Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)     - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)    - POLLUTION (31 journals)    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals) ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5
 Showing 401 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development       (Followers: 17) International Journal of Environment and Waste Management       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Environment, Workplace and Employment       (Followers: 7) International Journal of Environmental Engineering       (Followers: 6) International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering       (Followers: 1) International Journal of Environmental Health Research       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making       (Followers: 3) International Journal of Environmental Research International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health       (Followers: 22) International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology       (Followers: 5) International Journal of Environmental Studies       (Followers: 5) International Journal of Exergy       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Global Environmental Issues       (Followers: 4) International Journal of Global Sustainability       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Global Warming International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control       (Followers: 5) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health       (Followers: 7) International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications : A Leading Journal of Supply Chain Management       (Followers: 16) International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering International Journal of Phytoremediation       (Followers: 1) International Journal of Process Systems Engineering       (Followers: 1) International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture       (Followers: 1) International Journal of Reliability and Safety       (Followers: 11) International Journal of Renewable Energy Development       (Followers: 6) International Journal of Social Sciences and Management       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water       (Followers: 4) International Journal of Stress Management       (Followers: 6) International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology       (Followers: 7) International Journal of Sustainable Engineering       (Followers: 4) International Journal of Sustainable Materials and Structural Systems       (Followers: 1) International Journal of Sustainable Society       (Followers: 2) International Journal of the Commons       (Followers: 2) International Journal of Toxicology       (Followers: 17) International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering       (Followers: 11) International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics       (Followers: 3) Iranian Journal of Health and Environment ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment       (Followers: 3) Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies JACEE (Journal of Advanced Civil and Environmental Engineering) Jahangirnagar University Environmental Bulletin Journal for the History of Environment and Society       (Followers: 3) Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation       (Followers: 1) Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change       (Followers: 14) Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology       (Followers: 1) Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research       (Followers: 2) Journal Of Advances In Natural Sciences       (Followers: 1) Journal of Aging and Environment       (Followers: 4) Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics       (Followers: 8) Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment       (Followers: 3) Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International Journal of Air Pollution and Health (رتبه علمی- پژوهشی) Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences Journal of Applied Ecology       (Followers: 205) Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology       (Followers: 42) Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management       (Followers: 1) Journal of Applied Toxicology       (Followers: 19) Journal of Applied Volcanology       (Followers: 7) Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research Journal of Arid Environments       (Followers: 12) Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology       (Followers: 4) Journal of Biosystems Engineering Journal of Chemical Ecology       (Followers: 4) Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences Journal of Climate       (Followers: 56) Journal of Climate Change and Health       (Followers: 4) Journal of Coastal Research       (Followers: 31) Journal of Contaminant Hydrology       (Followers: 19) Journal of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences       (Followers: 2) Journal of East African Natural History       (Followers: 7) Journal of Ecology       (Followers: 133) Journal of Ecology and Environment       (Followers: 3) Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People       (Followers: 11) Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law       (Followers: 5) Journal of Energy and Environment Technology of Graduate School Siam Technology College Journal of Environment and Earth Science       (Followers: 11) Journal of Environment and Ecology       (Followers: 10) Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health       (Followers: 3) Journal of Environmental Analysis and Progress Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies       (Followers: 1) Journal of Environmental and Public Health       (Followers: 16) Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management       (Followers: 5) Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering       (Followers: 5) Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy       (Followers: 4) Journal of Environmental Education       (Followers: 7) Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management       (Followers: 8) Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science       (Followers: 2) Journal of Environmental Extension Journal of Environmental Geography       (Followers: 6) Journal of Environmental Law       (Followers: 22) Journal of Environmental Management       (Followers: 44) Journal of Environmental Management       (Followers: 1) Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism       (Followers: 13) Journal of Environmental Media Journal of Environmental Planning and Management       (Followers: 26) Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning       (Followers: 14) Journal of Environmental Professionals Sri Lanka Journal of Environmental Protection       (Followers: 1) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering       (Followers: 5) Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes       (Followers: 5) Journal of Environmental Science and Technology       (Followers: 7) Journal of Environmental Sciences       (Followers: 8) Journal of Environmental Statistics       (Followers: 4) Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences       (Followers: 2) Journal of Environmental Sustainability       (Followers: 7) Journal of Environments Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology       (Followers: 6) Journal of Fisheries and Environment Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management Journal of Freshwater Ecology       (Followers: 14) Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection Journal of Great Lakes Research       (Followers: 5) Journal of Green Building       (Followers: 10) Journal of Hazardous Materials       (Followers: 12) Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances Journal of Health Management       (Followers: 10) Journal of Health Organisation and Management       (Followers: 29) Journal of Housing and the Built Environment       (Followers: 8) Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment       (Followers: 6) Journal of Hydrology X       (Followers: 5) Journal of Industrial Ecology       (Followers: 17) Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences       (Followers: 4) Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping       (Followers: 1) Journal of Iron and Steel Research International       (Followers: 7) Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers Journal of Land Use Science       (Followers: 3) Journal of Management and Sustainability       (Followers: 7) Journal of Mega Infrastructure & Sustainable Development Journal of Natural Resources and Development       (Followers: 1) Journal of Natural Sciences Research       (Followers: 1) Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene       (Followers: 6) Journal of Operational Oceanography       (Followers: 5) Journal of Organizational Behavior       (Followers: 61) Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education       (Followers: 2) Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods       (Followers: 7) Journal of Plant Science and Phytopathology Journal of Policy Analysis and Management       (Followers: 28) Journal of Population and Sustainability Journal of Reliable Intelligent Environments Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy       (Followers: 10) Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment       (Followers: 5) Journal of Rural and Community Development       (Followers: 1) Journal of Safety Engineering       (Followers: 37) Journal of Safety Research       (Followers: 89) Journal of School Violence       (Followers: 6) Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management Journal of Sustainable Development       (Followers: 24) Journal of Sustainable Development Studies       (Followers: 15) Journal of Sustainable Society       (Followers: 2) Journal of the American Planning Association       (Followers: 18) Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences       (Followers: 83) Journal of Tropical Ecology       (Followers: 15) Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering       (Followers: 5) Journal of Urban Ecology       (Followers: 5) Journal of Vietnamese Environment       (Followers: 1) Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology       (Followers: 1) Journal of Water Security       (Followers: 6) Julius-Kühn-Archiv Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan Jurnal Pengendalian Pencemaran Lingkungan Jurnal Presipitasi       (Followers: 1) Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan Jurnal Sains & Teknologi Lingkungan Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan Knowledge Management Research & Practice       (Followers: 16) Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science       (Followers: 2) Lake and Reservoir Management       (Followers: 7) Landscape Ecology       (Followers: 61) Landscapes       (Followers: 18) Latin American Journal of Management for Sustainable Development Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales Limnological Review       (Followers: 3) Living Reviews in Landscape Research Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability       (Followers: 8) Low Carbon Economy       (Followers: 4) Luna Azul M+A. Revista Electrónica de Medioambiente Macquarie Journal of International and Comparative Environmental Law       (Followers: 7) Madagascar Conservation & Development       (Followers: 2) Management International Review       (Followers: 7) Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal       (Followers: 2) Management of Sustainable Development       (Followers: 4) Marine Ecology       (Followers: 27) Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS       (Followers: 34) Marine Environmental Research       (Followers: 31) Marine Pollution Bulletin       (Followers: 35) Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy       (Followers: 6) Medio Ambiente y Urbanizacion Mediterranean Geoscience Reviews Membranes       (Followers: 3) Metabarcoding and Metagenomics Michigan Journal of Sustainability       (Followers: 1) Microbial Risk Analysis Microplastics and Nanoplastics       (Followers: 1) Mine Water and the Environment       (Followers: 4) Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change       (Followers: 8) Modeling Earth Systems and Environment       (Followers: 1) Monteverdia       (Followers: 1) Multequina
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 Materials for Renewable and Sustainable EnergyJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.738 Citation Impact (citeScore): 3Number of Followers: 6     Open Access journal ISSN (Print) 2194-1459 - ISSN (Online) 2194-1467 Published by SpringerOpen  [228 journals]
• Sodium-ion battery from sea salt: a review

• Abstract: Abstract The electrical energy storage is important right now, because it is influenced by increasing human energy needs, and the battery is a storage energy that is being developed simultaneously. Furthermore, it is planned to switch the lithium-ion batteries with the sodium-ion batteries and the abundance of the sodium element and its economical price compared to lithium is the main point. The main components anode and cathode have significant effect on the sodium battery performance. This review briefly describes the components of the sodium battery, including the anode, cathode, electrolyte, binder, and separator, and the sources of sodium raw material is the most important in material synthesis or installation. Sea salt or NaCl has potential ability as a raw material for sodium battery cathodes, and the usage of sea salt in the cathode synthesis process reduces production costs, because the salt is very abundant and environmentally friendly as well. When a cathode using a source of Na2CO3, which was synthesized independently from NaCl can save about 16.66% after being calculated and anode with sodium metal when synthesized independently with NaCl can save about 98% after being calculated, because sodium metal is classified as expensive matter.
PubDate: 2022-04-18

• Development of bioanode for versatile applications: microfuel cell system
in the presence of alcohol and glucose

• Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this work is to develop a bioanode using the enzymes of glucose oxidase (GOx) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as catalysts to oxidised glucose and alcohol present in different beverages. The study was carried out using the covalent bonding method for both enzymes via the functionalization of carbon nanofibers for the formation of carboxyl groups that can form bonds with the amine groups of the enzyme, as well as using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) with Nafion. The optimum operation parameters of both enzymes (pH and temperature) were determined for the later evaluation in a microfluidic fuel cell. In addition, using the scanning electrochemical microscopy technique, a local study of enzymatic processes is used to demonstrate that the enzymes immobilized on the same electrode remain active. The evaluation of the microfluidic fuel cell was carried out using different solutions, 0.01 M glucose, 0.01 M ethanol and a mixture of 0.01 M glucose and 0.01 M ethanol, all in phosphate buffer solutions at pH 7, where it was possible to obtain a maximum performance of 5.07 ± 0.1 mW cm−2, and there was a significant increase in current density compared to non-composite solutions (glucose or ethanol). In addition, different alcoholic beverages were used to evaluate the versatility and adaptability of the bi-enzymatic anode electrode with the perspective use in Lab-on-a-Chip systems.
PubDate: 2022-02-22

• Aprotic lithium air batteries with oxygen-selective membranes

• Abstract: Abstract Rechargeable batteries have gained a lot of interests due to rising trend of electric vehicles to control greenhouse gases emissions. Among all type of rechargeable batteries, lithium air battery (LAB) provides an optimal solution, owing to its high specific energy of 11,140 Wh/kg comparable to that of gasoline 12,700 Wh/kg. However, LABs are not widely commercialized yet due to the reactivity of the lithium anode with the components of ambient air such as moisture and carbon dioxide. To address this challenge, it is important to understand the effects of moisture on the electrochemical performance of LAB. In this review, the effects of ambient air on the electrochemical performance of LAB have been discussed. The literature on the deterioration in the battery capacity and cyclability due to operation in ambient environment and degradation of lithium anode due to exothermic reaction between lithium and water is reviewed and explained. The effects of using oxygen-selective membrane (OSM) to block moisture and $${\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$$ contamination has also been discussed, along with suitable materials that can act as OSM. It is concluded that the utilization of OSM can not only make the safer operation of LAB in ambient air but could also enhance the electrochemical performance of LAB. Future direction of the research work required to address the associated challenges is also provided.
PubDate: 2022-01-24

• Role of additives and surface passivation on the performance of perovskite
solar cells

• Abstract: Abstract Outstanding improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 25% in a very short period and promising research developments to reach the theoretical PCE limit of single junction solar cells, 33%, enables organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells (OIPSCs) to gain much attention in the scientific and industrial community. The simplicity of production of OIPSCs from precursor solution either on rigid or flexible substrates makes them even more attractive for low-cost roll-to-roll production processes. Though OIPSCs show as such higher PCE with simple solution processing methods, there are still unresolved issues, while attempts are made to commercialize these solar cells. Among the major problems is the instability of the photoactive layer of OIPSCs at the interface of the charge transport layers and /or electrodes during prolonged exposure to moisture, heat and radiation. To achieve matched PCE and stability, several techniques such as molecular and interfacial engineering of components in OIPSCs have been applied. Moreover, in recent times, engineering on additives, solvents, surface passivation, and structural tuning have been developed to reduce defects and large grain boundaries from the surface and/or interface of organic–inorganic perovskite films. Under this review, we have shown recently developed additives and passivation strategies, which are strongly focused to enhance PCE and long-term stability simultaneously.
PubDate: 2021-12-27

• Passive solar house prototype design with a new bio-based material for a
semi-arid climate

• Abstract: Abstract In this study, a passive solar house prototype was built using Trombe wall and was tested in the semi-arid region of Batna, in eastern Algeria. Traditional local materials (stone and adobe) were used for the construction of the thermal storage wall. A new local bio-based material made from date palm trunks was used for the insulation of the passive house prototype. For a better understanding of passive house heating and for a comparative study, a numerical simulation, using Fluent, was carried out. The aim of this study was to supply recommendations for improving the passive systems and to participate to the energy consumption control in the building sector. The results show that the experimental and numerical simulation results are in good agreement. The optimal orientation of the solar passive house has been determined, which is at 160° southeast. The use of local and bio-based materials has proven its effectiveness in the construction of the passive house. The thermal behavior of date palm wood has been found to be close to those of insulation materials commonly used in buildings. That means it has the same thermal insulation ability (thermal conductivity). On the other hand, the results show that the thermal efficiency of the passive solar heating system, with an adobe wall is significantly higher (50%) than that with a stone wall (30.7%).
PubDate: 2021-12-21

• Preparation, characterization and evaluation of x-MoO3/Al-SBA-15 catalysts
for biodiesel production

• Abstract: Biodiesel is an alternative source of renewable energy that can be produced by a transesterification of vegetable oils. Mesoporous molecular sieves, such as SBA-15, due to high surface area and thermal stability are promising precursors for heterogeneous catalysts in the transesterification reaction. In this work, Al-SBA-15 precursor was obtained by direct hydrothermal synthesis, impregnated with different MoO3 contents (5, 10 and 15 wt%) by the pore saturation method, and evaluated as heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from a transesterification of soybean oil with methanol. Al-SBA-15 precursor as well as MoO3/Al-SBA-15 catalyst were characterized for its structural characteristic by X-ray diffraction, textural characteristic by N2 adsorption analysis, and thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis. An experimental planning 22 + 3 CtPt was used to evaluate the influence of MoO3 content and reaction time on biodiesel yield from soybean oil and methanol. The biodiesel content in the final product was obtained by gas chromatography. An average biodiesel yield of 96% was obtained with the catalyst 10%MoO3/Al-SBA-15 under the following reaction conditions: 20:1 methanol/soybean oil molar ratio, and 3 wt% of catalyst loading at 150 °C in 3 h. After five consecutive reaction cycles, the biodiesel yield decreased by about 34%. The density and acidity of the biodiesel produced are within the specified values for commercialization according to international standards. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2021-12-15

• Oxygen (O2) reduction reaction on Ba-doped LaMnO3 cathodes in solid oxide
fuel cells: a density functional theory study

• Abstract: Abstract The oxygen adsorption and subsequent reduction on the {100} and {110} surfaces of 25% Ba-doped LaMnO3 (LBM25) have been studied at the density functional theory (DFT) with Hubbard correction and the results compared with adsorption on 25% Ca-doped LaMnO3 (LCM25) and Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM25). The trend in the reduction energies at the Mn cation sites are predicted to be in the order LSM25 < LBM25 < LCM25. In addition, the trend in dissociation energies for the most exothermic dissociated precursors follow the order LBM25 < LSM25 < LCM25. The adsorption energies (− 2.14 to − 2.41 eV) calculated for the molecular O2 precursors at the Mn cation sites of LCM25, LSM25 and LBM25 are thermodynamically stable, when compared directly with the adsorption energies (Eads = − 0.56 to − 1.67 eV) reported for the stable molecular O2 precursors on the Pt, Ni, Pd, Cu and Ir {111} surfaces. The predicted Gibbs energies as a function of temperature (T = 500–1100 °C) and pressures (p = 0.2 atm) for the adsorption and dissociation on the surfaces were negative, an indication of the feasibility of oxygen reduction reaction on the {100} and {110} surfaces at typical operating temperatures reported in this work.
PubDate: 2021-10-14

• Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production over Ce/ZnO from aqueous
methanol solution

• Abstract: Abstract Ce/ZnO crystallites along with bare ZnO were prepared by solution free mechanochemical method and characterized with powder XRD, SEM, EDX, XPS, UV–Visible and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The visible light photocatalytic performance of these materials was investigated for H2 evolution with the aqueous 10vol% methanol solution under one sun conditions using solar simulator. X-ray diffraction data suggests the hexagonal wurtzite structure for Ce/ZnO crystallites and the incorporation of Ce4+ ion in ZnO is supported by the shifting of XRD peaks to lower Bragg angles that indicate lattice expansion. With the increase of Ce content in ZnO, the crystallite size of Ce/ZnO decreases and the specific surface area increases. UV–Visible spectra propose the decrease in optical band gap of Ce incorporated ZnO with the increase of Ce content up to 3 mol. %. The XPS analysis supports the incorporation of Ce4+ in Ce/ZnO. The PL spectra propose that, with the insertion of Ce ions into ZnO, intensity of UV emission band decreases that reflects the low recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers, which is responsible for higher photocatalytic H2 production. The extent of hydrogen production is affected by calcination temperature of Ce/ZnO. 2 mol. % Ce incorporated ZnO calcined at 600 °C produces43 μmolh−1 g−1 of hydrogen.
PubDate: 2021-10-09

• Synthesis of activated carbon derived from chicken feather for Li-ion
batteries through chemical and physical activation process

• Abstract: Abstract The use of activated carbon from biomass as an electrode for lithium-ion batteries is promising because of the low cost, natural abundance, and environmentally friendly. Chicken feather is a biomass that has the potential to be a source of activated carbon, because it contains keratin. The activation process affects the quality of activated carbon, thereby increasing battery performance. In this study, chicken feather waste was chemically activated using KOH and combined with physical activation at temperature variations of 750, 850 and 950 °C. The activation process significantly influenced electrochemical properties because of the difference in their microstructure. The activated carbon pyrolyzed at 850 °C (CFCA-850) shows the highest discharge capacity of 285.78 mAhg−1, good cycling stability and rate performance due to its higher interlayer spacing and large surface area. Furthermore, electronic conductivity and ion increase, thus improve battery performance.
PubDate: 2021-08-15

• Review of molten carbonate-based direct carbon fuel cells

• Abstract: Abstract Direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is a promising technology with high energy efficiency and abundant fuel. To date, a variety of DCFC configurations have been investigated, with molten hydroxide, molten carbonate or oxides being used as the electrolyte. Recently, there has been particular interest in DCFC with molten carbonate involved. The molten carbonate is either an electrolyte or a catalyst in different cell structures. In this review, we consider carbonate as the clue to discuss the function of carbonate in DCFCs, and start the paper by outlining the developments in terms of molten carbonate (MC)-based DCFC and its electrochemical oxidation processes. Thereafter, the composite electrolyte merging solid carbonate and mixed ionic–electronic conductors (MIEC) are discussed. Hybrid DCFC (HDCFCs ) combining molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are also touched on. The primary function of carbonate (i.e., facilitating ion transfer and expanding the triple-phase boundaries) in these systems, is then discussed in detail. Finally, some issues are identified and a future outlook outlined, including a corrosion attack of cell components, reactions using inorganic salt from fuel ash, and wetting with carbon fuels.
PubDate: 2021-07-02

• Ambient fabrication of perovskite solar cells through delay-deposition
technique

• Abstract: Abstract The establishment of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) in terms of their power-conversion efficiency (PCE) over silicon-based solar cells is undeniable. The state-of-art of easy device fabrications of PSCs has enabled them to rapidly gain a place in third-generation photovoltaic technology. Numerous obstacles remain to be addressed in device efficiency and stability. Low performance owing to easily degraded surface and deterioration of perovskite film quality resulting from humidity are issues that often arise. This work explored a new approach to producing high-quality perovskite films prepared under high relative humidity (RH = 40%–50%). In particular, the ubiquitous 4-tert-butylpyridine (tBp) was introduced into lead iodide (PbI2) precursor as an additive, and the films were fabricated using a two-step deposition method followed by a delay-deposition technique of methylammonium iodide (MAI). High crystallinity and controlled nucleation of MAI were needed, and this approach revealed the significance of time control to ensure high-quality films with large grain size, high crystallography, wide coverage on substrate, and precise and evenly coupled MAI molecules to PbI2 films. Compared with the two-step method without time delay, a noticeable improvement in PCE from 3.2 to 8.3% was achieved for the sample prepared with 15 s time delay. This finding was primarily due to the significant enhancement in the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor of the device. This strategy can effectively improve the morphology and crystallinity of perovskite films, as well as reduce the recombination of photogenerated carriers and increase of current density of devices, thereby achieving improved photovoltaic performance.
PubDate: 2021-06-07

• Stability, reusability, and equivalent circuit of TiO2/treated
metakaolinite-based dye-sensitized solar cell: effect of illumination
intensity on Voc and Isc values

• Abstract: Abstract In this research, treated metakaolinite (TMK) was introduced into the TiO2 photoelectrode to fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photovoltaic cells have four main natural components, i.e., a photosensitizer (carotenoid bixin), photoelectrode (TiO2/kaolinite), electrolyte (glycerine carbonate derivative), and counter-electrode (carbon). Their stability, reusability, and equivalent circuit were studied. The presence of 5% of TMK in anatase TiO2 paste decreased the TiO2 band gap from 3.21 to 3.16 eV. The result showed that the presence of 5% of TMK in TiO2 paste was more favorable to obtain higher energy conversion efficiency. Under a light intensity of 200 W/m2, it produced an energy conversion yield of 0.086%. The combination of the electrolyte and the TMK demonstrated a synergistic effect to improve the electrical properties of the DSSC. The energy storage function worked well until the third day of analysis. The DSSC based on TiO2/TMK photoelectrode exhibited 16 times better stability than pure TiO2-based photoelectrode. The Faraday charge transfer processes showed that the TiO2/TMK photoelectrode is not in direct contact with the carbon counter-electrode.
PubDate: 2021-06-03

• Mechanisms of CO 2 reduction into CO and formic acid on Fe (100): a DFT
study

• Abstract: Understanding the mechanism of CO2 reduction on iron is crucial for the design of more efficient and cheaper iron electrocatalyst for CO2 conversion. In the present study, we have employed spin-polarized density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation (DFT-GGA) to elucidate the mechanism of CO2 reduction into carbon monoxide and formic acid on the Fe (100) facet. We also sort to understand the transformations of the other isomers of adsorbed CO2 on iron as earlier mechanistic studies are centred on the transformations of the C2v geometry alone and not the other possible conformations i.e., flip-C2v and Cs modes. Two alternative reduction routes were considered i.e., the direct CO2 dissociation against the hydrogen-assisted CO2 transformation through formate and carboxylate into CO and formic acid. Our results show that CO2 in the C2v mode is the precursor to the formation of both products i.e., CO and formic acid. Both the formation and transformation of CO2 in the Cs and flip-C2v is challenging kinetically and thermodynamically compared to the C2v mode. The formic acid formation is favoured over CO via the reverse water gas shift reaction mechanism on Fe (100). Both formic acid formation and CO formation will proceed via the carboxylate intermediate since formate is a stable intermediate whose transformation into formic acid is challenging both kinetically and thermodynamically. Graphic abstract
PubDate: 2021-04-29

• Ampoule method fabricated sulfur vacancy-rich N-doped ZnS electrodes for
ammonia production in alkaline media

• Abstract: The electrochemical production of green and low-cost ammonia requests the development of high-performance electrocatalysts. In this work, the ampoule method was applied to modulate the surface of the zinc electrode by implanting defects and low-valent active sites. The N-doped ZnS electrocatalyst was thus generated by sulfurization with thiourea and applied for electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (ENRR). Given the rich sulfur vacancies and abundant Zn-N active sites on the surface, excellent catalytic activity and selectivity were obtained, with an NH3 yield rate of 2.42 × 10–10 mol s−1 cm−2 and a Faradaic efficiency of 7.92% at − 0.6 V vs. RHE in 0.1 M KOH solution. Moreover, the as-synthesized zinc electrode exhibits high stability after five recycling tests and a 24 h potentiostatic test. The comparison with Zn foil, non-doping ZnS/Zn and recent metal sulfide electrocatalysts further demonstrated advanced catalytic performance of N@ZnS/Zn for ENRR. By simple synthesis, S vacancies, and N-doping defects, this promising electrocatalyst would represent a good addition to the arena of transition-metal-based catalysts with superior performance in ENRR. Graphic abstract
PubDate: 2021-04-12

• Enhancing the electrochemical properties of a nickel–cobalt-manganese
ternary hydroxide electrode using graphene foam for supercapacitors
applications

• Abstract: Abstract This study has investigated the effect of the incorporation of graphene foam (GF) into the matrix of a ternary transition-metals hydroxide containing nickel, cobalt, and manganese for optimal electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors applications. An adopted simple, low-cost co-precipitation synthesis method involved the loading a mass of the ternary metal hydroxides (NiCoMn-TH) onto various GF mass loading so as to find ints effect on the electrochemical properties of the hydroxides. Microstructural and chemical composition of the various composite materials were investigated by employing scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and N2 physisorption analysis among others. Electrochemical performances of the NiCoMn-TH/200 mg GF composite material evaluated in a three-electrode system using 1 M KOH solution revealed a maximum specific capacity around 178.6 mAh g−1 compared to 76.2 mAh g−1 recorded for the NiCoMn-TH pristine material at a specific current of 1 A g−1. The best mass loading of GF nanomaterial (200 mg GF), was then utilised as a positive electrode material for the design of a novel hybrid device. An assembled hybrid NiCoMn-TH/200 mg GF//CSDAC device utilizing the NiCoMn-TH/200 mg GF and activated carbon derived from the cocoa shell (CSDAC) as a positive and negative electrode, respectively, demonstrated a sustaining specific capacity of 23.4 mAh g−1 at a specific current of 0.5 A g−1. The device also yielded sustaining a specific energy and power of about 22.32 Wh kg−1 and 439.7 W kg−1, respectively. After a cycling test of over 15,000 cycles, the device could prove a coulombic efficiency of ~ 99.9% and a capacity retention of around 80% within a potential range of 0.0–1.6 V at a specific current of 3 A g−1. These results have demonstrated the prodigious electrochemical potentials of the as-synthesized material and its capability to be utilized as an electrode for supercapacitor applications.
PubDate: 2021-03-15

• Development of flexible textile aluminium-air battery prototype

• Abstract: Abstract There is one component that virtually any embedded wearable needs—a power source. This paper proposes an energy source, which contains no harmful substances, can be stored in a stand-by dry state for indefinite time period, is flexible and has tactile characteristics similar to that of textile. The main feature of this energy source is the separation of the electrolyte and the electrodes—the electrolyte is applied only when the battery needs to be activated. This makes storage time in a dry state virtually infinite. It expands their potential use to storage solutions and healthcare/health monitoring solutions, because the design of the battery allows it to be used as an active sensor, which generates electric current, when it detects liquid. We stress that this solution is suitable for specific applications only, outlined in the paper. The main components of the battery include aluminium anode, air cathode and the cotton shell. The design includes only textile-based materials, which ensure greater flexibility and better fusion with textile materials, where the battery is intended to be integrated. Besides that, results of the experiments with multi-cell battery prototype are presented.
PubDate: 2021-02-03

• Development of palladium catalysts modified by ruthenium and molybdenum as
anode in direct ethanol fuel cell

• Abstract: Physical and electrochemical properties of Pd catalysts combined with Ru and Mo on carbon support were investigated. To this end, Pd, Pd1.3Ru1.0, Pd3.2Ru1.3Mo1.0 and Pd1.5Ru0.8Mo1.0 were synthesized on Carbon Vulcan XC72 support by the method of thermal decomposition of polymeric precursors and then physically and electrochemically characterized. The highest reaction yields are obtained for Pd3.2Ru1.3Mo1.0/C and Pd1.5Ru0.8Mo1.0/C and, as demonstrated by thermal analysis, they also show the smallest metal/carbon ratio compared the other catalysts. XRD (X-ray Diffraction) and Raman analyses show the presence of PdO and RuO2 for the Pd/C and the Pd1.3Ru1.0/C catalysts, respectively, a fact not observed for the Pd3.2Ru1.3 Mo1.0 /C and the Pd1.5Ru0.8Mo1.0/C catalysts. The catalytic activities were tested for the ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) shows Pd1.3Ru1.0/C exhibiting the highest peak of current density, followed by Pd3.2Ru1.3Mo1.0/C, Pd1.5Ru0.8Mo1.0/C and Pd/C. From, chronoamperometry (CA), it is possible to observe the lowest rate of poisoning for the Pd1.3Ru1.0/C, followed by Pd3.2Ru1.3Mo1.0/C, Pd1.5Ru0.8Mo1.0/C and Pd/C. These results suggested that catalytic activity of the binary and the ternary catalysts are improved in comparison with Pd/C. The presence of RuO2 activated the bifunctional mechanism and improved the catalytic activity in the Pd1.3Ru1.0/C catalyst. The addition of Mo in the catalysts enhanced the catalytic activity by the intrinsic mechanism, suggesting a synergistic effect between metals. In summary, we suggest that it is possible to synthesize ternary PdRuMo catalysts supported on Carbon Vulcan XC72, resulting in materials with lower poisoning rates and lower costs than Pd/C. Graphic abstract
PubDate: 2021-02-02

• Investigation on the thermal degradation, moisture absorption
characteristics and antibacterial behavior of natural insulation materials

• Abstract: Abstract The demand for natural insulation materials is increasing with special attention to the use of such materials for exploiting renewable energy. Natural insulation materials tremendously influence the sustainability development and energy efficiency enhancement in the buildings. Natural fibers from animal’s origin absorb great amount of moisture on exposed to the environment which significantly affects the performance and thermal insulation properties. The thermal degradation of such material strongly influences the accidental burning characteristics, an important selection criteria for building materials. In the present study, three different kind of natural insulation materials namely sheep wool, goat wool and horse mane have been characterized in terms of moisture absorption, thermal degradation and morphology using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry techniques, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. In addition, antibacterial behavioral study has been also carried out for untreated raw wool and treated wool (copper nitrate). These properties are vital for a holistic evaluation of the insulation material. Moisture absorption results indicate that the sheep wool and goat wool absorb less moisture content as compared to horse mane. Unlike this horse mane shows great stability than goat wool and sheep wool in the temperature range not exceeding 470 °C. TGA data indicate 50% mass loss (T50%) at 306 °C, 322 °C and 318 °C for sheep wool, goat wool and horse mane, respectively. In addition the tests show that the content of fire retardant elements like nitrogen and sulphur is more in horse mane as compared to sheep wool and goat wool. The treated wool samples showed excellent antibacterial properties as compared to untreated wool samples.
PubDate: 2021-02-01

• CuO/Cu x S composites fabrication and their thermoelectric properties

• Abstract: Abstract Herein, copper oxide/copper sulfide (CuO/CuxS) composites have been prepared by treating CuO with thiourea by an aqueous hydrothermal route and their thermoelectric properties are studied. The electrical conductivity is improved with the increase in thiourea content, as a result, thermoelectric power factor increased from 10–4 to 101 µW m−1 K−2, and thermal conductivity of the CuO is also found to decrease with thiourea treatment. A detailed analysis indicated that these changes are due to the formation of copper sulfide (CuxS) in the CuO compound; a small fraction of electrically good conducting CuxS in the bulk CuO has produced composites with better electrical conductivity. These low-cost and non-toxic materials can be useful in thermoelectric energy conversion applications.
PubDate: 2021-01-30

• New naphthalenediimides as potential dyes for TiO 2 -sensitized solar
cells

• Abstract: Abstract In this work new naphthalenediimides (NDIs) were synthesized and used as dyes in DSSC. The efficiency (η) of the DSSC is influenced by NDIs electronic and structural characteristics. It was found a better cell performance with the NDIs which have a broader absorption band shifted to the red color, high ƹ values, and more adsorption in the anode surface. The band gaps were determinate by UV–vis and cyclic voltammetry. The LUMO orbitals of most of the NDIs are above of the conduction band (CB) energy for TiO2 allowing the electron transfer process from the NDI to the photoanode, especially in those with a significant LUMONDI-CBTi energetic difference. Also, NDIs with polar groups in their structure presented higher η values due to a better adsorption on the photoanode surface, which allows a better energy capture compared with those with lower adsorption.
PubDate: 2021-01-28

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