents of water and ethanol:water, a deep eutectic solvent (DES) formed by choline chloride/urea, and a natural deep eutectic solvent (NaDES) from choline chloride with lactic acid, are used, something that presentsecological benefits. With the aim of discovering the optimum extraction conditions, different values of the parameters of extraction time, utrasonic power and solvent/dry solid ratio are examined, and a mathematical model is developed to correlate them to the extraction yield (EY). The phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity are determined through UV-Vis spectroscopy and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results of the study demonstrated that the most effective solvent in the extraction of apricot kernels is ethanol: water; DES is more efficient in the extraction of apricot pulp and NaDES in the extraction of peach pulps, reaching EYs of 25.65, 26.83 and 17.13%, respectively. In conclusion, both types of fruit waste are proved to have a significant content of valuable compounds, and the use of DES in fruit by-product extraction is effective and seems to be a promising alternative. Thus, the unexploited amounts of waste can be valorised through simple techniques and innovative solvents.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060072
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 73: Public Administration and Landowners Facing
           Real Estate Cadastre Modernization: A Win-Lose or Win-Win Situation'

    • Authors: Malgorzata Busko, Michal Apollo
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Keeping the real estate cadastre’s database up to date is a very important process. The scope of the modernization works includes, among other things, fieldwork and office (chamber) work carried out by surveyors to update information about land and buildings. Therefore, modernization may result in changes to plot areas; changes to the marking of plots and land use (and, consequently, a change in the property tax); and the disclosure or deletion of buildings and premises, as well as changes to their technical data. The research, based on a case study (rural municipality Serniki, Poland), and supported by a literature review, remote sensing, and digital photogrammetry, clearly showed the importance of initiating the cadastre modernization procedure and obtaining funds for this purpose, which will be beneficial for both parties. Landowners will gain by bringing the current image of their real estate closer to the actual state (e.g., by paying taxes for the real utility of the land), while administrative units will become the beneficiaries of higher tax revenues (up to over 500%). Thus, the analysis carried out on the case study shows positive effects for both parties, and justifies the financial outlay incurred by the administrative units for this process. Moreover, the analysis revealed that, due to the possibility of obtaining funding from other sources, the cost to the public administration may be marginal. Thus, the cadastre modernization procedure should be integrated into regional and national policies.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12060073
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 54: The Time-Varying Effects of Oil Shocks on
           the Trade Balance of Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Mohamad Husam Helmi, Mohammed I. Abu Eleyan, Abdurrahman Nazif Çatık, Esra Ballı
      First page: 54
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze the impact of oil shocks on the external balance of Saudi Arabia, as one of the largest net oil-exporting countries. To this end, a time-varying parameter vector autoregression model (TVP-VAR) is estimated by using quarterly data covering the period between 1991: Q1 and 2021: Q4. We find that identifying the source of shocks plays an important role in understanding the time-varying impact of shocks on its economy. Our findings indicate that the global oil production shocks excluding Saudi Arabia have a negative and significant impact on the trade balance and are greater than the impact of the Saudi oil production shocks, which is not significant for most of the period. In addition, we found that oil price shocks have more profound and much greater impacts than global and domestic oil supply shocks. This may be attributed to the fact that oil price shocks are more than oil supply shocks, and supply shocks are linked to oil price shocks. However, impulse responses show that the effects of oil shocks are volatile over time and their effects are generally more pronounced during and immediately after global shocks. Our findings have serious implications for the trade balance of Saudi Arabia, particularly in the low and volatile oil price environment.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12050054
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 55: New Lime-Based Hybrid Composite of Sugarcane
           Bagasse and Hemp as Aggregates

    • Authors: Arlen Zúniga, Rute Eires, Raphaele Malheiro
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Bio-based materials help reduce the consumption of non-renewable resources, contributing to the development of sustainable construction. Industrial Hemp Concrete (IHC), which uses hemp stalk (HS) as an aggregate and a lime-based binder, is a bio-based material with various applications. This research developed a new hybrid composite in order to improve the mechanical strength and durability of hemp concrete, with the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as an aggregate, a resource of a renewable origin that is abundant in several countries. Different formulations were used, which were molded and pressed manually, evaluating their cohesion and compactness. The performance of the developed hybrid composite was measured considering mechanical, thermal, and durability properties. The compression test results showed an increase of 19–24% for composites with 75% hemp and 25% SCB. Thermal conductivity and thermal resistance coefficients were also improved, reaching 0.098 (W/m °C) and 0.489 (m2 °C/W), respectively. This aggregate combination also showed the lowest water absorption coefficient (reducing by 35%) and the best performance in durability tests compared to IHC. The resistance to freeze–thaw is highlighted, increasing 400%. The main reason is the influence of the SCB addition because the short and thin fiber form helps to maintain the physical integrity of the composite by filling the spaces between the hemp aggregates.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12050055
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 56: Strengthening Reclamation Obligation through
           Mining Law Reform: Indonesian Experience

    • Authors: Nurul Listiyani, M. Yasir Said, Afif Khalid
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Reclamation can produce more value for the environment and create a far better situation than post-mining conditions. While the reclamation obligation policy is a great way to introduce a restorative approach to the environment, the main problem is the disobedience of the mining companies in their reclamation obligation. Therefore, we focused on conceptualizing the strengthening of the reclamation obligation policy in the Mining Act based on the understanding of preventing environmental and social damage. This research is conducted in doctrinal legal studies to create a prescriptive result. Despite the 2020 Mining Act Revision, Indonesia is still facing the previous legal issue due to blind spots in the regulatory framework. Ranging from the continuous conflicts between the mining company and the local community to the problem of non-compliance with the reclamation policy, which has resulted in excavation holes that were left untreated and abandoned, which has created casualties over the years. We offer two major reforms in formulation to strengthen the reclamation obligation. First, is the need to reinforce the essence of “obligation” for IUP and IUPK holders to perform reclamation and post-mining with supervision, as in the Environmental Act. With this formulation, the placement of the reclamation fund by the company does not eliminate the company’s obligation to carry out reclamation and post-mining activities. Second, for the company to comply with placing reclamation and post-mining funds, it is crucial to implement a mandatory condition, whereby the placing of a reclamation guarantees fund is a requirement for approval of the mining plans and budgets (the RKAB), and Clean and Clear (CnC) Certification. Therefore, the reform will cause a shift and strengthen the values of obligation in post-mining reclamations.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12050056
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 57: Economic Activities and Management Issues
           for the Environment: An Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) and STIRPAT
           Analysis in Turkey

    • Authors: Mortaza Ojaghlou, Erginbay Ugurlu, Marta Kadłubek, Eleftherios Thalassinos
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The emission of air pollutants from energy production and consumption is a major cause of environmental problems. In addition, urbanisation and CO2 emissions have become major environmental concerns that are closely related to climate change and sustainable economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the long-run relationship among CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic activities, and management issues for Turkey for the period between 1980 and 2021. The STIRPAT hypothesis and the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis were employed by using dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) and ARDL bound methodologies for these goals. The findings indicate that there is a long-run relationship between variables of the STIRPAT model. The coefficient of economic expansion and energy consumption affected CO2 emissions positively, which means that energy consumption and the expansion of economic activity have significant effects on environmental degradation. Those results are also confirmed by the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model. In addition, the N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is developed for Turkey. The DCC model also shows that economic growth increases CO2 emissions significantly, and energy productivity can be considered for decreasing CO2 emissions.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12050057
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 58: Contribution of Landscape Transformation in
           the Development of Heat Islands and Sinks in Urban and Peri-Urban Regions
           in the Chota–Nagpur Plateau, India

    • Authors: Amit Kumar, Manjari Upreti, Arvind Chandra Pandey, Purabi Saikia, Mohammed Latif Khan
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Cities in the contemporary world are experiencing shifts in local climatic conditions that are primarily linked to rapid urban growth, carbon emissions, and environmental degradation. In the present study, land surface temperature (LST) in urban and peri-urban regions of the city of Ranchi was estimated and correlated with land use/land cover (LULC) using temporal LANDSAT satellite images from 2000 to 2014 on a bi-annual basis. The study exhibited a gradual increase in built-up land with total growth of 47.65 sq. km (135%) at the cost of vegetation (−6.8%), rock outcrops (−44.16%), and other LULCs (0.81%). Spatiotemporal LST variability exhibited an increase in area under high-temperature (>38 °C) zones as compared to moderate (30 °C to 38 °C) and low-temperature (<30 °C) zones. Although the LST distinctively escalated in all LULC in the month of May from 2000 to 2014, urban areas exhibited cooler conditions than their environs at a regional scale, except for 2006. A higher surface temperature was observed over bare rock (min/max: 28–43 °C), fallow land (25–42 °C), and industrial built-up areas (31–43 °C), followed by vegetation (24–34 °C) and waterbodies (22–30 °C). The rapid land transformation to an impervious surface, degradation of vegetation coverage and its health, deforestation due to urbanization, the dumping of non-treated wastewater into reservoirs, and pollution altogether led to an increase in urban heat islands (UHI). The study demonstrated that the LST increased in urban regions but appeared cooler than those of its peri-urban counterparts because of the presence of barren land and rock outcrops. The existing tenancy act had an indirect impact on maintaining natural landscapes and controlling the LST within the Ranchi region. The study recommends nature-based solutions in terms of plantation and green roofing within the rising LST zones located in the urban core and in peripheral rock outcrops collectively to minimize the rising impact of LST in urban and peri-urban regions.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12050058
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 59: Quantifying Geodiversity at the Continental
           Scale: Limitations and Prospects

    • Authors: Paweł Wolniewicz
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Geodiversity, defined as the natural range of geological, geomorphological, hydrological, and soil features, has been explored in a growing number of studies at different spatial scales. However, most research efforts have been directed at analysing geodiversity at a fine-scale. Here, an estimation of the geodiversity of the European subcontinent is performed using six available high-resolution global data sets that describe the diversity of selected features of the abiotic environment. Six maps representing geomorphological, geological, hydrological, hydrogeological, soil, and topographical diversity are compiled using the methods of centroid analysis and kernel density estimation. The present contribution identifies areas with high values of most geodiversity variables which were not previously studied, nor are included in the network of international geoparks. The study also shows that, although remote sensing images and digital elevation models allow one to grasp a significant understanding of geodiversity on the continental scale, fine-resolution and process-oriented geological data sets are required to further enhance the quality of large-scale geodiversity assessments. To ensure interoperability between studies, a consensus is necessary regarding the analytical methods, classification rules, standardised indices and dictionaries. Without this, comparisons of geodiversity evaluations across different scales and between distant study areas remain difficult.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12050059
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 60: Integration of Water Quantity/Quality Needs
           with Socio-Economical Issues: A Focus on Monitoring and Modelling

    • Authors: Diego Copetti
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Freshwater is essential for a multitude of different uses, including drinking supply, irrigation, and energy production [...]
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12050060
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 61: Promoting Geosites on Web-Pages: An
           Assessment of the Quality and Quantity of Information in Real Cases

    • Authors: Anna V. Mikhailenko, Svetlana O. Zorina, Natalia N. Yashalova, Dmitry A. Ruban
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Geological information present on web-pages determines the efficacy of the online marketing of geosites. In this paper, a new approach aimed at an easy and quick assessment of geosite-focused web-pages is proposed. It is based on scoring by several criteria reflecting the quality and the quantity of geological information. Attention is paid to the simplicity and correctness of information, mention of technical properties (accessibility, location, and safety), relative and absolute amounts of information, and adaptation to persons with disabilities. Textual and graphical elements are considered differently. The approach is tested in three cases, namely, the Granite Gorge in the Western Caucasus, Pechischi in the Volga Region, and the Red Stones in the Southern Ciscaucasus. These are well-known geosites already used as important (geo)tourist attractions. It is established that the web-pages devoted to them chiefly allow minimally perfect promotion. Some examples of misinterpretations of geological information and errors are specially considered. The approach seems to be promising, and its application allows finding the deficiencies of web-pages, an improvement of which will enhance geosite promotion. Cooperation between representatives of the tourism industry and geological faculty members of local universities or administrations of protected areas is reasonable to create more informative geosite-focused web-pages.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12050061
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 43: Experimental Study of District Heating
           Substations in a Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Rig

    • Authors: Anna Vannahme, Jonas Busch, Mathias Ehrenwirth, Tobias Schrag
      First page: 43
      Abstract: This study compares two district heating substation systems for implementation in rural district heating networks with non-retrofitted single- and two-family houses. The aim is to determine which system has the potential to provide lower return temperatures and/or lower power peak demand. A hardware-in-the-loop-test rig was utilized to measure the two district heating substations under real operation conditions. This experimental study demonstrates that load balancing of the district heating network is attainable with the district heating substation with storage. This is especially advantageous when there is a high demand for domestic hot water. Overall, both systems yield comparable return temperatures.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040043
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 44: Collecting Rocks on the Frontier:
           Investigating the Geodiversity Significance of Historical Building Stones
           and Rock Collecting at the Maxey Homestead, Northwest Texas, USA

    • Authors: Stance Hurst, Doug Cunningham, Eileen Johnson
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The geoheritage importance of the stones used in the construction of buildings in urban landscapes has been documented by several scholars around the world. Building stones can provide an ex situ cross-section of a region’s geodiversity and illuminate its cultural significance. Research at the historic Maxey Homestead (1902–1907), located along the eastern escarpment of the Southern High Plains near Post, Texas, has uncovered a rock collection gathered from local sources. In addition, rocks from the eastern escarpment were used to construct and decorate a house in 1938 (~9 km to the north) after the Maxeys moved from their original homestead. A combination of GIS and 3D mapping using an unmanned aerial vehicle were used to assess and analyze the geodiversity significance of the rock collection and rock-decorated house. Rock collecting and the use of local stones in building construction provide insights into the geodiversity of the Southern High Plains’ eastern escarpment and the historical geoheritage of northwest Texas in the early 20th century. The results of this study also demonstrate the importance of examining non-urban and historical landscapes for elucidating the significance of geodiversity to past peoples.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040044
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 45: Automotive Paint Sludge: A Review of
           Pretreatments and Recovery Options

    • Authors: Barbara Ruffino, Giuseppe Campo, Siti Shawalliah Idris, Güray Salihoğlu, Mariachiara Zanetti
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Automotive paint sludge (PS) is the waste product generated in the painting process of vehicle bodies. Although automotive spray painting is an automated operation, its efficiency is still quite low, since approximately 40–50% of the employed paint does not reach the target and, after being mixed with the collecting water, becomes PS. PS is a very complex material that contains several organic and inorganic components, in addition to 90% water immediately after production. Italian automotive factories produce from 2.5 to 5.0 kg of PS per painted car. If that figure is related to the number of vehicles produced worldwide every year, in the order of 100 million, it determines an annual PS amount in the order of 200,000–500,000 t. Consequently, a proper final destination for PS must be found. The waste management hierarchy and the principles of the circular economy require that we privilege solutions that foresee the recovery of valuable products or energy. This paper first reviews the processes and the machines that have been recently developed to obtain an enhanced mechanical dewatering of PS. The pretreatment of PS dewatering is often crucial in order to obtain high efficiency in the subsequent recovery process. Afterwards, the paper presents and discusses the recovery options that have been proposed and tested, at different scales, by several authors in the last thirty years. The processes for PS management can be grouped as follows: (i) direct employment of physically/chemically treated PS in the production of primers and sealants; (ii) utilization of PS for the production of building materials, as supplementary components of cement concrete, mortar, or bituminous mixtures; (iii) extraction of valuable organic and inorganic products by using thermal processes (pyrolysis, gasification); (iv) biological processes for PS detoxification, metal recovery, and stabilization before landfilling.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040045
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 46: Use of a Convolutional Neural Network for
           Predicting Fuel Consumption of an Agricultural Tractor

    • Authors: Hamid Jalilnezhad, Yousef Abbaspour-Gilandeh, Vali Rasooli-Sharabiani, Aref Mardani, José Luis Hernández-Hernández, José Antonio Montero-Valverde, Mario Hernández-Hernández
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The energy crisis and depleting fossil fuel resources have always been the focus of researchers. Fuel consumption of agricultural tractors is not an exception. Researchers have used different methods to predict fuel consumption. With the development of artificial intelligence in the last decade, all re-searchers’ attention has been directed towards it. Deep learning is a subset of machine learning, which was inspired by the data processing patterns in the human brain. The deep learning method has been used in research due to the advantages of high accuracy and generalization. So far, no research has used this method to predict fuel consumption. In this research, field experiments were carried out in sandy clay loam and clay soils to model the temporal fuel consumption and specific fuel consumption of an agricultural tractor using a convolutional neural network (CNN), while having some parameters such as the soil type, soil conditions, tool parameters, and operation pa-rameters. The experiments were conducted within each soil texture in a factorial manner based on the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. For each soil texture, various moisture levels (8–17% for dry and 18–40% for moist soils), tractor forward speeds (1.2, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.2 km h−1), working depths (30 and 50 cm), the number of passes (2 and 6), and tire inflation pressure (20 and 25 psi) were selected, and cone index, dynamic load, and moisture content were measured in each experimental section. The designed networks used to predict the instant fuel consumption were of a CNN type. The results indicated that the network developed based on the Sgdm algorithm outperformed the others, and thus it was selected for modeling purposes. The network was evaluated based on R2 and MSE criteria. For the temporal fuel consumption, the best results were obtained while using 8-510-510-1 architecture with R2 = 0.9729 and MSE = 0.0049. The 8-100-95-1 architecture also led to the best prediction of the specific fuel consumption with R2 of 0.9737 and MSE of 0.0054. The high prediction accuracy and low error in this research compared to previous studies indicate the superiority of this method in order to predict fuel consumption. It was also observed from the results that the input parameters, which include soil, tool, and operational parameters, are all effective on fuel consumption. Proper management of some parameters, such as working depth, tire inflation pressure, and forward speed, can help to optimize fuel consumption.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040046
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 47: Hydrochemical Indicator Analysis of Seawater
           Intrusion into Coastal Aquifers of Semiarid Areas

    • Authors: Jobst Wurl, Miguel Angel Imaz-Lamadrid, Lía Celina Mendez-Rodriguez, Pablo Hernández-Morales
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Saltwater intrusion into groundwater systems is a problem worldwide and is induced mainly by human activities, such as groundwater overexploitation and climate change. The coastal Los Planes aquifer in the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula (Mexico) is affected by seawater intrusion due to more than 40 years of groundwater overexploitation. A dataset of 55 samples was compiled, including 18 samples from our campaigns between 2014 and 2016. Several methods exist to define the impact of seawater in a coastal aquifer, such as the “seawater fraction”, the “Chloro-Alkaline Indices”, the “Hydrochemical Facies Evolution Diagram”, and the “Saltwater Mixing Index”. These methods provide reasonable results for most of the coastal zone of the Los Planes aquifer. A slight increase in mineralization was observed from 2014 to 2016 compared with the situation in 2003. However, in its northwestern part, samples from hydrothermal wells were not recognized by these methods. Here, the aquifer is affected mainly by thermal water with elevated mineralization, introduced through the El Sargento fault, a main fault, which cuts through the study area in the north–south direction. By considering known hydrothermal manifestations in the interpretation, samples could be classified as a combination of four end-members: fresh groundwater, seawater, and the composition of two types of thermal water. One thermal endmember with very low mineralization coincides with the thermal water described from the Los Cabos Block, where meteoric water represents the source (found in the Sierra la Laguna). The second endmember is comparable to coastal thermal manifestations where seawater represents the main source. Therefore, the higher mineralization in the northwestern zone is the result of the mobilization of thermal groundwater and direct mixing with seawater, which is introduced locally at the coast due to overextraction. This finding is important for future management strategies of the aquifer.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040047
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 48: Evaluation of Sourcing Decision for Hydrogen
           Supply Chain Using an Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA)

    • Authors: Kasin Ransikarbum, Wattana Chanthakhot, Tony Glimm, Jettarat Janmontree
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The use of fossil fuels has caused many environmental issues, including greenhouse gas emissions and associated climate change. Several studies have focused on mitigating this problem. One dynamic direction for emerging sources of future renewable energy is the use of hydrogen energy. In this research, we evaluate the sourcing decision for a hydrogen supply chain in the context of a case study in Thailand using group decision making analysis for policy implications. We use an integrative multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tool which includes an analytic hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy AHP (FAHP), and data envelopment analysis (DEA) to analyze weighted criteria and sourcing alternatives using data collected from a group of selected experts. A list of criteria related to sustainability paradigms and sourcing decisions for possible use of hydrogen energy, including natural gas, coal, biomass, and water, are evaluated. Our results reveal that political acceptance is considered the most important criterion with a global weight of 0.514 in the context of Thailand. Additionally, natural gas is found to be the foreseeable source for hydrogen production in Thailand with a global weight of 0.313. We also note that the analysis is based on specific data inputs and that an alternative with a lower score does not imply that the source is not worth exploring.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040048
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 49: Assessment of Virtual Water Flows in
           Morocco’s Foreign Trade of Crop Products

    • Authors: Abdeslam Boudhar, Said Boudhar, Mohamed Oudgou, Aomar Ibourk
      First page: 49
      Abstract: As a semi-arid/arid country located in the northwest of Africa, Morocco is facing serious water scarcity driven by the dual stresses of decreasing availability of water resources and increasing water demands. Virtual water trade could be an effective tool to alleviate water scarcity. The paper presents an analysis of the relationships between agrarian productions, foreign trade, and the water sector in Morocco by deriving a comprehensive estimate of virtual water export and import in Morocco’s foreign trade of 40 crop products during the period from 2000 to 2017. Our objectives include determining the intensity of water consumption of exported and imported crop products and quantifying the water consumed and saved, respectively, by locally producing and importing these products. To this end, FAO’s Penman-Monteith climate model was used to estimate crop water requirements based on data on meteorological factors. The results show that Morocco was a net virtual water importer during the study period. The deficit was 595.74 Gm3. The tendency of total virtual water export was on a rising trend, while the total virtual water import was on a downward trend. The main exported virtual water was from vegetables (68.87 Gm3, 72.47%) and the main imported virtual water was from cereals (679.68 Gm3, 98.4%). Regarding crop product’s water intensity, we found that the exported crop products were excessively concentrated on water-intensive products such as mandarins and clementines, figs, oranges, apricots, plums, citrus fruits, olives, tomatoes, asparagus, peas, and artichokes. On the other hand, the agricultural policy of 2009–2020 increased the production of water-intensive products. This finding seems to be going against the virtual water trade theory, which states that water-poor countries should import water-intensive products and produce local products with lower water requirements.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040049
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 50: Modern Technologies Providing a Full Cycle
           of Geo-Resources Development

    • Authors: Cheynesh B. Kongar-Syuryun, Alexander V. Aleksakhin, Evgeniya N. Eliseeva, Anna V. Zhaglovskaya, Roman V. Klyuev, Denis A. Petrusevich
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Resource-dependent countries and economies are found to be particularly sensitive to global shocks. A unifying parallel is drawn between resource-dependent countries and regions with depleted mineral resources. The objective factors of losses of accessed reserves are analyzed. A unifying parallel is drawn between sub-standard ores and industrial waste. The paper proposes shifting geotechnology development from simple mineral extraction towards technologies that provide a full cycle of geo-resources development. A radical way of ensuring a full cycle of geo-resources development is the involvement of sub-standard ores and industrial waste in a closed processing cycle. The utilization of industrial waste without a valuable component extracting or reducing a harmful component to a background value is palliative. A comparative description of various technologies that allow extracting valuable components from sub-standard ores and industrial waste is made. The paper proposes a variant of chemical–physical technology that makes it possible to extract a valuable component from industrial waste to a minimum value. The activation of industrial waste with a disintegrator before a chemical extraction significantly increases the yield of a valuable component from 2.6 to 218.5%. A differentiated approach is needed regarding the choice of leaching solution, its percentage, as well as the leaching method and the need for activation processing of valuable components and industrial ones. The combined highly efficient physical–chemical and physical–technical technologies will ensure the maximum extraction of the valuable component from 52.6 to 98.8% in the full cycle of natural and industrial geo-resources development.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040050
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 51: Flotation Recovery of Sphalerite in Sea
           Water: A Feasibility Study

    • Authors: Alexander A. Nikolaev
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Mining and mineral processing industry adversely affects ecosystems and communities in nearby areas, including high freshwater consumption and scarcity. That is why the emerging global trend is to use sea water in flotation to recover valuable minerals from finely disseminated base metals ores. Recent studies investigate sea water flotation of copper, molybdenum, nickel sulphides and pyrite, while flotation of sphalerite, the main valuable mineral for zinc production, remains uncovered. This paper examines the feasibility of sphalerite flotation by conventional collectors in artificial sea water using a bubble-particles technique and frothless flotation tests. Potassium isopropyl xanthate (PIPX) and sodium isopropyl dithiophosphate (SIDTP) were used as collectors, and copper sulphate was introduced as the activator, while zinc sulphate and sodium sulphide were used as depressants. We examined the most common size fractions of sphalerite: medium (−74 + 44 μm) and fines (−44 μm). The findings showed the feasibility of sphalerite flotation in artificial sea water. We also established correlations between the rate of bubble-particle attachment and the sphalerite flotation recovery resulting in the growth of flotation recovery with the increase of the bubble-particle attachment rate. The results can be used as guidelines in choosing flotation reagents for sphalerite flotation in sea water. Another practical application of the results is the potential for sustainable development of the industrial sector, ecosystems and societies due to the replacement of fresh water by sea water, although further technological and environmental studies are required.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040051
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 52: Human Capital and Environmental
           Sustainability Nexus in Selected SADC Countries

    • Authors: Kin Sibanda, Dorcas Gonese, Rufaro Garidzirai
      First page: 52
      Abstract: This paper sought to examine the nexus between human capital and environmental sustainability in Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries. This contemporary topic has not received much attention in the region, hence the need to investigate the nexus between human capital and environmental sustainability. The paper used one of the most recent methodologies, namely, the pooled mean group (PMG) estimation technique, to assess this relationship from 1980 to 2021. The findings of the study are that human capital increases environmental sustainability in the long run in SADC countries. This implies that as human capital increases, countries will see an increase in technological innovations and research and development (R&D), enabling the mitigation of environmental degradation in the region. Therefore, it is imperative for the region to embark on human capital programs that improve environmental sustainability.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040052
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 53: System Dynamics Modelling: Integrating Empty
           Fruit Bunch Biomass Logistics to Reduce GHG Emissions

    • Authors: Iffat Abbas Abbasi, Hasbullah Ashari, Ijaz Yusuf
      First page: 53
      Abstract: The world is shifting toward renewable energy sources due to global warming and rising GHG emissions. Malaysia has joined other nations in the conference of parties to develop policies for the reduction of GHG and carbon emissions. Malaysia is switching towards sustainable, eco-friendly and renewable energy sources. EFB biomass, one of the by-products of palm oil, has enormous potential as a sustainable energy source. Malaysia, one of the top exporters of palm oil, is unable to employ EFB-biomass-based power generation due to storage, logistics and supply-chain-related constraints. Therefore, this study integrates EFB biomass supply-chain logistics to overcome the reported challenges. The current study employs the system dynamics (SD) approach to achieve the objectives as it explains the dynamics of interaction and behaviour among the sub-systems. A document-based model-building approach is employed to collect data to develop the base model. The document-based model-building approach and system dynamics modelling facilitates the achievement of two outcomes: integrated EFB biomass logistics and GHG reduction using EFB. These outcomes are crucial to enhancing the base model and realizing the zero-carbon emission goal to contribute to sustainable development goals.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12040053
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 4 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 42: What Role Does Sustainable Behavior and
           Environmental Awareness from Civil Society Play in the Planet’s
           Sustainable Transition

    • Authors: Micaela Pinho, Sofia Gomes
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The respect of human beings for the planet’s boundaries is an obligation of humanity for the sake of our own and future generations. Achieving this planetary sustainability requires a radical change in the way humanity develops. This study aims to explore whether a sample of Portuguese civil society is committed to achieving this purpose. We explored: (i) citizens’ adherence to sustainable behaviour in terms of purchases and household practices; (ii) if environmental concerns and activism are predictors of these sustainable behaviours; and (iii) if environmental concerns influence environmental activism. A quantitative approach was used based on partial least squares. The results revealed that respondents demonstrate sustainable behaviour in consumption by avoiding plastic and looking for recyclable packaging and in housework by saving energy; environmental activism proved to be the most significant predictor of these behaviours, followed by environmental concerns. This article constitutes an opportunity to take (suggested) measures that encourage a change in the behavioural patterns of societies.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12030042
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 3 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 137: Return to Nature: Renaturisation of
           Dried-Out Lakes in Poland

    • Authors: Mariusz Ptak, Salim Heddam, Senlin Zhu, Mariusz Sojka
      First page: 137
      Abstract: Over the centuries, extensive changes have occurred in the functioning of the hydrosphere. In the case of Poland, the hydrographic network has been significantly transformed, and many of its elements have ceased to exist. The aim of this study was to investigate renaturalised lakes and to determine their original volume, which is a fundamental parameter in the context of stabilising water relationships. Based on archival cartographic materials, the locations of 15 such lakes were determined, with their volume totaling 11.7 million m3. This indicates a significant potential for renaturalised lakes in the context of increasing water resources. In the long term, the methodology adopted in this work may complement water-management efforts aimed at increasing retention and offering new ecosystem services. Such an approach is less invasive to the natural environment and more economically justified compared to new investments in artificial hydrotechnical infrastructure.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12120137
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 138: Groundwater Resources of the Transboundary
           Quaternary Aquifer of the Lake Chad Basin: Towards a Better Management via
           Isotope Hydrology

    • Authors: Fricelle Song, Bertil Nlend, Suzanne Ngo Boum-Nkot, Frederic Huneau, Gustave Nkoue Ndondo, Emilie Garel, Thomas Leydier, Helene Celle, Boris Djieugoue, Marie-Joseph Ntamak-Nida, Jacques Etame
      First page: 138
      Abstract: A multi-tracer approach has been implemented in the southwestern part of the Lake Chad Basin to depict the functioning of aquifers in terms of recharge, relationship with surface water bodies, flow paths and contamination. The results are of interest for sustainable water management in the region. The multi-layered structure of the regional aquifer was highlighted with shallower and intermediate to deep flow paths. The shallower aquifer is recharged with rainwater and interconnected with surface water. The groundwater chemistry indicates geogenic influences in addition to a strong anthropogenic fingerprint. The intermediate to deep aquifer shows a longer residence time of groundwater, less connection with the surface and no to only a little anthropogenic influence. Ambient Background Levels (ABLs) and Threshold Values (TVs) show the qualitative status of the groundwater bodies and provide helpful information for water resources protection and the implementation of new directives for efficient and more sustainable groundwater exploitation.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12120138
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 139: First Steps in Developing a Fast, Cheap,
           and Reliable Method to Distinguish Wild Mushroom and Truffle Species

    • Authors: Inês Ferreira, Teresa Dias, Juliana Melo, Abdul Mounem Mouazen, Cristina Cruz
      First page: 139
      Abstract: Wild mushrooms and truffles (MT) are important resources, which can contribute to the socioeconomic sustainability of forestry ecosystems. However, not all wild MT are edible. Fast, cheap, and reliable methods that distinguish wild MT species (including the deadly ones) can contribute to valuing these important forest resources. Here, we tested if wild MT species, and their edibility, could be distinguished based on their aroma profiles (i.e., smellprints). For that, we combined the use of the electronic nose with classification models (linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)) to distinguish between 14 wild MT species (including edible and non-edible species) collected in Portugal. The 14 wild MT species could be accurately distinguished using LDA (93% accuracy), while the edible and non-edible species could be accurately distinguished using both LDA and PLS-DA (97% and 99% accuracy, respectively). Keeping in mind that our methodological design’s feasibility was verified using a small sample, the data show the potential of the combined use of the electronic nose with discriminant analysis to distinguish wild MT species and their edibility based on their aromatic profile. Although a larger dataset will be necessary to develop a quick and reliable identification method, it shows potential to be as accurate as the identification performed by mycologists and molecular biology, yet requiring less technical training, and the analyses are cheaper and faster.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12120139
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 140: Evaluation of Scenedesmus dimorphus under
           Different Photoperiods with Eutrophicated Lagoon Water

    • Authors: Sheila Genoveva Pérez Bravo, María del Refugio Castañeda Chávez, Luciano Aguilera Vázquez, Nohra Violeta Gallardo Rivas, María Lucila Morales Rodríguez, Ulises Páramo García
      First page: 140
      Abstract: Given the need to improve bioenergy production processes, it is necessary to focus on low-cost culture media and environmental conditions of radiation and temperature. The Scenedesmus dimorphus species was cultured in eutrophicated lagoon water and Bayfolan 0.3% as culture media under four photoperiods with the objective of evaluating the biomass productivity, bioremediation capacity and influence of illumination on the composition and lipid content. It is concluded that the increase of light hours in the culture with eutrophicated lagoon water produces a decrease in the biomass productivity and COD removal percentage. The highest biomass productivity was obtained in photoperiod F1 (10.5:13.5) hours L:O, 0.053 ± 0.0015 g/L day and a removal of 95.6%. Bayfolan 0.3% with F2 (11.5:12.5) and F3 (12.5:11.5) did not show significant differences in the biomass productivity and COD removal. The increase in light hours in the photoperiod induced an increase of 1.01% and 2.84% of saturated fatty acids and 0.8% and 2.14% of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as a decrease of 3.85% and 2.88% of polyunsaturated fatty acids in eutrophicated lagoon water and Bayfolan 0.3%, respectively.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12120140
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 141: An Approach for the Control of
           Caenorhabditis elegans N2 via the Regulation of Growth Conditions and
           Pleurotus ostreatus Po4

    • Authors: Oleksandr Tashyrev, Vira Hovorukha, Paweł Kudrys, Natalia Khokhlenkova, Ewa Moliszewska
      First page: 141
      Abstract: Food resources are essential for the survival and growth of the population. Soil phytopathogenic nematodes cause great damage to agricultural crops, endangering food supplies and resources in general. Different methods have been used to control them. However, this issue still requires a more effective solution. Caenorhabditis elegans (CGC strain wild-type N2) was applied as a model with an Escherichia coli OP50 feeding substrate for nematodes. Our approach was based on the thermodynamically substantiated creation of growth conditions that are unfavorable for nematodes to suppress them irreversibly. The thermodynamic calculations showed that obligate anaerobic conditions, namely the absence of oxygen and a low redox potential (−100 mV and below), were potentially unacceptable for nematodes. Anaerobic conditions were created using both abiogenic (physicochemical) and biological methods. Abiogenic anaerobic conditions were achieved by preventing oxygen access and adding low-potential sodium sulfide (Eh = −250...−200 mV) to the cultivation medium. By applying biological methods, Pleurotus ostreatus Po4 and E. coli O2 was completely removed and the redox potential was decreased from +100…+200 mV to −100...−200 mV (in particular, due to the synthesis of H2S). Even the short-term exposure (1–2 days) of nematodes under anaerobic conditions led to their suppression and death. Thus, the short-term creation of anaerobic conditions in the soil may be an effective method to control, e.g., phytopathogenic aerobic nematodes. This research contributes to the development of foundations to preserve agricultural plants and increase crop yield as well as the development of an approach for the environmentally friendly control of phytopathogens.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12120141
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 12 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 127: A Predictive Model for Cropland
           Transformation at the Regional Level: A Case Study of the Belgorod Oblast,
           European Russia

    • Authors: Zhanna A. Buryak, Olesya I. Grigoreva, Artyom V. Gusarov
      First page: 127
      Abstract: The problem of choosing the type of land use is now more relevant than ever. Against the backdrop of the growth of urbanized territories, the challenge is to preserve cropland, maintain the quality of soil resources, and find a balance between competing land uses. Forecasting and modeling changes in the area of cropland is a sought-after area of research against the backdrop of a growing shortage of fertile land and a threat to food security. In this study, on the example of one of the agriculturally most developed administrative regions of Russia (Belgorod Oblast), an approach to statistical modeling of agricultural land areas over the past 30 years is shown. Two approaches were used: statistical modeling of the dynamics of the total area of the study region’s cropland depending on the balance of other types of land and spatial interaction modeling of cropland in a key area. For the study region, administrative districts with positive and negative cropland dynamics were identified; the main types of land were revealed, due to which cropland is withdrawn, and a regression balance model was developed. It was revealed that the implementation of the planned regional programs to expand the development and conservation of meadow lands will reduce cropland by 3.07% or 83.2 thousand ha. On the example of one of the administrative districts with high rates of urbanization, the probability of cropland transformation into other types of land was estimated and a predictive spatial model of land use was developed. According to the forecast, about 6.2 thousand ha of cropland will turn into residential development land, and 2/3 of their area will be concentrated within 6 km from the borders of the regional capital city (Belgorod). The presented approach to forecasting the area of cropland and the threats of its reduction due to the need to replace other types of land is relevant for all agricultural regions and countries with developing urbanization processes.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12110127
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 128: Rigid Polyethylene Terephthalate Packaging
           Waste: An Investigation of Waste Composition and Its Recycling Potential
           in Austria

    • Authors: Viktoria Helene Gabriel, Andreas Schaffernak, Manuel Pfitzner, Johann Fellner, Manfred Tacker, Silvia Apprich
      First page: 128
      Abstract: The need for increased recycling of plastic packaging waste (PPW) is apparent from a legal and waste management perspective and, therefore, further waste streams need to be investigated in detail in terms of their recycling potential. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) PW is already closed-loop recyclable (bottle-to-bottle recycling); however, other rigid PET PW is mainly thermally recovered. Explicit quantitative and qualitative data on rigid PET packaging waste are limited. Therefore, this study investigates the composition and packaging characteristics of rigid PET packaging waste contained in separate waste collection as well as in the mixed PET sorting stream in Austria by conducting a manual sorting analysis. Furthermore, the waste volume is projected, and the recycling potential is extrapolated according to new European recycling rate reporting formats. The results show that approximately 11% of separate collection represents rigid PET packaging waste. Most PW derives from food packaging and is transparent. Contained residues with more than 1% of the total packaging weight might negatively impact the sortability. The applicable net quantity indicator (ALR) amounts to 0.888 at the stage of sorting. The volume of rigid PET PW is extrapolated to 26–36 kt in 2020 with a high-quality recycling rate of 25%, which contributes 2.6% to the Austrian PPW recycling target of 50%.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12110128
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 129: Applying Utility Criteria to Select the
           Design Variant of the Transport System in Underground Mine Workings

    • Authors: Marian Czesław Turek, Łukasz Bednarczyk, Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 129
      Abstract: This article presents a new, in-house developed method of selecting a variant of the transport system in the underground of a mine, using multi-variant decision support, taking into account the specificity of an underground mining plant. The implementation of the method should facilitate the selection of the most optimal transport system, ensuring continuity and the lowest operating costs. Seven functional criteria are proposed herein, which may be of a stimulant or destimulant nature. Each criterion was assigned a specific scoring weight reflecting the level of significance, with the sum of the weights being 100. The highest scores for the variants in the individual criteria go to those characterized by the following traits: the shortest transport time, the highest compatibility with the transport system already existing in the mine, transport routes with the greatest coverage communication, allow workers to be transported to the front of the excavation as quickly as possible, are most compatible with the existing transport systems in terms of the reinforcement and removal of longwalls, have a drive with the lowest operational hazard, have the least negative impact on the atmosphere of workings (exhaust gas emissions), and those that will ensure the best functioning of transport in emergency situations involving risk or uncertainty. For each criterion, a scoring formula based on specific parameters is provided. The method was used to select the optimal variant of the transport system in one of the mines, where four long walls were cut and four long galleries were drilled. Out of ten variants, the variant that should ensure the highest degree of reliable transport operation and continuity of operation has been determined using seven usability criteria.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12110129
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 130: Reclamation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated
           Soils Using Soil Amendments and Native Plant Species

    • Authors: Suzanne C. Henderson, Amalesh Dhar, M. Anne Naeth
      First page: 130
      Abstract: Petroleum hydrocarbons are among the top contaminants of the natural environment with serious concern worldwide due to their effects on soil, water, and surroundings. A two-year field experiment was implemented to evaluate reclamation of hydrocarbon contaminated (diesel fuel, crude oil) soils in central Alberta Canada using amendments (20% city waste compost, ammonium sulphate inorganic fertilizer) and seeding with a native grass mix. Soils amended with compost or compost-fertilizer had the greatest vegetation cover and biomass and lowest hydrocarbon concentrations at the end of the study. Fertilizer treatments had less vegetation cover and higher hydrocarbon concentrations, which were similar to the no amendment treatment. Seeding with native grasses had no effect on hydrocarbon degradation or total canopy cover, although vegetation composition showed some effect. Seeding increased cover of perennial native grasses in all amendment treatments, with greatest cover in compost and compost-fertilizer amended soils. Within two years after reclamation concentrations of F2 (carbon length > C10–C16) and F4 (>C34–C60) hydrocarbons in crude oil contaminated soils were below Canadian guidelines. Overall, compost was an effective amendment for reclamation of diesel fuel and crude oil contaminated soils and seeding was beneficial for reducing cover of non-native forbs. Fertilizer addition to compost may not enhance revegetation and remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12110130
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 131: Boosting Biodiesel Production from
           Dairy-Washed Scum Oil Using Beetle Antennae Search Algorithm and Fuzzy

    • Authors: Tareq Salameh, Hegazy Rezk, Usama Issa, Siti Kartom Kamarudin, Mohammad Ali Abdelkareem, Abdul Ghani Olabi, Malek Alkasrawi
      First page: 131
      Abstract: The major goal of this study was to develop a robust fuzzy model to mimic the generation of biodiesel from the transesterification of dairy-washed milk scum (DWMS) oil. Four process parameters were considered: the molar ratio of methanol to oil, the concentration of KOH, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time. The proposed technique was divided into two steps: fuzzy modelling and optimum parameter identification. The capability of fuzzy tools to capture and make use of linguistic variables and fuzzy sets is one of their main benefits. This means that fuzzy logic allows for the representation and manipulation of values that fall across a continuum rather than merely relying on crisp values or binary categories. When dealing with non-linear relationships, this is especially helpful since it gives a more accurate and nuanced depiction of the underlying data. As a result, an accurate fuzzy model was initially built based on collected data to simulate the biodiesel production in terms of the molar ratio of methanol to oil, the concentration of KOH, the temperature of the reaction, and the reaction duration. In the second phase, the beetle antennae search (BAS) algorithm was applied to identify the optimal values of the process parameters to boost the production of biodiesel. The BAS algorithm draws inspiration from beetle behavior, particularly how they navigate using their antennae. It employs a swarm-intelligence method by deploying virtual beetles that swarm over the problem area in search of the best solution. One of its main features is the BAS algorithm’s capacity to balance exploration and exploitation. This is accomplished through the algorithm’s adaptable step-size mechanism during the search phase. As a result, the algorithm can first investigate a large portion of the problem space before gradually moving closer to the ideal answer. Compared with ANOVA, and thanks to fuzzy, the RMSE decreased from 7 using ANOVA to 0.73 using fuzzy (a decrease of 89%). The predicted R2 increased from 0.8934 using ANOVA to 0.9614 using fuzzy (an increase of 7.6). Also, the optimisation results confirmed the superiority of the BAS algorithm. Biodiesel production increased from 92% to 98.16%.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12110131
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 132: Modelling the Make Process of the Mineral
           Supply Chain Upstream Segment

    • Authors: Raúl Castillo-Villagra, Gabriel Icarte, Klaus-Dieter Thoben
      First page: 132
      Abstract: The upstream segment of the minerals supply chain (MiSC) is the backbone for achieving the transition to clean energy by securing the supply of minerals. Recently, the MiSC has been disrupted, affecting mineral supply and generating uncertainty among clean energy producers. Supply chain (SC) mapping addresses this uncertainty, providing a holistic end-to-end view. However, MiSC mapping studies mainly focus on the downstream segment, leaving aside the upstream segment. In this context, the fundamental gap is the lack of standardized modelling frameworks that can accurately represent the upstream segment dynamics and, at the same time, seamlessly integrate with the downstream segment. This paper bridges this gap, designing a model for the MiSC upstream segment (MiSCOR). Framed within design science research methodology, MiSCOR is built by adapting two reference models, the Exploration and Mining Business Reference Model (EM) and the Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR), focusing on the commodity-making process. The MiSCOR demonstrates its applicability and robustness in real operational scenarios of one of the largest copper producers. MiSCOR provides a management tool for practitioners and decision-makers in the MISC’s upstream segment, offering blueprints to throw functional silos, foster collaboration, and a standardized framework that integrates seamlessly with the downstream segment.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12110132
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 133: Adoption and Diffusion of Nature-Based
           Solutions by Property Owners in Urban Areas: The Case of Green Roofs in
           Eindhoven, The Netherlands

    • Authors: Max López-Maciel, Peter Roebeling, Rick Llewellyn, Elisabete Figueiredo, Fábio André Matos, Rita Mendonça, Maria Isabel Bastos, Rúben Mendes, Luuk Postmes, Mayke Van Dinter
      First page: 133
      Abstract: This article explores general concepts related to the diffusion of innovations theory (DoI) and its use regarding the adoption of nature-based solutions, specifically green roofs, in urban areas by private house/property owners in the city of Eindhoven (Netherlands). Given the gap in knowledge on the potential for the adoption of green roofs by private house/property owners as well as barriers and enablers to their implementation from the DoI perspective, we used a model for predicting the adoption of innovations (ADOPT). Results show that the predicted peak adoption level is 3% and that the time to peak adoption level is 17 years. However, the level of adoption can be significantly enhanced by increasing profit benefit (i.e., cost savings) in the years that they are used (+19 percent points adoption), reducing risk exposure (+17 percent points adoption), and improving ease and convenience (+15 percent points adoption), while the time to peak adoption level can be reduced by enhancing relevant and existing skills and knowledge (−3 years), simplifying trialability and innovation complexity (−2 years), and increasing observability (−1 year). Hence, key factors affecting the adoption of green roofs by private house/property owners have been identified, contributing to the formulation of urban climate change adoption strategies.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12110133
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 134: Pursuing Alignment: A Comparison of Public
           Officials and Citizen Perception of Mine Development

    • Authors: Gregory Poelzer
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Maintaining legitimacy is a crucial objective for public officials to ensure effectiveness. Without legitimacy, political costs rise as the trust in government decreases and policy implementation is delayed; thus, officials handling resource development are encouraged to improve the acceptability of their processes. Therefore, it is essential for the government to understand the values and expectations of the citizens affected by resource development. Such an understanding assists the government in accomplishing its goals. This paper examines two cases, Norrbotten, Sweden, and Saskatchewan, Canada, both of which have established mining operations and similar regulatory frameworks and, during the commodities boom, experienced increased foreign investment and applications for new mines. While most mining projects in Saskatchewan faced little public opposition, some Norrbotten mines met contestation and protest. This paper utilizes survey data that focus on the perspectives of the residents close to the proposed mining operations, as well as interview data from public officials responsible for mine permitting, to examine the relationship between stakeholder influence and trust in government on the acceptability of mining.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12110134
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 135: Understanding Health Outcomes from Exposure
           to Blue Space Resources: Towards a Mixed Methods Framework for Analysis

    • Authors: Megan J. Grace, Jen Dickie, Phil Bartie, Caroline Brown, David M. Oliver
      First page: 135
      Abstract: With healthcare systems facing growing pressure from ageing populations and associated complex care needs, attention is increasingly being focused on sustainable strategies to improve health outcomes across populations. Encouraging access to natural environments is one form of preventative public health strategy that has been shown to lead to improved physical and mental health outcomes at the population level. A significant body of research has documented the health benefits of accessing a wide range of natural environments, including green space and coastal areas. However, freshwater resources, or inland blue spaces, have received less attention in the field of human–environment interactions. This critical review highlights current research opportunities for developing rich and nuanced insight into inland blue space experiences. Future research must take steps to account for the dynamic and unique nature of inland blue spaces through the application of a wide range of flexible and sensitive research methodologies alongside the application of broader mixed methods research approaches. To effectively utilise inland blue spaces as public health resources, it is vital that research captures the influence of temporal changes on blue space interactions and considers the overarching impact of context-specific factors. Addressing current research gaps in combination with advancing research methodologies offers the potential to consolidate inland blue space findings and create a robust evidence base for the implementation of effective public health policies.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12110135
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 136: Divergent Effects of Topography on Soil
           Properties and Above-Ground Biomass in Nepal’s Mid-Hill Forests

    • Authors: Sandhya Nepal, Mohan KC, Nabaraj Pudasaini, Hari Adhikari
      First page: 136
      Abstract: Various factors, including topography, climate, soil attributes, and vegetation composition, influence above-ground biomass productivity in forest ecosystems. Despite the success of community forestry in restoring degraded hill forests in Nepal, existing research offers limited insights into how topographic factors and plant species affect soil chemical properties and, in turn, influence above-ground biomass. This study investigates the interrelations between altitude, aspect, soil depth, and vegetation type on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (P), available potassium (K), and soil pH. These soil metrics are further correlated with forestry indices, such as diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height (Ht), above-ground tree biomass (AGTB), basal area (BA), and above-ground total carbon (AGTC), in the mid-hill region of central Nepal. Our findings indicate that aspect had a significant influence on SOC (p < 0.001), TN (p < 0.001), P (p < 0.05), and pH (p < 0.001) levels. Soils in the northwest (NW) aspect exhibited higher levels of SOC and TN but lower levels of P and pH than those in the southeast (SE) aspect. Altitude did not significantly affect soil properties. Variations in SOC, TN, K, and pH were observed across different soil depths. Key forestry metrics like DBH, Ht, AGTB, and AGTC were notably higher at elevated altitudes and under the NW aspect. We also found that vegetation composition adds a layer of complexity to the relationship between aspect, soil properties, and above-ground biomass. The higher altitudes in the SE aspect are more conducive to above-ground biomass productivity, while the NW aspect is favorable for higher levels of SOC and TN in the soil. These variations could be due to differences in carbon deposition rates, plant compositions, soil microbial activities, and microclimatic conditions between the aspects. These findings highlight the need for holistic forest management approaches that consider topographic factors, soil depth, and plant species, offering practical implications for the region’s sustainable forest management and restoration efforts.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12110136
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 11 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 112: Assessment of Community Dependence and
           Perceptions of Wetlands in the Upper Chindwin Basin, Myanmar

    • Authors: Ridhi Saluja, Satish Prasad, Than Htway Lwin, Hein Htet Soe, Chloe Pottinger-Glass, Thanapon Piman
      First page: 112
      Abstract: Understanding the relationship between communities and wetland ecosystems is imperative to facilitate the development of wetland management and conservation strategies that can effectively safeguard wetland health and sustain the flow of ecosystem services. To understand the knowledge, attitude, and perception of communities on wetland ecosystem services, a survey was conducted involving 133 households from 4 villages dependent on 5 wetlands within the Upper Chindwin Basin (UCB), northwestern Myanmar. Most of the respondents extracted wetland resources for subsistence and income. A total of 84% of the households depended on wetland fish for their primary protein consumption, while 70% (n = 94) collected fuelwood from wetlands for subsistence. The survey participants unanimously recognized the benefits of wetland ecosystem services (i.e., provisioning benefits), particularly for fish, food, fiber, fuel, natural medicines, ornamental resources, and minerals. A total of 97% of the participants lacked knowledge of any existing law or regulation that ensures wetland protection in Myanmar. Furthermore, 87% of the respondents concurred that the government has not adequately endeavored to promote awareness of wetland conservation in this remote area due to lack of capacity and resources. This study establishes a baseline for the region and recommends designing and implementing a community-centric wetland action plan. This action plan provides a self-sustaining and cost-effective approach to conserve wetlands and is crucial in enhancing the capacity of dependent communities to participate and eventually lead wetland management of UCB.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100112
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 113: Comprehensive Recovery of Metals in
           Tailings Utilization with Mechanochemical Activation

    • Authors: Vladimir I. Golik, Mikhail F. Mitsik, Yulia V. Aleksakhina, Elena E. Alenina, Natalia V. Ruban-Lazareva, Galina V. Kruzhkova, Olga A. Kondratyeva, Ekaterina V. Trushina, Oleg O. Skryabin, Marat M. Khayrutdinov
      First page: 113
      Abstract: The paper analyzes the results of metal extraction from tailings of ore processing based on traditional approaches. The history of methods of secondary processing of mineral raw materials is described. The technique and features of mechanochemical activation of the leaching process of metal ores and coals are described. The results of laboratory studies of a new mechanochemical technology for metal extraction are presented. A description of the compromise optimal criterion formulated in the model of extraction of metals from tailings with substandard mineral raw materials based on the mathematical planning of the experiment, regression analysis methods and consideration of sanitary standards for the disposal of processing tailings is proposed. Mechanochemical technology results in economic and environmental effects from the utilization of processing tailings and radical strengthening of the mineral resource base of the mining industry.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100113
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 114: Factors Affecting Nitrous Oxide Emissions
           from Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants—A Review

    • Authors: Liana Kemmou, Elisavet Amanatidou
      First page: 114
      Abstract: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas contributing to ozone layer depletion and climate change. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute significantly to the global anthropogenic N2O emissions. The main factors affecting N2O emissions are the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), the nitrite accumulation, the rapidly changing process conditions, the substrate composition and COD/N ratio, the pH, and the temperature. Low DO in the nitrification process results in higher N2O emissions, whereas high aeration rate in the nitration/anammox process results in higher N2O production. High DO in the denitrification inhibits the N2O reductase synthesis/activity, leading to N2O accumulation. High nitrite accumulation in both the nitrification and denitrification processes leads to high N2O emissions. Transient DO changes and rapid shifts in pH result in high N2O production. Ammonia shock loads leads to incomplete nitrification, resulting in NO2− accumulation and N2O formation. Limiting the biodegradable substrate hinders complete denitrification, leading to high N2O production. A COD/N ratio above 4 results in 20–30% of the nitrogen load being N2O emissions. Maximum N2O production at low pH (pH = 6) was observed during nitrification/denitrification and at high pH (pH = 8) during partial nitrification. High temperature enhances the denitrification kinetics but produces more Ν2O emissions.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100114
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 115: Waste Management in the Smart City: Current
           Practices and Future Directions

    • Authors: Danuta Szpilko, Antonio de la Torre Gallegos, Felix Jimenez Naharro, Agnieszka Rzepka, Angelika Remiszewska
      First page: 115
      Abstract: The discourse surrounding sustainability, particularly in the urban environment, has gained considerable momentum in recent years. The concept of a smart city epitomises the integration of innovative technological solutions with community-centred approaches, thereby laying the groundwork for a sustainable lifestyle. One of the crucial components of this integration is the effective and innovative management of waste. The aim of this article was to classify scientific research pertaining to waste management within the context of smart city issues, and to identify emerging directions for future research. A systematic literature review, based on a bibliometric analysis of articles included in the Scopus and Web of Science databases, was conducted for this study. The purpose of such a systematic review is to identify, integrate, and evaluate research on a selected topic, using clearly defined criteria. The research query included: TITLE-ABS-KEY (“smart city” AND (waste OR garbage OR trash OR rubbish)) in the case of Scopus, and TS = (“smart city” AND (waste OR garbage OR trash OR rubbish)) in the case of the Web of Science database. A total of 1768 publication records qualified for the analysis. This study presents an investigation into the current and forthcoming directions of waste management in smart cities, synthesising the latest advancements and methods. The findings outline specific future research directions encompassing technological advancement, special waste challenges, digitisation, energy recovery, transportation, community engagement, policy development, security, novel frameworks, economic and environmental impact assessment, and global implications. These insights reflect a multifaceted approach, advocating a technology-driven perspective that is integral to urban sustainability and quality of life. The study’s findings provide practical avenues for cities to enhance waste management through modern technologies, promoting efficient systems and contributing to sustainable urban living and the circular economy. The insights are vital for policymakers and industry leaders globally, supporting the creation of universal standards and policies, thereby fostering comprehensive waste management systems aligned with global sustainability objectives.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100115
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 116: Sustainable Valorization of Organic
           Materials as Substrates for Soilless Crops in Protected Environments in
           the Venezuelan Andes

    • Authors: Karen Arias, José Sulbarán, Welsk Mendoza, Argelia Escalona, María del Carmen Salas-Sanjuán
      First page: 116
      Abstract: Agricultural production activities generate a large amount of waste, most of which is of organic origin from plant remains. These residues could easily be transformed into a resource, specifically, into a substrate for use in soilless cultivation; however, in most cases, they are not used. Therefore, a characterization of local agricultural residues was carried out to determine their use as a substrate for crop cultivation without soil in a protected environment. The selected substrates were Sphagnum peat, coir fiber, and compost, which were managed alone or in mixtures of 50/50, 75/25, or 25/75% v/v ratios. We also included a mixture of virgin mountain soil and earthworm humus (known as INIA mixture) because it is used by local growers. The results showed that the substrates based on coir fiber, peat, and mixtures of both presented suitable characteristics for horticultural crops. On the contrary, compost-based substrates had high pH values and low organic matter contents that could be improved before use. The relationship found between the evaluated parameters of each substrate allowed us to establish that variables, such as the content of organic matter and water at different tensions and particle sizes, can be utilized to make a quick selection of the substrates produced locally, which would lead to the use of waste in a way that is more consistent with sustainable agricultural production and minimal environmental impact, by being used in the production of crops in containers without soil. In addition, these results can be used as an alternative reference in localities where these residues are easily available.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100116
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 117: Rewilding the Detroit, Michigan,
           USA–Windsor, Ontario, Canada Metropolitan Area

    • Authors: John H. Hartig
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Rewilding attempts to increase biodiversity and restore natural ecosystem processes by reducing human influence. Today, there is growing interest in rewilding urban areas. Rewilding of the Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada metropolitan area, and its shared natural resource called the Detroit River, has been delineated through the reintroduction of peregrine falcons and osprey, and a return of other sentinel species like bald eagles, lake sturgeon, lake whitefish, walleye, beaver, and river otter. Rewilding has helped showcase the value and benefits of environmental protection and restoration, ecosystem services, habitat rehabilitation and enhancement, and conservation, including social and economic benefits. Improved ecosystem health and rewilding have become a catalyst for re-establishing a reconnection between urban denizens and natural resources through greenways and water trails. The provision of compelling outdoor experiences in nature, in turn, can help foster a personal attachment to the particular place people call home that can help inspire a stewardship ethic.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100117
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 118: Evaluating Importance of Community Gardens
           in Times of Calm and Crisis: From Relaxation to Food Self-Provisioning

    • Authors: Marek Hekrle, Jan Macháč, Lenka Dubová
      First page: 118
      Abstract: The functions of community gardens (CGs) are determined by the preferences of their users and external factors such as government restrictions or the situation of the food market. Recent food prices increases and COVID-19 restrictions have shown the importance of CGs as a place for both food self-provisioning (FSP) and relaxation. These have influenced how much the benefits provided by CGs in the form of ecosystem services (ES) are appreciated. This study aims to demonstrate how ES provided by the CG ‘Žížala na Terase’ in Czechia are affected in times of crisis related to the COVID-19 pandemic and to increased food prices, which trigger a demand for greater FSP. The results indicate that the importance of social interaction and educational ES decreased significantly in the COVID-19 scenario. On the contrary, the role of CGs as places for recreation increased. In the FSP scenario, the provisioning ES increased at the expense of recreational ES. The results of the economic assessment further show that the most important monetarily valued ES provided by CGs are cultural ES, followed by provisioning ES. This study demonstrates both the multifunctionality and adaptability of CGs to the current social crises and dynamic urban conditions.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-03
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100118
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 119: Current Insights into Growing Microalgae
           for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Biomass Generation

    • Authors: Ilyes Dammak, Mariem Fersi, Ridha Hachicha, Slim Abdelkafi
      First page: 119
      Abstract: Municipal wastewater (MWW) provides a promising platform for microalgae cultivation due to its rich content of essential nutrients. Recent research has showcased the multifaceted benefits of microalgae-based wastewater treatment, from the potent depollution capabilities of these organisms to their biomass potential for ecofriendly applications. A significant advantage lies in the ability of these systems to promote environmental sustainability without producing secondary pollutants, aligning with the circular economy model. This approach encompasses various stages, from cultivating microalgae to biomass separation and subsequent valorization. However, challenges arise when scaling these systems to industrial levels. A predominant barrier is the difficulty in maintaining consistent control over all the factors influencing wastewater phytoremediation. This can compromise both biomass survival and the efficiency of pollution removal and valorization. Notably, using native microalgal consortiums from the effluent appears to be a promising strategy. These autochthonous communities often demonstrate superior adaptability and treatment capacity, emphasizing the importance of further exploring their potential to provide effective and economically viable solutions for wastewater treatment.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100119
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 120: Food Waste in Public Food Service
           Sector—Surplus and Leftovers

    • Authors: Carla Gonçalves, Sónia Saraiva, Fernando Nunes, Cristina Saraiva
      First page: 120
      Abstract: Food waste occurs at various stages of the food supply chain, starting from the production stage on farms to processing, distribution, and consumption. It is an important global problem that has social, environmental, ethical, and economic costs. The present work aims to discuss the differences in waste generated from surpluses or leftovers, the monitoring systems of food waste in public food services, and the good practices to reduce food waste. Besides the accessible knowledge about reducing waste, tonnes of food were daily discarded and wasted. To achieve a sustainable food system, food waste must be reduced significantly. Collaborative efforts are necessary to achieve significant reductions in food waste for achieving SDG 12.3 in public food services. Thus, policies that support or enforce larger implementation of best practices are needed. Knowledge about food waste is important to change attitudes and behaviors toward surplus food and leftovers. Some best practices can include promoting awareness campaigns to educate staff about the impact of food waste and the best practices to reduce it, including information on proper storage, portion control, and meal planning; implementing inventory management systems; donating surplus food via collaboration with food banks and charities; optimizing portion sizes, ensuring they are adequate and manageable for customers, reducing the likelihood of leftover food on the plate; allowing customers to order smaller quantities or share a meal; providing packaging to allow customers take their leftovers home for later consumption. The procedures to be adopted by public food services should provide guidance for the selection of products that can be donated. However, specific temperature requirements depending on the food category should be complied with. This paper enlarges the understanding of surpluses and leftovers and the best practices that could be implemented in public food services to minimize food waste.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100120
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 121: Meeting the UN’s Sustainable
           Development Goals in the Decarbonization Agenda: A Case of Russian Oil and
           Gas Companies

    • Authors: Nataliya Titova, Alina Cherepovitsyna, Tatiana Guseva
      First page: 121
      Abstract: Being key players in providing sustainable energy on a global scale, oil and gas (O&G) companies can contribute to achieving the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy) and SDG 13 (Climate Action). This paper focuses on Russian O&G companies and presents an analysis of their contribution to these SDGs in the context of today’s decarbonization agenda. The study is based on a content analysis of their corporate sustainability reports and has produced three results. First, we analyzed the key strategic goals of Russian O&G companies. Second, we identified the correspondence between the progress towards the SDGs declared in their sustainability reports and the UN’s SDG indicators. Third, we analyzed the contributions of Russian O&G companies to SDGs 7 and 13. As a result of the study, recommendations were formulated to introduce practical tools aimed at increasing the contribution of Russian O&G companies to sustainable development. The article discusses problems in corporate sustainability reporting of Russian O&G companies. The paper also seeks to expand the existing literature on the contribution of the Russian O&G sector to providing sustainable energy and accelerating the energy transition in line with the decarbonization agenda.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100121
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 122: Geosites in the Gole della Breggia Geopark,
           Ticino, Southern Switzerland

    • Authors: Paolo Oppizzi, Federico Pasquaré Mariotto, Rudolf Stockar, Andrea Stella, Noemi Corti, Martina Pedicini, Sergio Andò, Giovanni Vezzoli, Fabio Luca Bonali
      First page: 122
      Abstract: This work is aimed at illustrating one of the most engaging geoparks in Europe, the Gole della Breggia Geopark. By following its geotrail, the visitors can observe a great deal of features that encompass a wide variety of sedimentary, stratigraphic, tectonic and paleogeographic processes. Its contents are popularized by a comprehensive geotrail that encompasses 23 geostops, enriched with explanatory panels, which enable viewers to gain an overall picture of the complex processes that led to the present-day configuration of the outcrops encountered in the geopark. We have selected five significative outcrops, which we have regarded as fully-fledged geosites, and which encompass the whole 170-million-year interval, from Early Jurassic to Late Miocene times, during which the rocks of the geopark were deposited and deformed. We have performed an assessment of the five geosites, using the most common criteria that can be applied for geosite evaluation. The results of the assessment show that the most valuable geosites are the Lombardian Maiolica, and the Limestone with Pelagic Bivalves. All five geosites, thanks to a QR code added to each figure along the text, can be viewed as virtual geosites (VGs), integrated by 360° videos.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100122
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 123: Biosolids-Derived Biochar Improves
           Biomethane Production in the Anaerobic Digestion of Chicken Manure

    • Authors: Soulayma Hassan, Tien Ngo, Leadin S. Khudur, Christian Krohn, Charles Chinyere Dike, Ibrahim Gbolahan Hakeem, Kalpit Shah, Aravind Surapaneni, Andrew S. Ball
      First page: 123
      Abstract: Anaerobic digestion has attracted great interest for use in the management of organic wastes and the production of biomethane. However, this process is facing challenges, such as a high concentration of ammonia nitrogen, which affects the methanogenesis process and, thus, the production of methane. This study investigates the use of biosolid-derived biochar for mitigating ammonia stress and improving methane production during the anaerobic digestion of chicken manure, using both pristine biochar and biochar modified with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. Batch mesophilic anaerobic digestion (37 °C) was carried out over 18 days. When compared to chicken-manure-only controls, a significant increase in methane formation was observed in the digesters amended with biochar and KOH-modified biochar, producing 220 L kg−1 volatile solids (VSs) and 262 L kg−1 VSs of methane, respectively, compared to 139 L kg−1 VSs from the control digesters. The use of biochar and KOH-modified biochar resulted in a significant reduction of 8 days in the lag phase. The total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentration was reduced in the digesters with biochar and KOH-modified biochar by 25% and 35.5%, respectively. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) data revealed that the number of 16S rRNA gene copies was around 50,000 and 41,000 times higher in the biochar and KOH-modified biochar digesters, respectively, compared to the control digesters on day 18. The taxonomic profiles indicated that the BC and KOH-BC digesters contained a mixture of methanogenic pathways, including acetoclastic (Methanosaetaceae), hydrogenotrophic (Methanosarcinaceae), and methylation (Methanofastidiosaceae). This mix of pathways suggests a more robust archaeal community and, hence, more efficient methanogenesis. The results show that the addition of biosolids biochar enhances anaerobic digestion, mitigates ammonia stress to methanogens, and significantly increases biogas production.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100123
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 124: The Emerging Role of Plant-Based Building
           Materials in the Construction Industry—A Bibliometric Analysis

    • Authors: Anita Boros, Dávid Tőzsér
      First page: 124
      Abstract: The emergence of plant-based building materials is supported by several factors, such as shortages, adverse effects, and quality deficits of conventional resources, strict legislative frameworks targeting the realization of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and growing environmental awareness on the individual and stakeholder levels. To support these findings, this paper aimed to assess the relevance of these green materials in the construction industry and highlight the most widespread and thoroughly studied plant-based compounds in the literature, using bibliometric analysis. By evaluating 977 publications from 453 sources, the results show that the total number of relevant papers has increased yearly, while most belonged to the engineering discipline. Most articles were dedicated to one or more of the SDGs, which was confirmed by the more comprehensive representation and elaboration of “green”, “environmental”, and “sustainability” aspects regarding the topics of “materials” and “building” as the most frequent terms. Additionally, a wide range of plant-based building materials are thoroughly evaluated in the literature; these are primarily used to improve conventional materials’ mechanical properties, while many are also tested as substitutes for conventional ones. In conclusion, the green transition in the construction industry is aided by the scientific community by proposing plant-based supplements and alternatives to well-known materials and practices; however, further in-depth studies are needed to verify the applicability of such novelties to gain uniform acceptance and foster the expansion of sustainability initiatives in the sector.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100124
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 125: The Application of Image Acquisition and
           Processing Techniques for the Determination of Wooden Pellet Length as an
           Alternative to ISO 17829

    • Authors: Giuseppe Toscano, Elena Leoni, Carmine De Francesco, Giacomo Ciccone, Thomas Gasperini
      First page: 125
      Abstract: Global market developments of wooden pellets have led to an increased attention towards pellet quality. ISO 17829 defines the procedure to assess pellets’ geometrical parameters, which play a key role in pellet overall quality. For instance, pellet length influences the spatial arrangement within the stove brazier, affecting the interaction between combustion air and solid biofuel, thus affecting CO emissions. The ISO 17829 method is time-consuming and affected by the operator’s accuracy. Recent studies have investigated the application of new methods, such as image processing, for monitoring the aforementioned parameter. While also assessing the representativeness of ISO 17829’s method, this paper proposes an alternative measuring tool based on image processing named Pellet Length Detector (PLD). Samples were obtained from Italian pellet suppliers and subjected to a multiple dimensional analysis via PLD and caliper. The PLD’s overall performance led to satisfactory results, with only 10% of the samples having a bias between replicates of >2 mm. Compared to caliper, PLD led to an average bias of 0.5 mm. Moreover, a one-way ANOVA highlighted that increasing the sample size between caliper and PLD leads to a greater statistical similarity of the data obtained for different replicates. Given the prototype status of the device, a further performance upgrade is possible, especially through error modeling.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-20
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100125
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
  • Resources, Vol. 12, Pages 126: Surimi Production from Tropical Mackerel: A
           Simple Washing Strategy for Better Utilization of Dark-Fleshed Fish

    • Authors: Worawan Panpipat, Porntip Thongkam, Suppanyoo Boonmalee, Hasene Keskin Çavdar, Manat Chaijan
      First page: 126
      Abstract: Mackerel (Auxis thazard), a tropical dark-fleshed fish, is currently a viable resource for the manufacture of surimi, but the optimal washing procedure for more efficient use of this particular species is required right away. Washing is the most critical stage in surimi production to ensure optimal gelation with odorless and colorless surimi. The goal of this study was to set a simple washing medium to the test for making mackerel surimi. Washing was performed three times with different media. T1 was washed with three cycles of cold carbonated water (CW). T2, T3, and T4 were washed once with cold CW containing 0.3%, 0.6%, or 0.9% NaCl, followed by two cycles of cold water. T5, T6, and T7 were produced for three cycles with CW containing 0.3%, 0.6%, or 0.9% NaCl. For comparison, unwashed mince (U) and conventional surimi washed three times in cold tap water (C) were employed. The maximum yield (62.27%) was obtained by washing with T1. When varying quantities of NaCl were mixed into the first washing medium (T2–T4), the yield decreased with increasing NaCl content (27.24–54.77%). When washing with NaCl for three cycles (T5–T7), the yield was greatly decreased (16.69–35.23%). Conventional surimi washing (C) produced a yield of roughly 40%, which was comparable to T3. Based on the results, treatments that produced lower yields than C were eliminated in order to maximize the use of fish resources and for commercial reasons. The maximum NaCl content in CW can be set at 0.6% only during the first washing cycle (T3). Because of the onset of optimal unfolding as reported by specific biochemical characteristics such as Ca2+-ATPase activity (0.2 μmol inorganic phosphate/mg protein/min), reactive sulfhydryl group (3.61 mol/108 g protein), and hydrophobicity (64.02 µg of bromophenol blue bound), T3 washing resulted in surimi with the greatest gel strength (965 and water holding capacity (~65%), with fine network structure visualized by scanning electron microscope. It also efficiently removed lipid (~80% reduction), myoglobin (~65% reduction), non-heme iron (~94% reduction), and trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptide (~52% reduction) contents, which improves whiteness (~45% improvement), reduces lipid oxidation (TBARS value < 0.5 mg malondialdehyde equivalent/kg), and decreases the intensity of the gel’s fishy odor (~30% reduction). As a result, washing mackerel surimi (A. thazard) with CW containing 0.6% (w/v) NaCl in the first cycle, followed by two cycles of cold water washing (T3), can be a simple method for increasing gel-forming capability and oxidative stability. The mackerel surimi produced using this washing approach has a higher quality than that produced with regular washing. This straightforward method will enable the sustainable use of dark-fleshed fish for the production of surimi.
      Citation: Resources
      PubDate: 2023-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/resources12100126
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 10 (2023)
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