Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Energy, Ecology and Environment     Hybrid Journal  
Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues     Open Access  
EnviroLab Asia     Open Access  
Environment & Ecosystem Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environment and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Environment and Ecology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment and Natural Resources Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environment and Planning A : Economy and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Environment and Planning B : Urban Analytics and City Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Environment and Planning C : Politics and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Environment and Planning D : Society and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Environment and Planning E : Nature and Space     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environment and Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment Conservation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environment International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Environment Systems & Decisions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Environment, Space, Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Environmental & Engineering Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental & Socio-economic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Advances     Open Access  
Environmental and Climate Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental and Water Sciences, public Health and Territorial Intelligence Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Bioindicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Challenges     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access  
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Claims Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental DNA     Open Access  
Environmental Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Education Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Evidence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Fluid Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Forensics     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Geosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Health Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Environmental Impact Assessment Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Environmental Management and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Modeling & Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Environmental Modelling & Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability     Open Access  
Environmental Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Environmental Processes : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Science & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Environmental Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science : Atmospheres     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Water Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Science and Ecotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Science and Pollution Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Science and Sustainable Development : International Journal Of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Science: Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Sciences Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Skeptics and Critics     Open Access  
Environmental Smoke     Open Access  
Environmental Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Systems Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Technology & Innovation     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Technology Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Environmental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Values     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Environments     Open Access  
Erwerbs-Obstbau     Hybrid Journal  
eScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ethics & the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Ethics, Policy & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études caribéennes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration     Hybrid Journal  
European Energy and Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
European Environment: The Journal of European Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Evolutionary Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Expert Opinion on Environmental Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Exposure and Health     Hybrid Journal  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Working and Living Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fire Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Food and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Food and Ecological Systems Modelling Journal     Open Access  
Food and Environment Safety     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fordham Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Forest Ecology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Foresta Veracruzana     Open Access  
Forestry Chronicle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Freshwater Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Fronteiras : Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science     Open Access  
Frontier of Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Frontiers in Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Water     Open Access  
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Future Cities and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription  
Geo : Geography and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Geo-Image     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoacta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geochemical Transactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Geochronometria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geoenvironmental Disasters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
GeoHealth     Open Access  
Geology, Geophysics and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GeoScience Engineering     Open Access  
Geospatial Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geosystems and Geoenvironment     Open Access  
Global Challenges     Open Access  
Global Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Environmental Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Global Journal of Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Grassland Science     Hybrid Journal  
Green Energy & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Greenhouse Gas Measurement and Management     Hybrid Journal  
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Harvard Environmental Law Review     Free   (Followers: 12)
Health Services Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health, Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hidrobiológica     Open Access  
Historia Ambiental Latinoamericana y Caribeña     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
História, Natureza e Espaço - Revista Eletrônica do Grupo de Pesquisa NIESBF     Open Access  
Home Health Care Management & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Human & Experimental Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Human Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Hydrology: Current Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IMA Journal of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Green Technology Journal     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Indoor Air     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Information Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Informs Journal on Applied Analytics:     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental     Open Access  
Inhalation Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Innovative Infrastructure Solutions     Hybrid Journal  
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Interdisciplinary Environmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Aquatic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Acarology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Alternative Propulsion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Ecology & Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Energy and Water Resources     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environment and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

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Journal Cover
International Aquatic Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.334
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2008-4935 - ISSN (Online) 2008-6970
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Correction to: Effect of three types of liquid compost combined with
           Avicennia marina leaves on growth and survival of tiger prawns (Penaeus

    • Abstract: Due to the author’s omission to check the corrections by the journal’ imposed reviewer of English style.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Effect of three types of liquid compost combined with Avicennia marina
           leaves on growth and survival of tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    • Abstract: Abstract The sustainability of prawn farming in brackish water ponds is controversial because of low yields and a history of mangrove clearing. Low yields are due largely to insufficient preparation of pond bottoms. Mangrove trees are often planted on pond bunds as window dressing. This study examines the effect of three types of liquid compost from vegetable, fruit, and both vegetable and fruit in tanks to which whole or chopped Avicennia marina leaves have been added to mimic local pond conditions. In a split-plot design, 28 square tanks were each stocked with one hundred 15-day-old post-larvae tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon). Four tanks were used as controls and 24 were assigned to the treatments, 12 with whole and 12 with chopped leaves. Of the treatment tanks, 4 received liquid compost from vegetable, 4 received fruit, and 4 received mixed vegetable and fruit. Shrimp were weighed at the start, halfway point, and the end of the 50-day trial, and fed at 5% of the estimated total weight; survival was counted at the end. The survival rates of treatments and controls (65–76%) were not significantly different. Shrimp in water with vegetable compost grew significantly faster (2.7% day−1) than in both treatments with fruit (2.5% day−1), while all treatments were associated with significantly faster growth than were the controls (2.0% day−1). The lower growth rate of shrimp fed fruit compost may have been due to dinoflagellates, which are known to negatively affect shrimp. Shrimp in tanks with chopped mangrove leaves grew slightly better than shrimp in tanks with whole mangrove leaves.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Effects of dietary fishmeal substitution with corn gluten meal and poultry
           meal on growth rate and flesh characteristics of Chinook salmon
           (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    • Abstract: Abstract There is considerable interest in developing diets that maintain growth performance and market appeal for salmon aquaculture while relying less on fishmeal as a major ingredient. Here, we compared growth rate, survival, fat content, tissue colouration and carotenoid levels (astaxanthin) in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) fed two diets. The first diet was a typical commercial salmon diet with 59% fishmeal content, while the second diet reduced the fishmeal content to 15% (75% reduction) and substituted 28% corn gluten meal and 16% poultry meal. Over an approximately 14-month growth period, we found no significant difference between fish fed the high fishmeal or low fishmeal diet in either growth rate or survival. Individuals fed the low fishmeal diet did have 25% higher total body fat percentage than those fed the high fishmeal diet. Individuals fed the low fishmeal diet also had flesh that was significantly less red than fish fed the high fishmeal diet. Carotenoid analysis confirmed that the change in tissue colour was the result of reduced astaxanthin levels in salmon fed the low fishmeal diet. Due to the importance of red tissue colour for the market appeal of salmon, the corn gluten and poultry meal diet is not viable for salmon aquaculture in its present formulation, but our results suggest further modifications to the diet that could mitigate this effect.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Identification, partial characterization, and use of grey mullet (Mugil
           cephalus) vitellogenins for the development of ELISA and biosensor

    • Abstract: Abstract Vitellogenin (Vtg) has proven to be a sensitive and simple biomarker in determining sex, sexual maturity, and xenoestrogenic effects in fish. Thus, our investigation has been focused on identification, partial characterization, and quantification of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) Vtg through the use of a variety of biochemical and immunological analytical techniques. Mullet is considered both a promising aquaculture candidate and an important species for improving sediment quality in polyculture systems. In the first part of this work, grey mullet Vtg was purified from plasma of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced male fish by a one-step chromatographic protocol, and partially characterized. Specific polyclonal antibodies were then raised against the mullet Vtg, and both an indirect ELISA and an optical immunosensor were set up and validated to quantify plasma Vtg. The indirect ELISA and the optical immunosensor assay developed showed linear measuring in the range 56.8–1047.1 ng mL−1 and 70–739 ng mL−1 Vtg concentrations in standard solutions, respectively. The results obtained suggest that the indirect ELISA allows Vtg detection over a wide dynamic range, thus resulting more suitable for rapid and sensitive sample screening. Therefore, we suggest that the direct immunosensor is a promising tool which needs more investigation to improve the sensitivity.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Phytoplankton uptake and growth rate in the Japanese egg cockle Fulvia

    • Abstract: Abstract To clarify the relationship between the quantity of food ingested by and the growth rate of the Japanese egg cockle Fulvia mutica (Reeve), we conducted a laboratory breeding experiment for 2 weeks and estimated the chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentrations in water and the increments in shell length and soft-body weight of this species under five chl-a concentrations. Moreover, we compared the relationship between cockle growth (changes in soft-body weight and shell length) and their feeding environment observed in the laboratory experiment with the results of a field investigation conducted at two sites in the Sea of Japan, Kumihama Bay (35°38′5″ N, 134°54′00″ E) and Kunda Bay (35°33′30″ N, 135°15′4″ E). The changes in soft-body weight were similar in both laboratory and field investigations, but those in shell length were not. We, therefore, considered shell length changes as unsuitable for evaluating the relationship between growth and feeding in F. mutica. Based on the changes in soft-body weight, it was possible to classify the feeding environment of this species into the following three types: (1) < 1.52 μg chl-a L−1, negative feeding environment for cockle growth; (2) 1.52–5.71 μg chl-a L−1, neutral feeding environment for cockle growth; (3) > 5.71 μg chl-a L−1, positive feeding environment for cockle growth (growth increased with increasing chl-a concentration up to about 11 μg chl-a L−1). These results indicate that maintaining chl-a concentration in the breeding water within 5.71–11 μg chl-a L−1 is desirable for rearing Japanese egg cockle.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Evaluation of Nile tilapia in monoculture and polyculture with giant
           freshwater prawn in biofloc technology system and in recirculation
           aquaculture system

    • Abstract: Abstract Biofloc technology system (BFT), recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) and polyculture promote efficient use of water, area and nutrient recycling, which are essential practices for sustainable aquaculture development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth, feed efficiency, biofloc composition and water quality of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in monoculture and polyculture with giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1906) in BFT and RAS, over a period of 30 days. Fish (n = 128; 7.29 ± 0.67 g) were distributed randomly in 16 experimental tanks (8 fish/tank). Prawn (n = 96; 0.50 ± 0.09 g) were allocated in 8 experimental tanks (12 prawn/tank) in a polyculture. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments with four replicates each, in a factorial design 2 × 2 (BFT and RAS vs. monoculture and polyculture). The experimental diet (28% of digestible protein; 3100 kcal kg−1 of digestible energy) was used both to fish and prawn in BFT and RAS. There was significant effect (p < 0.01) of the system and the culture for weight gain, apparent feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio. The average weight gain and apparent feed conversion of tilapia in monoculture (30.04 g and 1.39) and in polyculture (36.44 g and 1.27) were superior (p < 0.01) in BFT than in monoculture (23.64 g and 1.74) and in polyculture (24.14 g and 1.61) in RAS. Weight gain and survival of giant freshwater prawn was superior (p < 0.01) in BFT (0.43 g and 87%) compared to RAS (0.26 g and 79%). The data showed that BFT provides better growth performance responses in monoculture for Nile tilapia and in polyculture with giant freshwater prawn compared to RAS.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Effects of Corbicula fluminea on the nutrient concentration and
           phytoplankton biomass of tropical reservoirs

    • Abstract: Abstract Invasive bivalves are known to negatively impact aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Previous research has demonstrated invasive bivalves can shift nutrients from the water column to the sediment, harm native bivalves, and reduce phytoplankton biomass. However, bivalve effects vary with species and the region where the invasion occurs. Therefore, we used mesocosm experiments to examine the impact of invasive Corbicula fluminea on nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass in the water column of mesotrophic and eutrophic Puerto Rican reservoirs. We used four treatments to determine the effect of C. fluminea on the water column. We found C. fluminea did not have a significant effect on the ammonium, nitrate, or phosphorus concentration in either the mesotrophic or eutrophic mesocosm experiments. Additionally, C. fluminea presence did not significantly alter phytoplankton biomass, though Synedra dominated the phytoplankton community when C. fluminea were absent. While C. fluminea may not have caused an effect in the water column as it was potentially phytoplankton limited, the mesocosm experiment conditions reflect the natural environment, indicating phytoplankton limitation could be an issue in the reservoirs. Our findings suggest C. fluminea does not have a large effect on nutrient concentration or phytoplankton biomass in eutrophic and mesotrophic Puerto Rican reservoirs. This study represents the first effort to examine the effects of C. fluminea presence on the water column of a tropical reservoir.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Effect of microalga-based diet on oxidative stress enzymes of African
           catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    • Abstract: Abstract Here an indigenously isolated microalgal strain Ascochloris spp. cultivated in synthetic medium was evaluated as an aquaculture feed supplement. The daily dietary supplement includes microalgal feed (AF) and commercial diet feed (CF) (as control), respectively. These diets were fed separately to the juvenile Clarias gariepinus fishes (n = 4) under controlled conditions for an experimental period of 100 days. The protein, glycogen and lipid contents in the muscle extracts were found to be marginally higher in fishes that were fed with CF than AF diet. Similarly, CF fishes showed significantly higher glutathione-s-transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidase activities, except glutathione content. Zero mortality of the fishes with no significant difference in the overall body mass with the two dietary supplements strongly suggests that algal biomass could supplement the requisite nutrients for their metabolic activities. This preliminary investigation helps in exploring algal biomass as a potential alternative feed additive in the aquaculture industry.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Habitat-specific effects of interstitial space between stream substrate
           particles on the colonization of aquatic organisms

    • Abstract: Abstract We examined the effects of interstitial space between stream substrate particles on the colonization of aquatic organisms using three types of substrates (gravel, a cobble, and a cobble on gravel) in a riffle and pool of a temperate stream. Significantly greater abundance, wet weight, diversity (H′), taxonomic richness, and evenness of aquatic organisms were found in the riffle than in the pool, and the interstitial space substrate (i.e., a cobble on gravel) had significantly greater abundance, wet weight, and taxonomic richness of aquatic organisms than did the cobble substrate. Of the 13 families observed in the experiments, larval net-spinning caddisfly (Hydropsychidae) dominated the riffle in terms of the abundance and wet weight; chironomid larvae dominated both the riffle and the pool in terms of abundance. Simple main effect tests indicated significant effects of substrate on the abundance and wet weight of larval caddisfly in the riffle, and post hoc tests on substrate in each habitat indicated that the abundance and wet weight of larval caddisfly on interstitial space substrate were significantly greater than those on cobble substrate in the riffle. Our results suggest the importance of interstitial space between stream substrates in riffles to ensure higher colonization rates of aquatic organisms such as larval net-spinning caddisflies characterized as filter feeders.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Effect of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) on glycogen content and on the
           activities of selected enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in
           freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

    • Abstract: Abstract Heavy metals show a wide range of effect on fishes, out of which arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are among the leading heavy metal toxicants. These heavy metals are known to alter different biochemical parameters, including glycogen level, in different tissues of fishes. Glycogen level in fish serves as the main source of energy; hence, in this study, the acute toxicity test of As and Pb and their effect on the glycogen content and the enzymes involved therein (glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen synthase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) were studied in the liver and muscle tissues of Heteropneustes fossilis. The 96 h LC50 values of As2O3 and PbCl2 on H. fossilis were found to be 35.09 ppm and 66.20 ppm, respectively. On acute exposure to 96 h LC50 values of As2O3 and PbCl2, the glycogen concentration showed a gradual decrease in both liver and muscle tissues of H. fossilis. However, on chronic exposure (LC50/20th ppm), the glycogen content in liver and muscle of H. fossilis was depleted till 20 days; whereas after 30 days, the glycogen level was recovered in both the tissues. The activities of glycogen metabolic enzymes (glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase) and few selected glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) were also altered in H. fossilis when exposed to acute and chronic concentration of As2O3 and PbCl2. Our present results showed that As and Pb induced toxicity stress on the catfish, H. fossilis, which might have caused to alter the carbohydrate metabolism in the fish.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • A novel cytochrome P450 1D1 gene in Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis
           niloticus): partial cDNA cloning and expression following benzo-a-pyrene

    • Abstract: Abstract To understand the detoxification and bioactivation mechanisms for organic contaminants, it is essential to identify the cytochrome P450 (CYP) complement. Therefore, this study aimed to clone a partial cDNA sequence of the novel CYP1D1 gene from the fish Oreochromis niloticus and examine whether intraperitoneal injection of benzo-a-pyrene (BaP), a potent AHR agonist, is capable of inducing CYP1D1 mRNA expression in different tilapia fish tissues. The cloned nucleotide sequence consisted of 713 bp representing a portion of the tilapia CYP1D1 cDNA ORF, encoding 237 amino acids. Amino acid sequence comparison of O. niloticus CYP1D1 with the sequences of CYP1D1 from other species showed that this gene shared the highest identity of 81% with Fundulus heteroclitus CYP1D1. Furthermore, analysis of the percent identities shared by the deduced amino acid sequence of O. niloticus CYP1D1 with the sequences of CYP1 from other species revealed that the highest identities were shared with fish CYP1As. Real-time PCR results revealed that the highest expression level of CYP1D1 mRNA was found in muscles, followed by gills, liver, and intestine, while there was no detectable expression recorded in bile acid. These results indicate that tilapia CYP1D1 plays an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, expanding our knowledge regarding the diversity of CYP1 genes in this important model fish species.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • How planktonic microcrustaceans respond to environment and affect
           ecosystem: a functional trait perspective

    • Abstract: Abstract Functional traits are ecologically relevant characteristics of species. They are relevant to community structuring in face of environmental drivers (response traits) and to ecosystem processes (effect traits). For planktonic microcrustaceans, the link between functional traits and their responses or effects is not always clear. Our objective was to review the literature on linking functional traits to environmental drivers and ecosystem processes for planktonic cladocerans and copepods. Response traits are discussed in four categories: morphological, life history, behavioral, or physiological. Temperature, predation, resources, and stressors are important drivers of morphological and life-history traits. Body size, a morphological trait, is probably the most important trait, because it responds to several environmental characteristics and is correlated with physiological traits and to zooplankton impact on ecosystems functions. In an ecosystem perspective, zooplankton is an important energy link between primary producers and secondary consumers. In trophic webs, it may control phytoplankton biomass and productivity, with consequences for whole lakes. Its influence on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles is expected to increase with body size. Other traits may be important, but there is a lack of information. We point out the need of more functional trait research, especially with freshwater copepods and neglected tropical species. For a better understanding of natural systems, an integrative approach of multiple traits with multiple environmental drivers and ecosystem functions is necessary.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Use of sodium bicarbonate as an inexpensive general anesthetic for
           juvenile red tilapia hybrids

    • Abstract: Abstract In the context of responsible handling and good welfare practices, fish must be anesthetized to lessen the effects of the stressors to the fish. There are a number of commercially available anesthetics that are being marketed, but some of these products are not easily accessed by fish farmers in some aquaculture sites particularly those in the rural areas or these chemicals are expensive for the small-scale fish farmers to purchase. The use of sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda, was tested as an alternative and inexpensive anesthetic during fish handling and transport using red tilapia hybrids as a model fish species. Red tilapia hybrid juveniles with weights ranging 1–4.5 g were exposed to two concentrations of sodium bicarbonate at 50 and 100 g l−1 in both fresh- and brackishwater (20 ppt) conditions. Regardless of the dose of the anesthetic, juvenile red tilapias that were reared in brackishwater took a longer time to be fully anesthetized than those reared in freshwater. In both rearing environments, the concentration of the anesthetic has an effect on the time to induce anesthesia of the fish. In addition, the time to full recovery of the fish was not significantly different in both rearing environments and was not affected by the dose of the anesthetic. A concentration of at least 50 g l−1 is recommended for anaesthetizing red tilapia hybrid juveniles in both rearing environments at water temperatures in the range of 26–29 °C.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of skin mucus of three carp

    • Abstract: Abstract Studies were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial potency of skin mucus collected from three carp species; Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and Cyprinus carpio (exotic to India) against certain human and fish pathogenic bacterial strains viz. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. The antimicrobial activities were measured in terms of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in mm and compared with two antibiotics (amikacin and chloramphenicol). All selected fish species were also challenged with A. hydrophila through water to check, if there is any change in mucus secretion or its antibacterial effects. Studies have shown that after challenge with A. hydrophila, an increase in mucus secretion was observed in all the three species of carps. Skin mucus extracts (crude and aqueous) obtained from healthy and challenged fish species exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all the investigated microbial strains. Variations in antibacterial effect have been observed among same fish (in healthy and challenged) and amidst different carp species against same and different bacterial strains. In general, crude mucus of all the fish species showed higher bactericidal action than its aqueous extracts and antibiotic chloramphenicol. Hence, these results have clearly revealed that the mucus obtained from fish skin shows antibacterial activity which may play an important role in fish protection against pathogens and thus there appears to be a possibility of using mucus obtained from the skin of carps as an alternative to antibiotics in animals and possibly also in human health related problems.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Seawater tolerance and morphological assessment of yearling sea trout
           (Salmo trutta L.)

    • Abstract: Abstract To study seawater tolerance and make a morphological assessment of yearling sea trout, their maturation and smoltification signs were estimated in two different fish rearing systems in Latvia,—in recirculating and flow-through system. For yearling sea trout (Salmo trutta L.), fish hypo-osmoregulatory ability was evaluated using seawater tolerance test, also fish morphological parameters were analyzed from January to May. April and May are months when smoltification occurs for wild sea trout in nature. Sea trout from recirculating system initially showed better growth, higher survival rate, and hypo-osmoregulatory ability, due to the elevated rearing water temperature. However, the situation completely changed in May when natural smoltification peaked and wild sea trout migration to the sea occurred—survival rate for yearling sea trout reared in recirculating system dropped to zero. Nevertheless, survival of fish from flow-through system increased, reaching 33%. Furthermore, in flow-through systems, sea trout that survived had significantly lower condition factor, also silvering level was higher compared those who did not survive. Weight was not a useful factor for determination of sea trout smoltification. The most part of yearling sea trout did not smoltify at the age of 1 year and should be reared for one more year before release in natural watercourses foreseen for migration to the sea.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Melanin-containing feedstuffs protect Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot
           syndrome virus

    • Abstract: Abstract Viral diseases are a serious issue for the shrimp aquaculture industry. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been considered one of the most dangerous pathogens infecting cultured shrimp, causing a mortality rate as high as 100% within 7–10 days of viral infection. So far, several protocols have been applied to protect shrimp against virus attacks, but their protection efficiency is very limited. In this study, for the first time, three melanin-containing feedstuffs (F1, F2, and F3) were formulated and fed to cultured shrimp to investigate the ability of melanin to protect shrimp from WSSV. The obtained results showed that F2 had a protection rate of 64% at day 7 and 62% at day 10 after virus challenge. The protection ability of the feedstuff depended on the amount of melanin consumed by shrimp. Moreover, our results also demonstrated that the transcription level of the VP28 gene, which codes for the VP28 protein, a representative for the presence of WSSV, was significantly decreased in shrimp fed F2. Taken together, our study suggests that melanin-containing diets may be applied in aquaculture to protect shrimp against WSSV infection; further, combined protocols with the simultaneous use of melanin-containing diets and other protectants should be studied and applied to increase the protection efficiency.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Development of a system for measuring calcitonin in the stingray Dasyatis
           akajei (a cartilaginous fish): the possible involvement of stingray
           calcitonin in gonadal development

    • Abstract: Abstract To elucidate the physiological role of calcitonin (CT) in stingrays (cartilaginous fish), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system using a specific antibody against stingray CT has been developed. Synthetic stingray CT was subcutaneously injected into mice four times—once every 2 weeks—together with an adjuvant. We purified the IgG antibody fraction using the protein A affinity chromatography from collected antiserum. Evaluating the antibody titer, we found the antibody’s optimum dilution ratio to be 600 times. Competitive ELISA has been developed using the antibody diluted 600 times. Our antibody did not cross-react with teleost CTs and muscle extraction, but cross-reacted with stingray plasma and the extract of the ultimobranchial gland, the secretary organ of stingray CT. Using this ELISA, we measured the plasma CT level in stingrays and examined its correlation with several mineral concentrations. Plasma CT did not show significant correlation to calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, or urea, although there was a correlation among the factors involved in osmoregulation, such as sodium, chlorine, and urea. On the other hand, plasma CT was significantly correlated to body weight and length. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between plasma CT and gonad weight. Since plasma CT was correlated with the weight of liver, which is involved in the synthesis of egg yolk protein, we examined the influence of 17β-estradiol (E2) on CT secretion. After E2 injection, the plasma CT level increased significantly. This is the first study to demonstrate that E2 induced plasma CT secretion in cartilaginous fish.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Ammonia toxicity in Southern King Crab (Lithodes santolla, Molina 1742)

    • Abstract: Abstract Effects of ammonia on zoea I of the Southern King Crab, Lithodes santolla (Decapoda, Lithodidae) were analyzed through acute (96 h) and chronic (29 days in total) assays (seven total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations: 9, 15, 25, 41, 67, 110, and 182 mg L−1, plus control). The estimated LC50-96 h was 107.97 mg TAN L−1 (1.93 mg NH3-N L−1), while the safe level of ammonia was 10.79 mg TAN L−1 (0.19 mg NH3-N L−1). Survival was highest in the three lowest ammonia concentrations throughout 96 h (93.3%, 90% and 93.3% in 9, 15 and 25 mg TAN L−1, respectively). In chronic assays, the percentage of survival decreased along with the exposure time and the ammonia concentration. Zoeae´s mean life time tended to increase almost gradually with the increment of ammonia concentration. Mean molting time from zoea I to II was 4.06 days, while it increased from zoea II to III, and zoea III to the post-larval stage (6.00 and 8.39 more days, respectively) with ammonia concentration. The percentage of individuals that have molted in every molt stage tended to decrease while ammonia concentration increased. Therefore, the results obtained in the present study bring new information about ammonia toxicity in early stages of development of crab Lithodes santolla, an important commercial species of the Beagle Channel.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Metabolic differentiation of diploid and triploid European sea bass

    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of triploidy were studied on indices of growth and metabolism in juvenile European sea bass. Ploidy affected flesh quality of Dicentrachus labrax, as protein and water contents were significantly higher in triploid than in diploid fish and triploid fish exhibited significantly lower lipid content. Compared to 2n fish, triploid fish exhibited 53.4% and 28.6% more DNA and RNA, respectively, 17.2% higher RNA/DNA ratio and 28.7% more protein/DNA ratio. The activities of the aerobic metabolism enzyme CCO and the glycolytic LDH of the muscle tissue were significantly higher in the triploid fish. Nevertheless, the ratio of these two enzymes was lower in the triploids, indicating metabolic difference in the potential for aerobic metabolism. The increased activity of LDH may reflect a potential shift towards anaerobic metabolism required under demanding conditions, for example, during burst swimming, confirming the effects of ploidy on the aerobic swimming capacity of fish. The increased CCO activity of triploids observed in the present work indicates an effect of ploidy on the capacity for aerobic metabolism of triploid fish.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
  • Microalgae Ankistrodesmus gracilis as feed ingredient for ornamental fish
           Xiphophorus maculatus

    • Abstract: Abstract A trial evaluated the effectiveness of macrophytes, Azolla caroliniana (AAC) and Lemna minor (ALM) as a culture media for microalgae Ankistrodesmus gracilis, and their possible use as feed ingredient for ornamental fish. Water quality in all aquariums was adequate for the growth of Xiphophorus maculatus, whilst pH acidity in inert diet (ID) treatment and high content of P in AAC diet treatment did not interfere in fish development. Growth performance parameters were higher (P < 0.05) in ALM diet treatment, except condition factor and feed conversion ratio, with similar rates (P > 0.05) in all diet treatments. Survival was above 75% and total length was similar (P > 0.05) for ID and AAC diet treatments. Lipid levels ranged between 7 and 11%, and was enough to maintain high survival rates (> 80%) and weight gain above 0.42 g to mixed diet (AAC and ALM) and 0.27 g to inert diet. Ankistrodesmus gracilis and macrophytes as a culture media are useful as functional ingredients, because biomass may be incorporated with the food supplement for X. maculatus to enhance nutrition quality and to maintain high growth performance. Although A. caroliniana and L. minor may be used with culture media, L. minor provided the best results to microalgae growth biomass and ornamental fish.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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