Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nano Select     Open Access  
Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Nativa     Open Access  
Natur und Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Natural Resources     Open Access  
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources and Environmental Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Nature-Based Solutions     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Environmental Science     Open Access  
NeuroToxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Neurotoxicology and Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Environmental Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
NJAS : Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Observatorio Medioambiental     Open Access  
Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ochrona Srodowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych : Environmental Protection and Natural Resources     Open Access  
Oecologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Oikos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
One Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Open Environmental Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Our Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pace Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Particle and Fibre Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastos y Forrajes     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physio-Géo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pittsburgh Journal of Environmental and Public Health Law     Open Access  
Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Planeta Amazônia : Revista Internacional de Direito Ambiental e Políticas Públicas     Open Access  
Planning & Environmental Law: Issues and decisions that impact the built and natural environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Plant Ecology & Diversity     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant, Cell & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Plant-Environment Interactions     Open Access  
Plants, People, Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Political Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Population and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Population Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Presence: Virtual and Augmented Reality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Producción + Limpia     Open Access  
Progress in Disaster Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Projets de Paysage     Open Access  
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Public Money & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Quaternary     Open Access  
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
REDER : Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos sobre Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres     Open Access  
Regional Environmental Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rekayasa     Open Access  
Remediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Renewable Energy and Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Resources     Open Access  
Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rethinking Ecology     Open Access  
Reuse/Recycle Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista AIDIS de Ingeniería y Ciencias Ambientales. Investigación, desarrollo y práctica     Open Access  
Revista Ambivalências     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Meio Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Ciência, Tecnologia & Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Ambiental e Socioambientalismo     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade - GeAS     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación en Agroproducción Sustentable     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Ambiental     Open Access  
Revista ECOVIDA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Eletrônica de Gestão e Tecnologias Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista Geama     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana Ambiente & Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
Revista Kawsaypacha: Sociedad y Medio Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Laborativa     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Mundi Meio Ambiente e Agrárias     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sociedad y Ambiente     Open Access  
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
South Australian Geographical Journal     Open Access  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern African Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure     Hybrid Journal  
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Horizons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Technology and Entrepreneurship     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sustinere : Journal of Environment and Sustainability     Open Access  
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Ring     Open Access  
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Transactions on Environment and Electrical Engineering     Open Access  
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 230)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
UNM Environmental Journals     Open Access  
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Urban Transformations     Open Access  
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Wilderness & Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
  • Chemical and microbial contamination of herbal remedies and their
           potential health implications: A review

    • Authors: Gilbert U. Adie; Chidiebere Chinonso Ogbonna.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2022,12(2:54-73
      Abstract: Herbal medicines are generally regarded as safe based on their long-standing use in various cultures. However, there are case reports of serious adverse effects after administration of herbal products. In a lot of cases, the toxicity has been traced to contaminants and adulteration. Assessment of the safety of herbal products, therefore, is the first priority in herbal research. This paper critically reviews a number of publications on the safety of herbal remedies consumed in Nigeria and across the globe. It was observed that most of the herbal remedies contain several chemical and microbial contaminants of priority concern. Even though reported at low concentrations, most times within the threshold limits set by regulatory bodies, continuous consumption may pose serious health challenge as most of these contaminants have ability to bio-accumulate and biomagnify in the cells/tissues of consumers. Furthermore, there is dearth in information on speciation studies on some of the contaminants; therefore it is proposed that future research should include as a major component speciation studies of the contaminants as the different forms of them exhibit different physico-chemical properties including toxicities. The study concludes by suggesting measures of improving the quality of herbal medicines consumed in Nigeria and gaps that exist in literature.
       
  • Cyanobacterial diversity in different sites and seasons of Gossaigaon
           Subdivision, Assam, India

    • Authors: R. R. Basumatary; M. Das, R. Das, S. I. Bhuyan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2022,12(2:74-88
      Abstract: The present study was carried out of cyanobacterial distribution in three different selected sites of Gossaigaon subdivision, BTR, Assam, India, during June 2015 - July 2016 covering four different seasons only in aquatic environment. Altogether 92 species, belonging to 34 genera and 10 families were found. The maximum number of species was recorded from the family Nostocaceae with 25 species. Among these 42 were simple non-heterocystous, 50 were heterocystous filamentous. Among non-heterocystous forms 36 species were unicellular colonial forms. Studies say habitats have distinct cyanobacterial microflora, but the different sites in different geographical regions evidently fluctuate in their diversity as well as in local climatic conditions. Cyanobacteria can be used for practical purposes in different ways. Even in many countries, cyanobacteria are harvested locally from lake, pond and river to use in different purposes.
       
  • Assessing the effects of wetlands fragmentation and degradation in Silte
           Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    • Authors: Mohammed Essa; Solomon Ummer.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2022,12(2:89-98
      Abstract: Wetlands are one-of-a-kind environments that provide services throughout the year, both in the dry and rainy seasons. They are, nonetheless, the terrain that is most threatened by human activity. As a result, the purpose of this research was to look into the effects of wetland fragmentation in the Silte zone in Southern Ethiopia. The households were chosen at random from a total of 140. The data was examined with descriptive statistics and econometrics model analysis in SPSS version 20 / Stata version 16. The findings reveal that local populations in the research area are aware of the direct benefits of wetlands but are less aware of the indirect benefits. Improper agricultural operations, settlement growth, overgrazing, deforestation, and sand extraction were identified as important factors of wetland degradation in the study. Logistic regression model demonstrated a significant (p less than 0.01 or p less than 0.05) relationship between deforestation, degradation, settlement, institutional effectiveness, overgrazing, distance from the wetland and population pressure The findings from this study provide significant clues for further research and baseline information for local government and communities in the development of more effective and holistic approaches for reducing wetland degradation in natural ecosystems.In spite of the complexity and multifaceted nature of the problems, however, there is no quick and one-off solution to redress the threats being faced to Mendifa wetland. In order to reverse these emerging problems and conserve these fragile but crucial wetlands, integrated problem solving approach through realizing the collaboration of relevant stakeholders from policy level down to grassroots community is indispensible opportunity to the wetlands.
       
  • Effects of biological fertilizers, EDTA chelate, urban compost and biochar
           on corn root remediation

    • Authors: Sadegh Bahamin; Abbas Maleki, Javad Dawoudian, Behrouz Khalil Tahmasebi, Shohreh Azizi, Shamsolah Asgari.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2022,12(2:99-112
      Abstract: This study was carried out based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Ilam (Iran) under greenhouse conditions in 2019. This design includes biological fertilizer factor at two levels of inoculation and non-inoculation, mycorrhiza fungus at two levels of consumption and non-consumption, and fertilizer at four levels that include control treatment, EDTA chelate, urban compost and biochar application on the absorption of heavy metals, phytoremediation power and corn yield. In this study, the concentration of zinc, cadmium, Cadmium, nickel and chromium in the root as well as grain yield, TF indicator (transfer factor), BCF (biological aggregation factor), and BAC (biological aggregation coefficient) were measured. The data were analyzed with SAS software using Duncan's multiple range test. The highest transfer factor and BAC value were 1.82 and 1.59 respectively in the biochar treatment, mycorrhiza treatment, and bacterial inoculation, but there was no significant difference with the use of EDTA chelating agent or urban compost consumption. Furthermore, the lowest value of transfer factor and BAC were 0.59 and 0.76 respectively in the treatment of non-consumption of fertilizer levels. At different levels of control treatment (including bacterial inoculation or non-bacterial inoculation and consumption or non-consumption of mycorrhizae), BAC in the root was always lower than different levels of biochar consumption, EDTA chelating agent, and urban compost. The maximum BCF was obtained in the control treatment, compost consumption and non-bacterial inoculation at 1.2. In general, non-consuming any type of fertilizer increased this index. Moreover, the highest colonization was obtained in the biochar treatment, consumption of mycorrhiza, and bacterial inoculation at 39.7%. In this study, it was found that separate use of urban compost, especially biochar and EDTA chelating agent, as well as combination of these fertilizers with mycorrhizae and bacteria have increased the absorption of heavy elements in the roots and improved the potential of corn for phytoremediation.
       
  • Variation in soil organic carbon stocks in three tropical dry deciduous
           forests of Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Debojyoti Raha; Javid Ahmad Dar, Subashree Kothandaraman, Mohammed Latif Khan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2022,12(1:1-16
      Abstract: Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in tropical dry deciduous forests is imperative to know their contribution in regulating the regional and global carbon (C) cycles. In the present study, three forest types: dry deciduous teak (DDTF), dry deciduous mixed (DDMF) and Boswellia (BF) forests were selected to assess the variation in SOC and the factors influencing it. The SOC stocks (0-50 cm) varied significantly within and among the forest types and ranged from 48.7 (BF) to 89.1 (DDTF) Mg C/ha (mean: 64.6 +- 9.7 Mg C/ha). The differences observed could be due to variations in organic matter input, quality and quantity of litter produced, topography, vegetation composition, soil bulk density, soil moisture and soil depth. The total mean SOC stocks at 0-10, 10.1-30 and 30.1-50 cm depths were 19.2, 24.4 and 21.0 Mg C/ha, respectively. The SOC showed significant positive relationships with soil organic matter (r equals to 0.79, P less than 0.01), soil moisture (r equals to 0.41, P less than 0.01), aspect (r equals to 0.52, P less than 0.01) and dominance (r equals to 0.53, P less than 0.01), which accounted for 66.8, 15.7, 8.4 and 5.6% of variance. This study provided an understanding of the SOC stock variation among three tropical dry deciduous forest types in the Central Indian landscape and identified the roles of different drivers in SOC storage.
       
  • Carbon stock and climate change mitigation potential of Godebe National
           Park, North West Ethiopia

    • Authors: Muhabaw Taju; Adamsew Marelign.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2022,12(1:17-30
      Abstract: Forest plays a crucial role in climate change mitigation by sequestering and retaining carbon in above and below-ground biomass of trees, dead tree and deadwood biomass, litter biomass, and soil. Thus, the study was conducted to estimate the carbon stock potential of Godebe National Park, North Western Ethiopia. The field data were collected through systematic random sampling techniques from the 20 m by 20 m area of 44 sample plots. The above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, deadwood biomass of the study area was collected from 20 m by 20 m area of the main plot, while the soil sample and litter biomass were collected from 1 m by 1 m area of subplots, which located at the four corners and one at the center of the main plot. The carbon stock of different carbon pools was estimated using different selective allometric and mathematical models and analyzed by statistical package for social science (SPSS) software version 23. The result showed that the mean carbon stock of each carbon pool such as above-ground carbon, below-ground carbon, deadwood carbon, litter carbon, and soil organic carbon accounted for about 338.893, 67.779, 5.43, 2.56 and 109.34 t/ha, respectively. The carbon stock variation along different strata (Acacia Woodland, Combretum Terminalia woodland and Riverine Forest) indicated that statistically significant effect was observed on carbon pools of the study area at alpha (0.05). The ultimate result showed that the study area stored and sequestered 523.948 ton of carbon per ha and 1922.887 tone CO2 equivalents per ha respectively. Although the national park is newly established it hasa great potential on carbon sequestration and such biodiversity conservation effort should be strengthened.
       
  • Inferring palaeoenvironments from geochemical studies of intrabasaltic
           palaeosols from the Deccan Volcanic Province, India

    • Authors: M. M. Shaikh; M. R. G. Sayyed.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2022,12(1:31-43
      Abstract: Three well exposed intrabasaltic palaeosol (bole bed) profiles from the Deccan traps of Ambheri area (Satara district of Maharashtra, India) were studied for their geochemical characteristics to infer the palaeoenvironmental conditions which prevailed during their development. The values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) obtained for the rocks under study suggest that the red boles were formed under incipient to extreme chemical weathering with much more leaching of mobile elements and concomitant enrichment of immobile elements. This is also confirmed by lower values of Parker's Weathering Index (PWI) and Weathering Potential Index (WPI). Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) and Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) values in general point to moderate rainfall and temperature. The oxic and acidic conditions are inferred from the values of Iron Species Ratio (and Gleization) and Product Index (and Clayeyness). Lower calcination and salinization values suggest semi-humid to humid (also supported by Aridity Index, AIkoppen), fairly leached and well drained conditions.
       
  • Distribution and population structure of Pterocarpus santalinus (Red
           sanders) in hill ranges of Kadapa region, Southern Eastern Ghats, India

    • Authors: C. Ankalaiah; M. Sridhar Reddy.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2022,12(1:44-53
      Abstract: The present study involves the inventory of the four growth stages, seedling, sapling, juvenile trees and trees of Red sanders in tropical dry deciduous forests in hill ranges of Kadapa region. A total of 20 (1 ha) study sites were laid and in each of the study site, a total of ten (10 by 100 m) belt transacts were randomly laid to enumerate the growth stages. The objective is to derive quantitative information about the population of Red sanders in its natural occurrence area. Results indicated that seedlings are the dominant growth-form across the hill ranges and juvenile trees showed high variation in their distribution. The suffrutex stage, justified by the presence of multiple stems; among seedlings and saplings seems to play a major role in Red sanders regeneration success to overcome the prevailing drought, hot weather conditions and fire. The general population structure in reference to four growth stages of Red sanders was: seedlings GT saplings GT juvenile trees LT Adult trees. Although inverse J shape population structure was recorded for the whole study area, variations in population structure profiles were noticed at one ha level. The occurrence of Red sanders abundance along the elevation revealed that lower elevation sites featured lower tree density and it reached maximum at 400-600 m and decreased later till 600-900 m. Overall Red sanders can be ranked as the dominant trees in these forests, but the progression of sapling stage to established stage like juvenile tree and trees is the bottleneck in the progression of population of Red sanders rather than the seedling germination and survival rates.
       
  • Amphibian diversity, endemism and habitat associations within and outside
           the selected mining sites in Caraga Region, Philippines

    • Authors: Adam Roy V. Galolo; Cesar G. Demayo, Cinderella D. Raganas, Sheryll L. Paz.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(4:159-187
      Abstract: Being archipelagic, the Philippines has been recognized as one of the centers of high amphibian diversity and endemism. However, the overlap of mining areas with the habitats of these critical environmental indicators has continuously challenged their existence. Thus, we conducted a study assessing the diversity, endemism, habitat associations, and survival envelopes of amphibian species within and outside of the selected mining sites in Caraga region, Philippines. We have documented thirty-four amphibian species, 15 of which are endemic to the country with four solely distributed species in Mindanao Faunal Region. Eleven species were found vulnerable and one near-threatened based on the IUCN classification. Endemism and species diversity were observed to be higher outside than inside of the mining area. It is argued that these results could be attributed to the loss of habitat and forest fragmentation within the mined area. The observed anuran species prefer forest habitat than in an open/disturbed area; however, some of these forest-associates extend their survival envelope at the forest and non-forest area interface. Survival envelopes or niche widths of forest and globally threatened species are narrow, explaining why their populations decline worldwide. The presence of endemic and globally threatened species in the area is inkling for some conservation efforts to be in place, especially for populations with low abundance in the area, such as P. poecilus, L. parvus, N. spinosus and P. acutirostris.
       
  • Evaluation of water quality and risk of water level declines in semi arid
           wetland: case of study in the Macta marshes, Algeria

    • Authors: Fakhr Eddine Tahar Lakhdari; Zahira Souidi, Khatir Benhanifia, Souad Mouassa.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(4:188-206
      Abstract: The main objective of this research is to diagnose the environment of the Macta marshes located in Northwestern Algeria by taking into account their wealth and ecological functioning as a site of importance for Mediterranean biodiversity. This study is aimed in particular at managers of remarkable sites and those interested in the protection of the environment in Algeria. The methodology adopted is based on a spatiotemporal analysis of climatic and hydrologic data as well as on physicochemical analyses of surface water The results obtained demonstrate a long-term risk of the marshes desiccation and pollution by a concentration of high nitrates and phosphates, and high dissolved oxygen levels that induce eutrophication, as well as higher BOD5 values that indicate a high organic load. The follow-up of the organic pollution index "OPI" shows that the water of the Macta marshes is heavily polluted due to untreated domestic and industrial wastewater discharges as well as the intensive use of fertilizers which threaten the different habitats and the ecological functioning of this ecosystem.
       
  • Evaluation of three algal strains isolated for bioremediation of
           environmental pollutants

    • Authors: Mehrdad Asadian; Barat Ali Fakheri, Ahmad Farhad Talebi, Nafiseh Mahdinezhad, Shahrokh Gharanjik.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(4:104-126
      Abstract: Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the removal of various pollutants by three newly isolated macroalgae strains from Miankaleh wetland. These strains were selected from 11 different isolates (including 8 micro and 3 macroalgal strains) based on their growth kinetic parameters. The effect of variables such as light intensity, CO2 concentration and concentration of wastewater on the biosorption of nitrate, nitrite, phosphate as well as the rate of CO2 sequestration were investigated using a Central Composite Design (CCD) method. Multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that all three species of algae were able to significantly remove the nutrient elements and sequester CO2. A maximum nitrate removal of 91%, nitrite removal of 92%, phosphate removal of 95% and CO2 sequestration of 30-60% was obtained using the biosorption kinetics under optimum conditions. Our results clearly confirm the ability of the studied strains in bioremediation of environmental pollutants. Moreover, the dynamics of phytoplankton populations in the Miankaleh wetland were surveyed using remote sensing information. The findings support the hypothesis that the high concentration of algal pigment in the wetland is correlated to the ability of the studied strains in bioremediation of environmental pollutants; a direct correlation exists between the prone algal biomass and thepotential of carbon capture in the aquatic ecosystems.
       
  • Pioneer community level syntaxonomy of forests of lesser Himalayan belt of
           upper Tanawal Mansehra, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Farooq; Waleed Anjum, Khalid Rasheed Khan, Abbas Hussain Shah, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Manzoor Hussain, Azhar Mehmood.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(4:127-136
      Abstract: The present study is the first comprehensive investigation of forest communities of 127 stands in Upper Tanawal forests by quadrat method. Based on phytosociological analysis, the composition and distribution of tree species were described quantitatively on the basis of their IVI values using TWINSPAN classification. With the help of IVI values of tree species from 127 sampling station, TWINSPAN classified 20 tree communities. The occurrence of huge numbers of tree communities is due to restriction of single plant habit. Our investigation revealed that the diversity of trees species in this region decreases with increase in the elevation. Pinus wallichiana were observed the most dominant tree species at higher altitudinal areas. From 2 sampling sites, i.e. 2200 m and 2300 m of altitudes, pure coniferous community of Taxus-Abies-Pinus wallichiana was documented with only these three tree species. It was observed that the tree species like Picea smithiana, Abies pindrow, Rhododendron arboretum, Cedrus deodara, Taxus baccata and Quercus spp were rare in study area. All the tree communities as well as their associated biodiversity should be conserved and protected to ensure the future existence of these forest lands.
       
  • Reclamation of fly ash dykes using naturally growing plant species

    • Authors: Neelima Meravi; Santosh Kumar Prajapati.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(4:137-148
      Abstract: The present study was conducted over a period of three years on fly ash dyke. The physicochemical analysis of fly ash (pH, WHC, BD, porosity, EC% OC and available P, heavy metal content etc) was performed before and after the growth of plant species. Fly ash was analyzed after concentrated nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-7000 (Shimadzu) for heavy metals. The dyke was colonized by the propagules of native species over a period of time and it was observed that fly ash was contaminated by heavy metals and plants were able to ameliorate the metal concentration of dyke. The growth of plant species also improved the condition of fly ash so that it can be used for agricultural purposes. Phytosociological studies of the fly ash dyke were performed so that these plants may be used for reclamation of fly ash for subsequent use in agriculture.
       
  • Cadmium and lead absorption in soil and plants of Cercis siliquastrum and
           Ailanthus altissima

    • Authors: Azam Sadat Delbari; Bita Afsordeh, Elahe Aghaee.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(4:149-158
      Abstract: The plant growing on pollution area could represent a specific flora having potential hyperaccumulators, accumulators and excluder species. This study examines lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in two parks soils, leaves, and one-year branch trees in Alborz, Iran, and its potential phytoremediation. In this research, Ailanthus altissima and Cercis siliquastrum were selected among the species planted in the city of Karaj and investigated the absorption capacity of lead and cadmium by these species. 240 samples of leaf, branch, and soil prepared by Digest hal device for chemical analysis and extraction and the number of heavy metals in each sample was measured by ICP. The result indicated that the relationship between lead concentration in the soil and lead concentration in the stem of the Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima) and the Judas tree (Cercis siliquastrum) in both regions was positive and significant.
       
  • Alternance of overpopulation of urban insect pests in areas of Cerrado in
           the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    • Authors: Walter Santos de Araujo; Bruno Maia Oliveira, Erica Vanessa Duraes de Freitas, Kelly Christie dos Santos Costa, Jefferson Bruno Bretas Souza Oliveira, Paulo Corgosinho.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(4:159-163
      Abstract: In the present study, we report for the first time the alternance of insect overpopulation pests in urban environment for the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The observations were made from November 2017 to November 2018 in the city of Montes Claros and six other towns. During the period of one-year the overpopulation of three species was recorded: Tropidacris collaris (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), Gryllus assimilis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and Arthrostictus speciosus (Drury, 1829) (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Considerations about the factors leading to overpopulation of these species in urban areas are also presented.
       
  • Acidification of recalcitrant effluent: Optimization of time and reagent
           volume

    • Authors: Maria Luisa P. R. Alves; Elisangela Maria R. Rocha, Samara Teixeira Pereira, Elson Santos da Silva, Romildo H. dos Anjos Junior.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(4:164-174
      Abstract: Hydric bodies suffer from the discharge of recalcitrant effluents, such as landfill leachate, which requires advanced treatment, such as photo-Fenton. Though, it requires a acidification step of effluent to adjust it to pH=3. The objective of this work was to apply sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) in different concentrations in the gross leached, and decide which of one would be better in relation to time optimization and volume of acid spent. Potentiometric curves and trend lines were formulated by the polynomial regression degree 5 and the hypothesis test was used to determine the volumes to be added, to achieve the desired pH (pH 3). The H2SO4 (6 N) presented better results in the average time control of 6 min 35 s - while spending 27 min 50 s without the potentiometric curves. From hypothesis test, sulfuric acid achieved the best result when compared to the final, theoretical and real volume used in the acidification of the leachate.
       
  • Species composition and distribution of marine foulers along the southeast
           coast of Tamilnadu, India

    • Authors: Ravi Murugeswari Prasanth; Pandiyan Sureshkumar.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(1:1-7
      Abstract: Present study was conducted to assess the diversity of faunal foulers and their distribution along the southeast coast of India. Grab and colonization sampling methods were employed. There were 14 families of faunal foulers with 28 species. Among the families, Bacillaceae constituted 31% and Mytilidae, 10%, Aeromonadaceae, 6% and Archaeobalanidae, 3%. Families numbering eight contributed to the macro faunal fouling community and the others, micro fouling community. According to the IUCN red data book, the observed faunal fouling organisms do not come under any red list category. Another striking feature was that 20 % of the recorded species were alien invasive species. This study will be helpful to the policymakers, coastal developers, researchers, fishermen, sea-based industries and government authorities, as the fouling communities pose innumerable problems in the coastal developmental activities.
       
  • Floristic composition, community syntaxonomy and ordination of Guzara
           (unprotected) forests of Hilkot range, District Mansehra, KP, Pakistan

    • Authors: Khalid Rasheed Khan; Muhammad Farooq, Abbas Hussain Shah, Zafar Iqbal, Jan Alam, Manzoor Hussain, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Azhar Mehmood, Nehafta Bibi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(1:8-21
      Abstract: The present study was planned to assess the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of floristic diversity at species level along environmental gradients by using a TWINSPAN for recognizing major plant communities of Sathan Gali [Guzara forest (unprotected)], Mansehra, KP, Pakistan. On the basis of vegetation physiognomy, the study area was divided into 22 stands. Total 105 plant species of 55 families were recorded. The dominant family was found to be Poaceae by 11 plant species followed by Asteraceae and Rosaceae each represented by 10 species, and Pteridaceae by 5 plant species. Three plant communities were recognized through TWINSPAN classification viz Pinus-Sarcococca-Pteris community (PSP), Pinus-Cedrus-Indigofera community (PCI) and Alianthus-Cynodon-Themeda community (ACT).The maximum gradient length was 2.49 contributed by axis I. The gradient length of axis II was 2.00. The explained variation for axis I and II were 17.59 and 26.27 respectively. Among environmental variables the maximum strength was recorded for altitude, nitrogen, wind pressure, electrical conductivity and phosphorus. The minimum strength was recorded for aspects. Maximum species diversity was measured of Pinus-Sarcococca-Pteris Community (PSP) (0.106) while species richness was found in Alianthus-Cynodon-Themeda Community (ACT) (2.45) whereas maximum species maturity was found in Pinus- Cedrus- Indigofera Community (PCI) (115.65). The current investigation will enhance the understanding of the phytosocialogists to categorize, differentiate and discuss dynamics of the plant communities. This study will serve as a base line for further researches in the field of community ecology.
       
  • Estimation of fuel wood consumption and its negative impact on surrounding
           vegetation: A case study of Baffa town, Mansehra, Pakistan

    • Authors: Zulfiqar Khan; Abbas Hussain Shah, Muhammad Farooq, Khalid Rasheed Khan, Manzoor Hussain, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Azhar Mehmood, Laiba Zohra, Inayat Ur Rahman.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(1:22-31
      Abstract: Fuel wood has a great socio economic value in rural areas of Pakistan. In present research project fuel wood consumption in Baffa town of western Himalayan region was estimated by market survey and its effects on the surrounding vegetation were studied by field survey. In market survey 18 sales points of the study area were targeted. Market based data was collected from the sales point account record. As price, quantity and type of fuel wood were entered carefully in account registers by sales persons. More data was obtained by questionnaires regarding utility of fuel wood as domestic or commercial and trends for last three year, preference of fuel wood type and increase or decrease of a particular type of fuel wood species. Fire wood species commercially exploited were observed in their natural habitats and relevant ethnobotanical information was gathered from locals as well. During survey, 18 different sale points were investigated and 22 fuel wood species were recorded. Maximum fuel wood species were noted in Baffa Doraha sale point. University road 3 sale points show maximum quantity (30000 Munds) of fuel wood sold annually. According to this survey Acacia modesta was the most preferred plant species for fuel wood secondly Morus nigra and third was Olea ferruginea. The use of Brossonetia species has decreased for the last three years while the use of several other plant species increased like Populus ciliata, Melia azadarch and Morus nigra. The most preferred fire plant species (Acacia modesta) was found disappearing alarmingly in the natural habitat. Extraction of fuel wood species impacts the surrounding vegetation of the study area negatively and altering the vegetation structure adversely.
       
  • Effects of lead on vegetative, propagative and physiochemical parameters
           of Pisum sativum

    • Authors: Ghulam Hussain; Tauseef Anwar, Huma Qureshi, Hina Fatimah, Muhammad Waseem, Faheem Arshad, Rizwan Rahseed.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(2:32-37
      Abstract: Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a valuable proteinaceous vegetable. It has 40% contribution in economy among world pulses and 3rd in ranking in consumption after garlic and beans in Pakistan. Its yield is affected by many abiotic stresses e.g. salinity, water logging, heavy metals in sewage water and wastes etc. Heavy metals are great threat to humans as they are not only dangerous to humans through food chains but also reducing its cash benefits by decreasing the yield of crop plants qualitatively and quantitatively. This study aimed to investigate the effects of lead (Pb) on vegetative, propagative and physiochemical properties of pea plants. In this regard, an experiment was conducted on two cultivars i.e., meteor and classic of pea by treating them with heavy metal salt, lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) at flowering stage. It was hypothesized that lead will damage vegetative characters compared to control treatments and declines in agronomic yields of pea. Chemical analyses of pea plants confirmed that pea plants activated their defensive chemical mechanisms by producing certain antioxidant chemicals against lead treatment and also reduced its nutritive chemicals.
       
  • Evaluation of allelopathic potential of agricultural land associated trees
           on germination attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Zeeshan Ahmad; Khalid Rasheed Khan, Muhammad Farooq, Abbas Hussain Shah, Azhar Mehmood, Tabinda Jabeen, Muhammad Ishtiaq, Laiba Zohra.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(2:38-44
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the allelopathic effects of leaves of different trees including Juglans regia, Melia azedarach, and Ailanthus altissima, on the germination of two different wheat varieties i.e., traditional and approved. Significant variation was noticed among the treatments in germination attributes. Maximum radical length was observed in both the wheat varieties due to aqueous leaf extract treatments of J. regia while minimum radical length was observed in both the wheat varieties by the aqueous leaf extract of M. azedarach. While maximum plumule length in both wheat varieties was also revealed by the aqueous leaf extract of J. regia while minimum plumule length was observed by extract of M. azedarach. Furthermore, the allelopathic effect of M. azedarach was observed to have great r than A. altissima on the germination and growth of wheat. it is concluded that leaves of J. regia can be used as bio fertilizer due to its growth enhancing effect while leaves of M. azedarach and A. altissima contains allelo-chemicals that strongly inhibit the seed germination and reduce plumule and radical length of wheat.
       
  • Diversity and abundance of gastropods in the intertidal zone of Muduing
           Bay, Zamboanga Peninsula, Philippines

    • Authors: Jameyla A. Ladias; Omar Bryan Hampong, Cesar G. Demayo.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(2:45-55
      Abstract: The Dumanquillas Bay Protected Landscape and Seascape (DBPLS) of the Zamboanga Peninsula in the Philippines is a leading fishing ground and source of income for thousands of fisherfolks of the different communities residing along the coast of the Peninsula. One of the coastal bays along the DBPLS has been subjected to severe human-induced pressures such as encroachment of the mangrove areas for human habitation, resource utilization, and construction of fish pens. It is perceived that these activities compounded with the effects of global climate change are considered threats to marine life in the area; thus, we investigated one of the groups of marine organisms that are generally considered a good indicator of the health of the marine ecosystem - the gastropods. Their diversity and relative abundance can be used as a useful measure in understanding the status of the bay. Determining the correlation between the diversity and abundance with conditions such as pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, and total suspended solids is also considered a good measure; thus was also done in the study. Only one site was found to have a high diversity index. Three species from two sampling sites were associated with pH, while the low species richness in one location was due to low dissolved oxygen. Other physicochemical parameters have no significant effects on the diversity and abundance of gastropods. These results indicate that the low diversity index observed can be primarily attributed more to anthropogenic activities in the area. While the area is included in the protected landscape, is still a need to study further the dynamics of the populations of the different species focusing on other possible environmental and anthropogenic factors affecting their biodiversity. The information that will be generated will be valuable in the proper establishment and management of fishponds in the bay, including appropriate practices for their conservation and sustainable utilization.
       
  • Using meiobenthos for biomonitoring of ecological health in southern
           Caspian Sea shores, Mazandaran, Iran

    • Authors: M. Zarghami; F. Nazarhaghighi, B. Moghaddasi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(3:56-74
      Abstract: Human activities, including industry, agriculture, mining, dredging, and dumping introduce large amounts of pollutants into marine areas, causing permanent and significant disturbance to and a major impact on ecosystems. For assaying ecological health of south of Caspian Sea shores (Mazandaran) biodiversity and distribution of meiobenthos was measured as a bioindicator. From 12 stations (ranging in depths from 5, 10, 20 and 50 meters), sediment samples were gathered for four seasons (2012). Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were measured during sampling with CTD (conductivity, temperature and depth). Percentage grain size and total organic matter and calcium carbonate were measured. The average water temperature ranged from 9.52 to 23.93 C, dissolved oxygen from 7.71 to 10.53 mg/L, salinity from 10.57+-0.07 to 10.75+-0.04 ppt, pH from 7.44+-0.29 to 7.41+-0.22, EC from 17.97+-0.12 to 18.30+-0.04 us/cm2, TDS from 8.92+-0.04 to 9.14+-0.02 mg/L, total organic matter from 5.83+-1.43 to 6.25+-0.97% and calcium carbonate fluctuated from 2.36+-0.36 to 1.68+-0.19%. From 4 groups of animals (Foraminifera, Crustacea, Worms and Mollusca), the results indicate that following Foraminifera, the worms had the maximum density in the present region. In particular, benthic foraminifera have been demonstrated to be particularly sensitive microorganisms and they have been successfully utilized for their value as bioindicators of environmental change in a wide range of marine environments. Account of Shannon index (below less than 1) showed that this area is under pressure. In Bandar Amirabad (Behshahr) station we observed lowest Shannon index and the west of study area had been better condition compare with east of study area. Account of Pielou index showed that the distribution in this area was not steady.
       
  • Zoonotic organisms in selected species of freshwater gastropods in Lanao
           del Norte, Mindanao, the Philippines

    • Authors: Ferlyn Villaroya-Logronio; Emmanuel A. Estavas, Marivic Ditanongun, Lloyd B. Logronio, Cesar G. Demayo.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(3:75-85
      Abstract: Urgency and worldwide attention are now focused on parasites causing zoonotic diseases. An inventory of parasites inhabiting the previously identified freshwater gastropods in Lanao del Norte is the next step necessary to elucidate and determine the etiology of zoonoses. Four sampling sites, composed of thirty areas within the Municipalities of Lala, Kapatagan, and Salvador from the island of Mindanao, the Philippines, were thoroughly searched in this study from February to August 2018 using an explorative-investigative study design. Out of the 2,460 sampled individuals, eight species of gastropods were observed and collected, namely: Melanoides tuberculata, Melanoides turriculus, Tarebia granifera, Pomacea canaliculata, Oncomelania quadrasi, Gyraulus crista Linn., Vitta virginea and Radix. These snails were then cleaned and rinsed with water and were then brought to the laboratory for examination. Small Sizes of snails were crushed, while the larger sizes were subjected to shedding. The parasites sampled were then identified using key manuals. After the examination, three morphotypes of cercariae were sampled and recorded in this study, namely: Vivax cercariae, schistosome cercariae, and Pigmentata amphisome cercariae. Two parasitic protozoans (Paramecium and Entamoeba coli) and one parasitic microscopic animal (rotifer) were also sampled. Paramecium and E. coli were found out to be the most prevalent in all the parasites. Although these species were reported to be of no ecological and medical significance, they were also reported to cause physiological effects to the host snails. Schistosome cercariae and Pigmentata amphisome cercariae observed were of significant medical importance; thus, since these snails were found near in areas where there are human dwellings, the transmission of diseases caused by parasites vectored by these snails is possible. It is, therefore crucial that there is a need to implement proper sanitation practices in the communities and adequate management of these snails to prevent, manage, and control the transmission of diseases caused by the parasites.
       
  • Effect of primary soil nutrients (NPK) on forests' biomass production and
           SOC density of Nepalese forests

    • Authors: Hari Prasad Pandey; Shila Pokhrel, Pooja Pandey, Narayan Prasad Pokhrel, Ganesh Paudel.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(3:86-96
      Abstract: Soil nutrients in the forests ecosystem play crucial roles in performing key ecological functions. This research was carried out to quantify biomass and SOC, and to see the responses of primary soil nutrients (NPK) and other soil properties on biomass and SOC density in the forests. Three community forests (CFs) from Dadeldhura district of Far Western Province of Nepal were taken as a study area. Simple random sampling with concentric circular plots of various sizes was laid for necessary data collection. Altogether 45 plots were measured. All the parameters were estimated and analyzed using standardized procedures. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was fitted and respective tests were performed base on data characteristics. A relatively medium quantity of biomass density, SOC and NPK were found and these differed significantly between forests. The result showed the SOC, N and bulk density influenced significantly but inversely to biomass density. However, K, P and pH did not respond significantly on biomass density. Similarly, phosphorous responded significantly and positively on SOC but bulk density and pH showed significantly but the inverse effect on SOC. Results indicate that soil pH, P and K hardly influence forests' biomass. The higher the SOC does not necessarily produce higher biomass in the forest as SOC, N, and bulk density responds inversely to biomass density. Likewise, biomass density, N and K rarely affect the SOC in forests. This result will be a reference to policy and practical implications at forestry. Because of the wide variability of soils characteristics, similar research to generalize the results is recommended.
       
  • Impacts on biochar aging mechanism by eco-environmental factors

    • Authors: Ghulam Murtaza; Zeeshan Ahmed, Muhammad Usman, Ahsan Areeb, Allah Ditta, Zia Ullah, Faisal Mahmood.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(3:97-104
      Abstract: Biochar is a type of pyrogenic carbon that can potentially contribute to agricultural productivity and environment sustainability by increasing remediation of contaminated soil and its reactivity. However, occurrence of biochar aging process disturbs its remediation role, because various surface attributes of biochar happened to be altered through different biotic and abiotic factors. In current review, several important factors critically affecting the aging process are discussed that includes soil physical, chemical, biological components along with soil temperature. It was noted that aging process in biochar might be accelerated by elevated temperature; soil components protected it mainly by soil organic matter through its interaction with soil microbes. To promote prolong biochar application in nature; aging of biochar can be better managed through its influencing factors.
       
  • Lichens as bioindicators of air pollution: Results from North Africa
           region

    • Authors: Abdallah Boumakhleb; Mohamed Toumi, Fathi Abdellatif Belhouadjeb, Abdelhamid Hassani, Amar Khadoumi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(3:105-114
      Abstract: The atmospheric pollution is an international phenomenon which threatens the human life around the world. Contrary to North America and Europe, which have observatories of the atmospheric pollution, some other regions such as Africa are dispossess of this kind of institutions, things that pushed the scientists in the environment and air quality to use other methods which are simple and inexpensive, the most used is the biomonitoring and particularly with lichens. The aim of this study is to assess the air pollution using lichens as bioindicators and to create the air quality map using an interpolation method that based on the values of air quality index (AQI) in North Africa. The study was carried out in 63 sites distributed into three zones. The results show that 65.08% of sites have a medium rate of pollution, 26.98% of sites have a low rate, and only 7.94% present a high rate of pollution. The statistical analyses show that, the abiotic factors (the altitude values and the dominant wind) are positively correlated with the air quality values. The air quality map obtained allows us to detect the areas with a high level of atmospheric pollution in the region. We hope through this work to encourage the governmental agencies to become more involved with lichenological studies.
       
  • A review on determination of heavy metal ions in wastewater using ionic
           liquids

    • Authors: Muhammad Tariq Sarwar; HanHui Zhan, JiaXin Yang, ShuoSong Tang, Yong Tao, BingJie Liu, Yue Wang, Ahsan Maqbool.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(4:115-124
      Abstract: Water pollution and water scarcity is considered worldwide as a severe problem. It has motivated researchers to develop more effective wastewater treatment techniques for their reuse. Many governmental agencies are cataloging the increase of complex metals and compounds in industrial wastewater because of their toxicity and tenacity. Traditional extraction methods of industrial wastewater can appreciate the mending of some parts of heavy metals with clean production and less efficient resource recovery. In recent decades, there has been research on emerging the methods of heavy metal ions from wastewater. To overcome the limitations of traditional extraction treatment methods by introducing the enchanted material called ionic liquid, that is considered to be anew green solvent (neoteric solvent, designer solvent, ionic fluid, molten salt), that substitutes the conventional solvents with many advanced and better properties that is not available in traditional extractors. Ionic liquid has evident advantages over traditional organic solvents and has a wide range of applications in various areas especially as a kind of extracting agent for heavy metal ions. The research and application status of ionic liquid is reviewed and discussed the extraction processes of traditional technologies for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. This review summarizes the applications of ionic liquids in the determination of heavy metals in wastewater. Also, study the future developments and prospects of ionic liquid for the extraction of heavy metals. According to the results, the application of ionic liquids is likely to be increase in the future.
       
  • Evaluation of propolis extract in preventing weed seed germination

    • Authors: Shahram Dadgostar; Jamasb Nozari.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(4:125-130
      Abstract: As you know, weeds can annihilate a large part of agricultural crops. Therefore, many expenses for controlling and destroying weeds are spent on the purchase of herbicide. They cause environmental pollution and have side-effects to human. Propolis is one of the most valuable bee products that have many applications including medicine, agriculture and animal husbandry. In this study, a new application has been introduced that can be so effective in agriculture field. For this reason, propolis extract was used in 4 concentrations. The combinations of propolis extracts were tested on germination of wild barley, oat and cattle cotton. For primary treatment, the seeds were grown in Peat Moss and each day 2 ml of the specified concentrations of the extract were injected. Three replicates for each treatment and three replicates without treatment were considered as controls. All treatments and control were irrigated daily. After determining the best concentration in preventing germination of seeds, the duration of starting germination after application of this extract in the ground was investigated. For this purpose, germination of wheat was studied after using of the 1:2 extract in culture tray at times 1, 8, 16 and 24 hours after treatment. The results of primary treatment showed a significant effect of propolis extract compared to the control. Also, the results of the secondary treatment showed this extract does not prevent germination of main plant's seed after soil treatment. In conclusion, this extract can be recommended as an herbicide before cultivation on farms.
       
  • Ichthyofaunal diversity and conservation status in rivers of Khyber
           Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Mukhtiar Ahmad; Abbas Hussain Shah, Zahid Maqbool, Awais Khalid, Khalid Rasheed Khan, Muhammad Farooq.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2020,10(4:131-143
      Abstract: Ichthyofaunal composition is the most important and essential biotic component of an aquatic ecosystem. There is worldwide distribution of fresh water fishes. Pakistan is blessed with a diversity of fishes owing to streams, rivers, dams and ocean. In freshwater bodies of the country about 193 fish species were recorded. There are about 30 species of fish which are commercially exploited for good source of proteins and vitamins. The fish marketing has great socio economic value in the country. Unfortunately, fish fauna is declining at alarming rate due to water pollution, over fishing, pesticide use and other anthropogenic activities. Therefore, about 20 percent of fish population is threatened as endangered or extinct. All Mashers are 'endangered', notably Tor putitora, which is also included in the Red List Category of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Endangered. Mashers (Tor species) are distributed in Southeast Asian and Himalayan regions including trans-Himalayan countries like Pakistan and India. The heavy flood of July, 2010 resulted in the minimizing of Tor putitora species Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the fish is now found extinct from river Swat. The purpose of this review study is to explore the fish diversity and its conservation status in rivers of Khyber Pakhtunkhawa and protect the endangered species of fishes like Tor putitora from extinction. There are fourteen major rivers flowing in the province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which are river Siren, river Kunhar, river Indus, river Harrow, river Dour, river Kabul, river Swat, river Panjkora, river Arunai, river Darmai, river Etai, river Chamla, river Barandu and river Bahawal Garh. A total of Sixty eight species of fresh water fishes were recorded from 14 rivers of the province. The family cyprinidae is the dominant family of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which contains 34 species. The current review study will help the ichthyologists and conservationists in future for detailed investigations and conservation strategies for fish fauna of the region.
       
  • Future research perspectives of biochar and electrical characteristics of
           charcoal

    • Authors: Ghulam Murtaza; Zeeshan Ahmed, Muhammad Usman, Allah Ditta, Zia Ullah, Rana Nauman Shabbir, Dawood Khan, Iqra Nazish, Maham Arif.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(1:1-14
      Abstract: Biochar are added in the agronomic territory as soil development or amendment agent. Intensification of agriculture for higher crop production is protruded to degrade the soil status. Biochar can amend the damaged soil because it comprises plant nutrients and organic carbon compounds in their ash. There is not a one size equips all biochar improvement. Therefore, a substitute paradigm suggested whereby designed biochar to have particular chemical characteristics to fit various application. Designer biochar has been inspected employing croplands soil, so this key prime can be practiced to electronic and environmental sectors. We present in this study the designer biochars applications to weathered sand dunes to increase the growth of plant and accelerate the stabilization of dunes and also optimization of their exceptional conductive characteristics for electrochemical capacitors as well as batteries. In the last portion of this review, we exhaustively discussed the electrical characteristics of charcoal as well as emphasized the certain history of charcoal.
       
  • Characterization of atmospheric particulate matter from urban traffic
           sources in Ilorin

    • Authors: O. A. Falaiye; O. E. Abiye, S. C. Nwabachili.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(1:15-30
      Abstract: Air quality has become a pressing issue in both developed and developing countries. This is due to the various health issues which are associated with Atmospheric Particulate Matter (APM). Many countries have as a result introduced Environmental Protection Agencies to monitor the amount of Particulate Matter (PM) in the atmosphere. Ilorin, the capital of Kwara State, is a city which should also not be left out. This is because Ilorin as a city is susceptible to PM. pollution. There is little or no research known to have been carried out on the quality of air inhaled in the city of Ilorin. This study aims at investigating the chemical signatures of APM in an Urban-Traffic corridor using a nuclear analytical technique. Total suspended particulate-phase aerosols that were monitored for 30 days at a traffic corridor located in the north-central (Ilorin) geopolitical zone, were collected using a low volume total suspended particulate sampler and were characterized using an Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometer. Gravimetric analysis was carried out to determine the mass concentration of each sample. From the 30 days measured, the highest mass concentration was recorded on the 1st of March 2019 with a value of 7974.8 ug/m3 and lowest on the 14th of March 2019 which had a mass concentration of 11.61 ug/m3. For the reported days, the 24 hours average chemical concentrations of V, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn and Fe from samples collected at tipper garage, Ilorin, were found to be 5007.8 ng/m3, 2562.6 ng/m3, 535.7 ng/m3, 1432.1 ng/m3, 604.2 ng/m3, 1.1 ng/m3, 3550.8 ng/m3, 3191.6 ng/m3 respectively. The study concludes that mass and chemical concentrations were excessively high and could impact significantly on human health.
       
  • Widespread contamination of recreational seawaters, rivers and lakes with
           Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli

    • Authors: Louise O'Connor; Carina Brehony, Kelly Fitzhenry, Brigid Hooban, Aoife Joyce, Niamh Cahill, Blathnaid Mahon, Paul Hickey, Shane Keane, Martin Cormican, Dearbhaile Morris.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(2:31-42
      Abstract: Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) has the potential to cause serious gastrointestinal illness with approximately 10-15% of patients developing Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS). Ireland consistently reports the highest incidence of human infection with STEC in Europe. In this study, seawater (n is 84) and freshwater (river and lake) samples (n is 27) were collected from locations around Ireland over a three-year period (2016-2019). There were two phases to the investigation. Initially, samples were collected between May and September in 2016 and 2017 (Phase 1). Based on the results obtained during this first phase a more extensive investigation was undertaken between December 2018 and December 2019 (Phase 2). Samples were tested using a two-step multiplex real-time PCR protocol. The first step was to screen for the presence of eae, stx1 and stx2. Samples giving positive signals for eae and at least one toxin gene target were analyzed for the presence of gene targets associated with serogroups O157, O26, O103, O104, O111 and O145. Overall, STEC was detected in 21/27 (78%) of the lake and river samples tested and in 48/84 (57%) of all seawater samples tested. These findings indicate widespread contamination of recreational waters with STEC which may act as an important and under-recognized transmission route to humans.
       
  • Experimental study on performance assessment of Fenton and photo- Fenton
           oxidation process for methylene blue

    • Authors: B. Gowtham; S. Pauline.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(2:43-51
      Abstract: This project focuses on the suitability of Fenton and photo-Fenton processes for the degradation of methylene blue dye in terms of COD removal and it is optimized for experimental parameters such as pH, H2O2 concentration, FeSO4.7H2O concentration and contact time. The Fenton process and photo-Fenton process is found to be effective under pH 3. The maximum efficiency of COD removal for 50 mg/L of Methylene blue is attained at optimum concentration of 10 ml of H2O2, 50 mg/L of Fe2+ and contact time of 30 minutes. The photo-Fenton oxidation process is also being carried out and it is also optimized for experimental parameters. The efficiency of COD removal for methylene blue is attained at optimum concentration of 8 ml of H2O2, 50 mg/L of Fe2+ and at a contact time of 30 minutes. Finally, on comparing both the processes, the best method with maximum removal efficiency is identified as photo-Fenton process for degradation of dye. At fully optimized condition, the efficiency of Fenton process is 65% and that of photo- Fenton is 82%, which is 17% higher than the Fenton process.
       
  • An overview of 3D printing technology effect on improving solar
           photovoltaic systems efficiency of renewable energy

    • Authors: T. El Mogy; Donia Rabea.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(2:52-67
      Abstract: Energy is necessary to conserve it and improve our lifestyle. Today all major production from Power is generated from fossil fuels; it is non-renewable and pollutes the environment significantly. Access to clean and renewable energy is crucial for assuring the development of countries. Most of countries economy is based on producing energy from fossil fuels and the change to sustainable ways of life. Photovoltaic energy has previously proven to be a valuable technology for sustainable development and renewable energy. This paper gives an overview of solar photovoltaic (PV) as renewable energy by using 3D printing which can create physical objects from a geometrical representation by successive addition of material. Moreover, this paper gives an overview of the 3D printing concept and its types. 3D printing technology for the production of PV solar systems is low cost than current manufacturing methods. Moreover, 3D printing technology is ecofriendly and higher efficacy than the ordinary PV solar system. The 3D printed panels need more research and development to make them capable to be adopted on a larger scale. 3D printing is seen as a way to not only clean up renewable energy supplies the chain but also to lower costs and enhance the development process, which helps to encourage that the renewable energy sector thrives so that it can capture fossil fuels.
       
  • Multifaceted causes of conflict in the world heritage site of Simien
           Mountains National Park community- based ecotourism, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Endalkachew Teshome; Alene Guadie, Yirdaw Asfaw.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(2:68-83
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the causes of conflict in community-based ecotourism at the World Heritage Site of Simien Mountains National Park. A cross-sectional study design with a mixed method was used. Two hundred thirty-nine participants were included by systematic random sampling. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and mean were computed and qualitative data were triangulated. A high proportion of participants agreed or strongly agreed with the stated items as a cause of conflict with the cumulative mean of 4.21. The majority, 88.7% agreed with inappropriate use of power, 87.5% of respondents agreed with a lack of transparency and 86.6% believed corruption as causes of conflict. Improper implementation of systems and unequal participation were agreed by 84.1%. The statement "inequitable benefit sharing in community-based ecotourism is a cause of conflict" and "weak cooperation in community-based ecotourism is a cause of conflict" were agreed by 82.4% and 80% of respondents respectively. Unsuitable use of resources was also believed as a cause of conflict by 78% of respondents. It is therefore essential to develop a standard guideline to prevent conflict in community-based ecotourism and to resolve conflict should it occur.
       
  • Human-wildlife conflict in Uttarakhand: Impact, opportunities and ground
           level perspectives with mitigating strategies

    • Authors: D. S. Meena; D. P. Baluni, M. M. Bisht, D. S. Pundir, Akash.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(3:84-102
      Abstract: Human-wildlife conflict has caused high mortality of animals and human in Uttarakhand, India. Due to the continuous changes in forest cover and anthropogenic pressures large groups of animals are forced to occupy the multiuse landscapes outside the reserve forest. The present study is the compiled source of data from Narendranagar forest division with respect to Uttarakhand and adjacent Himalaya. We have recorded about a total of 740 casualties of livestock predation along with 126 incidents of human injured and 36 incidents of human death in Narendranagar forest division in last 20 years. Further we have also compiled the data of main problematic animal viz. leopard involved in livestock predation and human death and injury. Human death, injury along with livestock predation and crop raiding were main issues in present review. Further it was observed that most of the attacks on wild animals occurred when livestock were freely grazing within the multi-use areas without supervision of a herder. Leopard and elephant were mainly involved in human death whereas elephant and monkey in crop raiding. In addition, leopard mortality rate was also observed to be increasing in Uttarakhand which was mainly due to natural deaths, poaching, accidents, declared dangers, burnt, forest fires, food poisoning, mutual fights, and road accidents. The present study suggests public awareness for co-existence strategies, supervised grazing, awareness of high-risk areas, prompt response by the rescue teams, removing of unnecessary canopy of plants around human settlements should be initiated to reduce predation by wild animals. A further study on leopard behavior, relocation, and social collaboration is needed to understand the basic reasons behind the conflict and conservation measures to be taken. The present study areas also demand culturally and sustainable acceptable strategies along with better compensation to mitigate the damages.
       
  • Diversity, structure and regeneration status of woody species in Juniperus
           dominated dry Afromontane forest of Beyeda district, northern highlands of
           Ethiopia

    • Authors: Muhabaw Taju; Asmamaw Alemu, Endalkachew Teshome.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(3:103-127
      Abstract: Ethiopia is recognized as a major center of biodiversity. The vegetation types are highly diverse, varying from Afro-alpine to Desert vegetation types. However, the country's forest resources are declining alarmingly largely due to anthropogenic factors. The Juniperus dominated Afromontane forest of the northern highlands of Ethiopia is among the most threatened forest which calls for ecological investigations to formulate strategy for protection and sustainable utilization of the forest resources. This study was conducted in the Juniperus dominated Afromontane forest of the Northern highlands of Ethiopia to determine woody species diversity, structure and regeneration status along different levels of disturbances and to investigate human induced disturbances on woody species. For vegetation survey the forest was stratified in to three disturbance levels (Less disturbed, moderately disturbed, and highly disturbed forests). The vegetation assessment followed a systematic random sampling and vegetation data were collected from 41 square meters (20 x 20 m2) sample plots. Species diversity, evenness, similarities, and regeneration statuses along disturbances were computed using Shannon diversity, Evenness indices and Sorenson's similarity index. Further, ANOVA were used to test differences among disturbance levels. A total of 24 woody species belonging to 20 families and 24 genera were identified. Species Richness, Evenness, density and basal area of woody species decreased as intensity of disturbance increased. Woody species density, Richness, and basal areas along disturbance were significantly different as we move from highly disturbed forest to less disturbed forest. Population structure showed trends of inverted 'J' shape pattern in all gradients of disturbance. As intensity of anthropogenic disturbance increases the forest is converted in to low quality shrubby and scrub lands. As a result of the above-mentioned facts human induced disturbance has a negative effect on woody species diversity, structure and regeneration status. But mild disturbance has a positive effect in facilitating regeneration as a result of gap creation. So, attention should be given in formulating forest management plan and strategy to limit the impact of anthropogenic disturbance for the sustainable management of the forest.
       
  • Analysis of the relationship between environmental taxes and environment
           protection expenditures in Turkey and European Union

    • Authors: Jale Sezen.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2021,11(3:128-136
      Abstract: In Turkey and European Union, the expenses spared for the prevention of pollution and environmental degradation, the recovery of the environment, and pollution elimination are called environmental expenditures. Environmental tax application is maintained according to the Polluter Pays Principle and within the framework of public collection provisions regarding the collection of these expenses from the polluter. In this study, a long-term relationship between the variables were examined using data from total environmental protection taxes in Turkey and from the Eurostat database of 30 countries from the European countries and total environmental protection expenditures (million/euro) covering the span between 2008-2018. In this study, Panel VAR and Panel VAR Granger Causality Analysis were conducted by investigating the 1st and 2nd generation panel cointegration tests. Results showed that there is a long-term positive correlation between environmental taxes and environmental protection expenditures which is statistically significant.
       
  • Diversity and distribution of meiofauna Mollusca in the southern Caspian
           Sea

    • Authors: M. Zarghami.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2021,11(3:137-149
      Abstract: In this study, in order to analyze Mollusca species and determining their relationship with the sediment factors, sediment samples were gathered during spring, summer, autumn and winter 2012 from 12 stations (ranging in depths 5, 10, 20 and 50 meters) in the Southern Caspian Sea from Behshahr to Ramsar (Mazandaran, Iran). The sediment factors (grain size, total organic matter and calcium carbonate concentration) were measured in laboratory. Two classes of Mollusca (Bivalvia and Gastropoda) were identified. Class Bivalvia had 3 species (Didacna protracta, Hypanis caspia, Abra ovata) which belong to 3 genera of 2 families and class Gastropoda had 4 species (Pergola sp., Anisus kolesnikovi, Abeskunus sphaerion, Ulskia ulskii) which belong to 4 genera of 3 families. Most dominant species of Bivalvia was Abra ovata (46.2 individuals/0.1m2) and that of Gastropoda was Abeskunus sphaerion (58.66 individuals/0.1m2). The mean of maximum and minimum density of Mollusca was observed in spring (29.67 individuals/0.1m2) and winter (0 individuals/0.1m2) respectively. The results of One Way ANOVA showed that density of Mollusca was different significantly with depth and season (P less than 0.05). Results of Pearson correlation showed that between density of Mollusca and salinity, %silt and clay, TOM and depth had been negative positive correlation and had been positive correlation with temperature.
       
  • Energy balance modeling of an extensive green roof for the surface
           temperature mitigation of municipal buildings

    • Authors: Somayeh Feyz; Leila Ooshaksaraie, Alireza Mardookhpour.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2021,11(3:150-158
      Abstract: In recent years, changing an urban environment, urban development and replacing no vegetated surface face to environmental challenges that can be the reasons for increasing urban temperatures and consequently causing urban heat island effects. These can be mitigated by environmental planning and building techniques, such as green roof that can moderate roof surface temperature and mitigate Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. In this context the present research deals with modeling of the surface temperature of green roofs located in Tehran, Iran. The surface temperature of both green and conventional roofs was modeled in ten years which months have the highest temperature in summer. Energy balance modeling carried out in conventional roof as a reference bituminous flat roof and extensive green roof with 85% vegetated surface and 50% accessible water. The modeling demonstrated the positive impact of green roof in decreasing the roof surface temperature. The modeling of green roofs in the summer determined that QH and Qnet values are lower and QE are higher than conventional roof. The results also showed that the conventional roof in Jun and August reached a peak of 48.69oC and 42.7oC whereas green roof were able to reach 44.47oC and 38.49oC respectively. In conclusion the reduced surface temperatures and increase in latent heat will be brought a decrease in sensible heat and hence a potential mitigation of the urban heat island effect via applying green roofs on existing buildings. The results indicated that green roofs can be beneficial on the environment and urban area such as improvement of air quality, biodiversity and noise reduction, green space increasing per capita.
       
  • What is RSS

    • Abstract: RSS is a means of receiving content across the internet without having to visit websites directly. When you see the RSS tag on a web page, then you know that site offers an RSS feed. You may download a RSS reader (e.g., at http://www.iaees.org/tools/RSSOwl-java.zip). Install it on your computer and create a new folder, and then create a new feed with a RSS feed address, e.g., http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/piaees/rss.xml, then set something. Any update of RSS feed site will automatically reach your RSS reader. If you have subscribed an online journal by RSS, journal contents or articles will reach you once the latest issue is available or the latest article is published.
       
  • Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental
           Sciences

    • Authors: International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences
      Abstract: The Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences (ISSN 2220-8860) is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal that considers scientific articles in all different areas of ecology and environmental sciences. It is the flagship journal of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. It dedicates to the latest advances in ecology and environmental sciences. The goal of this journal is to keep a record of the state-of-the-art research and promote the research work in these fast moving areas. All manuscripts submitted to Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. The topics to be covered by this journal include, but are not limited to theory, methodology, technology, innovation, activity, and project in the following areas: (1) Animal ecology, plant/microbe ecology, wetland ecology, farmland ecology, forest/grassland ecology, marine ecology, pollution ecology, etc. (2) Biological conservation and preservation, ecosystem restoration, environmental policy, environmental toxicology, environmental pollution and control, natural resource, bioenergy research, environmental technology, waste management, environmental economics, environmental management and planning, environmental education, environmental engineering, global climate change, oceanography, etc.
      Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, piaees@iaees.org. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc.) on a specific topic, or submissions of a conference for publication of special issue.
       
  • Environment patterns and influential factors of biological invasions: a
           worldwide survey

    • Authors: Zhang WJ; Chen B. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(1:1-14
      Abstract: Invasive species damage ecological balance, reduce species diversity and threat humans. Biological invasions have become a global problem. In order to provide knowledge on prediction, impact assessment, control management and mechanism exploration of biological invasions, the present study analyzed the environment patterns and influential factors of biological invasion worldwide, and developed quantitative relationships of biological invasions based on the data extracted from global invasive species database. The results indicated that human buildings were mostly invaded by invasive species, second by natural forest and agricultural area. Human disturbed environments held the largest numbers of invasive species. The number of invasive species in a country was positively correlated to the level of economic development and trade activity of the country. There were not linear correlations between the number of invasive species and annual precipitation and annual mean air temperature. There was a suitable range for both annual precipitation and annual mean air temperature within which biological invasions occur more frequently. Land area of a country was not responsible for the number of invasive species. Regression models were developed to describe the relationships between the number of invasive species and climate and economically motivated human activity. It is concluded that economically motivated human activity plays important role in the introduction of invasive species. Geographical adjacency and climate and environment similarity are responsible for the higher similarity of invasive species between countries. In addition, island countries have more invasive species than non-island countries.
       
  • Multi-temporal Landsat image classification and change analysis of land
           cover/use in the Prefecture of Thessaloiniki, Greece

    • Authors: Meliadis Ioannis; Miltiadis Meliadis. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(1:15-25
      Abstract: This paper describes the methodology and results of classifications of multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ data of the Prefecture of Thessaloniki, Macedonia Greece for the years 1986, 1999 and 2008. Nine different land cover/use categories have been used, named coniferous, broadleaves and mixed forest, agriculture lands, rangelands, grasslands, water bodies, urban areas and others uses. The overall classification accuracies were 85% for the three years, and the change detection accuracy was 88-91%. One of the most important results for the classifications is the fluctuation of the areas of the water bodies, mainly of the lakes, the decrease of the grasslands areas and the increase of forests, agricultural lands and rangelands. The results are being used to project future analyze landscape diversity and fragmentation, and examine different scenarios for more ecological management. The classifications have provided an economical and accurate way to quantify, map and analyze changes over time in land cover.
       
  • Study on mixing ratio of atmospheric ammonia and other nitrogen components

    • Authors: S.K. Sharma; H. Pathak, A. Datta, M. Saxena, T. Saud, T.K. Mandal. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(1:26-35
      Abstract: Mixing ratios of atmospheric NH3, NO and NO2 were measured during September-October 2008 and September-October 2009 over Delhi to study their variation and possible sources in respect of meteorological condition. Mixing ratio of atmospheric NH3 ranges from 1.05-39.26 ppbv with an average value of 17.47+-3.25 ppbv during 2008. The average mixing ratio of atmospheric NH3 was increased by 7.2% during 2009 over that of 2008. The average mixing ratio of NO2 during 2008 recorded as 4.46+-1.26 ppbv with ranges between 1.05-16.06 ppbv. Significantly higher (P: 0.05) NO2 mixing ratio was recorded during 2008. Early morning increase in NO2 mixing ratio may be attributed to conversion of NO to NO2 with the interaction of O3. Diurnal and day-to-day variations in mixing ratio of atmospheric NH3, NO, NO2 were observed during the study. Result reveals that the mixing ratio of atmospheric NH3 is correlated with NO (r2=-0.86), NO2 (r2=0.35), relative humidity (r2=-0.87) and ambient temperature (r2=0.88).
       
  • Variations in the heavy metal accumulations within the surface soils from
           the Chitgar industrial area of Tehran

    • Authors: M.R.G. Sayyed; M.H. Sayadi. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(1:36-46
      Abstract: As a result of anthropogenic activities in different parts of the world, the soils are seen to be contaminated by heavy metals. In view of this the influence of an industrial environment on the accumulation of heavy metals in the surface soils of the Chitgar Industrial Area Tehran has been investigated. The total 70 top soils samples (0-15cm) were collected for a period between May 2007 and May 2008 and the heavy metal contents were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The studies with Enrichment Factor indicate that Pb has been enriched to quite great extent while the Normalized Scatter Coefficient values indicate faster enrichment of Cd. While Pb shows accumulation in the past, the Cd accumulation has been quite high during the study period.
       
  • A framework of indicators to support urban green area planning: a
           Brazilian case study

    • Authors: Carina Sernaglia Gomes; Evandro Mateus Moretto. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(1:47-56
      Abstract: Green areas must be planned along with other city policies because they are important spaces that maintain the quality of the urban environment. The pattern of urbanization, especially with cities in the developing world, has negatively influenced green areas and, as a consequence, reduced the environmental benefits provided by them. Sao Paulo is one of the world's biggest cities in terms of territorial occupation and population, but its unplanned development has led to serious impacts on its green areas. As a result, this has caused many worsening social and environmental problems, such as flooding and bad air quality. Considering that information is a central factor in the planning process of these areas and that Sao Paulo has an environmental quality report, the Global Environmental Outlook (GEO) of Sao Paulo, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the potential of this report to support the planning process of Sao Paulo's green area system. An indicator framework was described to help the planning of these areas. The indicators presented in Geo Sao Paulo were selected to create a framework for the policy support. The indicators were selected by their relationship with the green areas directives shown in the city master plan. The indicators were also analyzed by technical and policy relevance criteria.
       
  • Differential marking, investigation and motor activity in presence of
           conspecific odours differing on their population of origin in bank voles

    • Authors: Geraldine Verplancke; Eric Le Boulenge Environmental Sciences,2011,1(1:57-69
      Abstract: Odours emitted by rodent species convey cues about their overall body conditions and provide valuable information intervening in many aspects of their social relationships such as territorial and mating activities. Although bank vole is one of the primary models for studying chemical communication in wild rodents, literature is scarce about its reactivity to odours of conspecifics from its population compared to those of conspecifics from a different population. Here we tested the effect of the population of origin on the behaviour of wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) through 30min tests in laboratory. We observed both males and females differential marking (i.e. by urine or glandular secretions), motor activity and investigation (i.e. sniffing events) in presence of conspecific whole body odours coming from either the Same Population of Origin (SPO) or from a Different Population of Origin (DPO). Our results showed that both male and female bank voles react differently to odours of conspecifics according to the population of origin of the latter. Both motor activity and marking were more important when voles were confronted to odours from DPO donors than SPO ones. These effects were independent of the sexof the subjects. Moreover, male subjects tended to investigate more odours from DPO conspecifics than odours from SPO ones. Causes underlying apparent between-populations differences in the bank voles' body odours are discussed.
       
  • The use of a multivariate statistical procedure in analysing the
           germination process of two bean cultivars, compared with a univariate
           approach

    • Authors: Andre Bianconi; Jose S. Govone, Bryan F. J. Manly, Michael J. Watts. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(2:70-76
      Abstract: Several studies on plant physiology are aimed at describing or assessing seed germination processes under laboratory conditions. With respect to seed germination of crop species, some statistical complexities have been discussed, but they have not been developed much in practice. That is, such discussions are not as common as in other areas of plant biology. Additionally, the current literature that is concerned directly with the application of statistics in seed germination indicates that simple and well-known statistical procedures still merit further consideration. Regarding the use of multivariate statistical methods in agriculture, several field studies have used such procedures as a means of clarifying some underlying ecological principles that govern crop production. Nonetheless, multivariate tests have not been widely employed in germination experiments. Therefore, in the present study a simple multivariate statistical procedure (Hotelling's T square statistic) was utilised in order to compare two common bean cultivars, using germination indices as variables. The outcome derived from the multivariate approach was compared with that obtained from the utilisation of the univariate t test. The simultaneous application of both methods (that is, the classical univariate t test and the multivariate T square test) showed that the outcomes may well depend on the approach utilised.
       
  • Experimental determination of the bioconcentration factors for anatoxin-a
           in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    • Authors: Joana Osswald; Joana Azevedo, Vitor Vasconcelos, Lucia Guilhermino. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(2:77-86
      Abstract: Anatoxin-a is a cyanobacterial neurotoxin with a worldwide occurrence in freshwater ecosystems. As a result of global climate changes, it is expected to occur an increase of eutrophication processes and of frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms in several regions of the world. In these conditions, the water concentrations of cyanotoxins, including anatoxin-a, may increase reaching toxic levels, with an additional risk for organisms able to bioconcentrate it in their body. Considering the importance that these processes may have in freshwater ecosystems and the lack of knowledge that still exists on the topic, this study tested the hypothesis that rainbow trout is able to bioconcentrate anatoxin-a. A 96 h bioassay was carried out by exposing juvenile fish to three concentrations of anatoxin-a (132 ug/L, 264 ug/L and 524 ug/L) through the test media. At the end of the assay, the actual concentrations of the toxin were determined in the test media and in the whole fish body by HPLC-FLD and the bioconcentration factors (BCF) were determined. At all the tested concentrations of anatoxin-a, the fish body concentrations of the toxin were higher than the corresponding water concentrations, with BCF ranging from 30 to 47 based on fresh weight. These findings indicate that the rainbow trout is able to bioconcentrate anatoxin-a, even during short-term exposures and this process may considerably increase the risk of being intoxicated in real scenarios. Since other species of fish may have also this capability and considering that they are key species in a considerable number of freshwater ecosystems, more research should be done on this most important topic in the actual context of global climate changes.
       
  • Adaptive monitoring using the endangered northern corroboree frog
           (Pseudophryne pengilleyi) as a case study

    • Authors: Francis Lemckert; Trent Penman, Andrew Haywood. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(2:87-96
      Abstract: Monitoring programs are most successful when they undertake regular evaluation of their data to determine if the goals of the programs are achievable and allow changes to achieve this as necessary - so called adaptive monitoring. We use data from a monitoring program for the northern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne pengilleyi), a declining species in south-eastern Australia, to determine the inter-annual variability in the counts and assess what levels of population change would be detectable using different statistical and monitoring approaches. The existing monitoring program would only successfully statistically detect a 3% annual decline (34% total decline) in population size over a ten year period. Monitoring 40 sites would allow an 80% or greater chance of detecting a 2% or greater annual increase over a ten year period (22% increase). Detecting population decreases is more difficult as monitoring 40 sites with a 2% annual decline (19% total decline) will have a less than 40% chance of being detected after 10 years. A larger monitoring program is required to detect smaller annual changes in the population of this species. These findings have implications for the likely effectiveness of other anuran monitoring programs as the northern corroboree frog appears to be far more consistent in detectable call effort compared to most species.
       
  • Economic instruments of environmental management

    • Authors: Firuz Demir Yasamis. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2011,1(2:97-111
      Abstract: There are three main environmental management strategies so far developed to deal with the environmental quality concerns: command-and-control (CAC) strategy, voluntary measures strategy (VM) and economic instruments (EI) or market type environmental management tools strategy. For an effective environmental management all these strategies should be utilized in a harmonized manner depending on the strengths and weaknesses of the surrounding economic, social and institutional circumstances of the societies such as availability of financial funds, status of internal market and citizen awareness over environmental issues. Individually all of these strategies do have their own superiorities and disadvantages as a tool to upgrade the environmental quality and to maintain it. However, when compared, it is observed that the environmental management tools which are mainly economic and financial in nature are gaining more recognition due to their efficiency and effectiveness. The article tries to introduce the economic and financial instruments of environmental management.
       
  • Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    • Authors: M.H. Sayadi; S. D. Ghatnekar, M. F. Kavian. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(2:112-124
      Abstract: Research on renewable and environmentally friendly fuel is growing rapidly and many scientists and governments are interested to grow it fast due to limitation of conventional fuel sources and their harmful effects on the environment. Biofuels are not only the best and reliably available fuels attained from renewable sources which are environment friendly. Besdies biofuels are abundantly available in all the locations easily accessible and highly sustainable. In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuels. It is interesting to note that algae are varied, pervasive, and productive and also having less impact with plants as a food for human and animals. Further research is required to a high quantity of product innovation because most dedicated algae are faced uneconomically high costs.
       
  • Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus

    • Authors: WenJun Zhang; FuBin Jiang, JianFeng Ou. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(2:125-144
      Abstract: Varieties and consumption of pesticides worldwide have been increasing dramatically as increased human population and crop production. In this process pesticide misuses become more and more serious, which has resulted in heavy environmental pollution and health risk of humans. In order to safeguard human health, threatened species and ecosystems from pesticide pollution, the consumption and pollution of pesticides worldwide especially China were reviewed and documented in present study. Meanwhile, the development trend of pesticide varieties and consumption was also prospected and discussed. It was found that worldwide consumption structure of pesticides has undergone significant changes since 1960s. The proportion of herbicides in pesticide consumption increased rapidly and the consumption of insecticides and fungicides/bactericides declined. China has become the largest pesticide producer and exporter in the world. Pesticide pollution of air, water bodies and soils, and pesticide-induced deaths in China has been serious in past years. Bio-pesticides should be further developed in the future.
       
  • Unusual death of millipedes (Diplopoda) towards the north of the Varkala
           Cliff section near Papanasam, Kerala, India

    • Authors: P.K. Sarkar; S. N. Mude, Madhuri Ukey. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2011,1(2:145-150
      Abstract: The cliff section at Varkala, Kerala consisting of clay, lignite band, clay, sandy-clay, sandstone of Mio-Pliocene age. This sedimentary sequence is overlain by a thick laterite. Above the lower lignite band, in the exposed clay beds several struggling and dead millipedes can be observed. Their death is probably due to the action of dehydration related to the sulphuric water infiltration in the sediments. However, it still remains a mystery why these millipedes choose such a toxic environment to create their habitat'
       
  • Floristic inventory and diversity assessment - a critical review

    • Authors: S. Jayakumar; Seong Sam Kim, Joon Heo. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences, 2011, 1(3-4:151-168
      Abstract: Floristic inventory and diversity assessments are necessary to understand the present diversity status and conservation of forest biodiversity. Although, inventory and diversity studies are taken up at different levels all over the world by various research groups with available resources and to fill the gap in the biodiversity knowledge, there are variations in sampling methods/techniques, sample size, measurements taken in the field that hinder the compilation and comparison of results. This review discusses the problems and pitfalls in different sampling techniques, which are being followed in floristic inventory and diversity measurements.
       
  • Evaluation of larvicidal activity of soil microbial isolates (Bacillus and
           Acinetobactor Sp.) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) - the vector
           of Chikungunya and Dengue

    • Authors: D. Radhika; A. Ramathilaga, C. Sathesh Prabu, A.G. Murugesan. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences, 2011, 1(3-4:169-178
      Abstract: To isolate and identify the natural non- harmful microbial population from the soil sample for the control of many epidemiological disease causing vector of Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae via larvicidal activity. Heat treat and non heat treated soil samples were used for the isolation of spore forming and non- spore forming microbial isolates through spread plate technique. Preliminary and quantitative larvicidal activity was performed against the mosquito larvae. Protein analyses of best microbial isolates were carried out by SDSPAGE technique. For the screening assay ten microbial isolates were used and five were active against chosen mosquito larvae which were identified as B. megaterium, B. sphaericus, B. cereus, B. subtillis and Acinetobactor sp. under laboratory conditions. The two isolates (B. megaterium and Acinetobactor sp.) were considered as most toxic strains followed by B. sphaericus, B. cereus, and B. subtillis with LC90 values 4.1 +-0.39, 2.8 +- 0.17, 3.6 +- 0.37, 2.5 +-0.71, 3.6 +- 0.71 mg/ml respectively under laboratory conditions and ensuring mortality rate was 97% at 48 hrs exposure tests. This study concludes that non spore formers of common microbial isolates from the natural environment were also able to kill the larvae of A.aegypti through their secondary metabolites which are non - toxic to human population.
       
  • Effects of processing on Moringa oleifera

    • Authors: E. T. Gyamfi; I. K. Kwarteng, M. O. Ansah, A.K. Anim, M. Ackah, Lebene Kpattah, Nash O. Bentil. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences, 2011, 1(3-4:179-185
      Abstract: Food processing is to minimize the growth of microorganisms during the storage period, thus promoting longer shelf life and reduced hazard from eating the food. Air, freeze and oven drying were employed in the study. Mineral analysis of dried leaf samples considered include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, manganese, chromium, iron, copper, cadmium, zinc among others using fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer, vis-uv spectrophotometer and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Leaf samples from different areas showed variations with respect to macro and micro mineral contents. The study revealed that dried leaf powder of Moringa can serve as an excellent source of minerals.
       
  • Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation: the case
           study of Teiman-Oyarifa Community, Ga East Municipality, Ghana

    • Authors: M. Ackah; O. Agyemang, A. K Anim, J. Osei, N.O. Bentil, L. Kpattah, E.T Gyamfi, J.E.K.Hanson. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences, 2011, 1(3-4:186-194
      Abstract: The suitability of groundwater quality for drinking and agricultural purposes was assessed in a predominantly farming and sprawling settlement in the Ga East Municipality (Ghana). Various water quality parameters were determined to assess groundwater quality of 16 wells in Teiman-Oyarifa community. Standard methods for physicochemical determinations were employed. Hand-dug wells, boreholes and pipe borne water samples were collected within the locality and analysed. Results showed the temperature range of 19.5 oC-26.7 oC, pH range of 4-7.4, conductivity range of 214-2830 uS/cm, total dissolved solids, 110-1384 mg/L, bicarbonate, 8.53-287.7mg/L, chloride, 28.41-813.8 mg/L, Flouride, below detection limit -0.4667mg/L, Nitrate 1.9-4625 mg/L, sulphate, 16.35-149.88mg/L. Results of analysis carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry showed metal concentrations of Fe ranging from 0.212-3.396 mg/L, Mn 0.01-0.1 mg/L, Ca 0.39-9.97 mg/L. The ionic dominance for the major cations and the anions respectively were in these order; Na+>K+>Mg+>Ca+ and Cl->HCO3->SO4->NO3 -. Most of the samples analyzed were within the Guidelines set by both national and international bodies for drinking water. Most of the groundwater samples fell in the US Salinity Laboratory Classification of C2-S1(medium salinity-low SAR).
       
  • An assessment of groundwater quality for agricultural use: a case study
           from solid waste disposal site SE of Pune, India

    • Authors: M. R. G. Sayyed; G. S. Wagh. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences, 2011, 1(3-4:195-201
      Abstract: Groundwater pollution around the improperly constructed landfill areas of the growing cities has always been in the rising trend and hence its effects on the environment warrant a thorough monitoring. The seasonal variations in the quality of groundwater from the dug wells surrounding the solid waste disposal site from the SE of Pune city (India) has been assessed by calculating the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The results indicate that the groundwater from the wells nearing the waste disposal site show consistent increase in the pollution from monsoon to summer through winter. The study further demonstrates that the wells near the site are severely polluted and the source is mainly the leachates emerging out of the decaying solid wastes. The recurrent addition of the solid waste in the dump site in the coming years would result in further exponential deterioration of the groundwater quality of the dug wells from the area and hence adequate steps are urgently needed to prevent further aggravation of the problem. Based upon the SAR values it is evident that most of the wells from the Hadapsar area have excellent groundwater for irrigation throughout the year; from Manjari area it is excellent to good; the Fursungi area has sub-equal proportions of excellent, good and fair groundwater, while in Mantarwadi, although most of the wells have excellent to good water, few wells have fair to poor quality water for irrigation purpose. In Uruli-Devachi about 50% wells have poor quality of water and hence can not be used for irrigation. Hence this study strongly suggests that most of the abstracted groundwater samples from the study area were suitable for irrigation except from Uruli Devachi area.
       
  • Assessment of groundwater quality and pollution potential of Jawa Block
           Rewa District, Madhya Pradesh, India

    • Authors: R.N. Tiwari. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences, 2011, 1(3-4:202-212
      Abstract: The paper deals an assessment of groundwater quality and pollution potcntial of Jawa block, Rewa district, Madhya Pradesh India. Geologically, the area is occupied by shale and sandstone of Rewa Group, Vindhyan Supergroup. Interpretation of analytical data shows Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl facies. The chemical parameters- hardness, sulphate and total dissolved solid exceed the desirable limit in few locations which should be use for drinking after some chemical treatments. The higher concentration of nitrate may be due to excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. The fluoride is generally within permissible limit with few exceptions. The computed DRASTIC Index suggests intermediate to high pollution susceptibility. The interpretation on the basis of available data shown that the groundwater of the area was more or less fit for drinking.
       
  • Current status, crisis and conservation of coral reef ecosystems in China

    • Authors: ShaoHong Wu; WenJun Zhang.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(1:1-11
      Abstract: Harboring rich marine species and playing important ecological functions, coral reef ecosystems have attracted widespread concern around the world. Ecosystem diversity, conservation and management of coral reefs are becoming a hot research area. Coral reefs in China are mainly distributed in the South China Sea and Hainan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Guangdong, and Guangxi coastal waters. In recent years, due to the global climate change and the growing impact of human activities, coral reef biodiversity in China have been reducing and the ecological functions of coral reef ecosystems are severely degenerating. In this paper we summarized the current status, crisis and conservation of coral reef ecosystems in China. Some progress in coral reef research was discussed.
       
  • Paleoenvironmental significance of ichnofossils from the Kand Formation of
           the Cambay Basin, Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Shyam N. Mude.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2012,2(1:12-20
      Abstract: The present paper documents five ichnospecies from the sediments of the Kand Formation (late Miocene) of the Narmada Block of the Cambay Basin, namely, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Planolites berverlensis, Planolite montanus, Thalassonoids paradoxicum and Thalassonoids suevicus. Both the vertical and horizontal biogenic structures are common in the calcareous sandstone, but the horizontal biogenic structures dominate. The ichnofossils, namely, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Thalassonoids paradoxicum and Thalassonoids suevicus are ethologically domichnia, these dwelling biogenic structures formed by suspension feeders (fish, crustaceans, bivalves, sponges, cnidarians etc), in search of food at sediment water interface. The ichnofossils, namely, Planolites berverlensis and Planolite montanus are ethologically fodinichnia, these are feeding biogenic structures formed by deposit feeders (earthworms, sea stars, crabs, polychaetes etc). The present ichnofossils from the Kand Formation indicate that the sediments of the Kand Formation were deposited in shallow water marine environment with moderate to low energy conditions, all the burrows were made in soft substrate before the consolidation of the sediments and the sediments (calcareous sandstone) had good nutrients for the survival of both suspension and deposit feeders.
       
  • Fish fauna of the Owabi Dam Reservoir in Ghana

    • Authors: J. Nunoo; N. Agbo, M. Ackah.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(1:21-26
      Abstract: This study was carried out to identify fish composition, relative abundance and species diversity of Owabi Dam reservoir located near Kumasi, Ghana. The work was conducted between January-March, 2004. Simpson index was employed to estimate the fish abundance and diversity in the reservoir. Personal observations and interviews were also employed to assess fishery practices in the area. Findings from the studies showed that 19 fish species belonging to fifteen families were present in the reservoir. The family Cichlidae was the most abundant followed by the family Characidae. Other results obtained showed that the species, Hemichromis fasciatus was the most abundant followed by Sarotherodon galilaeaes and Hepsetus odoe in that order.
       
  • Quality control analysis of imported fertilizers used in Ghana: the
           macronutrients perspective

    • Authors: Sheriff Enti-Brown; Philip Owiredu Yeboah, Samuel Akoto-Bamford, Alfred Kwablah Anim, Hannah Abole, Lebene Kpattah, John E. K. Hanson, Hyacinthe Ahiamadjie, Eva Tabuaa Gyamfi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(1:27-40
      Abstract: The main objective of this environmental research was to validate specifications indicated by manufacturers on their fertilizer products. Selected fertilizers types were sampled from five major fertilizer importing companies in Ghana for macronutrient analysis to determine the fertilizer quality. Five analytical techniques including Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), flame photometry, Kjeldahl method for nitrogen analysis and UV-visible spectroscopy were employed to achieve this objective. Two reference materials (IAEA Soil-7 and SRM 1646a Estuarine Sediment) were used to validate the quantitative method employed in the INAA. There was generally good agreements (98% and above) between the measured values and the certified valuesfor the primary macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N, P and K). However, same could not be said for secondary macronutrients calcium, magnesium and sulphur (Ca, Mg and S). The secondary macronutrient values measured were compared to standard values from the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) in cases where they were not certified by the manufacturer. Most of the manufacturers' claims for primary macronutrients were valid. However, most of them fell short of the requirements for secondary macronutrient concentration. There is therefore the need for a good quality control system to undertake periodic quality monitoring of the chemical compositions of fertilizers imported into the country since they may directly or indirectly have impacts on the environment.
       
  • About a modification of Rogers model of parasite-host system dynamics

    • Authors: L.V. Nedorezov; A.M. Sadykov.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(1:41-49
      Abstract: In current publication there is the consideration of mathematical model of parasite-host system dynamics for the populations with non-overlapping generations. Within the framework of considering model it is assumed that appearance of individuals of new generation correlates with the death of individuals of the previous one. It is also assumed that between time moments of appearance of individuals of new generations there are the monotonous and independent decreasing of population sizes of interacting species in a result of influence of self-regulative mechanisms and natural death. All survived individuals of the host produce the eggs synchronically, and part of these eggs is attacked by parasites. In model it is assumed that the time for the appearance of hosts and parasites from the eggs is much less than the length of time interval between closed generations. It allows describing of the process of appearance of new generations as "jumps" in changing of population's sizes. For considering model the dynamic regimes of interacting populations are analyzed for various values of model parameters and various assumptions about mechanism of interaction of species. In particular, there is the determination of conditions for parameters when the regimes of population outbreaks are observed in model.
       
  • Biodiversity optimal sampling: an algorithmic solution

    • Authors: Alessandro Ferrarini.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2012,2(1:50-52
      Abstract: Biodiversity sampling is a very serious task. When biodiversity sampling is not representative of the biodiversity spatial pattern due to few data or uncorrected sampling point locations, successive analyses, models and simulations are inevitably biased. In this work, I propose a new solution to the problem of biodiversity sampling. The proposed approach is proficient for habitats, plant and animal species, in addition it is able to answer the two pivotal questions of biodiversity sampling: 1) how many sampling points and 2)where are the sampling points.
       
  • An integrated parcel-based land use change model using cellular automata
           and decision tree

    • Authors: Florencio Ballestores Jr.; Zeyuan Qiu.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(2:53-69
      Abstract: Ecological changes are driven by changes in land use. Modeling land use change is an essential step to adaptively manage ecosystem to mitigate the negative impacts of such ecological changes. This study developed a parcel-based spatial land use change prediction model by coupling a couple of machine learning and interpretation algorithms: cellular automata and decision tree. The model was developed and validated using the historical land use data in Hunterdon County of New Jersey in the United States. Specifically, the data on historical land uses and various driving factors that affect land use changes for Hunterdon County were collected and processed using a Geographic Information System. A set of transition rules illustrating the land use change processes during the period 1986-1995 were developed using decision tree J48 Classifier. The derived transition rules were applied to the 1995 land use data in a cellular automata model Agent Analyst to predict future spatial land use pattern, which were then validated by the actual land use in 2002. The decision tree-based cellular automata model has reasonable overall accuracy of 84.46 percent in predicting land use changes and the Cohen's Kappa Index is 0.644. The model shows much higher capacity in predicting the quantitative changes than the locational changes in land use. Sensitivity analysis indicates that simply changing the size of neighborhood has slight impacts on the simulation results, but insignificant impacts on the model accuracy.
       
  • Pine looper moth population dynamics in Netherlands: Prognosis with
           generalized logistic model

    • Authors: B.N. Nedorezova; L.V. Nedorezov.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(2:70-83
      Abstract: Current publication is devoted to analysis of well-known time series on the dynamics of pine looper moth (Bupalus piniarius L.) in national park De Hoge Veluwe (the Netherlands). For the approximation of every considering sample five various models with discrete time steps were used. Within the framework of every used model the influence of self-regulative mechanisms onto population size changing in time were took into account (and every used model had minimum number of unknown parameters). Estimations of model parameters were obtained at minimization of squared differences between theoretical (model) trajectories and empirical datasets (global fitting) for first ten values. Tails of samples (four or five points) were used for checking prognostic properties of models. Sets of deviations between theoretical and empirical trajectories were checked on Normality with zero average (Kolmogorov - Smirnov and Shapiro - Wilk tests), and weretested on absence/existence of serial correlation (Durbin - Watson criteria). Provided analysis showed that modified logistic model can only give sufficient approximation of empirical datasets. For parameters of this model confidence domains were determined, and for the situation when parameters belong to 90% confidence domain, forecasts of population size changing were constructed.
       
  • Founding RGB ecology: The ecology of synthesis

    • Authors: Alessandro Ferrarini.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2012,2(2:84-89
      Abstract: There is an arising need to interpret an amount of ecological information that is more and more available. It is not only the pursuit of an easy handling of a large amount of data, but above all the quest for a deep and multivariate interpretation of many sources of ecological info. To this aim, I introduce here RGB ecology as a new branch of ecology devoted to the cartographic synthesis of ecological information. RGB ecology has the following properties: (1) it can not be separated from GIS cartography; (2) it can compact ecological information along space and time; (3) it can create a decision space for management decisions; (4) it can go beyond the third dimension by using compressive statistical techniques. RGB ecology can also be an effective flanker of several branches of ecology, such as landscape ecology, conservation ecology, urban ecology, forest ecology and so forth.
       
  • Biolarvicidal activity of Peanibacillus macerans and Bacillus subtilis
           isolated from the dead larvae against Aedes aegypti - Vector for
           Chikungunya

    • Authors: A. Ramathilaga; A.G. Murugesan, C. Sathesh. Prabu.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(2:90-95
      Abstract: Two bacterial species were isolated from dead mosquito larvae. They were identified as Peanibacillus macerans and Bacillus Subtilis. They were examined for their mosquito larvicidal activity against chikunguya vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culucidae). The LC50 values of P. macerans and B. subtilis were recorded 70.99, 50*10^6 cells /ml and 58.97, 49 *10^6 cells /ml for 24h and 48h, respectively. The LC50 value of the procured culture Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis also detected. It was noted as 152.02 and 50*10^6 cells /ml for 24hrs and 48hrs. A. aegypti was the most susceptible to B. subtilis. It has the highest relative susceptibility (RS) value.
       
  • Water treatment using ultrasonic assistance: A review

    • Authors: M.R. Doosti; R. Kargar, M.H. Sayadi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(2:96-110
      Abstract: One of innovate techniques that was used for improvement of water treatment process is application of ultrasound waves. In this study, different applications of ultrasound technology in water treatment process such as membrane filtration, turbidity and total suspended solid reduction, algae removal, disinfection process, water softening process and other pollutants removal such as halomethanes and DDT were surveyed. The results show this technique could improve the water treatment process environmentally. The various parameters could affect to the efficiency of ultrasound technique such as power density, frequency and irradiation time. So it is needed to obtain the optimum power density, frequency and irradiation time to reach cost-effective. The most experiments are carried out in laboratory scale due to its cost. The utilization of solar energy may help to decrease the cost. It is suggested that the ultrasound technique could be extended to cleanup of other polluted parameters in water and the environment.
       
  • Trace metals quality of some herbal medicines sold in Accra, Ghana

    • Authors: A.K. Anim; C. Laar, J. Osei, S. Odonkor, S. Enti-Brown.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(2:111-117
      Abstract: Ten brands of herbal medicines were selected on the market for the analysis of trace metals quality using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The results were reported as the mean concentration of three representative samples for each of the ten brands. The respective percentage incidence of the trace metals analyzed were; Fe (20%), Zn (80%), Cu (20%), Cd (40%); Al (100%) and Pb (100%). The range of the mean concentrations measured for all the brands were; Fe (less than 0.006-3.298 mg/L), Zn (less than 0.001-0.091 mg/L), Cu (less than 0.003-0.009 mg/L), Cd (less than 0.002-0.003), Al (0.278-0.533 mg/L) and Pb (0.0056-0.085 mg/L). The mean concentrations of the trace metals measured were generally low and below stipulated national limits as per WHO (2007). A hierarchical cluster analysis indicated two clusters; cluster 1 (CA1) loading Zn, Al and Fe whilst Cluster 2 (CA2) loaded Cd and Pb. The presence of these trace metals may be the result of accidental contamination during manufacture, for instance, from grinding weights or lead-releasing containers or other manufacturing utensils and contamination from polluted soils on which the herbs were harvested. Some brands of the herbal medicines sampled do not have the code in Food and Drugs Board of Ghana. Hence a routine analysis of these herbal medicines must be carried out to ensure the safety of the consuming populace.
       
  • Chemical analysis of potable water samples from selected suburbs of Accra,
           Ghana

    • Authors: E.T. Gyamfi; M. Ackah, A. K. Anim, J. K. Hanson, L. Kpattah, S. Enti-Brown, Y. Adjei-Kyereme, E. S. Nyarko.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(2:118-127
      Abstract: A study was carried out to assess the suitability of potable water used for domestic activities in twelve selected suburbs in Accra. Several water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity and redox potential (eh) were measured. The results of the physical parameters revealed the following: temperature range of 25.2oC - 26.2oC, pH range of 6.64-7.80, conductivity range of 187-725 us/cm, total dissolved solids, 90-352 mg/L, total suspended solids 0-4 mg/L, bicarbonate, 68.27-121.91 mg/L, chloride, 11.996-343.89 mg/L, Phosphate, BDL-0.128 mg/L and sulphate, 0.08-0.40 mg/L. Copper and Manganese recorded concentrations below the WHO limits of 2mg/L and 0.01mg/L respectively.Iron however recorded concentrations higher than WHO limits of 0.1mg/L. However, Cd, Pb, Cr and Co were below their respective detection limits.
       
  • Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in parts of the Ayensu Basin of Ghana

    • Authors: Nafisatu Zakaria; Tetteh T. Akiti, Shiloh Osae, Adomako Dickson, Samuel Y. Ganyaglo, John E.K. Hanson, Godfred Ayanu.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(2:128-135
      Abstract: Twenty five groundwater samples were collected from parts of the Ayensu Basin in the Central Region of Ghana and were analysed for their physicochemical characteristics. The physicochemical parameters; pH, Conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium (Ca 2+), magnesium (Mg 2+), sodium (Na +), potassium (K +), bicarbonate (HCO3 2-), chloride (Cl -), sulphate (SO4 2-) and nitrate (NO3 -) were analysed to know the present groundwater quality as well as the possible source of ions in the groundwater. The groundwater in the area is fresh and the dominant water types in the study area are Na-Cl and Na-HCO3-Cl: the occurrence of these facies is identified to be probably due to the dissolution of soluble salts in the soil horizon and aerosol spray. The occurrence of Na +, Cl -, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and SO4 2- in the groundwaters was also found to be probably caused by sea aerosol spray and decay of organic matter.
       
  • Phytoremediation of Chromium and Cobalt using Pistia stratiotes: A
           sustainable approach

    • Authors: Santosh Kumar Prajapati; Neelima Meravi, Shivangee Singh.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(2:136-138
      Abstract: This experimental study showed that aquatic macrophytes, Pistia stratiotes, may be used for phytoremediation of water bodies polluted with heavy metals, Cr and Co in a sustainable way.
       
  • Detection of mercury and other metals in mercury contaminated soils using
           mid-infrared spectroscopy

    • Authors: Sharon R. Jean-Philippe; Nicole Labbe, Jennifer A. Franklin, Amy Johnson.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(3:139-149
      Abstract: The Oak Ridge Reservation, established in 1942, was the designated site for the construction of the atomic bomb. During a 20-year period from 1944-1963 radioactive and toxic chemical pollutants, especially mercury compounds were released into the surrounding waterways. Mercury in the soil environment can undergo numerous chemical transformations. Conventional methods for detection of total soil mercury in contaminated environments are based on time-consuming sample preparation and costly sample analysis. The possibility for determination of total soil -Hg concentration and other elements in contaminated soils using the mid-infrared (MIR) region (4000 - 600 cm-1) has been investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify patterns or differences in soil spectral data and partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to develop models for several metals in soil samples. Pearson correlation identified nine elements (Sr, Ni, Cu, Cd, V, Ti, Fe, Ba, Rb) and total carbon that were significantly correlated with total soil-Hg. Our calibration models showed high r for Hg, and Sr (r>.90) and relatively moderate r for Cu and Ni (r>.80). Results support the conclusion that mid-infrared spectroscopy could aid conventional method analyses of soils heavily contaminated with certain heavy metals after a robust model is developed.
       
  • Paleoenvironmental significance of ichnofossils from the Mesozoic
           Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan, north western India

    • Authors: Shyam N. Mude; S. A. Jagtap, Pradeep Kundal, P. K. Sarkar, M. P. Kundal.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(3:150-167
      Abstract: The Mesozoic rocks are well exposed in the Jaisalmer basin of the Indian Subcontinent. These sediments are classified into six formations as Lathi Formation, Jaisalmer Formation, Baisakhi Formation, Badasar Formation, Pariwar Formation and Habur Formation. The sediments are mainly represented by limestone, sandstone and shale. The sediments of the Jaisalmer Formation, the Baisakhi Formation, the Badasar Formation and the Pariwar Formation are examined for ichnological investigation and their significant role during the deposition of those sediments. The present paper documents seventeen ichnofossils such as Acanthorphaphe isp., Asteriacites isp., Cylindrichnus isp., Keckia annulata, Laevicyclus mongraensis, Ophiomorpha borneensis, O. nodosa, Paleomendron isp., Palaeophycus heberti, P. tubularis, Planolites annularis, P. berverlensis, P. montanus, Thalassinoides horizontalis, T. paradoxicus, T. suevicus, and Skolithos verticalis from the Mesozoic marine sediments of the Jaisalmer basin. The ichnofossil assemblage have proved major role for the paleonenvironmental interpretation of these sediments and accordingly depositional paleoenvironments of Jaisalmer Formation, the Baisakhi Formation, the Badasar Formation and the Pariwar Formation have been drawn.
       
  • Impact of forest fire on physical, chemical and biological properties of
           soil: A review

    • Authors: Satyam Verma; S. Jayakumar.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(3:168-176
      Abstract: Forest fire is very common to all the ecosystems of the world. It affects both vegetation and soil. It is also helpful in maintaining diversity and stability of ecosystems. Effect of forest fire and prescribed fire on forest soil is very complex. It affects soil organic matter, macro and micro-nutrients, physical properties of soil like texture, colour, pH, Bulk Density as well as soil biota. The impact of fire on forest soil depends on various factors such as intensity of fire, fuel load and soil moisture. Fire is beneficial as well as harmful for the forest soil depending on its severity and fire return interval. In low intensity fires, combustion of litter and soil organic matter increase plant available nutrients, which results in rapid growth of herbaceous plants and a significant increase in plant storage of nutrients. Whereas high intensity fires can result into complete loss of soil organic matter, volatilization of N, P, S, K, death of microbes, etc. Intense forest fire results into formation of some organic compounds with hydrophobic properties, which results into high water repellent soils. Forest fire also causes long term effect on forest soil. The purpose of this paper is to review the effect of forest fire on various properties of soil, which are important in maintaining healthy ecosystem.
       
  • Geochemical characteristics of the basin-type granitoids in the Winneba
           Area of Ghana

    • Authors: E.S.Nyarko; D. K. Aseidu, S.Osea, S.Dampare, N.Zakaria, J.Hanson, J.Osei, S.Enti-Brown, D.Tulasi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(3:177-192
      Abstract: Representative rocks of the metasediment suite granitoids (basin-type granitoids) were selected from the Winneba area in the Central part of Ghana for geochemical analyses. The rocks contained plagioclase, Kfeldspar, amphibole, Biotite and titanite as the main mineral phase. The CIPW normative mineral shows that the rocks are granodiorite, monzogranite, and quartz -monzonite. The geochemical classification of the basintype granitoids based upon the Fe-Number, the modified alkali-lime index and the aluminium saturation index, defined the rocks as ferroan, alkali-calcic to calc-alkali and peraluminous respectively. The rocks also showed a calc-alkaline affinity. The aluminous character by the molar ratio Al/ (Na+ K+ Ca/2) show I-type characteristics of the rocks which is a characteristic of basin type granitoids in Ghana. The major element composition of the whole rock and Biotite mineral revealed that the basin- type granitoids are from metagreywackes, and or metabasaltic to metatonalitic and calc-alkaline to peraluminous source.
       
  • Hydrochemistry of groundwater from Sarabanga Minor Basin, Tamilnadu, India
           

    • Authors: K.Srinivasamoorthy; M.Vasanthavigar, S.Chidambaram, P.Anandhan, R.Manivannan, R.Rajivgandhi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(3:193-203
      Abstract: The study area Sarabanga, forms an important Minor river basin of river Cauvery, situated in Salem district. The study area being a hard rock terrain with minimal rainfall and large extraction of groundwater for domestic, irrigational and industrial purposes have threatened the groundwater environment both in the terms of quality and quantity. Hence an attempt has been made to identify the major geochemical process activated for controlling the ground water chemistry. Groundwater was generally alkaline with higher EC values. The dominance of anions and cations were of the order of Cl> HCO3> SO4> NO3> PO4 and Na> Ca> Mg> K. The plot for Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering and Cl from anthropogenic activities. The plot for Ca+Mg to SO4+HCO3, indicates ion exchange process. The plot of Na-Cl to Ca+Mg-HCO3-SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chloride minerals. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions from anthropogenic impact.
       
  • Hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: A worldwide review

    • Authors: M.H. Sayadi; R. Kargar, M.R. Doosti, H. Salehi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(4:204-222
      Abstract: The utilization of environmentally friendly and eco-safe wastewater treatment plan is nowadays widespread. This study aimed to assess the potentiality of hybrid constructed wetlands for treating of landfill leachate, river polluted water, domestic, industrial, hospital, runoff and agricultural wastewaters in lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale with various configurations. The results revealed that the hybrid constructed wetlands are effective to remove organic matter (BOD5, COD) and suspended solid, while in terms of nutrient removal such as N and Pcomponents, the removal efficiencies were depending to system properties and operational condition. Additionally it is very useful system to remove the heavy metals and pharmaceuticals pollutants from different wastewaters. Combination of constructed wetlands enhances pollutants removal efficiency as hybrid constructed wetlands could cover the limitation of each single constructed wetlands. It could be concluded that the hybrid constructed wetlands ensure a more stable removal rate of pollutants from various wastewaters incomparison with other wastewaters treatment plans.
       
  • Levels and potential effect of radon gas in groundwater of some
           communities in the Kassena Nankana district of the Upper East region of
           Ghana

    • Authors: A.B. Asumadu-Sakyi; O.C. Oppon, F.K. Quashie, C.A. Adjei, E. Akortia, I. Nsiah-Akoto, Kwame Appiah.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(4:223-233
      Abstract: Levels of radon gas in groundwater should be of interest due to its variation and exposure to the public since it is now patronized due to unusual interruption of surface water supplies. Dissolved Rn-222 in sampled groundwater has been analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) Detector and Nuclear Track Detector (N.T.D) techniques at the Kassena Nankana District in the Upper East region of Ghana. The radon concentrations obtained ranges from 7.86 *10^(-6) to 8.18 *10^(-5) Bq/l with a mean of 4.38 *10^(-5) Bq/l using the Gamma Spectrometry (G.S) whiles that of N.T.D ranged from 5.40 to 46.74 Bq/l with a mean of 19.54 Bq/l. In terms of Bq/m3, the concentrations ranged from 1.2 *10^(-2) to 8.1 '10^(-2) with a mean of 3.67*10^(-2) and 200.00 +-0.23 to 1731.00 +-1.73 with a mean of 723.7 Bq/m^3. The estimated annual effective dose by inhalation ranged from 6.05 to 40.66 mSvy^(-1) with a mean value of 21.91 mSvy^(-1) using N.T.D, whiles that of G.S ranged from 1.39 *10^(-4) to 2.45 *10^(-3) mSvy^(-1) with a mean value of 1.14 *10^(-3) mSvy^(-1). Also the estimated annual effective dose by ingestion ranged from 1.71*10^(-5)- 1.32 *10^(-4) uSvy^(-1) with a mean value of 5.60 *10^(-5) uSvy^(-1) obtained using N.T.D technique. G.S ranged from 2.87 *10^(-11) to 2.99 *10^(-10) uSvy^(-1) with a mean value of 1.60 *10^(-10) uSvy^(-1) respectively. The concentrations delineate that inhabitant need to be advised on levels of 222Rn in water.
       
  • Application of Moran-Ricker model for analysis of Bupalus piniarius L.
           population dynamics

    • Authors: L.V. Nedorezov.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2012,2(4:234-245
      Abstract: Statistical method of analysis of population time series in considered in current publication. This method is based on analysis of dynamics of non-linear ecological model parameter estimations in time, and devoted to investigation of influence of changing of weather conditions on population dynamics. Estimations of model parameters were obtained for all parts (which contains 12 measured values each) of initial sample. For the approximation of sub-samples the well-known Moran - Ricker model (Moran, 1950; Ricker, 1954) of isolatedpopulation dynamics was used. This model was used for the approximation of dataset of pine looper moth (Bupalus piniarius L.) dynamics in Germany (total sample size is 58; Schwerdtfeger, 1957, 1968). Estimation of model parameters were obtained with least squares method. Analyses of tendencies of model parameter estimations showed that there are no reasons for rejecting hypotheses about the equalities of regression line angles to zero. It gives the base for conclusion about the absence of serious changing in weather conditions inGermany during considering time interval (60 years).
       
  • Betterments to biodiversity optimal sampling

    • Authors: Alessandro Ferrarini.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2012,2(4:246-250
      Abstract: Biodiversity sampling is pivotal in ecology and biology. It is a complex trade-off between the need to sample ecological info, and the need to do it at low effort. In this paper, I propose an improved new solution to this challenge, which takes into account numerous aspects of biodiversity survey activities. There are two outcomes of the proposed algorithm: a) the optimal number of sampling points, and b) their coordinates in the study area. Resulting sampling points can be used for a survey exactly at that points, or as the centroids of linear and plot (areal) samplings. The proposed solution to biodiversity sampling exactly reverses the common use of ecological and biological sampling: first, one should detect the optimal strategy for his case study, then the kind (random, systematic, stratified) of sampling strategy can be a posteriori assessed through proper geostatistical tests applied to the resulting optimal sampling. In other words, I suggest in this paper that the sampling strategy should be the result of an optimization procedure, not an a priori choice. The computational effort for the proposed sampling model is not trivial, nonetheless an optimized sampling strategy is a requirement for successive and successful steps of biodiversity sampling, analysis and preservation.
       
  • Sulphur dioxide adsorption using Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. seed powder

    • Authors: V. Mary Priyanka; D. Sirisha, N. Gandhi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2012,2(4:251-254
      Abstract: Removal of sulphur dioxide from aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide using Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam. (horse gram) seed powder as an adsorbent was carried out in present study. The results showed that percentage removal by M. uniflorum seed powder at low concentration was 98% and 90% at high concentration. Batch adsorption was conducted with respect to contact time, concentration, and M. uniflorum seed powder dosage. It was shown that the optimum dosage was 0.4 g and optimum absorption time was 20 minutes.
       
  • Studies on biodegradation and molecular characterization of 2,4-D Ethyl
           Ester and Pencycuron induced Cyanobacteria by using GC-MS and 16S rDNA
           sequencing

    • Authors: J. I. Nirmal Kumar; Manmeet Kaur Amb, Rita N Kumar, Anubhuti Bora, Shamiyan R Khan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(1:1-24
      Abstract: GC-MS study and molecular characterization by 16S rDNA amplification were carried out to evaluate differential effects of 2,4-D ethyl ester and pencycuron on Anabaena fertilissima, Aulosira fertilissima and Westiellopsis prolifica. Each organism has its own capacity to degrade both pesticides into various subgroups depending largely upon the main functional group of each individual pesticide. Hence, different subgroups like 2,4-D methyl ester, 2,4-D isobutyl ester, Isobutyric acid allyl ester, 3-Bromobutyric acid, 2,4-D butyl ester, Hydroxyurea, Trifluroacetic acid, 2-Methyl propyl ester, Acetic acid 2-propenyl ester and Acetic acid (2,3-dichlorophenoxy) were transformed from 2,4-D ethyl ester while Benzoxazole was the only compound generated from pencycuron treated W. prolifica. The results obtained by 16S rDNA sequencing confirmed that 16S rDNA region of Anabaena fertilissima was more affected by 2,4-D ethyl ester as there was no homology in the region of 39 basepairs, in addition, several mismatches and gaps were observed, whereas less difference in 16S rDNA was observed in case of Aulosira fertilissima and W. prolific on forth day. However, there was no significant change in the sequence of 16S rDNA pattern of all the three test organisms after 16-days of exposure to pencycuron treatment.
       
  • Threatened medicinal plants of Menwarsar Pahalgam, Kashmir Himalayas:
           Distribution pattern and current conservation status

    • Authors: Bilal Ahmad Baig; Duraisamy Ramamoorthy, Tariq Ahmad Bhat.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(1:25-35
      Abstract: It is imperative to understand the distribution and conservation status of medicinal plants in their natural habitats, owing to their increased demand and value. We studied the distribution pattern and current conservation status of six threatened medicinal plants in Pahalgam valley, Kashmir Himalayas, by random quadrate sampling (n=216) in different habitat types. The different uses of medicinal plants were obtained by informal interviews and group discussions with family elders. Recent re-emergence of herbal medicine applicability along with the ever escalating threats to biodiversity and the intensifying Biopyracy controversions have necessitated for an urgent documentation of the traditional use of bioresources. This survey, in addition to the precious ethno medicinal information, recorded the important natural history details. Our results indicate that Podophyllum hexandrum Royle is most common and has the highest density. While Arnebia benthamii (Wall ex Benth) I.M. Johnston and Mecanopsis aculeata Royle are least frequent. Moist rocky slopes (MR) were the most preferred habitat followed by flat tableland (FL) situated above the tree line. While the shady slopes (SSs), flat meadow (FM) and moist meadow (MM) were least preferred. Our findings can help to formulate a conservation strategy for the unknown grass lands and the threatened vital medicinal plants of Pahalgam valley. While the low and localized distribution of all studied species deserves effective conservation strategies, the scope of such measures should be explored in a way to address the reliance of local communities on these plants.
       
  • Pseudocerotid polyclads (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Polycladida) from
           Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    • Authors: C. R. Sreeraj; C. Raghunathan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(1:36-41
      Abstract: Pseudocerotid polyclads belonging to the genera Pseudoceros Lang, 1884, Pseudobiceros Faubel, 1984 and Thysanozoon Grube, 1840 are newly reported from Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India. Specific determinations are based primarily on color and color pattern. The present study adds nine new pseudocerotid polyclads to Indian waters.
       
  • Hydrochemical and quality of water resources in Saudi Arabia groundwater:
           A comparative study of Riyadh and Al-Ahsa regions

    • Authors: Anwar Aly; Abdulrasoul Alomran, Mohamed Alwabel, Abdullah Almahaini, Mohammed Alamari.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(1:42-51
      Abstract: Due to the arid climate of the Saudi Arabia, groundwater is a most precious natural resource, providing reliable water supplies for population of these areas. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of groundwater resources in the selected study areas of Riyadh and Al-Ahsa regions. This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available groundwater resources in these two areas of Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor and trace elements) is determined and compared with each other. The groundwater salinity as one primary indicator of water quality for irrigation was found to be moderately high in most studied water samples for both areas. Besides salinity, chloride makes these waters unsuitable for irrigation, affecting agricultural activities. However, boron and trace elements were within acceptable levels. Comparative study revealed that the Al-Ahsa groundwater is generally considered higher in its salinity, chloride, and sodium content than Riyadh groundwater. Generated piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters types in Al-Ahasa were sodium chloride - sulphate, however, in Riyadh the majorities were to calcium magnesium sulphate - chloride. The most important results of speciation calculations, computed by Phreeq model, are saturation indices for minerals, which indicate whether minerals should dissolve or precipitate. The results indicated that most studied water samples in Al-Ahsa were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite. However, in Riyadh most water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite and halite, and saturated for Gypsum.
       
  • Performance evaluation of waste stabilization pond in Birjand, Iran for
           the treatment of municipal sewage

    • Authors: Haydeh Hayati; Mohammadreza Doosti, Mohammadhossein Sayadi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(1:52-58
      Abstract: The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of stabilization ponds in wastewater treatment of the city of Birjand. The samples were taken from influent, anaerobic pond effluent, facultative pond effluentand maturation pond effluent for a year (April 2011 to March 2012). Laboratory analysis was carried out following standard methods for the analysis of temperature, pH, BOD5, COD, TSS and turbidity. Results ofthese investigations showed that the average effluent concentrations of BOD5, COD and SS taken from maturation pond were 109.17, 241.67, 74.65mg/L, respectively and effluent turbidity was 138.83 NTU. Alsothese results indicated that maturation pond effluent was not match with the Standards of Environmental Protection Agency of Iran for agricultural reuse in terms of BOD5, COD and turbidity. Hence based on thisresearch, performance of Birjand stabilization ponds was poor and it need to upgrade.
       
  • Spatio-temporal variation of heavy metals in Cauvery River basin

    • Authors: K. Venkatesha Raju; R. K. Somashekar, K. L. Prakash.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(1:59-75
      Abstract: In the present study water, sediment and soil samples of Cauvery basin was undertaken to evaluate the spatio-temporal variations in heavy metal concentrations between 2007 and 2009. The Line diagrams for individualheavy metals of the seasonal samples with standard deviation at p=0.05 were plotted to comprehend the seasonal and spatial fluxes and variations. The seasonal heavy metal concentration in river water wasmaximum for Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Co and Cd during pre-monsoon and Pb, Ni and Cr during post-monsoon season whereas, in the sediment samples higher concentration of Ni, Cr, Mn, Cu, Co and Cd was foundduring pre-monsoon and Fe Pb and Zn in post-monsoon. In the case of soil samples maximum concentrations of Fe, Pb, Zn, Cr and Co noticed during pre-monsoon, while Ni, Mn, Cu and Cd during post-monsoon. Anexponential increasing trend from water to soil and to sediment was evident throughout the river stretch. The mean concentration for all the heavy metals in water was within the limits of BIS and WHO standards. Insediment samples heavy metal concentrations were below the limit of sediment quality guidelines except Ni and Cd. Correlation analysis revealed higher degree of inter-metallic and intra-metallic association amongwater, sediment and soil samples indicating identical behavior of metals during its transport into the river environment. The spatial trends of heavy metal enrichment in river sediments reflected the sources/activitiesof the corresponding catchments in the study area. As such the downstream stations of Cauvery are enriched with heavy metals due to the influx of pollutants.
       
  • Evaluating sustainability in community and collaborative forests for
           carbon stocks

    • Authors: Ram Ashseshwar Mandal; Ishwar Chandra Dutta, Pramod Kumar Jha, Sidhi Bir Karmacharya.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(2:76-86
      Abstract: The REDD+ is considered as effective mechanism to address the issues of climate change but it needs sufficient records of carbon stocks. Thus, research objectives are: to show the management options in community and collaborative forests, to compare the forest carbon stocks in these forests and to evaluate the principle of sustainability in practice of management in these forests. The primary data that includes social and biophysical information and secondary which comprises literatures related to scientific forest management were gathered. Here, 32, 33 and 31 samples from Banke- Maraha, Tuteshwarnath and Gadhanta -Bardibas collaborative forests (CFMs) and, 30, 25 and 22 samples from Chureparwati, Budha and Chyandanda community forests (CFs) respectively were collected using stratified random sampling. The social and biophysical data were analyzed using statistical analysis. The dry biomass was calculated applying equation of Chave et al. (2005), while sustainability of forest management was evaluated with Biolley's "Check Method" - Method du-Control and De Liocourt's law. It was found community forests were managed by nearest users while collaborative forests were managed by distant users as well. The highest value of carbon stock was found 197.1 ton ha-1 in Gadhanta- Bardibash collaborative forest and lowest about 92.081 ton/ha in Chyandanda community forest. Though, some management options are applied in community and collaborative forest, theses are not based on principles of sustainability.
       
  • Community structure of harpacticoid copepods from the southeast
           continental shelf of India

    • Authors: K.G.M.T. Ansari; P.S. Lyla, S. Ajmal Khan, S. Manokaran, S. Raja.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(2:87-100
      Abstract: The study is the first attempt aiming to assess the composition and number of harpacticoid copepods in the southeast continental shelf of India (Bay of Bengal). 39 putative species of copepods were identified belongings to 29 genera in 17 families. Copepod density registered gradual decrease with increase in depth and sediment was sandy to silty nature. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), clearly documents significant variability within the abiotic variables with total variation of 92.9%. Copepod assemblages differ among depths regions and between transects clearly explained by non-metric multi dimensional scaling (nMDS) and conformed by ANOSIM analysis. Diversity indices evidently registered the significant changes in harpacticoid assemblage between the depths from various transects. Considering the great significance of harpacticoid assemblages in the environmental impact assessment studies, an intensification of sampling efforts should be pursued in this region in order to improve our knowledge on pollution disturbances.
       
  • Toxicity analysis of pesticides on cyanobacterial species by 16S rDNA
           molecular characterization

    • Authors: J. I. Nirmal Kumar; Anubhuti Bora, Rita N. Kumar, Manmeet Kaur Amb, Shamiyan Khan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(2:101-132
      Abstract: Damaging effects of endosulfan on native structure of DNA, evident as a result of PCR based assay such as 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing, led to formation of gaps, mismatching of base pairs and dissimilarities in entire 16S rDNA sequences of treated cultures. Endosulfan was the most fatal to Westiellopsis prolifica of 16S rDNA region at 40ppm insecticide induced series of mispairing, and other lesions amounting up to 20% dissimilarity and 7% gaps. Whereas, 16S rDNA region of Anabaena fertilissima was comparatively less influenced with 18% dissimilarity and 7% gaps in response to 12ppm endosulfan, while 16S rDNA gene of Aulosira fertilissima was the least prone to changes with 17% dissimilarity, and 5% gaps under 60ppm endosulfan stress by the end of 16 days. On the other side, impact of fungicide tebuconazole after 16 days reflected identities up to 78% and 8% gaps for 30ppm treated A. fertilissima, while 60ppm treatment instilled 79% similarities with 10% gaps in W. prolifica and 83% identities with 5% gaps of Aulosira fertilissima after 16 days.
       
  • A study on herbaceous layer in an age series of restored mined land using
           cluster analysis

    • Authors: Shikha Uniyal Gairola; Prafulla Soni.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(2:133-142
      Abstract: Vegetation may be described as the plant life of a region. The study of patterns and processes in vegetation at various scales of space and time is useful in understanding landscapes, ecological processes, environmental history and predicting ecosystem attributes such as productivity. Generalized vegetation descriptions, maps and other graphical representations of vegetation types have become fundamental to land use planning and management. They are widely used as biodiversity surrogates in conservation assessments and can provide a useful summary of many non-vegetation landscape elements such as animal habitats, agricultural suitability and the location and abundance of timber and other forest resources. Clustering vegetation data is well known machine learning problem which aims to partition the data set into subsets, so that the data in each subset share some common trait. Present study was done with an objective to study the successional changes in herbaceous vegetation in an age series of restored mined land and also analyzes them by subjecting the vegetation data to cluster analysis. The results of the study reveals that with widespread distribution and dominance of some of the prominent naturals invaders as component of both - the mined sites as well as the undisturbed natural site, the final composition of the community at the restored sites are compiled solely from the existing population of the species and the succession on restored area results in the similar community as that found on undisturbed forest in the same vicinity.
       
  • A contribution to knowledge of the freshwater fish of Orontes River,
           Hatay, Turkey

    • Authors: Gulnaz Ozcan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2013,3(2:143-147
      Abstract: The species were collected 157 samples from 11 sampling locations in the Hatay region, Turkey, in the ecological and ichthy-faunal investigations of the Orontes River and catchment; main channel, side branches,streams, and adjacent wetlands from 2011 to 2012. A total of 284 specimens and 16 species, belonging to 15 genera and 9 families, were recorded.
       
  • Assessment of impact on the groundwater quality due to urbanization by
           hydrogeochemical facies analysis in SE part of Pune city, India

    • Authors: M. R. G. Sayyed; G. S. Wagh, A. Supekar.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(2:148-159
      Abstract: The groundwater from the south-eastern part of Pune city has been assessed for the seasonal variation in their quality parameters. Using Piper diagram the hydrogeochemical facies were identified and the groundwaters were classified with regards to the changes in their major chemical compositions. Based on the hydrogeochemical facies it has been found that the groundwater regime is severly deteriorated by theanthropogernic activities. Although the area of Manjari, Hadapsar and uruli Devachi show high influx of pollutants in rainy season the Mantarwadi and Fursungi area have strong influence of leachate throughout the year.
       
  • Removal of nickel from aqueous solution by low-cost clay adsorbents

    • Authors: Mansour Alhawas; Mohamed Alwabel, Adel Ghoneim, Abdullah Alfarraj, Abdelazeem Sallam.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(2:160-169
      Abstract: Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the effectiveness of natural clay deposits as a potential low cost adsorbent for the removal of nickel (Ni) from wastewater. Two types of natural local clays deposits collected from Al-Mhawes Mountain, Al-Kharg prefecture and Khulais, Jeddah prefecture were examined for their abilities to remove Ni from wastewater. The effects of Ni concentrations, amount of clay added and pH of the solution on Ni adsorption were studied. The mobility of Ni and its specification were examined in a column experiment under graduate levels of clay deposits (0, 3, 6 and 9 %) and increasing Ni concentration (0, 5, and 10 mg/L) was examined. The Ni adsorption was found to be higher in the Khulais clay due to its relatively higher cation exchange capacity and specific surface area compared to Al-Mahwes clay sample. The maximum Ni adsorption capacity was observed ranges from 0.036 to 0.090 mg/g. The highest binding energy constant was obtained in case of Khulais clay deposit (1428 L/g). The adsorption data followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.90 to 0.99. Column studies results showed that 92-99% of the added Ni was retained in the top soil layer (0-5 cm).The results indicated that local natural clay deposits were capable of removing Ni from wastewater at cost-effective and efficient adsorbent materials in Saudi Arabia.
       
  • Relationship of calling intensity to micrometeorology in pond breeding
           frogs from central eastern New South Wales

    • Authors: Francis Lemckert; Trent Penman, Michael Mahony.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(2:170-180
      Abstract: Micrometeorological factors can strongly influence calling activity in frogs, but relatively little empirical evidence has examined possible relationships in Australian species. Such information is important when using surveys to detect species for management and research. We recorded the calling activity of frogs breeding at 93 ponds through coastal northern New South Wales and used linear mixed effects models to compare the number of calling males with temperature, humidity and cumulative rainfall at 24 hours and 72 hours prior to calling surveys. We obtained sufficient data to analyze the relationships for nine species, obtaining a positive response to 72-hour rainfall in eight of the nine species. Twenty-four hour rainfall provided a positive response for six species and a negative response for two species. Similarly, temperature and humidity provided positive responses for three and five species and negative effects for three and three species respectively. Calling of all species was related to multiple micrometeorological factors and these varied between species.
       
  • Summer movements and activity patterns of river otters in Northeastern
           Ohio, USA

    • Authors: David A. Helon; Chris P. Dwyer, Mark D. Witt, John W. Edwards, James T. Anderson.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(3:181-190
      Abstract: It is important to understand river otter (Lontra canadensis) movement and activity patterns for successful management and reintroduction plans. As part of a river otter study conducted in the Killbuck Watershed, the largest wetland complex in Ohio, USA outside of the Lake Erie marshes, 11 river otters were radio-tagged and monitored for movements and activity patterns. Twenty-seven 24-hour monitoring surveys were conducted during summer months (June-July) of 2002 and 2003. The mean movement distance of female river otters ( MEAN = 1.8 km, SE = 0.23) was less (P = 0.0012) than the mean movement distance of male river otters ( MEAN = 5.2 km, SE = 0.73). River otters were more active than inactive from 2201-0400 hrs (71% active), followed by 0401-1000 hrs (68% active), and 1601-2200 hrs (45% active); they were more inactive than active from 1001-1600 hrs (14% active). These results show that river otters can move long distances and it is important to manage not only wetland systems but riparian corridors that aid in dispersal of river otters to other wetland complexes and watersheds.
       
  • Short-term population dynamics of tree species in tropical forests at
           Kodayar in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: Somaiah Sundarapandian; P. Sudhakar Swamy.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(3:191-207
      Abstract: The population dynamics of tree species were studied in both deciduous and evergreen forests at Kodayar in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. The mortality of trees was less than the number of new recruits, resulting in a net gain in population density and basal area. The increase in net population density and basal area of tree species could be because of their entry into the adult stage from the already existing sapling and seedling bank. Greater mortality of juveniles than that of adults could be due to intense competition for limited available resources at the juvenile stage. The present study concludes that to a larger extent, the forest ecosystems here are at building phase. Long-term studies are needed to understand the regeneration niche.
       
  • Forest structure and species diversity of secondary forest after
           cultivation in relation to various sources at lower northern Thailand

    • Authors: C. Podong; R. Poolsiri.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(3:208-218
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristic of structure, species composition and species diversity in secondary mixed deciduous forest at Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, Lower North of Thailand. This vertical stratification of the tree canopy can affect the growth of young trees on the ground surface, especially that of saplings and seedlings. Ground species can establish themselves very quickly when the light intensity is high enough and especially when the light can penetrate directly to the ground during gap formation. The data of tree individuals have served to give insight into the stand density, basal area, and frequency number of DBH class ranges. There were a large number of DBH class ranges but there were lowDBH values. The species composition of secondary mixed deciduous forest is low rich and diversity but that is high density. The comparison between secondary mixed deciduous forest at Thung Salaeng Luang National Park and other forest is tree density higher than other forest but number of species is similarity or lower. The dominant species of trees were Haldina cordifolia, Albizia odoratissima and Lagerstroemia duperreana. The IVI values of trees were 132.91, 17.78 and 14.22, respectively. Species diversity compared to other forests,The Fisher's, Shannon-Wiener's index and Simpson's index in these studies are found to be lower than other forests. The size class distribution of trees in secondary mixed deciduous forest is shown to be on L-shape curve, which is high abundance of small trees.
       
  • Impact of varying disturbances on the structure and composition of
           grassland vegetation in Anantnag, Kashmir Himalayas

    • Authors: S. Ahmad; H.U. Dar, J.A. Dar, Z. M. Majeedi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(3:219-228
      Abstract: Grasslands known for their aesthetic, biological and cultural values are being subjected to varied disturbances like grazing, moving, trampling etc. Owing to overgrazing, degradation of pastures has achieved critical dimensions all across the globe. Jammu and Kashmir with significant population of Gujjar and Bakerwal communities is facing more intense problem of grazing and consequently grasslands have degraded. In fact during the present study mild grazing was found to promote growth of more species in grasslands as against heavy grazing which decreases species number. However total protection from grazers also leads to decrease in species number in grasslands.
       
  • Epifaunal assemblage on morphologically distinct intertidal seaweeds of
           Kodiyaghat (South Andaman), India

    • Authors: I. Anandavelu; R. Jayabarathi, G. Padmavati, K.A. Jayaraj.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(3:229-237
      Abstract: Benthic macroalgae termed seaweed occupy coastal environments primarily on rocky intertidal areas. However, it has significant role by adding spatial complexity to the substratum and alter accessibility to other faunal and floral community. The studies of potential benefits of seaweeds have encouraged extensively yielding industrial, medicinal, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The present study deals with the quantitative distribution of epifaunal community associated with seaweeds of South Andaman and the influence of conspicuous morphology of seaweed on the assemblage of epifauna were compared. Galaxura sp. and Halimeda tuna supported higher faunal density than other seaweeds, with the respective mean density of 139.2 and 104.5 nos. per 100g of algal wet weight. Sargassum duplicatum held the lowest epifaunal density. Arthropoda was the major group found in this study, dominated by the Amphipoda (35.1%), Mysida (19.4%) and Isopoda (2.8%) followed by Annelida (20.1%) and Mollusca (12%). The result indicated that the distribution and abundance of epifauna differ based on the structural morphology among macroalgal species which forms suitable habitat for these organisms. The present study suggests that the sediment retention capacity of weeds might play an important role on the assemblage of epifaunal community.
       
  • Diurnal variation of zooplankton in Bhoj Wetland, Bhopal, India

    • Authors: Najeeb Ahmad Bhat; Ashwani Wanganeo, Parvaiz Ahmad Bhat, Rajni Raina.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(3:238-246
      Abstract: The diurnal dynamics of the vertical distribution of zooplankton was studied in Bhoj Wetland, Bhopal. Vertical distribution of the zooplankton community in general showed a clear diurnal variation in the water column of a typical stratified lake. Zooplankton concentration was found to be high at the surface layer during night hours with peak abundance around the middle of the night and another peak was observed just before sunrise, followed by a rapid nadir after sunrise. Zooplankton can offset the loss of daytime foraging opportunity by moving up into the water column to graze at night, when predation by visual predators is greatly reduced and it can be also attributed to light intensity which is responsible for vertical migration during the twenty four hour cycles. Among different classes, cladocerans and the copepod showed nocturnal migration conversely rotifers, had a relatively uniform distribution throughout the water column Out of the twenty three species, Bosmina species and Cyclops species ascended at night and descended during day hours, however, Keratella cochlearis showed uniformity in distribution throughout the water column during the study.
       
  • Chlorophyll content, productivities and biomass allocations of seagrasses
           in Talim Bay, Lian, Batangas, Philippines

    • Authors: Michael A. Clores; Jose Santos Carandang VI.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(3:247-256
      Abstract: This study determined the chlorophyll content, productivities and biomass allocations of three abundant species of seagrasses in Talim Bay, Lian, Batangas. Philippines: Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea rotundata, and Thalassia hemprichii. Four seagrass meadows in the bay were selected based on their terrestrial sources of nutrient loads. Results reveal that seagrasses at South Matuod (a site which receives nutrient load drained mostly from corn- and cane-fields), yields the highest GPP (Gross Primary Productivity), but R (Respiration) is higher than GPP, and therefore NPP (Net Primary Productivity) was negative. The same pattern of productivity values were observed in the other sites implying that seagrasses were not making enough oxygen for their life processes at the time of the study (October to November 2010). Although the NPP of seagrasses was negative in Talim Point, (a site which does not receive nutrient load from terrestrial area serving as the control site), they had the highest chlorophyll a and b content with the other sites. R in this site is the lowest despite its low GPP, suggesting a more efficient primary production. Seagrasses in Kayreyna (which receives nutrient load from primarily from sewerage as well as farmland, i.e., near one creek that drains houses) had the highest total average Wet weight (WW), Dry Weight (DW) and Ash-Free Dry Weight (AFDW) while those seagrasses collected in South Matuod had the lowest biomass. The low biomass of seagrasses in Matuod could be related to their very low productivity and low chlorophyll content needed for such production. Kayreyna is characterized by seagrasses with second highest chlorophyll content after Talim point, and in terms of productivity, two of seagrass species in this site E. acoroides and T. hemprichii are among those with the lowest R. Evidently, seagrasses in Talim Point, Shields Marine Station (the site which receives primarily agriculture run-off, i.e., near a creek that drains mostly the hillside), and South Matuod, allocated the more biomass in their leaves than their roots. Based on the results, implications for further studies particularly on ascertaining the impact of nutrient loads to the seagrass meadows were highlighted.
       
  • Exogenous control of biological and ecological systems through
           evolutionary modelling

    • Authors: Alessandro Ferrarini.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2013,3(3:257-265
      Abstract: The controllability of network-like systems is a topical issue in ecology and biology. It relies on the ability to lead a system's behaviour towards the desired state through the appropriate handling of input variables. Up to now, controllability of networks is based on the permanent control of a set of driver nodes that can guide the system's dynamics. This assumption seems motivated by real-world networks observation, where a decentralized control is often applied only to part of the nodes. While in a previous paper I showed that ecological and biological networks can be efficaciously controlled from the inside, here I further introduce a new framework for network controllability based on the employment of exogenous controllers and evolutionary modelling, and provide an exemplification of its application.
       
  • Assessment and heavy metal behaviors of industrial waste water: A case
           study of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Abdullah S. Al-Farraj; Mohammad Al-Sewailem, Anwar Aly, Mohamed Al-Wabel, Sallem El- Maghraby.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(3:266-277
      Abstract: This study focuses on the temporal monitoring and chemical analysis of two pathways, unpadded and open drain canal, of the surface industrials effluent on industrial city of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (Major, Minor, and Heavy metals) is determined and compared with Saudi Arabia and USEPA standards. The obtained results indicated that most collected water samples exceeded the acceptable limits set by standards used for most parameters determined. The concentrations of total suspended solids, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mo, As, B, NO3-, and NH4+ in industrial effluents decreases away from the point source of pollutions. On the other hand, the SAR , RSC, total hardness, and soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+,Na+, K+, Cl-, CO3 2-, HCO3-, and SO4 2-), remained constant. Most heavy metals on wastewater effulent were above permissible limits. On the other hand, the filtration of wastewater decreases the heavy metal concentrations to permissible levels. The highest average metals concentration in digested effluents for deferent locations and sampling periods were Fe (17.1 mg/L) followed by Mo (11.6 mg/L), then Co (0.03 mg/L). However the Mo recorded the highest value in filtrated effluents (23.2 ug/L) followed by Fe (21.6 ug/L), and then Cd (8.02 ug/L). The monitoring of wastewater heavy metals concentrations (determined on filtrate for both pathway) recorded that the concentration of Fe, Mo, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Ni, and Mn decreased from (60-100 ug/L) at point sources to be (5-10 ug/L) at 1000 m from point sources, however no clear behavior was recorded for Cu and Co. Moreover the concentrations of all heavy metals by the last sampling point on downstream were remained at 10 ug/L or less. The study emphasis that continuous application of industrial wastewater on Riyadh environment will lead to more accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and natural plants, and also high possibilities of groundwater contamination by nitrate.
       
  • Biochemical composition and calorific value of zooplankton from the
           coastal waters of South Andaman

    • Authors: M. Arun Kumar; G. Padmavati, I. Anandavelu.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(3:278-287
      Abstract: Estimation of biochemical composition of zooplankton is important in understanding their metabolism, nutritive value and energy transfer which are relevant to the marine ecosystem. Zooplankton biomass and their biochemical composition were estimated from the coastal waters of South Andaman during October 2011 to September 2012. The dry weight biomass and chlorophyll a discerned a positive correlation (p is less than 0.05; one-way ANOVA) in two stations. Protein formed the major fraction of the organic constituents. Seasonal variation in the protein content of zooplankton was observed. Carbohydrate was the minor component and ranged from 1.1-12.2% ( Mean= 3.4+-1.1) in terms of dry weight. Neither lipid nor carbohydrate appeared to be significant source of energy for these organisms. Caloric value obtained in this study ranged from 1.35 to 2.72 kcal/g dry weight ( Mean=1.8+-0.2). Relatively higher values were attributed to the dominance of calanoid copepods in the zooplankton population almost throughout the year. Zooplankton did not show an extensive lipid storage suggesting that protein may serve as metabolic reserve. It is therefore evident that zooplankton can be utilized as nutritional live feed for the cultivable species of fish and prawn in aquaculture farms. The variations in biochemical composition of zooplankton are influenced by species composition and feeding activities of zooplankton, which is in accordance with the previous studies. This study is the first report on Biochemical Composition and Calorific Value of Zooplankton from the coastal waters of Port Blair, South Andaman.
       
  • Effect of cement industry pollution on chlorophyll content of some crops
           at Kodinar, Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Sadhana Chaurasia; Ashwani Karwariya, Anand Dev Gupta.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(4:288-295
      Abstract: Study was carried out to assess the impact of cement industry pollution on some selected plant species around cement industry. Effect of cement dust on chlorophyll was studied in Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species. Sampling was done at different distance like 0.5 km, 1.0 km and 2.0 km from the cement industry. The Chlorophyll pigments were reduced in dust-exposed plant species compared with control site Pransli (15 km away from the cement industry). Changes in chlorophyll content were investigated in selected plant species exposed to dust emitted by the cement industry. The concentration of chlorophyll in all the selected plant species i.e. Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species were investigated and noted that amount of chlorophyll in all plants that are away from cement plant have more chlorophyll than that of near to the industry. Control plants were found always with higher chlorophyll content in comparison to dusted plants. Up to 74.69% reduction was observed in studied plants. In general, pollution by the cement dust has caused adverse effects on the photosynthetic pigments.
       
  • SWOT analysis of Tandooreh National Park (NE Iran) for sustainable
           ecotourism

    • Authors: M. R. G. Sayyed; M. S. Mansoori, R. G. Jaybhaye.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(4:296-305
      Abstract: Tandooreh National Park (TNP) is one of the important tourism areas in Iran which is included in the natural heritages of the Northeast of Iran. Present paper explores the possibility of sustainable ecotourism development in Tandooreh National Park with reference to judicious utilization of resource and local resident community. To plan and implement this, different management and decision making tools were used including interviews of local residents, visitors and the staff of the park, with the help of survey questionnaire (primary data) and secondary data acquired from Department of Environment (Iran Government), conference proceedings, books and journals. Based upon these data the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) were analyzed in order to identify the required management strategies to improve the sustainable tourism in the park. SWOT analysis has shown that the well established tourism destination with a variety of natural attractions and unique culture of local people having ancient culture are the strengths of Tandooreh National Park while lack of infrastructures and fundamental facilities are the major weaknesses. Proper ecotourism package development involving local people in decision making are found to be few of the main opportunities whereas tensions, restlessness and insecurity in neighbouring countries are the main threats. In order to maximize the internal strengths and external opportunities and to minimize internal weaknesses and external threats on the TNP several strategies have been suggested for the sustainable ecotourism development and management. However there is a scope for the improvement of the SWOT analysis in identifying more options for strategic management of sustainable ecotourism.
       
  • A framework for management of Lantana camara in India

    • Authors: Neena Priyanka; M.V. Shiju, P K Joshi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(4:306-323
      Abstract: Invasive species are recognized as potential threats to ecosystem and this problem is exacerbated as global trade and travel accelerates and human-mediated disturbance increases. Synergies are lacking across management, research, policies and decision making as there are insufficient networking, coordination and collaboration across organizations and departments to manage invasion. Thus, sustainable management of invasive species is challenging but inevitable given the increasing range of alteration caused by invasion which has little prospect of irreversibility. To be sustainable, Invasive Species Management Framework (ISMF) strategies must include environmental, social, economic and political factors that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across spatio-temporal scales. Although these elemental management strategies are easy to document and comprehend but their implementation is often limited by insufficient control measures, funds, research, socio-economic pressures and political constraints. In this paper, specific objectives for sustainable management of invasive species, Lantana camara - notorious weed, is proposed for Indian settings. Even a few of the outlined ISMF strategies, if incorporated into a management plan, will lead to effective management through increased coordination, communication, transparency, accountability and help avert potential risks posed by accidental and/or intentional introduction of L. camara. Incorporating these management strategies in formulating plans will allow not only allow decision makers to respond quickly and effectively to invasions but will also enable to combat new invasion in a rapidly changing global environment.
       
  • Assessment of hydro-environmental loss as surface runoff using CN method
           of Pahuj River Basin Datia, India

    • Authors: Ajay Kumar; Pushpendra Singh Rajpoot.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(4:324-329
      Abstract: Datia is a district of Madhya Pradesh, facing problem of water scarcity during maximum part of the year for sustainability of natural ecosystem (biotic and abiotic components and other purposes). Pahuj River is a tributary of Sind River and flows from west to east direction in Datia district. Pahuj river basin covers 911.96 sq km area in central and southern part of district and has 31.25 inches (793 mm) average annual rainfall. Present study aims to assess the surface hydro-environmental loss as surface runoff of water which is received in the basin and passes out within a short time period. Whole basin is inclined towards north east with hilly area in SW and NE area is plain. Curve number (CN) is used for calculation of loss of basin water as runoff of Pahuj river basin. Estimated runoff is 62012.59*106 CM which is a huge quantity of hydro-environmental loss. Pahuj River basin has a good surface hydro-environment potential to reduce the water scarcity problem of district. Current situation demands to prepare a proper plan for reducing the losses of surface water of the basin.
       
  • Evaluation of nutrient index using organic carbon, available P and
           available K concentrations as a measure of soil fertility in Varahi River
           basin, India

    • Authors: P. Ravikumar; R. K. Somashekar.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(4:330-343
      Abstract: Varahi River basin is in the midst of Udupi district in the western part of Karnataka state, covering parts of Kundapura and Udupi taluks in Udupi District, Karnataka, India. Spatial distributions for twenty physical and chemical properties were examined in the soil samples of selected agricultural fields in 28 different locations in Varahi River basin. The present study revealed that there is not much variation in soil fertility status of soils developed on various landforms in the area as the soils were having low to medium in organic carbon (0.06 to 1.20 %) and available nitrogen (6.27 to 25.09 Kg/ha) content; low to medium in available P (2.24 to 94.08 Kg/ha) and deficient to doubtful in available K (20.10 - 412.3 Kg/ha) contents. The soils of Varahi River basin were characterized as low-medium-low (LML) category based on the nutrient index calculated w.r.t. available organic carbon, available P and available K. Further, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) indicated that the soils were excellent for irrigation.
       
  • Influence of weather factors on seasonal population dynamics of
           Coelaenomenodera elaeidis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its natural
           enemies in NIFOR, Nigeria

    • Authors: T. I. Aneni; C. I. Aisagbonhi, B. N. Iloba, V. C. Adaigbe, C. O. Ogbebor.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2013,3(4:344-352
      Abstract: The leaf miner (Coelaenomenodera elaeidis Mlk) is the major pest of the oil palm. The seasonality of C. elaeidis, its natural enemies and their relationship with temperature, rainfall and relative humidity was observed between January 2009 and December 2010 at the main station of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, Nigeria. Past leaf miner population estimates were obtained from NIFOR entomology division from 1976 - 1980. This study analyses temporal patterns in leaf miner abundance, and elucidates general patterns and factors influencing leaf miner abundance. Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the relationship between abundance of leaf miner, its parasitoids and predators and the following climatic variables: maximum and minimum temperature (oC), rainfall (mm) and relative humidity (%). For the analyses, climate variables from the month of collection (control variable) or from the month before the collection (delayed variable) were used. The abundance of leaf miner and predatory ants peaked in the dry season, while parasitoids were most abundant in the rainy season. Significant correlations (P is not great than 0.05) were found between leaf miner, its natural enemies and both control and delayed weather variables. For all years, maximum temperature was the most dominant variable for all the leaf miner stages. Significant correlations were found between leaf miner, its natural enemies and both control and delayed weather variables. This indicates that the weather variables at both the month of collection and with a delayed month in relation to collection is critical for pest-weather evaluation. This is important for leaf miner control. Temperature, rainfall and relative humidity had an effect on the population of C. elaeidis, and this effect was manifested primarily in seasonal fluctuations in oil palm agroecosystems. Dry season months with resultant higher temperatures recorded higher population of C. elaeidis.
       
  • New records of Actiniarian sea anemones in Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
           India

    • Authors: Smitanjali Choudhury; C. Raghunathan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(2:83-98
      Abstract: The present paper provides the descriptive features of three newly recorded Actiniarian sea anemones Actinoporus elegans Carlgren, 1900, Heterodactyla hemprichii Ehrenberg, 1834, Thalassianthus aster Ruppell and Leuckart, 1828 from Indian waters and two newly recorded species Stichodactyla tapetum (Hemprich and Ehrenberg in Ehrenberg, 1834), Pelocoetes exul (Annandale, 1907) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. This paper also accounts two genera, namely Heterodactyla and Thalassianthus as new records to India waters.
       
  • Comparative assessment of physico-chemical parameters of waste water
           effluents from different industries in Lahore, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Zaheer Asghar; Arfan Arshad, Lin Hong, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Arfan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(2:99-112
      Abstract: The magnitude of wastewater generation in Lahore city is increasing due to urbanization and industrialization. Wastewater is being thrown directly into rivers and canals without proper treatment. This study examines the physico-chemical characteristics of wastewater which is being discharged from different industries in Lahore. Samples were collected from the outlet of five industries before they discharge into Hudyra drain. Physical characteristics of wastewater were analyzed based on TDS and TSS concentration. TDS and TSS concentration was measured in the laboratory using Evaporation and Gravimetric method respectively. Chemical characteristics of wastewater were analyzed based on pH, BOD, COD, and metal concentration. pH value of wastewater collected from five sampling stations was measured using pH meter. Biological oxygen demand was determined using respirometric method and Lovibond meter while COD was determined using the Open reflux method and Back titration. The concentration of heavy metals (Cr, Hg, Ba, Fe, Mn, Cl-, B) was measured by using ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). All parameters after analysis were compared with standard of Punjab Environmental Quality Standard (PEQS). Experimental results show that the quality of wastewater varies from site to site and at some sampling stations values of water quality parameters exceeded maximum permissible limit of PEQS. Pearson correlation matrix for physico-chemical parameters at all sampling sites was developed to identify the possible relationships between concentrations of these parameters. The increasing level of physico-chemical parameters above permissible limit clearly shows that such type of wastewater if directly discharged into fresh water bodied may contaminate ground as well as surface water.
       
  • Bacterial megaplasmids and biodegradation: Solution to persistency of
           xenobiotics

    • Authors: Ogwugwa Vincent Happy.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2018,8(2:113-123
      Abstract: Extra chromosomal material called plasmid has an important duty in the gradual change of bacterial sets of genes (genomes) by carrying out horizontal gene transfer processes. However, the origin and evolution of most plasmids remains vague, especially for plasmids that are greater than or equal to 100kb (megaplasmids). Tolerance is key for survival as vector-borne disease causing agents transmit between the arthropod and vertebrate, and temperature fluctuation is an environmental marker inducing change in gene expression of tickborne spirochetes. The tumor-inducing (Ti plasmid encodes ample of virulence functions for the crown gall agent Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This includes the vir genes which initiate genetic transformation of host cells and the catabolic genes needed to to make use of the opines manufactured by infected plants. The tumor inducing plasmid also encodes, an opine-dependent quorum sensing system that tightly regulates Ti plasmid copy number and its conjugal transfer to other agrobacteria. Many natural Agrobacteria are avirulent, in the absence of the Ti plasmid. The load of harboring the Ti plasmid rests on the environmental context. Aside from infected hosts, plasmid costs are low but the benefit of the plasmid is also never available. Consequently, genotypes without plasmids are favored. On infected plants the expense of the tumor inducing plasmid can be very high, but balanced by the opine advantages, locally favoring plasmid bearing cells.
       
  • Assessment of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts and road dusts of
           Tehran

    • Authors: Movafagh Afsaneh; Mansouri Nabiollah, Moattar Faramarz, Vafaeinejad AlirezaR.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(2:124-138
      Abstract: This study was carried out to assess and compare the status of heavy metals pollution (lead, chrome, cadmium, nickel and zinc) present in PM10 particles in the road and city of Tehran. For this purpose, in August 2014 from the zone 22 of Tehran city 14 samples and from the road, i.e. Hemmat expressway 28 samples were collected with the help of the system. The sampling filters were digested using the concentrated nitric acid and the metals rate of heavy metals (lead, chrome, cadmium, nickel and zinc) present in the samples was determined via flame atomic absorption system. The average concentration of metals; lead, chrome, nickel, zinc and cadmium in the city PM10 particles were 0.115, 0.020, 0.019, 1.144, 0.004 ug/m3 respectively. In case of heavy metals in PM10 particles, the average heavy metals concentration, i.e., lead, chrome, nickel, zinc and cadmium were 0.0943, 0.011, 0.0135, 0.0567, 0.003 ug/m3 respectively. In both the cases, nickel value was higher than the standard. It can be safely mentioned that with the increase of distance from the road the concentration of pollutants reduces. The spatial distribution map of these metals was prepared with Arc GIS software. Even the statistical and clustering analysis was calculated for sourcing of metals in the two conditions. The results showed that the majority of the metals have a traffic source and only zinc that has the highest rate in the city, besides has the other varied source. This led to analysis of carcinogenesis and noncarcinogenesis risk of heavy metals in PM10 particles of city and the road. The results showed that as far as carcinogenesis and non-carcinogenesis risk is concerned, there is nil anxiety in the city and the road.
       
  • Assessment of biomass and carbon stock in temperate forests of Northern
           Kashmir Himalaya, India

    • Authors: Davood A. Dar; Paulami Sahu.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(2:139-150
      Abstract: Accurate characterization and estimation of carbon stock in forest ecosystems of temperate region is important to illustrate their potential contribution to global carbon stocks. In the present study, we evaluated the biomass and carbon stock of Gulmarg forest range of northern Kashmir Himalaya, India. In this study, five forest types: Pinus wallichiana (PW), Abies pindrow (AP), Cedrus deodara (CD), Picea simithiana (PS) and Betula utilis (BU) were selected. The results have revealed that total tree biomass ranged from 319.2+-208.5 Mg ha-1 in BU forest to 496.7+-278.9 Mg ha-1 for the CD forest. The results showed that total biomass carbon stock varies from 143.63+-93.87 to 228.47+-128 Mg C ha-1 across all forest types. The study reveals that the variation in the carbon stocks of different forest types is due to the presence of different composition of species, stand area, tree class size and altitude. This study indicates that the species, CD, present in Gulmarg Forest Range, is the most potent species to sequestrate carbon and hence this forest range plays a significant role in reducing carbon emissions from forest degradation and deforestation. It can be suggested that afforestation using CD species will be helpful in mitigating the impact of regional Climate Change.
       
  • The effect of wildfire on Erica arborea L. (Ericaceae) in Simien Mountains
           National Park, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Authors: Endalkachew Teshome; Gerhard Glatzel.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(3:151-161
      Abstract: Fire plays a crucial role in the Ericaceous forest ecology within the World Heritage Site of Simen Mountains National Park. Objectives of our study were to evaluate the potential of E. arborea epicormic shoot formation in different tree diameters and heights after forest fire occurred, and investigate establishment of woody species in the fire affected ericaceous forest. Two 40 m x 40 m sample plots were established, one at a fire affected site and another at an unaffected site. Within each plot, 1m x 1m subplots were placed at 2 m intervals along diagonal transects 51 in each site. Experimental treatments (soil scarification, mowing, fire and total enclosure) were assigned to subplots. A non-parametric t-test for two independent samples of unburned and burned plots was applied to test the degree of significance. From the crown-fire affected plots 56.3% of the trees were re-sprouted from the base in the first diameter class (0-4.9 cm). Out of 993.7 individual trees ha-1 in the second height class (1.5-3 m), 73 % were sprouted. Erica arborea is favoured by fire since re-sprouting of shoot from the remaining stumps is widespread. Prescribed burns for E. arborea regeneration should consider in future management plans.
       
  • Assessment of soil characteristics in different land-use systems in
           Gandhinagar, Gujarat

    • Authors: Ekta Purswani; Bhawana Pathak.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(3:162-171
      Abstract: Soil is a source of food and habitation for all terrestrial organisms and provides innumerable ecosystem services. However, it is a finite resource as it is not renewable on a human time scale. Land-use change drastically alters soil characteristics and increased soil carbon emissions. In this study, an effort has been made to assess soil characteristics in different land-use classes of Gandhinagar district, Gujarat. Land-use land cover classification was done using digital interpretation method and 9 classes were mapped. Stratified random sampling approach was adopted to obtain composite samples from 4 sites in 6 out of 9 land-use land cover classes from increasing depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. Soil quality was assessed by testing pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, available phosphorous, potassium, and total nitrogen. It was found that vegetation class contained most fertile soil. The agriculture closely followed vegetation while urban showed least amount of soil organic carbon and other nutrients. Vegetation showed highest carbon and potassium levels while nitrogen and phosphorous were equally high in vegetation and agriculture class. Tree cover and the nature of land-use were crucial factors affecting soil health.
       
  • Heavy metals, risk indices and its environmental effects: A case study of
           Ogoniland, Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    • Authors: Ogwugwa Vincent Happy; Ogwugwa Joy, Idowu Olagoke Kunlere, Nwadike Blessing Ifeoma, Falodun O. Israel, Fagade O. Ezekiel.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(3:172-182
      Abstract: Nigeria has the largest petroleum industries in West African region and the second largest in Africa after Algeria. Nigeria has a total of 159 oil fields and 1481 wells in operation, Explorations in the oil industry in Nigeria have resulted in release of hydrocarbons and associated pollutants including heavy metals into the Niger Delta environment from refine and unrefined petroleum products. Extraction, processing, and transport of crude oil dating back to the 1950s have had a devastating impact on Ogoniland, a territory in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Unlike hydrocarbons that can be degraded by microorganisms, heavy metals are recalcitrant to biodegradation, hence this research. Samples were collected from five communities in Ogoniland and these samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentration using inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry. The mean of the heavy metals detected are Co (0.912 mg/kg), As (1.04 mg/kg) and Ba (42.39 mg/kg). Heavy metal concentration in these sampled sites exceeded the maximum limit set by Standard Organization of Nigeria. From the results Barium had the highest concentration of heavy metal which is due to the use of barium sulphate to increase the density oil during drilling operations. Barium present in the environment is of public health concern and uptake of water-soluble barium may cause a person to experience vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, difficulties in breathing, increased or decreased blood pressure, numbness around the face and muscle weakness. Therefore, there is need for stringent implementation of regulations guiding oil exploration industries in the release of heavy metals to the environment as in the case of Ogoniland.
       
  • Investigating the role of diatomite admixing on the water absorption and
           retention capacity of the soil

    • Authors: Hossain Noferesti; Mohammad Hassan Sayyari-Zahan, Hassan Basirani Moghadam.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(3:183-193
      Abstract: Diatomite is a unique natural material with interesting features including very fine structure, low mass density, high porosity, high specific surface, chemical neutrality and high silica content. In this work, the effects of diatomite on water absorption and water retention capacity of soil are studied. For this purpose, sandy soil samples from a farm were first prepared. Different amounts (0-10-20-40-80 g) of fragmented diatomite with the different particle size (0-2, 2.36-4.75, 4.75-12.5, 12.5-19 mm) added to the pots of 1-kilogram soil. After four months, the effect of adding raw and calcined diatomite on parameters such as soil bulk density, water absorption capacity, and water retention capacity was studied. By adding 10g/kg of diatomite to the soil, approximately 1.25% enhancement to the amount of soil saturated moisture occurred. Use of calcined diatomite, in contrast to raw diatomite, adds about 20% more to the water absorption capacity of the soil. With the addition of diatomite particles larger than 4.75 mm, the water absorption capacity increased significantly. Regarding the water retention capacity, adding about 10 g/kg of diatomite to the soil would add up to 0.6% to the 48-hours soil moisture content. The use of calcined diatomite did not affect the water retention capacity, but the use of coarse particles of raw diatomite increased the water retention capacity of the soil. Adding diatomite to soil decreases bulk density and significantly increases water absorption and water retention capacities. In this regards, the use of untreated raw diatomite particles with the size of 4.75-19 mm is most effective.
       
  • Developing and testing lab scale microbial fuel cell for energy harvesting
           from wastewater

    • Authors: Arfan Arshad; Allah Bakhsh, Sikandar Ali, Abdullah Azzam, Muhammad Adnan Shahid, Zaheer Asghar, Muhammad Awais Zaman.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(3:194-203
      Abstract: Bioelectricity can be harvested from organic substrates using Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) that operate on the principle of oxidation reduction (redox) reactions. MFCs are devices which convert chemical energy into electrical energy by oxidation process of various organic wastes. MFCs produce electricity in the presence of microorganisms from biodegradable substances. This research explores the application of double chamber MFC in generating electricity using tab water and waste water mixed with slurry. Salt NaCl, egg and tomato were used as protein exchange membrane in salt bridge and voltage was recorded at the interval of 16hr with the help of multimeter. Maximum voltage recorded at 32hr using salt NaCl, tomato and egg was 154 mV, 195 mV and 240 mV. Based on the result of different types of exchange membranes it was found that the average voltage generated with egg as exchange membrane was 1.35 mV and 1.25 mV times greater as compared to tomato and salt NaCl. This study suggested that microbial fuel cell is applicable for energy harvesting.
       
  • Seasonality in emission patterns of isoprene from two dominant tree
           species of Central India: Implications on terrestrial carbon emission and
           climate change

    • Authors: Tanzil Gaffar Malik; Triratnesh Gajbhiye, Sudhir Kumar Pandey.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(4:204-212
      Abstract: A significant quantity of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) is emitted mainly from terrestrial plants. Among them, isoprene is the most abundant, which is emitted in enormous quantities from various plant species. Their emission is temperature and light dependent. Therefore, we discuss here the variations in the emission rate of isoprene under different seasons along with environmental parameters such as temperature, CO2, relative humidity and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). For this purpose, isoprene emission rates from two dominant tropical tree species (Dalbergia sissoo and Shorea robusta) were measured across different seasons using a dynamic enclosure chamber. Significantly high seasonal variations in isoprene emission rates were observed in both the tree species. A clear seasonal cycle was detected with the highest emission rates in summer which decreases in winter. However, a gradual increase was again observed in rainy season. Correlation analysis revealed that isoprene emission were mainly temperature and PAR dependent. The information on emission rates of isoprene is relevant for air quality modelling studies and urban forestry programmes and terrestrial carbon loss. Moreover, their emission pattern tied with the global climate change conditions may surplus the emission rates of BVOCs in future especially in tropical regions.
       
  • Freshwater fish fauna of Tamil Nadu, India

    • Authors: H.S. Mogalekar; J. Canciyal.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(4:213-230
      Abstract: A systematic, updated checklist of freshwater fish species of Tamil Nadu consist of 226 species representing 13 orders, 34 families and 93 genera. The top order with diverse species composition was cypriniformes with 125 species, 39 genera and four families. Cyprinidae contributed 48.89 % to total freshwater fishes of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu constitutes about 43.11 % to the endemic freshwater fishes of India and 40.09 % to the total endemic fish diversity of Western Ghats of India. The trophic level of freshwater fishes of Tamil Nadu ranged from 2.0 to 4.5 containing 45.37 % of mid-level to high level carnivores. Assessment of the fishery status of freshwater fishes of Tamil Nadu revealed existence of 132 species worth for capture fishery, 132 species worth for ornamental fishery, 50 species worth for culture fishery and 28 species worth for gamefish fishery. Selective breeding and ranching of native fish species may help to overcome the difficulties of species endangerment. Collection of fishes from wild to develop the brood stock for captive breeding, seed production, experimental aquaculture of fast growing fishes and colourful fishes for aquarium purposes could be potential source of income in the rural areas of Tamil Nadu.
       
  • Effect of feeding Artemia urmiana cysts on performance and survival of
           Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) fish at the larva stage

    • Authors: Reza Ebrahimi Khezer Abad; Masoud Farrokhrooz, Ali Nekuie Frad.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(1:1-5
      Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of Artemia urmiana cysts on performance and survival of Caspian brown trout fish. The treatments included different levels (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of A. urmiana cysts to Caspian brown trout fish with an average weight of 120+-25 g in active phase of larva stage until the weight of one gram. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) of the treatments were determine and the survival percentage index was calculated based on the number of remaining larvae in the sites on the total number of larvae. The result of study showed that the higher feed intake was for 25 and the lower feed intake was for 50% of A. urmiana cysts treatments. Also the best specific growth rate and feed conversation ratio was related to the 25% of A. urmiana cysts groups (p not greater than 0.05). Additionally the best survival index was for fish that fed by 75% and the worst survival index was for fish that fed by 100% of A. urmiana cysts. In conclusion we could demonstrate that feeding A. urmiana cysts may have some beneficial effects on the performance and survival of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) fish at the larva stage.
       
  • Performance and some blood biochemical in male Holstein calves fed by
           different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids supplementation

    • Authors: Ahad Bigdeli Khajehdizaji; Rasoul Pirmohammadi, Akbar Taghizadeh, Ahad Golghasem Gharehbagh, Omid Hamidi, Zeinal Hemmati.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(1:6-13
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on performance in Holstein calves. A total of sixteen17 month of age male Holstein calves with average of (540+-5 kg) weight were selected and divided into four groups in order to the experimental complete randomized block design. The calves were fed by control groups with no fat protected and 2, 4 and 6 percentages of fat protected oils until 60 days. Feed intake, Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured. The blood samples were taken to investigate the serum content of plasma protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL. Additionally, the fat and protein digestibility in each group were measured. Data from this study showed that the highest FI and BW and the better FCR was related to the calves fed by 2% fat protected supplement but there were no significant effects on calves performance between treatments. Feeding the fat protected supplementations lead to higher protein and fat digestibility none significantly. The higher use of calcium salts of fatty acids supplements lead to higher serum triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and LDL significantly (p not greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences between treatments about glucose, phosphorous and protein content in the calves feed by different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids supplements. In conclusion, we could demonstrated that using of different levels of calcium salts of fatty acids may have beneficial effects on performance and some blood biochemical in the male Holstein Calves.
       
  • Phytolith analysis of intrabasaltic palaeosols (bole beds) from the Deccan
           volcanic province of western India

    • Authors: M. R. G. Sayyed.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2019,9(1:14-23
      Abstract: Phytolith studies were carried out for the intrabasaltic bole beds occurring in the western part of the Deccan Volcanic Province. This preliminary study indicates the presence of multiform phytoliths both in red and green boles. Red bole indicates well preserved elongate phytoliths from Acanthaceae plants while bulky Bulliform phytoliths mainly from Pleioblastus / Andropogonea / reeds plants. Degeneration of few phytoliths from red bole indicate either leaching/etching or some other activity that is responsible for such post preservation conditions. Phytoliths from green bole, however seem to be well preserved as compared to those from the red bole. The phytoliths from green bole are mainly of Festucoid types (especially small square and rectangular types) indicating the presence of Chrysobalanaceae type of vegetation followed by elongate phytoliths from Acanthaceae plant types. The Multiform Trichomes seems to be derived from Panicoid / Andropogonoid / Burseraceae / Fabaceae while Bulliforms from Pleioblastus / Andropogonea/ reeds. Presences of silicified woody elements from both red and green boles indicate the presence of dicotyledonous plants which could have been in the form of small shrubs. The degenerated phytoliths in red bole suggest leaching/etching or higher intensity of weathering suggesting the existence of well-drained conditions during its formation that enhanced the leaching activity while the presence of well-preserved phytoliths in green bole point towards the existence of damp and desiccated conditions during its formation. The prevalence of dry condition during red bole formation could suggest their formation under higher temperature as compared to green bole. Based on the phytolith analysis it is too early to comment on the palaeoclimates which could have been prevailed during the bole bed formations. However a detailed micromorphological as well as phytolith analysis of more samples can throw light on the palaeoenvironmental conditions as well as the biological activity during their formation.
       
  • Effect of urban pollutants on distribution of benthic foraminifera in the
           Southern of Caspian Sea

    • Authors: Maryam Zarghami; Tariq H.Y. Al-Maliky, Fatemeh Nazarhaghighi, Masoomeh Sohrabi Mollayousefi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(2:24-43
      Abstract: The Caspian Sea has characteristics common to both seas and lakes and listed as the world's largest lake. This study investigates recent foraminifera from sediment samples collected during spring, summer, autumn and winter 2012 from 12 stations (ranging in depths 5, 10, 20 and 50 meters) in the Southern Caspian Sea from Behshahr to Ramsar. Associated factors includes: grain size, Total phosphate, Total nitrate, total organic matter and calcium carbonate concentration were also measured. The benthic environmental factors including temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH were measured by CTD during the sampling time. Recognized benthic foraminifera species belong to 6 genera of 5 families were identified. Eleven benthic foraminifer's taxa were identified from the samples. They were Ammonia beccarii caspica, Ammonia tepida, Ammonia parkinsoniana, Elphidium littorale caspicus, Elphidium excuavatum, Criboelphidium sp., Ammobaculites agglutinans, Ammotium sp., Miliammina fusca, Milliammina sp. and Cornuspira sp. The cosmopolitan Ammonia beccarii caspica was common in the studied area. The density of benthic foraminifera is significantly correlated with seasons, the highest density being observed in winter, most density of foraminifera was observed in Babolsar stations that showed a good situation for living there and we can use foraminifera such as bioindicator for pollutant area.
       
  • Economic valuation of protected areas: Overview of Chapada Dos Guimaraes
           National Park in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    • Authors: Maira Luiza Spanholi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2019,9(2:44-52
      Abstract: The Protected Areas (PAs) are protected areas that follow the guidelines of the National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) responsible for safeguarding the Brazilian natural heritage, which in addition to preserving part of the biome of a certain place, provide environmental services that are fundamental to nature and the human population. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of economically valuing protected areas, such as the Chapada dos Guimaraes National Park in Mato Grosso State. The methodology is based on bibliographical and documentary review. The Mato Grosso Protected Areas are important spaces for protecting biodiversity, especially since they protect significant parts of three important biomes. One of these PAs is the Chapada dos Guimar'es National Park, which is an important space created by legislation for the protection of the environment, especially the Cerrado biome. However, they may face threats that endanger their purpose. In this way, the economic valuation of these areas assists in decision making regarding environmental protection policies, demonstrating the importance of investments to create and maintain PAs at the expense of other policies. It concludes that protected areas meet the objectives for which they were created, but they suffer threats that may endanger their purpose. Therefore, valuing these areas would demonstrate the importance they have both to the environment and to the population and would help in public policies for their maintenance.
       
  • Adsorption of heavy metals (cadmium, chrome and copper) on grafted
           cellulose: Establishment of kinetic models

    • Authors: Mohamed Zine Messaoud-Boureghda; Didoucheyasmina Fadila.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(2:53-72
      Abstract: Chemical modification by grafting cellulose in the biological field produces a cellulosic material with improved absorption. Acrylamide was grafted onto cellulose fibers using a free radical process initiated by a redox initiator system: the ceric ion (ceric ammonium nitrate). For the grafted cellulose, it is noted that the optimum pH is equal to 5 because of the presence of amide groups. Also, the adsorption capacity of chromium is greater than that of the grafted cellulose (Qe = 14.2 mg / g) et almost triple for copper and cadmium. The effect of concentration on retention is extremely important for chromium and cadmium, which have the retention of around 18/20 mg / g. The increase in ionic strength leads to a decrease in the amount of adsorbed metal ions resulting from the competition between these metal ions and salt ions. The results of a kinetic study for all the heavy metals indicated that the retention is extremely fast; it is almost instantaneous. Linear regressions shown that kinetics are controlled by the pseudo-second-order model. Thus, the chrome is controlled by the pseudo-first-order model. This is clearly confirmed by the values of the correlation factors corresponding to each model. The adsorption of isotherms in the cadmium and chromium concentrations chosen for initial experimental data were interpreted by the Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir models for unbleached and grafted cellulose. For copper, the Freundlich model best described the data of adsorption isotherms on unbleached cellulose, and the Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir models were the most appropriate for the retention of copper for the grafted cellulose.
       
  • Effect of urban pollutants on distribution of meiofauna worms in the
           southern cities of Caspian Sea

    • Authors: M. Zarghami; F. Nazarhaghighi, M. M. Sohrabi Mollayousefi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(3:73-88
      Abstract: The Caspian Sea is a large lake renowned for its diverse aquatic fauna. This study investigates recent meiofauna worms from sediment samples collected during spring, summer, autumn and winter 2012 from 12 stations (ranging in depths 5, 10, 20 and 50 meters) in the Southern Caspian Sea from Bandar Amirabad to Ramsar. The benthic environmental factors including temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH were measured by CTD during the sampling time. Associated factors includes: grain size, Total phosphate, Total nitrate, total organic matter and calcium carbonate concentration were also measured. In this research three classes of worms (Nematodes, Annelida and Platyhelminthes) were identified. The result of One Way ANOVA showed that density of Worms has been different significant with depth and stations (P less than 0.05). Result of Pearson correlation showed that between density of worms and %Silt and Clay, %TOM, depth and %CaCO3 had been negative correlation. The highest density being observed in autumn, most density of worms was observed in Babolsarstations (B1) (759.78 ind/0.1m2). That showed a good situation for living there. Urbanization had important role in this area that increased abundance of meiofauna tolerance worms.
       
  • Assessment of suitability of irrigation canal water for agriculture: A
           study based on New Mutha Right Bank Canal waters from Pune, Maharashtra,
           India

    • Authors: M. M. Jagtap; M. R. G. Sayyed, R. G. Pardeshi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2019,9(3:89-97
      Abstract: Food security is the greatest priority, next to availability of drinking water, and hence agriculture is a dominant component of the global economy. Water is the most important input required for agricultural development and hence irrigation systems are seen to have found its roots in the history of mankind since earliest beginning as they help in reducing the uncertainties (particularly the climatic uncertainties) in agriculture practices. All water sources used in irrigation contain impurities and dissolved salts irrespective of whether they are surface or groundwater and hence precautions are warranted to follow proper irrigation practices in the agriculture. In the present study the water samples from the New Mutha Right Bank Canal in the Pune district of Maharashtra have been assessed for their suitability for the agricultural use. For this the canal water samples (7 samples) along with irrigation well water samples (5 samples) and drinking well water samples (2 samples) were analyzes for their chemical constituents. Using the chemical analysis data the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) values were computed to assess whether the canal water pose any threat to the crops. The results show that the all the canal water samples collected in May, September and November 2015 do not pose any threat to the vegetation, as the SAR values are well below 3.00. Although the water samples collected from the drinking water wells and irrigation wells, adjacent the canal, show variable SAR values they are also excellent for agricultural uses.
       
  • Effect of different levels of fluoride on Almond (Prunus Amygdalus)
           seedling

    • Authors: Azadeh Behrooz.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2019,9(3:98-103
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different sodium fluoride concentrations on the growth and certain metabolic parameters of almond seedlings (Prunus Amygdalus) under strictly controlled growth conditions in nutrient solutions containing increasing sodium fluoride concentrations ranging from 0 to 9 mM. At the 15 days, productions of material were measured as dry matter was significantly reduced in the root system, which accumulated large amounts of fluoride. As data obtained from this study, the chlorophyll, calcium, and magnesium content of the leaves showed a significant decrease, and the leaf content of starch and sugar was also reduced, especially at the higher fluoride concentrations. Data showed that the mineral concentration changes in the roots were minor except for manganese, which showed a major decrease at 3 mM sodium fluoride. In conclusion we could demonstrate that the nutritional status of the leaves appeared to be affected more than that of roots.
       
  • Estimation of soil organic carbon and soil respiration in a dry forest -
           Guvvalacheruvu Reserve Forest of Kadapa hill ranges

    • Authors: C. Venkata Ramana; K. Naga Raju, P. Osman Basha, M. Sridhar Reddy.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(4:90-96
      Abstract: Forest soils are considered as one of the major carbon sinks in terrestrial ecosystems owing to their higher amounts of soil organic matter/carbon. The objective of the study is to estimate the SOC content and soil respiration, their spatial variations and the relationship between them. The study was undertaken in a dry deciduous forest of Kadapa hill ranges. The samples were taken from two study sites namely site 1 at foot hills and site 2 on the hill slopes. The samples were analyzed for SOC by Walkley-Black method and soil respiration by alkali absorption method and several physio-chemical parameters were also measured. The SOC values up to 30 cm depth indicated that site 1 registered a high value (32.3 t/ha) than the site 2 value (27.59 t/ha). The mean SOC values of the upper surface layer (0 - 10cm) in the two study sites were 0.65+-0.092 and 0.596+-0.083 respectively and the average values of SOC in the bottom layer (10 - 30cm) are 0.78+-0.105 and 0.32+-0.051 respectively in the two study sites. A negative relationship between SOC and bulk density was recorded. The mean soil respiration values were found to be 108.9 mg/m2/hr in site 1 and 78.1 mg/m2/hr in site 2. A strong positive correlation between SOC and soil respiration was observed. The variation in SOC values in the study site can be related to soil depth and location and the observed values were found to be lesser than the values in other Indian tropical deciduous forests.
       
  • Reproductive biology of Dipterocarpus indicus Bedd.- An endangered species
           from Western Ghats, India

    • Authors: D. Shivaprasad; C.N. Prasanna Kumar, R.K. Somashekar, B.C. Nagaraja.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(4:97-105
      Abstract: The Dipterocarpus indicus Bedd. is one among the dominant tropical evergreen tree species of the family Dipterocarpaceae, that grows upto a height of 37m or more. The tree is popularly known for timber and oleoresin and, it is one of the major habitat for the critically endangered lion-tailed macaques, among the other associated tree species such as Diospyros candolleana, Holigorna grahamii, and Parsea macrantha. The tree is endemic to Western Ghats region of India with a threat status as endangered at global level. The flowering is irregular, but mass flowering occurs once in every 4-7 years. The flower initiation was observed from last week of December 2012 and continued until first week of January 2015. The flowers are borne on conspicuous drooping axillary racemes. The flowers are hermaphrodite, actinomorphic and complete. Corolla with a twisted aestivation, showing five white petals bears a pink strip in the middle. The peak flower anthesis observed between the 08:00 to 10:00 hours. The pollen production was quantified to be 264.78+-59.21 and 12420+-59.21 per anther and flower respectively. Ovary is superior, syncarpous, with three locules each containing two ovules arranged in axile placentation. The observations on pollinators revealed that no biotic vectors are involved in pollination and the flowers are adopted to wind pollination mechanism. Breeding experiments revealed that the flowers are self-compatible and pollinated by means of both self and cross pollination. The manual cross pollination yielded highest fruit set (69.53+-1.77%), followed by manual self-pollination (59.77+-2.88%) and open pollination (56.95+-2.98%). The paired t-test between manual cross and selfpollination, and open pollination with manual cross were significant (p not hreater than 0.05) revealing the importance of pollinator species in bringing out successful fruit set. The controlled experiments also revealed the absence of apomixis. The natural self-pollination and less abundance or the absence of pollinators is likely to lead to inbreeding depression and impulse it more prone towards critically endangered category.
       
  • Evaluation on the effect of Difulai microbial fertilizer in Weibei Loess
           Plateau Area, China

    • Authors: ShanDong Meng; Xin Li, JiaMing Gan, GuoXing Duan, LiZhi Jin, Jing Dong.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(4:106-114
      Abstract: Microbial fertilizers are considered an alternative for chemical fertilizers to improve soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of microbial fertilizer application in Weibei arid area, China. The study was conducted in an apple orchard and a tomato greenhouse between February and November in 2015. Microbial fertilizer application in the apple orchard significantly increased the longitudinal diameter, fruit weight, leaf thickness, and leaf weight by 3.03%, 6.97%, 8.93%, and 3.39%, respectively. In tomato, the use of microbial fertilizer significantly increased the flower number; plant height; and the transverse diameter, sugar content, and hardness of fruit by 7.93%, 14.24%, 6.84%, 4.03%, and 7.92%, respectively. In general, the Difulai microbial fertilizer had noticeable promoting effects on the apple and greenhouse tomato yield and quality. In addition, this study proposed a new method to characterize the apple yield by using fruit weight, and established a model to predict the apple yield by using leaf weight during the growth period.
       
  • Global pesticide use: Profile, trend, cost / benefit and more

    • Authors: WenJun Zhang.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2018,8(1:1-27
      Abstract: In present study, the data of pesticide use, crop (the total of cereals, pulses, roots and tubers, oil crops, fibre crops, fruits, vegetables, and melons, etc.) production and the area harvested of the world and major countries for the period between 1990 and 2014 were collected, organized and summarized from FAOSTAT. First I proposed an index to measure the productive efficiency of pesticide use, cost / benefit, which refers to the amount of pesticide use to produce a certain amount of crop in a year. Theoretical relationship between crop yield and cost / benefit of pesticide use is a model with the sigmoid curve: y = a + b / (1 + exp(c-rx)), where y is crop yield, x is cost / benefit of pesticide use. The results showed that global cost / benefit of pesticide use (total) increased with time during 1990 to 2007, and declined since 2007. Pesticide use (total) (kg / ha) had the similar trend. Global insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides / bactericides use and cost / benefit declined with time since 2007. During 2010 and 2014, mean pesticide cost / benefit was 0.645 g pesticide use (total) / kg crop production, and mean annual pesticide use (total) was 2.784 kg /ha. Mean cost / benefit of insecticides, herbicides and fungicides / bactericides use between 2010 and 2014 were 0.051, 0.16 and 0.074 g / kg crop production, respectively, and mean annual use of insecticides, herbicides and fungicides / bactericides were 0.221, 0.69 and 0.32 kg / ha, respectively. Globally, the cost / benefit of dithiocarbamates, bipiridils, carbamates insecticides, and organo-phosphates, and the use of dithiocarbamates, bipiridils, and carbamates insecticides have significantly declined since 2007, and conversely, the cost / benefit of triazoles / diazoles and the use of triazoles / diazoles, plant growth regulators, and amides, have significantly increased since 2007. Of the major countries, the averaged annual cost / benefit of pesticide use (total) of Brazil during 2010 to 2014 was the greatest (1.883), followed by Japan (1.846), Mexico (1.678), China (1.243), Canada (0.979), USA (0.8733), France (0.708), Germany (0.673), UK (0.55), and India (0.089). The averaged annual pesticide use (total) (kg / ha) of Japan during 2010 to 2014 was the greatest (18.94), followed by China (10.45), Mexico (7.87), Brazil (6.166), Germany (5.123), France (4.859), UK (4.034), USA (3.886), and India (0.261). Profile of development, production and use of pesticides in China was discussed in detail. Various trends were analysed and a variety of valuable data were provided.
       
  • SWAT modeling of fecal indicator bacteria fate and transport in a suburban
           watershed with mixed land uses

    • Authors: Zeyuan Qiu; Subhasis Giri, Lizhong Wang, Biliang Luo.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(1:28-46
      Abstract: This paper presents a case study of modeling the fate and transport of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in Neshanic River Watershed, a suburban watershed with mixed land uses in central New Jersey using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). FIB loadings from livestock grazing, manure application, and wildlife were modeled as nonpoint sources while FIB loadings from direct deposit of livestock manure to streams during grazing period and failing septic systems were modeled as point sources. The simulated FIB concentrations were compared to the observed concentrations at seven monitoring stations in the watershed. The model was calibrated from 1997 to 2002 and then validated from 2003 to 2008. The percent bias (PBIAS) value for simulating fecal coliform was 13.81 during calibration, and 24.11 during validation at a long-term monitoring station in the watershed, which was satisfactory. The range of the simulated FIB concentrations was comparable to the observed concentrations at all monitoring stations. Failing septic systems, manure application and livestock access to streams contributed 46, 31 and 19 percent, respectively, of the FIB concentration in streams at the watershed outlet. Seasonal pattern of the simulated FIB loadings at the watershed outlet revealed the highest FIB loadings occurred in April when manure was applied in agricultural lands compounded by spring storms. There were also elevated FIB loadings in October due to the wash-off effect of the accumulative FIB from livestock grazing during the grazing season. These results suggest that the SWAT model is capable of simulating FIB fate and transport in suburban watersheds despite the difficulties of representing the spatial and temporal distributions of FIB sources.
       
  • Potential of anaerobically digested poultry wastewater for metal
           biosorption by Rhodobacter blasticus and Rhodobacter capsulatus

    • Authors: M. H. Sayadi; M. Nourzadeh.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(1:47-55
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to assess the elimination efficiency of heavy metals from poultry wastewater using the two bacterial species Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rhodobacter blasticus. In this research, the wastewater of breeder hens of Birjand city was used and in all the experiments the used bacterial amount was mixed with wastewater sample in a volumetric ratio of 1:10. The optimal bacterial mixture rate and pH were assessed. The results showed that the concentration of zinc and copper in the poultry wastewater constantly reduces with the lapse. R. blasticus had the highest elimination percent of heavy metals copper and zinc up to 72 hours, whereas eventually the two bacterial species mixture (1:1 ratio) together eliminated 84% and 90 % of zinc and copper respectively, but there was no significant difference between different bacterial treatments, period and residual concentration of zinc and copper (p> 0.5). The elimination efficiency of zinc and copper was higher when pH level was between 7 and 9 (zinc was equivalent to 75% and 68% and copper was equivalent to 88% and 82% respectively) in comparison to the other pH's. Therefore, neutral pH is suitable for the wastewaters treated via bacteria. With the dilution of poultry wastewater, the elimination percent of zinc and copper increases and this indicates that the metals concentration present in poultry wastewater does not have a negative effect on the elimination. So, these bacterial types are able to grow in poultry wastewaters and treat them.
       
  • New records of Glyceridae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from South Andaman Coast,
           Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    • Authors: Raj Kiran Lakra; Ganesh Thiruchitrambalam, Nosad Sahu, Jawed Equbal, M. Savurirajan, Kunal Satyam.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2018,8(1:56-77
      Abstract: Nine species belonging to Glycera were identified (Glycera lapidium Quaterefages 1866; Glycera oxycephala Ehlers 1887; Glycera brevicirris Grube 1870; Glycera tesselata Grube 1863; Glycera nicobarica Grube 1868; Glycera posterobranchia Hoagland 1920; Glycera alba O.F.Muller 1776; Glycera africana Arwidsson 1899 and Glycera tridactyla Schmarda 1861). The materials studied were collected during the macrobenthic intertidal samplings along the South Andaman coast. Eight of which are new records to the islands and confirmation of occurance of G.tesselata. The taxonomic key for identification of Glycera from South Andaman coast is provided.
       
  • One-way ANOVA and comfortless questions: Direct computer experiment

    • Authors: L.V. Nedorezov.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2018,8(1:78-82
      Abstract: For matrix 5x5 (5 gradations of a factor with 5 values of characteristics in every gradation) values of normally distributed stochastic variables were generated with equal averages (for all gradations of a factor) and equal variances. Results of application of Kolmogorov's test to samples of variance ratios (for checking of correspondence of samples to Fisher distribution) are presented in table for 5% significance level. Every element of table was obtained after analysis of 107 independent samples. Changing of elements of table was analyzed with Theil criterion. Obtained results demonstrate that there exist some problems with identification of distribution of variance ratio and in analysis of its correspondence to Fisher distribution.
       
  • New records of sea slugs (Heterobranchia: Opisthobranchia) from India

    • Authors: Sudhanshu Dixit; C. Raghunathan, Kailash Chandra.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(3:47-54
      Abstract: Opisthobranchs, are marine molluscs which take a top notch at being brilliantly coloured. They are known for their intriguing patterns and variety of forms and shapes. The present paper reports 8 species of opisthobranchs (Costasiella usagi, Halgerda formosa, Dendrodris guttata, Dendrodoris elongata, Miamira magnifica, Ceratosoma tenue, and Phyllidia exquisita) as new records to Indian waters while Dermatobranchus fortunatus as a new record to Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Description, geographic locations and photographs of live specimens are given.
       
  • Asymmetry in the shape of the carapace of Scylla serrata (Forsskal, 1755)
           collected from Lingayen Gulf in Luzon, Philippines

    • Authors: Ruby Castrence-Gonzales; Jessie G. Gorospe, Mark Anthonny J. Torres, Helen J. Vicente, Elnor C. Roa, Cesar G. Demayo.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(3:55-66
      Abstract: The nature of organisms is influenced by the conditions of the environment. The shape changes occurring in the body of organisms could be attributed to its response to environmental perturbations. This study was therefore conducted to describe the changes in carapace shape in both sexes of S. serrata collected from different areas in the Lingayen Gulf using geometric morphometrics as a tool. Variations particularly the level of symmetry of its carapace shape, Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE) software was used to analyze a total of 58 landmarks to obtain the biological shape information of 130 crab individuals. Procrustes ANOVA was employed to assess intra-population variability, directional and fluctuating asymmetry within sexes. Results showed sexual dimorphism in the carapace. Individual and directional asymmetry was also observed within sexes. However, fluctuating asymmetry was also detected in the anterolateral teeth, posterolateral margin and posterior border of the carapace indicating observed asymmetry that maybe attributed to both genetic and the interplay of genotype x environmental interaction suggesting that FA existence can be due to developmental instability as a consequence of the effect of the ecological health of the Lingayen Gulf.
       
  • Linear regression as great joke of great scientists

    • Authors: L.V. Nedorezov.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2017,7(3:67-77
      Abstract: Analysis of problems of simplest variant of linear regression between two variables is presented. It was demonstrated that in classic situation problem of estimation of regression line parameters hasn't a correct solution. It was also obtained that "paradox of two regressions" (Szekely, 1986) cannot be solved as a presentation of two intervals of (possible) changing of parameters of real regression line. Numerical examples allowed demonstrating that real parameters of regression line can be out of intervals defined by parameters of two regressions.
       
  • Design of floating wetland for treatment of municipal wastewater and
           environmental assessment using emergy technique

    • Authors: Arfan Arshad; Sikandar Ali, Shahbaz Nasir Khan, Muhammad Riaz, Sufyan Arshad, Ch. Arslan, Shafqat Noor, Muhammad Mohsin Waqas.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(3:78-89
      Abstract: The magnitude of wastewater has been increased due to rapid increase in population and industrialization in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Wastewater is being discharged directly into fresh water bodies without proper treatment due to insufficient treatment facilities which give rise to health problems. Wastewater treatment by chemical and thermal techniques is costly because these techniques rely on the use of chemicals and electricity. This study was planned to replace the chemical and thermal techniques with a floating wetland system which is an environmental protective technique for wastewater treatment. First order plug flow kinetic model was applied to calculate the surface area of wetland. This study also incorporates calculation of the emergy associated with the production of treated wastewater. From the whole calculations, it was observed that the total emergy of floating wetland 3.24*10^17 sej/year is less as compared to conventional effluent treatment plant having emergy 5.71*10^17 sej/year. The analysis indicates that use of floating wetland system can reduce cost as well as pressure on the local environment by providing option to reuse the wastewater after treatment. Results indicate that cost-benefit ratio was 0.88 which shows saving 3.7*10^17 sej/year of surface water resources by using treated wastewater for agricultural production. Wastewater treatment by floating wetland system is environmental friendly, cost effective and energy efficient as compared to effluent treatment system. The study suggests that wetland system should be recommended for wastewater treatment in areas where large quantity of wastewater is generated from municipal sector.
       
  • Grain size fraction of heavy metals in soil and their relationship with
           land use

    • Authors: M. H. Sayadi; A. Rezaei, M. R. G. Sayyed.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(1):1-11
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) in different grain-size fractions of the surface soils. The soil samples of different land uses were taken from 20 cm depth at 12 stations where is located at Amir Abad of Birjand city, Iran. The air-dried samples were passed through sieves of different sizes to collect the fractions lesser than 63 um, 63-125 um, 125-250 um, 250-500 um, 500-1000 um and 1000-2000 um. The samples were digested by perchloric acid and nitric acid; and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (model AAcontr700). The highest concentrations for Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd (139.5, 195.4, 98.4 and 3.15 mg/kg respectively) were obtained in the fractions less than 63 um from the road-side soils. The contamination factor values for the fractions less than 63 um were higher than other fractions. The comparison of different toxic metals concentration from various grain-size fractions demonstrated higher Cr levels, especially in the 63-125 um size fractions from the road-side lands. Thus, the comparison of grain size factors from different soils revealed that Cr exhibited highest values in relation to the other toxic elements studied.
       
  • Allium cepa test: An evaluation of genotoxicity

    • Authors: Cresencio C. Cabuga Jr.; Julene Joy Z. Abelada, Rene Rose Q. Apostado, Brent Joy H. Hernando, John Erick C. Lador, Owen Lloyd P. Obenza, Christian James R. Presilda, Honelyn C. Havana.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(1):12-19
      Abstract: The importance of Allium cepa test contributes knowledge in preventing toxicity in the environment. This test widely used in determining genotoxic and cytotoxic substances found in the water system. In this study, the genotoxic effects of H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) and CH2O (Formalin) were determined using Allium cepa root tip cells while the water samples collected from the mining areas of Sorex Barobo, Surigao del Sur and Rosario, Agusan del Sur were also tested for genotoxicity. One-Way ANOVA shows that water samples treated with H2O2 were statistically significant (P less than 0.05) when compared to CH2O while the water sample collected from the mining areas shows statistically non-significant. A concentration-dependent increased were observed among the dividing cells and aberrant cells of the treated and collected water samples. The observed abnormalities were seen into its roots morphology indicating genotoxicity. Thus, the obtained results in this study show that Allium cepa test is useful as bio-indicator to detect genotoxicity.
       
  • First report on Neopetrolisthes maculatus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837)
           (associated with Stichodactyla haddoni (Saville-Kent, 1893) from Grub
           Island, Andaman Islands

    • Authors: S. Kumaralingam; C. Raghunathan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(1):20-24
      Abstract: The porcelain crabs are very less studied animals in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The present paper reports first record of porcelain crab Neopetrolisthes maculatus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) in these island, Neopetrolisthes maculatus inhabits the coral reef region and associated with sea anemone (Stichodactyla haddoni). The taxonomical descriptions of the species are given in this paper.
       
  • First record of Yellow Mesh sea star Nardoa novaecaledoniae (Perrier,
           1875) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea: Ophidiasteridae) from Andaman and
           Nicobar Islands

    • Authors: Naveen Kumar Nigam; C. Raghunathan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(2):25-29
      Abstract: Nardoa novaecaledoniae (Perrier, 1875) was reported herein from coral reefs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands for the first time. This paper presents the detailed taxonomic account along with its distribution.
       
  • A contemporary assessment of tree species in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve,
           Southern India

    • Authors: M. Sathya; S. Jayakumar.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2017,7(2):30-46
      Abstract: Tree species inventory was carried out in five forest types of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve (STR). The forest type was divided into homogenous vegetation strata (HVS) based on the altitude, temperature, precipitation and forest types. A total of 8 ha area was sampled using 0.1 ha (20m by 50m) plot and all tree species>=1cm girth at breast height (gbh) within the plot were enumerated. In all, 4614 individuals were recorded that belonged to 122 species representing 90 genera and 39 families. Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Combretaceae were the species-rich families. The mean stand density of STR was 577/ha, but it varied from 180/ha to 779/ha. Similarly, the mean basal area of the STR was 14.51 m2/ha which ranged between 8.41 m2/ha and 26.96 m2/ha. The stem count was low at the lowest girth class (1-10 cm gbh) and high at 20-30 cm gbh in all the forest types. Anogeissus latifolia was the dominant species in the semievergreen and deciduous forest types while Chloroxylon swietenia was dominant in the thorn forest. The Shannon-Weiner and Simpson's indices ranged from 2.13 to 3.61 and from 0.75 to 0.96 respectively. The Sorenson's similarity index ranged from 0.12 to 0.85. As this study is a pioneer study that provides a baseline information about the tree species present in the STR.
       
  • The impact of onions and figs extracts on Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria

    • Authors: Mohammad AliDabighian; Bahareh Rahimian Zarif.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(4):128-135
      Abstract: Due to spread of infectious diseases and increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and side effects of chemical drugs which have expiration date, using herbal and organic drugs with faster effectiveness without side effects and limitation are proper replacement. Maceration to extraction was used to conduct this research in four methods using distilled water and alcohol as solvent and finally these extractions was used to measuring halos of blight. Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria were standard and the impact of extractions using impregnating discs on bacteria in Muller-Hinton agar in plate was conducted and their influence compared with required antibiotics and measuring halos of blight were accomplished, which were confirmed by MIC, MBC and FIC. The required extractions from onions and figs obtained by maceration which surveyed as synthetic and single on standard S. pyogenes bacteria and their impact on the tested bacteria in some resulted methods were logical compared to 8 used antibiotics and compared with some antibiotics was more, equal and less. Onions and figs extracts, both singly and specially synthetically by maceration on S. pyogenes bacteria are the causes of lung infections which have antibacterial feature. Onions and figs extracts synthetically with distilled water traditionally and the extant of drench for 10 days is more influential and has big halo of blight than 8 kinds of antibiotics such as gentamicin, neomycin, azithromycin and erythromycin. Also hypothesizes have been offered to explain the mechanism of their antibiotics feature. The FIC parameter result showed that, combination of figs and onions extractions had synergistic effect. Therefore the combinations of the two extractions are more effective.
       
  • Tree inventory along the altitudinal gradients in Singara Range, Western
           Ghats, India

    • Authors: Dharmatma Singh; Satyam Verma, Shanmuganathan Jayakumar.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(4):97-109
      Abstract: Environmental gradients are the driving forces that shape species density, community composition, stand structure and diversity. Distribution of plants in Nilgiri hill is the result of topographic variations and climatic differences. This study was conducted in Singara range of The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, which lies between the altitudes of 900 to 2150 Meter above mean sea level (MSL). A total of 60 quadrates of 10 by 50 m size were laid in the forest across five elevational ranges with 250-meter interval covering 1250 meter altitude. A total of 181 species in 115 Genera and 56 Families were recorded in the present study. Anogeissus latifolia was the most dominant species across the study area and was present in four zones except the highest elevation zone E (1900-2150), which is shola forest while the former zones were tropical dry deciduous and semi-evergreen forest. A total of 56, 62, 46, 40 and 82 tree species were found in Zone A, Zone B, Zone C, Zone D and Zone E respectively.
       
  • Nitrate and arsenic concentration status in Zamzam water, Holly Mecca
           Almocarama, Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Fahad N. Al-Barakah; Abdulrahman M. Al-jassas, Anwar A. Aly.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(4):110-118
      Abstract: Many Muslims people drink Zamzam water either for medicinal or religious purpose; however, some study recorded that the water is contaminated by nitrate and arsenic. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the water for drinking focusing on nitrate and arsenic. The chemical, total dissolved salts (TDS), major, minor and trace elements, and microbial, total colony counts, total coliforms group, and E.coli, analyses were carried out and compared with WHO standards. The acquired results recorded that the TDS, soluble ions, trace element including As and NO3 - fall within the acceptable limits. Furthermore, the water found free of total colony counts (CFU) and E. coli contaminations. On the other hand, 6.9% of the studied water found contaminated with total Coliform group. This study found lithium ion in high concentration with an average of 0.184 mg L-1 in studied water. Although no maximum contamination level set for lithium either by WHO or EPA; however, many studies confirmed that the lithium can decrease the incidence rates of suicide, homicide, and rape.
       
  • Removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions using thermally activated
           biosorbent: Column study

    • Authors: Ashutosh Mishra; Brahma Dutt Tripathi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(4):119-127
      Abstract: Biosorption potential of thermally activated biosorbent prepared from Hydrilla verticillata biomass was investigated for the removal of Cu++, Zn++, Cd++ and Pb++ ions using a packed-bed column. Bed height (15-25 cm), flow rate (10-30 mL min-1) and influent metal concentrations (5-25 mg L-1) were variable parameters for the column study. Results revealed that highest bed height (25 cm), lowest flow rate (10 mL min-1) and lowest influent metal concentration (5 mg L-1) were favorable for column biosorption. The maximum biosorption capacity for Cu++, Zn++, Cd++ and Pb++ removal were observed to be 174.14, 184.36, 176.55 and 179.14 mg g-1 respectively. The breakthrough curves obtained from column process were successfully correlated with Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and Thomas models. Regeneration studies revealed good reusability of activatedbiosorbent during three cycles of sorption and desorption studied.
       
  • Utilization of geoprocessing for environmental studies

    • Authors: Helen Liepkan Maranhao; Luis Paulo Santana.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(3):62-66
      Abstract: The geoprocessing is a computerized processing of georeferenced data, which has grown since the last 50 years and has been applied in several areas of study, including the environmental field. This innovative technology made possible the integration of data from different origins that can be processed through GIS into relevant information for society. Furthermore, geoprocessing is an essential tool for environmental professionals to apply on specific projects, which will require on the future more research in alternatives for reliable forecasting. Given that, this report describes the applications of geoprocessing for environmental studies and examines the advantages and disadvantages of its implementation. It also aims to discuss the utilisation and efficiency of this tool for environmental purposes.
       
  • Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of primary and secondary
           forests in Northeast India

    • Authors: K. T. Vashum; T. Kasomwoshi, S. Jayakumar.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(3):67-74
      Abstract: Plant, animal and microbial residues in all stages of decomposition contribute to soil organic carbon (SOC). Measurement of SOC will not only help us to assess the productivity and the sustainable fertility of the soil but it will also give us an idea about the potentials of the soil for sequestering carbon from the atmosphere or the emission potential when the soil is disturbed. The objective of this paper is to estimate and compare the SOC content in the primary and secondary forests up to 30 cm depth in Ukhrul District, Manipur. The secondary forest has been subjected to many cycles of shifting cultivation. The samples were analysed for the organic carbon content using Walkley-Black method. The mean SOC was found to be much higher in both upper (0-15cm) and lower (15-30cm) layer of the primary forest (5.25% and 3.12%) than the secondary forest (2.97% and 1.88%) respectively. Independent samples t-test shows that these means of SOC differ significantly between the two sites and the two layers. This study proves, based on the comparison of SOC content in the primary and secondary forest, the ability of forest soil to sequester carbon, if it remained undisturbed. It implies that the soil in these forests can be a chief source or sinks of carbon in nature and can play an important role in the mitigation and adaptation to climate change.
       
  • Multi-purpose control of ecological and biological networks

    • Authors: Alessandro Ferrarini.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2016,6(3):75-83
      Abstract: Evolutionary Network Control (ENC) allows the control of any kind of ecological and biological network, with an arbitrary number of nodes and links, acting from inside and/or from outside. To date, ENC has been applied to drive the dynamics of ecological and biological networks so that the target variable can reach the desired equilibrium value. In this work, ENC has been expanded to incorporate the multipurpose control of any kind of ecological and biological network. The rationale here is that, not one, but at least two, or even more than two, variables can be contemporaneously driven towards the desired equilibrium values. In theory, multipurpose ENC can lead an arbitrary number of network actors towards the desired equilibrium values. It is useful whenever ecological and biological networks present several taxonomic resolutions that are worthy to be controlled simultaneously.
       
  • Effect of in-situ moisture conservation measures and application of
           organic manures on soil properties in Simarouba glauca plantation

    • Authors: Manikhantha M. Vaidya; D. Shivaprasad, Noorandappa Lamani, K. R. Swamy, S. Kotresh, Gopal V. Dasar.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(3):84-96
      Abstract: Soil and water conservation measures are one of the most important factors for the improvement of degraded lands. Water conservation technique like in-situ soil moisture conservation measures and application of organic manures is to achieve the maximum cultivated soil for the survival and growth of seedlings. In the present study the effect of in-situ moisture conservation measures and organic manures application on growth of Simarouba glauca in varada watershed area showed significant difference in chemical properties of soil such as available Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium at 12 months after the treatment imposed and the moisture content at the depth of 0 to 30 and 30 to 60. In main plot significantly maximum plant height (1.25 m), collar diameter (2.63 cm) crown diameter (93.98 cm) and number of leaves (45.25) was recorded in ring basin (M2), whereas, in sub plot maximum plant height (1.71 m), collar diameter (3.49 cm) crown diameter (126.89 cm) and number of leaves (60.66) was recorded in vermicompost (S2). Among the interaction significantly maximum plant height (1.94 m), collar diameter (3.97 cm), crown diameter (133.83 cm) and number of leaves (63.07) was recorded in ring basin with vermicompost (2.5 t/ha) at 12 months after treatment.
       
  • Management of radioactive waste: A review

    • Authors: Luis Paulo Santana; Taynara Cristina Cordeiro.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(2):38-43
      Abstract: The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from country to country. Furthermore, microbiological procedures, plasma vitrification process, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, evaporation and reverse osmosis are strategies used for the treatment of radioactive wastes. The major challenge is to manage these radioactive substances after being used and discharged. This report brings data from the literature published worldwide from 2009 to 2014 on radioactive waste management studies and it covers production, classification and management of radioactive solid, liquid and gas waste.
       
  • Effect of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on photosynthetic and
           transpiration rate in Sandal (Santalum album L.)

    • Authors: Noorandappa Lamani; D. Shivaprasad, K. R. Swamy, Manikhantha M. Vaidya, Ramesh Rathod.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(2):44-52
      Abstract: Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) belongs to family Santalaceae. It has gained prominence over other tree species, because of high demand for heartwood and essential oil, to fulfill the increasing demand it is needed to achieve fast growth of the seedling in the nursery stage and as well in the planted site. In the present study the response of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on photosynthetic and transpiration rate in sandal was assessed with the following treatments control (ambient condition), elevated CO2 treatment with FYM (i.e., 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kg of FYM) and elevated CO2 treatment with no FYM. The morphological parameters such as plant height, collar diameter, and number of leaves, leaf area, seedling biomass; physiological parameter such as photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were recorded at 120 days. Growth parameters found to be higher in the treatment of elevated CO2 with 15 kg FYM such as seedling height (26.32 cm) and leaf area per plant (247.84 cm2) compare to the other treatments. Photosynthetic rate (19.66 u mol. m-2 s-1), transpiration rate (3.04 m mol. m-2 s-1) and stomatal conductance (0.30 m mol. m-2 s-1) was found maximum in 15 kg FYM treatment.
       
  • CO2 bio-sequestration by Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis in
           response to different levels of salinity and CO2

    • Authors: M. Shabani; M.H. Sayadi, M.R. Rezaei.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(2):53-61
      Abstract: The limitation of fresh water and the exorbitant cost of land to grow such plants, algae are the most optimum organisms for CO2 bio-sequestration and also microalgae cultures avail many characteristics that make them an arguable option for higher productivities as compared to higher plants. The aim of this study was the sequestrate CO2 by Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris under the different levels of salinity and CO2. The highest growth rate obtained during the first 4 days and higher biomass concentration at CO2 concentration from 0.03% to 10% respectively. The significant (p less than 0.05) biomass productivity, growth rate and CO2 sequestration rate under different level of CO2 and EC between Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris were detected. The ultimate CO2 sequestration rate of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris were 0.49 and 0.152 g/L/d in natural water respectively, although in artificial sea water 0.419 and 0.097 g/L/d were recorded at 10% CO2 concentrations respectively.
       
  • A sustainability analysis of environmental management approaches:
           Prevention, mitigation and compensation

    • Authors: Daniel Rondinelli Roquetti; Evandro Mateus Moretto, Paulo Antonio de Almeida Sinisgalli.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(1):24-37
      Abstract: The scientific literature has taken Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a promoter of sustainable development only in a normative way, hampering the comprehension of the instrument's potentialities and weaknesses. Therefore, it is necessary to insert the debate about EIA effectiveness in a framework that conceptualizes sustainability more clearly. This framework can be raised by economic theory, which is based on the capitals substitution approach. The present paper analyzes how EIA's main forms of environmental impact treatment can induce sustainability in the relationship between productive processes and environmental systems, taking into account capitals substitution ideas. The paper is based on an analysis model built in systemic precepts. It was possible to observe that economic projects' environmental aspects can be classified into four major groups concerning capital substitution: extraction, edification, creation of cultivated natural capital and injection of energy-matter into the environment. It was also observable that EIA's preventive means avoid capitals substitution and induce strong sustainability, whilst mitigation means avoiding capitals substitution only partially, which makes less effective in inducing sustainability and, finally, compensation means legitimate capitals substitution, inducing weak sustainability. The most effective forms of environmental impact treatment are those less applied in the brazilian context, meanwhile the less effective are those mostly applied. In this sense, the EIA practice in Brazil does not induce economic productive processes to the path of global environmental systems sustainability.
       
  • Application of nonlinear model of population dynamics with phase structure
           to analysis of pine looper moth time series

    • Authors: L.V. Nedorezov.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2016,6(1):1-12
      Abstract: Current publication is devoted to application of ELP-model (egg - larvae - pupae) for analysis of pine looper moth (Bupalus piniarius L.) dynamics in Netherlands (Klomp, 1966) and determination of asymptotic stable dynamic regimes. Method for estimation of model parameters (without using of any minimizing functional forms) when several correlated time series must be taken into account is described. Parameters of ELP-model were estimated, and it allowed creating two following hypotheses about pine looper moth dynamics: it may correspond to strong 2-cycle or non-rigorous 3-cycle.
       
  • A cluster method for finding node sets / sub-networks based on
           between-node similarity in sets of adjacency nodes: with application in
           finding sub-networks in tumor pathways

    • Authors: WenJun Zhang; Xin Li.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2016,6(1):13-23
      Abstract: A network consists of node sets or sub-networks. In present study, a cluster method for finding node sets and sub-networks according to between-node similarity in sets of adjacency nodes was proposed. A typical example demonstrated that the method is highly effective. Sub-networks in tumor pathways are identified. Matlab codes of the method are presented.
       
  • Lived experiences of reducing environmental risks in an environmental
           justice community

    • Authors: G. Dory; Z. Qiu, C. Qiu, M.R. Fu, C.E. Ryan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(4):128-141
      Abstract: Environmental risks cause physical and psychological distresses to individuals who live in environmental justice (EJ) communities and significantly affect their perception of wellbeing. Little is known about how these individuals perceive and manage to reduce environmental risks. The study utilizes a phenomenological approach to explore and describe these individuals' perceived environmental risk and their experience of reducing such risks. A qualitative and longitudinal design with a descriptive phenomenological method was used to recruit 23 participants living in a known EJ community in the Ironbound, New Jersey. A total of 43 indepth interviews were completed, audio recorded, and transcribed. Interview transcripts and field notes were the data sources. Data was analyzed to identify the essential structure of their experience. Participants described their awareness and perception of environmental risks in their community and the strategies they purposively assumed to protect themselves. Three essential intentional risk reduction strategies undertaken by the participants were: reducing personal exposure to environmental hazards, trying to work with the community to improve environmental conditions, and taking individual action to improve the community. The environmental risks perceived by participants tended to be small and insignificant in scale and local in space, but directly affect their wellbeing. To enhance individuals' intentional risk reduction strategies and optimize the living experiences in EJ communities, future research and policy making should focus on comprehensive strategies that incorporate individuals' perceptions and intentional strategies to develop community specific environmental policy and action plans.
       
  • Status of some metals contained in imported nail polish and lipsticks on
           the Ghanaian market

    • Authors: M. Ackah; J. Osei , A. K. Anim, N. Zakaria, E. S. Nyarko , E. T. Gyamfi, S. Enti-Brown, J.E. K. Hanson, N. O. Bentil, D. Tulasi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(4):142-147
      Abstract: Imported cosmetic products (i.e. nail polishes and lipsticks) were purchased on the open market in an urban market in Accra and analyzed for the presence of metals including cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, chromium and manganese. While the concentrations of nickel were below detectable limits in all the samples, the concentration of lead in the lipstick samples exceeded the allowable limits as prescribed by the Health Canada Draft Guidelines on Heavy Metals in cosmetics. The lead in the nail polish and lipstick samples also exceeded the Ghana Standard Authority limits on lead in cosmetics.
       
  • Where do diaspores come from? Reverse wind modelling unveils plant
           colonization trajectories

    • Authors: Alessandro Ferrarini.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2015,5(4):148-156
      Abstract: In alpine habitats, wind is the predominant dispersal vector of diaspores (seeds and spores). The wind flow field in mountain areas depends on the interaction of wind with topography which creates very complex patterns for both wind directions and speeds. Most alpine species utilize wind transport for diaspore dispersal, and more than 90% are anemochorous. The transport of diaspores is to date considered a forward (ahead in time) problem, i.e. from actual diaspore locations to future ones. I argue here that, using appropriate reverse mathematical modelling, the problem can be reversed: starting from actual locations of plants and diaspores, one can evince the trajectories that led to actual positions. So doing, one can reconstruct the trajectories followed by plant species to reach actual niches. A particular application of this approach is the individuation of corridors followed by exotic plant species. The ad-hoc software Wind-Lab has been realized which incorporates both forward and backward wind modelling. The model described here might be of importance in geobotany, climatic ecology and plant conservation biology.
       
  • Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of water
           reservoir case study: Chah Nimeh of Sistan

    • Authors: O. Rashki Ghaleno; M.H. Sayadi, M.R. Rezaei.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(3):89-96
      Abstract: The distributions of heavy metal concentrations in the surface sediments of Chah Nimeh of Sistan water reservoir were assessed. Sediment samples collected at 6 sites in the Chah Nimeh of Sistan water reservoir in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average contents of the metals studied were: Cd, 0.58 mg/kg; Pb, 4.76 mg/kg; and Cu, 42.41 mg/kg and arrangement of the metals from higher to lower mean content in this area are: Cu greater than Pb greater than Cd. The Igeo values were ranged from -2.7 to 1.8 with an average of -0.65. The pollution load index (PLI) ranged from 0.6 to 1.4, and the average index of PLI was 1.0, the Chah Nimeh of Sistan was moderately polluted. The index range of potential ecological risk was from 45.3 to 165.2, and the average index of potential ecological risk factors (RI) was 111.2.
       
  • Seed bank estimation and regeneration studies of Calophyllum apetalum
           Willd., from Western Ghats of Karnataka

    • Authors: C. N. Prasanna Kumar; R. K. Somashekar, B. C. Nagaraja, K. Ramachandra, D. Shivaprasad.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(3):97-103
      Abstract: Studies on the seed production, modes of dispersal and regeneration patterns of threatened tree species are crucial for the management of their genetic diversity. The seed bank estimation of Calophyllum apetalum was assessed from three different locations of Western Ghats of Karnataka, using two factorial completely randomized design. The results revealed the seeds are dispersed by hydrochory and mammalochory. The post seed dispersal, seed bank estimation studies yielded a high seed density near the base of tree trunks, but it was varied between the distances and locations. The results revealed seed densities are insignificant among the forest ranges and significant with the distances. The in-situ regeneration studies revealed an insignificant relationship between the mean regeneration among the forest ranges and the distances. Also, the ex-situ regeneration studies resulted an insignificant relationship among forest ranges and the distances from which the seeds were collected. The highest seed germination through ex-situ regeneration suggested it, as a best suitable method of conservation of this species.
       
  • Cachar tropical semi-evergreen forest type of Northeast India: status of
           species diversity, distribution and population structure

    • Authors: Koushik Majumdar; B. K. Datta.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(3):104-127
      Abstract: Conservation of threatened species in most cases is difficult because of incomplete knowledge about their actual distribution, population and habitat ecology. Quantitative vegetation inventory was applied to analyse phytosociological structure of Cachar tropical semi-evergreen forest type in Northeast India, which is consider as a rare forest sub-type. Total 9, 500 by 10m (0.5 ha) sized line transects were laid in Tripura. Overall 3,391 individuals of woody species were measured in 4.5 ha analysis, which represented total 167 species. Out of 167 species, 138 species were tree, 14 were shrubs, 10 woody climbers, 3 bamboos and 2 palm species. Again, taxonomically out of 167 species only 6 species was monocot; deciduous and evergreen ratio was 98: 69. Further, out of 167 species 95 species showed aggregated distribution than 72 random distributions. Stem density was ranged 566-964 ha-1, basal area 19.22-52.82 m2ha-1; but most species listed with very low Important Value Index (IVI), where 51 species identified as very rare (less than 2 individuals). Overall density was declined linearly (r2 adj =0.62; p greater than 0.05) from predominant to very rare population group (r2 adj is adjusted correlation co-efficient). Stem density-girth relation was significantly quadratic and showed highest coefficient value for sapling (r2 adj =0.99; p less than 0.05) than adult density (r2adj=0.96; p less than 0.001); however, stem density was declined across the height classes (r2 adj =0.56; p less than 0.05). Present findings demonstrate the high conservation value of this habitat, as umbrella species (Dipterocarpus turbinatus) was red listed as critically endangered by The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) with 13 globally threatened plants. Present analysis offers easy scope for effective habitat management and strategies for species conservation and restoration through ecological niche modeling tool.
       
  • Application of SWAT model for assessing effect on main functions of
           watershed ecosystem in Headwater, Thailand

    • Authors: W. Sudjarit; Somnimirt Pukngam, Nipon Tangtham.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(2):57-69
      Abstract: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a well prediction accuracy of agricultural watershed ecosystem depends on how well model input spatial parameters describe the characteristics of watershed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects on watershed ecosystem main functions in terms of water and sediment yield. It was calibrated and validated for streamflow in the watershed to evaluate alternative management scenarios and estimate their effects on watershed functions. The goodness of the calibration results was assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2). Results indicated that the average annual rainfall and streamflow estimations were quite satisfactory. On a daily scale R2 was about 0.69 and a monthly scale was 0.97 which can be considered as acceptable. However, using for the case study of an intensive agricultural watershed ecosystem, it was shown that model versions are able to appropriately reproduce the water balance, nutrients balance, carbon balance, and energy balance. Crop yield, total streamflow and total suspended sediment (TSS) losses calibration were performed using field survey information and data during 2008-2012. This study showed that SWAT model was able to apply for simulating and assessing streamflow, sediment, and nutrients successfully and can be used to study the effects of land use practices on water balance, nutrient balance, carbon balance and energy balance in the small scale of sub-watershed ecosystem as well.
       
  • Diatomite and re-use coal waste as promising alternative for fertilizer to
           environmental improvement

    • Authors: Mohammad Hassan Sayyari-Zahan; AbdolHamid Gholami, Somayeh Rezaeepour.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(2):70-76
      Abstract: Application of conventional fertilizers has been contributing much pollutant to the environment. This study aimed to assess the potential of diatomite and re-use coal waste as a non chemical fertilizer to environmental improvement. The experiments were evaluated in 2kg pots under greenhouse conditions at 4 levels of diatomite powder including 0, 10, 20, 40 g/kg soil as well as 5 levels of coal waste powder including 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 g/kg soil based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments of diatomite and coal waste were mixed well and kept under field capacity moisture for 4 months. The results showed that the effects of diatomite and coal were significant on EC, K and P concentrations in soil while the coal waste showed more influenced on decreasing of soil pH. Adding diatomite up to 40 g/kg in soil increased EC, K and P viz. 2.92, 1.19 and 1.54 times respectively compared to control sample. Using of 160 g/kg of coal in soil increased EC (2.89 times) and decrease pH (1.06 times) which had led to increased availability of trace elements that enhance plant growth. The highest bio-available concentrations of K and P in soil obtained at 80 and 40 g/kg of diatomite and coal waste respectively. This study demonstrates that a good fertilizer can be produced by using diatomite and coal waste; however, further research is required.
       
  • Integrating landscape changes into ecological connectivity: What-if flow
           connectivity

    • Authors: Alessandro Ferrarini.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2015,5(2):77-82
      Abstract: There's an arising need for theoretical and methodological tools to predict how much and how landscape changes will impact animal movements. In fact, conservation planning in the face of landscape changes requires realistic predictions of impacts on biotic flows and species dispersals. The goal of What-if Flow Connectivity is to simulate what happens to biotic shifts over real landscapes if landscape changes happen. What-if FC calculates the spatial divergence of the biotic flow with respect to the inertial (i.e. where no landscape changes are considered) flow due to landscape changes. So doing, What-if Flow Connectivity not only predicts the most likely biotic routes imposed by landscape changes to one species, but also estimates the impact of such changes in terms of spatial divergence and differential shift effort with respect to the inertial (no landscape changes) scenario. What-if Flow Connectivity comes with the software Connectivity-Lab whose outputs are the vectors of the faunal (inertial and what-if) movements plus the statistics of the movement (inertial and what-if) efforts.
       
  • A report on the coral reef dwelling polyclads of Nicobar Islands, India

    • Authors: C. R. Sreeraj; C. Raghunathan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(2):83-88
      Abstract: Although the Polycladida (Platyhelminthes) are prominent members of many reef communities, no comprehensive surveys exist for the Nicobar group of Islands, India. A total of 7 species of polyclads were collected from the reef areas of the Nancowry group of Islands in Nicobar region. The polyclads reported through this study are new to Nicobar group of Islands while, Cycloporus venetus Newman and Cannon, 2002; Phrikoceros mopsus (Marcus, 1952); Pseudobiceros uniarborensis Newman and Cannon, 1994 and Pseudobiceros stellae Newman and Cannon, 1994 are first records for the Indian waters.
       
  • The dynamic response of Kolohai Glacier to climate change

    • Authors: Asifa Rashid; M. R. G. Sayyed, Fayaz. A. Bhat.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(1):1-6
      Abstract: Glaciers are one of the important components of local, regional and continental water resource and are also key indicators of climate change. Glaciers provide a wealth of information about how climatic components of the earth have changed in the past. Changes in weather condition year after year cause variations in the amount of snow deposited on the glacier and in the amount of ice lost by melting of glacier. Interest in worldwide monitoring of glaciers has grown as rapid glacier recessions in many regions of the world have been evidenced. This further recognized need for a comprehensive assessment of the world's glaciers in driving efforts to devise and refine methods of extracting glacier information from satellite data. Due to adverse weather conditions, limited time is available in summer for detailed glacier studies. Remote sensing is of immense value as a mapping tool for measuring the spatial extent, mass balance and variations in the terminus of the glacier. Present study was carried out for Kolohai glacier of Lidder valley concentrated near Kolohai Mountain. This study is an attempt to reconstruct glacier fluctuations in response to climate changes through time series. A series of multidate imageries since 1992 to 2006 was used for mapping the changes in geometry and dynamics of glacier. Topographic maps, Landsat ETM, LISS-III imageries and high resolution DEM were used to conduct this study. The core of the methodology is to calculate the changes in areal extent and ELA variations of the glacier over the referenced time period and to determine the AAR of glacier. This was done by manual delineation, segment ratio of images to delineate changes. The study revealed that the Kolohai Glacier shows recession in terms of spatial extent, and variations in the terminus of the glacier in response to climate change.
       
  • Reproductive biology of Cinnamomum sulphuratum Nees. from wet evergreen
           forest of Western Ghats in Karnataka

    • Authors: D. Shivaprasad; C. N. Prasannakumar, R. K. Somashekar, B. C. Nagaraja.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(1):7-15
      Abstract: In Cinnamomum sulphuratum the initiation of the buds occurred after the leaf initiation during October and initiation of buds started during November last week. Inflorescence is an axillary panicle with 62.48+-7.01 floral buds that took 13+-1.41 days to bloom. Flower offer both pollen and nectar as a floral reward to the pollinators. Foragers include honeybees, butterflies, wasps, flies and ants. The flowers are self-compatible, pollinate both by self and cross pollination. In Allogamy (Hand cross pollination), highest mean percentage of fruit set was observed as 71 and 75 percent respectively for the period 2012-13 and 2013-14.
       
  • Experimental effects of sand-dust storm on tolerance index, percentage
           phototoxicity and chlorophyll a fluorescence of Vigna radiata L.

    • Authors: M. Alavi; Mozafar Sharifi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(1):16-24
      Abstract: In arid and semi-arid parts of the world excessive mineral aerosol carried by air parcels is a common climatic incident with well-known environmental side effects. In this way, we studied the role of sand-dust accumulation on various aspects of productivity of Vigna radiata L. including dry mass (DM), chlorophyll (Chl) a, b, Chlorophyll a fluorescence (effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (PHI-PSII), maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and electron transport rate (ETR)). V. radiata was exposed to a gradient of dust concentrations in a dust chamber (0.5 (T1), 1(T2) and 1.5 g/m3 (T3)) simulated by a dust generator for a period of 60 days. Results of this experiment indicate that DM and Chl content of shoot are negatively correlated with the intensity of the dust exposure. Exposure of V. radiata to dust compared with the control was caused 5% (T1), 14% (T2) and 27% (T3) reduction in leaf DM (p not larger than 0.05, ANOVA). Also, exposure to the dust induced a significant (p not larger than 0.05) reduction in the Total Chl content in (T3) 25%. Also, we showed that $PSII, ETR and Fv/Fm were affected by increasing of the dust concentrations. Exposure to the dust resulted in a significant reduction in ETR of 15%, 22%, and 43%.
       
  • Interactive effects of arsenic and phosphorus on their uptake by wheat
           varieties with different arsenic and phosphorus soil treatments

    • Authors: N. Karimi; M. Pormehr, H. R. Ghasempour.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2015,5(1):25-37
      Abstract: In this research we have investigated relationship between arsenate and phosphate uptake and its distribution in root, shoot, and seed of wheat varieties. Three wheat varieties were selected and grown in 7 Kg pots under controlled conditions among which, Sardari variety were collected from Iranian arsenic contaminated area and tested along with two other varieties Parsi and Pishtaz. The aim was to select a variety with low arsenate, uptake ability with the aim of improving food safety and human health. Arsenic was applied with following concentrations of 0, 5, 25, 125 and 625 mg/l in the presence or absence of P. With increasing As concentration in irrigation water, As levels of roots, shoots and seeds increased. Also, measurements indicated that As uptake rates decreased in the presence of P. Also, at 125 and 625 mg/l As concentration levels, the measured As concentrations of seed and shoot exceeded the tolerance limit, regardless of P presence. Among wheat varieties, Sardari (of contaminated area) had significantly less uptake of As compared with two other varieties. Besides, P concentrations in all wheat varieties followed the following order: seed> root> shoot.
       
  • Application of generalized discrete logistic model for fitting of pine
           looper moth time series: Feasible sets and estimations of model parameters
           

    • Authors: L.V. Nedorezov.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2015,5(1):38-48
      Abstract: New approach to estimation of ecological model parameters is considered and applied to analysis of well known pine looper moth time series (Klomp, 1966). Within the framework of approach it is assumed that before constructing and minimizing of loss-function basic requirements to model and to deviations between empirical and theoretical (model) datasets must be formulated. After that respective statistical criterions must be determined, and with the help of these criterions structure of feasible set in space of model parameters (where these criterions are satisfied) must be obtained. Structures of feasible sets were determined for generalized discrete logistic model with known datasets of pine looper moth population dynamics. Results were compared with estimations obtained with Least Square Method.
       
  • Article Imposing early stability to ecological and biological networks
           through Evolutionary Network Control

    • Authors: Alessandro Ferrarini.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2015,5(1):49-56
      Abstract: The stability analysis of the dynamical networks is a well-studied topic, both in ecology and in biology. In this work, I adopt a different perspective: instead of analysing the stability of an arbitrary ecological network, I seek here to impose such stability as soon as possible (or, contrariwise, as late as possible) during network dynamics. Evolutionary Network Control (ENC) is a theoretical and methodological framework aimed to the control of ecological and biological networks by coupling network dynamics and evolutionary modelling. ENC covers several topics of network control, for instance a) the global control from inside and b) from outside, c) the local (step-by-step) control, and the computation of: d) control success, e) feasibility, and f) degree of uncertainty. In this work, I demonstrate that ENC can also be employed to impose early (but, also, late) stability to arbitrary ecological and biological networks, and provide an applicative example based on the nonlinear, widely-used, Lotka-Volterra model.
       
  • Assessment of aerosol-cloud-rainfall interactions in Northern Thailand

    • Authors: V. Tuankrua; Piyapong Tongdeenog, Nipon Tangtham, Prasert Aungsuratana, Pongsak Witthawatchuetikul.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(4):134-147
      Abstract: Biomass burning in the northern Thailand probably provides strong input of aerosols into the atmosphere, with potential effects on cloud and rainfall, over an entire burning season. This research was focus on effect of biomass burning aerosols on clouds and rainfall using multiple regression analysis and AOT for indicating aerosol concentrations from satellite MODIS (Terra / Aqua) and AERONET station since 2003-2012. The results indicated that average AOT of the Northern Thailand showed the highest value in pre-monsoon season especially in March with 0.5 unit less and decreased in June to July. It corresponded with hotspot data were mostly occurring in pre-monsoon season. Furthermore, almost all of the aerosols that were found during monsoon season as the big particles, caused by salt spray combine with water vapor. In the other hand, almost all of the aerosols during pre-monsoon were the small particles which come from the black carbon caused by biomass burning. There was high positive relationship with rainfall with cloud water content (CWC) and cloud fraction (CF), but it was found that were negative relationship with aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and hotspot (HP). There was moderate relationship between rainfall amount with AOT, cloud fraction (CF), cloud water content (CWC) and hotspot (HP) in all provinces of the northern Thailand. It was noticed that in any year there were the high biomass burning aerosols which caused rain later than usual about 1-2 months.
       
  • Detected foraging strategies and consequent conservation policies of the
           Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in Southern Italy

    • Authors: Marco Gustin; Alessandro Ferrarini, Giuseppe Giglio, Stefania Caterina Pellegrino, Annagrazia Frassanito.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(4):148-161
      Abstract: The reduction in both the extent and quality of foraging habitats is considered the primary cause of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni population decline. A proper knowledge of Lesser Kestrel's foraging habitat selection at local scale is necessary for its conservation. Using accurate GPS devices, we investigated the patterns of local movements and land-cover type selection of 9 Lesser Kestrels in the main colony in Italy (Alta Murgia National Park, Gravina in Puglia and the surrounding rural areas) during the hatching period. The goals of our work were to individuate: 1) the preferred foraging habitats, 2) the potential sexual divergences in foraging movements and in 3) foraging habitat selection, 4) the relationship between foraging movements and the spatial arrangement of land codes. We detected significant sexual divergences in foraging movements and habitat selection. Lesser Kestrels preferred pseudo-steppes and significantly avoided ligneous crops and forested areas. While males selected positively pseudo-steppes, females used both pseudo-steppes and cereals in proportion to their availability. Foraging selection was influenced by the interplay between the spatial arrangement of land codes and the sexual divergences in foraging strategies. On the basis of our results, we have been able to propose suitable local-scale conservation actions to the Alta Murgia National Park and to the local administrations: a) the enlargements of the park's boundaries; b) the purchasing of land parcels; c) the provision of suitable nesting sites near the higher quality areas; d) the optimal timing for harvesting. Our study is the first contribution to the assessment of the foraging strategies and the necessary conservation policies of the Lesser Kestrel in Southern Italy.
       
  • Dynamics of 35 trace elements throughout plant organs in the subalpine
           broad leaf evergreen shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum

    • Authors: Charles Marty; Andre Pornon, Thierry Lamaze, Jerome Viers.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(4):162-175
      Abstract: Increased atmospheric deposition and climate change might affect soil biogeochemical processes and release potentially toxic trace elements in the soil solution. The dynamics and the distribution among plant organs of many trace elements are nevertheless still poorly documented, especially in evergreen species. Here,we measured the concentration of 35 trace elements in roots, stems, as well as in current, 1 yr-old and 2 yr-old leaves (respectively L0, L1 and L2) of the subalpine evergreen shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum. In every plant compartment, concentrations decreased with increasing atomic number. Based on a PCA analysis and the distribution of elements among the different plant compartments at least two groups of elements could be distinguished: i) elements with a high retention factor (RF) in the root compartment and accumulating in leaves with leaf aging, resulting in concentrations decreasing in the order Roots>> Stems> L2> L1> L0; and ii) elements with a low RF resulting in leaf concentrations higher or close to those in roots and stems. However, in contrast with elements from the first group, the dynamics in the leaf compartment of elements from the second group was erratic, with concentrations increasing, decreasing or remaining constant with leaf aging.
       
  • Assessment of metal bioaccumulation in Clarias batrachus and exposure
           evaluation in human

    • Authors: Mayank Pandey; Ashutosh Kumar Pandey, Ashutosh Mishra, B. D. Tripathi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(4):176-184
      Abstract: The present work was conducted for heavy metal (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) quantification in the river Ganga water and their bioaccumulation in vital organ tissues of Clarius batrachus. Heavy metal characterization in vital organ tissues (gills, liver and muscle) and comparison with FAO permissible guidelines revealed that Cd and Pb were hyper-accumulated which may lead to metal toxicity in fish and its consumers. High metal pollution index (MPI) was recorded for organ tissues of exposed samples (liver 6.05; gills 22.95; muscle 44.48) as compared to unexposed samples (liver 4.5; gills 18.8; muscle 36.76). Effective ingestive dose (EID) was calculated to assess the exposure threat to the human which may occur through dietary inputs. Results revealed that EID for Cr, Co, Cd and Pb was found significantly higher than the dose concentration prescribed by USEPA.
       
  • Optimization of phytoremediation in Cd- contaminated soil by using Taguchi
           method in Spinacia oleracea

    • Authors: Shirin Jahanbakhshi; Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Mohammad Hassan Sayyari-Zahan.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(4):185-193
      Abstract: Phytoremediation is an environmental friendly technique to the cleanup of polluted soils, which combines the disciplines of plant, soil and microbiology. In this study, four factors including: cow manure, compost, urea fertilizer and Cd-resistant bacteria with three different levels in soils contaminated with cadmium using 50 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O) were used to optimize of phytoremediation by Spinacia oleracea. Taguchi method has been used for experimental design. Results showed that significant factors in the order of importance were: cow manure, Cd- resistant batteries, urea fertilizer and compost. The optimum conditions for the selected levels were inoculate three types of bacteria (CC3, CC4, CC5), compost = 10 (g kg-1), urea fertilizer = 0.05 (g kg-1) and cow manure = 40 (g kg-1). The performance of` these conditions were estimated at 257.27 (mg kg-1). Cow manure is the most contribution to efficiency of phytoremediation in Spinacia Oleracea.
       
  • Morphometry and meristic counts of Bombay duck, Harpodon nehereus
           (Hamilton, 1822) along Sunderban region of West Bengal, India

    • Authors: V. Vinaya Kumar; A. Devivaraprasad Reddy, Sampurna Roy Choudhury, C. H. Balakrishna, Y. Satyanaryana, T. S. Nagesh, Sudhir Kumar Das.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(3):95-105
      Abstract: Fisheries sector have been gaining importance globally due to their role in national economy, foreign exchange earnings and employment generation besides providing nutritious food and cheap protein not only to the fisher folk but also to the rapidly growing population. Bombay duck fishery supported by single species, Harpodon nehereus, contributes about 4-5 % of the estimated average annual marine landings of India. With a peculiar discontinuous distribution fishery is utmost importance in two maritime states of India i.e. Gujarat and Maharashtra contributing 92% of the total landings and the remaining 8% landings were from West Bengal and Orissa coasts. H. nehereus forms a commercial fishery along Hooghly estuarine systems. The present study aims on the morphometric and meristic counts of H. nehereus. During the period of investigation, 373 fish samples with length range (145 to 302 mm) and weight range (28 to 212 gm) were examined. Highest significant correlation (P is less than 0.01) was observed between reference length and other morphometric parameters of both sexes. Percentage range difference in male's morphometric characters like post orbital length (15.24) and snout length (15.04) are environmentally controlled and others like standard length (11.09), pre-dorsal length (12.18), height of pelvic fin (13.39) and height of pectoral fin (12.10) are intermediate controlled (genetic and environmental factors). But in case of females, none of the characters are controlled by environmental factors and parameters like pre-dorsal length (10.37) and post orbital length (12.37) are intermediate controlled, remaining parameters in both sexes are genetically controlled (hereditary). Meristic counts includes dorsal fin with 10-13 soft rays, pelvic fin with 9 soft rays, pectoral fin with 10-12 soft rays and anal fin with 13-15 soft rays.
       
  • Classic models of population dynamics: assumptions about selfregulative
           mechanisms and numbers of interactions between individuals

    • Authors: L.V. Nedorezov.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2014,4(3):106-113
      Abstract: Stochastic model of migrations of individuals within the limits of finite domain on a plane is considered. It is assumed that population size scale is homogeneous, and there doesn't exist an interval of optimal values of population size (Alley effect doesn't realize for population). For every fixed value of population size number of interactions between individuals is calculated (as average in space and time). Correspondence between several classic models and numbers of interactions between individuals is analyzed.
       
  • Multivariate statistical analysis of surface water chemistry: A case study
           of Gharasoo River, Iran

    • Authors: MH Sayadi; A Rezaei, MR Rezaei, K Nourozi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(3):114-122
      Abstract: Regional water quality is a hot spot in the environmental sciences for inconsistency of pollutants. In this paper, the surface water quality of the Gharasoo River in western Iran is assessed incorporating multivariate statistical techniques. Parameters like EC, TDS, pH, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ were analyzed. Principal component and factor analysis is showed the parameters generated 3 significant factors, which explained 73.06 percent of the variance in data sets. Factor 1 may be derived from agricultural activities and subsequent release of EC, TDS, SO4 2- and Na+ to the water. Factor 2 could be influenced by domestic pollution and explained the deliverance of HCO3-, Cl- and Mg2+ into the water. Factor 3 contains hydro-geochemical variable Ca2+ and pH, originating from mineralization of the geological components of bed sediments and soils of watershed area. Likewise, the clustering analysis generated 3 groups of the stations as the groups had similar characteristic features. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlations between HCO3- and Mg2+ (0.775), Ca2+ (0.552) as well as TDS and Na+ (0.726). With reference to multivariate statistical analyses it can be concluded that the agricultural, domestic and hydro-geochemical sources are releasing the pollutants into the Gharasoo River water.
       
  • Detecting barriers and facilities to species dispersal: Introducing
           sloping flow connectivity

    • Authors: Alessandro Ferrarini.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2014,4(3):123-133
      Abstract: Connectivity in ecology deals with the problem of how biotic dispersals can happen, given actual landscape properties and species presence/absence over such landscape. Recently I have introduced a modelling approach (flow connectivity) to ecological connectivity that is alternative to circuit theory, and is able to fix the weak point of the "from-to" connectivity approach. In addition, I've introduced "reverse flow connectivity" that couples evolutionary algorithms to partial differential equations in order to fix the problem of subjectivity in the attribution of friction values to landscape categories. I've also showed that flow connectivity can be used to predict biotic movements happened in the past (backward flow connectivity). To date, there has been little effort by conservation scientists towards detecting restoration opportunities by mapping barriers that strongly reduce movement potential. In this paper, I introduce a new kind of theoretical and modelling approach called "sloping flow connectivity". The goal of such proposal is to individuate and map barriers and facilities to species dispersals over the landscape. I define here a barrier as a landscape feature that impedes biotic movements, the removal of which would increase the potential for biotic shifts. Using sloping flow connectivity, it's possible to plan greenways and ecological networks in an effective manner, since it is able to enhance the real potential of each landscape elements to facilitate or obstruct both directional and overall species movements.
       
  • Calcium and potassium dynamics and biopurification in two populations of
           the subalpine evergreen shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum

    • Authors: Charles Marty; Thierry Lamaze, Andre Pornon, Jerome Viers.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(2:50-61
      Abstract: Calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) are important acidity neutralizers in soils and essential elements for plants. These two elements are known to undergo a biopurification within the plant (i.e., discrimination against strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) for Ca, and rubidium (Rb) for K). However variations in the magnitude of this process between plant populations have rarely been reported, especially in high altitude, nutrient-depleted habitats. Concentrations of Ca, Sr, Ba, K and Rb were measured in roots, stems and in the different leaf cohorts in two populations of the evergreen shrub R. ferrugineum located at a granitic high elevation site. Calcium and K concentrations in leaves were respectively -5 and 3 times higher than in roots and stems. Ca concentration increased while K concentration decreased with leaf age. The ratios Ca/Sr, Ca/Ba and K/Rb increased from roots to leaves, revealing a significant biopurification especially between stems and leaves. This phenomenon was higher for Ca than for K, with Ca/Sr and Ca/Ba ratios more than twice and 4 times higher in leaves than in roots, respectively, while K/Rb ratio in leaves was only 50% higher than in roots. Ca/Sr ratio decreased whereas K/Rb increased with leaf age. While the first could result from a "chromatographic effect" of the vascular column, the latter suggests the existence of biopurification mechanisms during influx/efflux of K from the leaf. Surprisingly, the magnitude of Ca biopurification varied between populations on a small geographical scale suggesting that Ca/Sr ratio should be used cautiously for plant Ca source identification.
       
  • Bioaccumulation of chromium by Zea mays in wastewater-irrigated soil: An
           experimental study

    • Authors: Fatemeh Zojaji; Amir Hessam Hassani, Mohammad Hossein Sayadi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(2:62-67
      Abstract: The use of wastewater to irrigate plants is a common in many countries. This study aims to compare the bioaccumulation of chromium in Zea mays that irrigated with wastewater and tap water. The study was carried out in the field of waste water treatment plant in Birjand for 4 successive months from 16 August 2011 to 16 November 2011. 0.5 kg soil and 5 g of the root, stem and leave of Z. mays were collected monthly. Z. mays samples were digested by cloridric acid and soil samples were digested with nitric acid. Chromium concentration in the samples was determined by AA-7000 series of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The average concentrations of chromium in wastewater and tap water were 12 ppb and 5 ppb respectively. The concentration of chromium in soils, which is irrigated with wastewater and tap water, were 26.68 ppm and 11.15 ppm respectively. The mean concentration of chromium in roots of Z. mays that is irrigated with wastewater and tap water were 10.28 ppm and 3.92 ppm respectively. The mean concentration of chromium in the stem of Z. mays which is irrigated with wastewater and tap water were 4.19 ppm and 1.17 ppm respectively while the mean concentration of chromium in leaves of Z. mays which is irrigated with wastewater and tap water were 2.27 ppm and 0.44 ppm respectively. The Study showed higher accumulation of chromium in soils and Z. mays plants which irrigated by wastewater. Cr is immobilized mainly in roots. The ratio of transfer factor of root:leaves is more than ratio of transfer factor of root:stems. It is noticeable that the transfer factor of Cr is decreasing with increase of Cr concentration. The transfer factor between roots and shoots of Z. mays irrigated with wastewater was lower than Z. mays irrigated with tap water. Cr was accumulate and immobilized mainly in roots than the other parts.
       
  • Heavy metal speciation of soil and Calotropis procera from thermal power
           plant area

    • Authors: Santosh Kumar Prajapati; Neelima Meravi.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(2:68-71
      Abstract: Present study was conducted near to a super thermal power plant for the speciation of heavy metals/metalloids contamination of soil and estimation of concentration factor for plant parts (CFPP) of Calotropis procera. The heavy metals selected for speciation in soil and plant parts were Pb, Fe, Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni, V, Co, Mo and Cu and were estimated using AAS-7000(Shimadzu). Reason for selecting the present plant was its abundance in the area vicinity of the power plant. Presence of these heavy metals/metalloids can be attributed to the coal used for combustion from which they are volatised and after condensation are associated to the fly ass. The plant Calotropis procera growing in the area accumulates these metals/metalloids do a significant extent and thus can be used for the plantation in the fly ash dykes so as to minimise the contamination of soil and ambient air with these metals/metalloids.
       
  • Exploitation survey of sea water in agriculture of coastal deserts in
           Libya

    • Authors: Mohamed Nasar.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences,2014,4(2:72-80
      Abstract: This paper examines the possibility of exploitation sea water in the agriculture of coastal deserts in Libya, some of which salt-tolerant plants (Halophyte), especially that used to feed animals, and convert marshes coastal useless life to nature reserves attract many kinds of migratory birds and marine lives after the cultivation of these marshes by type of plants, which grow in saltwater. In other words this paper will present a study of how to use the seawater as a renewable resource for agriculture in Libya and how this will contribute in sustainable development in this sprawling country. The advantage of this resource can be taken to fill up the gap of natural grassland and the growing demand for animal feed which has caused rising prices of livestock and meats, not to mention the tribal conflicts that occur because of the dispute over grasslands. The most significant reasons that force us to exploit the seawater are: (1) Lack of inventory of underground water in the coastal areas and overlapping with seawater in several areas. In contrast, Libya has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean with a length of more than 1,900 kilometers; (2) Fluctuation rate of the amount of rainfall, which has affected negatively on the natural grassland; (3) More than 90% of the country's population in the coastal areas, that causing a large drain of groundwater which already meager in this region, for this reason the government has worked to establish Artificial River project, which delivers water from the south to the northern areas to reduce this problem, and (4) Depletion and degradation of natural grassland is largely due to overgrazing.
       
  • Spatial distribution of macronutrients in soils of Markandeya river basin,
           Belgaum(d), Karnataka(s), India

    • Authors: P. Ravikumar; R. K. Somashekar.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(2:81-94
      Abstract: Markandeya River basin stretches geographically from 15o56' to 16o08' N latitude and 74o37' to 74o58' E longitude, positioned in the midst of Belgaum district in the northern part of Karnataka state. Spatial distributions for twenty different soil quality characteristics were analyzed in the soil samples collected from 30 selected agricultural fields in the study area. Nutrient index reflected the nutrient status of soil and hence it was calculated by using already determined chemical parameters like organic C, available N, available phosphorus, and available potash. The present study revealed that there is not much variation in soil fertility status of soils developed on various landforms in the area. The soils had variable organic matter content and decomposition rates accounting to 0.06 to 1.5 % of organic carbon. Further, it is evident that all the soil samples were having low available nitrogen (29.1-189.5 Kg/ha) content, 50% of the samples has low to medium available P (0.96 to 15.1 Kg/ha) and 90% of the samples showed adequate supply of available potash (313.3-1500.8 Kg/ha). Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) indicated that the soils were excellent for irrigation.
       
  • Microorganism as a tool of bioremediation technology for cleaning
           environment: A review

    • Authors: Ravindra Singh; Pushpendra Singh, Rajesh Sharma.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(1):1-6
      Abstract: The term bioremediation has been introduced to describe the process of using biological agents to remove toxic waste from environment. Bioremediation is the most effective management tool to manage the polluted environment and recover contaminated soil. The hazardous wastes generated from the chemical processes/operations are being treated using physico-chemical and biological methods by the respective industries to meet the prescribed standard as per the Environmental Protection Act, 1986. The wastes treated by the respective industries are collected at Common Effluent Treatment Plant, before discharge into the environment. After the treatment of collected waste at Common Effluent Treatment Plant, the solid and treated effluents are segregated and disposed of into the soil- water environment. In spite of the present treatment technology, the organic pollutants are found persisting in the soil-water environment above their acceptable level. Hence, bioremediation is an innovative technology that has the potential to alleviate the toxic contamination.
       
  • Are the sensitive zones degrading? A modelling approach using GIS and
           remote sensing

    • Authors: S. Selvalakshmi; S. Jayakumar, V.S. Ramachandran.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(1):7-17
      Abstract: This present study assesses the sensitive zones and the forest density class prone to degradation using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques in the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (MTR), Southern Western Ghats (India). For assessing the vulnerability of degradation on different vegetation density, the drivers responsible for degradation were considered. LANDSAT MSS and IRS-LISS III satellite image was used to classify the vegetation density by applying Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique and to create the sensitive zone maps for two different time periods, 1973 and 2010 using weighted overlay analysis. About 47% of the present forest area is under a low risk category, 24% is under medium risk category and about 7% (2517 ha) is under the high-risk category in 2010. The natural disturbances such as forest fire, wildlife grazing, and expansion of agricultural land induced by anthropogenic pressure over the decades are the reasons of forest cover change in Mudumalai. The area under no-risk zone has severely decreased, and medium and high risk zone has drastically increased when compared to 1973 where high prioritization for conservation planning is ideal.
       
  • Impact of land use on the distribution of toxic metals in surface soils in
           Birjand city, Iran

    • Authors: M. H. Sayadi; M. R. Rezaei.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(1):18-29
      Abstract: Accumulation of toxic metals in the soil is one of the most important issues and treats plants, animals and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of land use on the distribution of Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn and Cd in the surface soils of Birjand city (Amir Abad Area). Dairy farm, agriculture, roads, residentialroad,residential-agriculture and educational centre land use were studied. The samples were taken from depth of 0-20 cm at 16 stations, as regular grid soil sampling. After digestion with perchloric acid and nitric acid, the concentration of toxic elements was measured using atomic absorption. The results show the highest concentration of Pb (166.64 mg/kg) is found in the station number 10 in residential-road land use. The highest zinc concentration (346.50 mg/kg) is shown at the station number 1 in dairy farm land use. The maximum concentration of cadmium (8.57 mg/kg) was at station number 10 with residential-road land use. The mean concentration of cadmium element is greater than the threshold values. While mean concentrations of other elements when compared to other researches shows high values, indicating that the soil is contaminating and in the near future the concentration of toxic metal will be beyond the threshold values. So entry of toxic elements into the human food chain greatly increases. It can suggest, in order to cleanup and reduce the rate of increases toxic elements in the soil and special management and considerations may apply.
       
  • Examination of nitrification inhibition by sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in
           soil around its roots

    • Authors: Adel Ghoneim; Abdulla Al-Modaihsh, Saied Naeem, Tamer Metwally, Elsaied Gewailly, Azza Ebid.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(1):30-38
      Abstract: Biological nitrification inhibition refers to release some chemical substances from plant root that suppresses/slowdown soil nitrification. This study was conducted to clarify whether sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) inhibit nitrification in soil around the root. Sorghum cultivated in pots filled with a brown lowland soil and examined nitrification rate in the soil around its root comparing with bare soil. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, sorghum was cultivated in a growth chamber and soil sample were collected four times during the growth period. Nitrogen in the form of (NH4)2SO4 (120 mg N /kg soil) was mixed with the soil samples and incubated at 30oC, for 21 days. Nitrification rates were estimated based on NO(2-)+NO(3-)-N accumulation per unit time. Results showed that in sometime nitrification rate in the soil around sorghum root was lower than that in the bare soil however, in other times there were no difference between them. Second experiment was conducted by using soil samples collected from the pots in which sorghum was cultivated in a greenhouse. The results showed nitrification in the soil around sorghum root was lower than that in the bare soil. Nitrification was inhibited in soil around the sorghum roots, however, this inhibition varied with incubation period. The differences of N application showed a little effect of nitrification inhibition rates.
       
  • Physiological tolerance and cation accumulation of different genotypes of
           Capsicum annum under varying salinity stress

    • Authors: Muhammad Afzal; Awais Ahmad, Ali Abdullah Alderfasi, Adel Ghoneim, Mohammad Saqib.Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology Environmental Sciences,2014,4(1):39-49
      Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was demonstrated to compare tolerance ability of four genotypes (Desi, Sanam, Kundri, Asia Bok) of Capsicum annum. L. under different levels of saline stress (i.e., control, 40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl). Growth parameters (root, shoot; fresh and dry weight) and physiological (Na+, K+, Ca++, concentration, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll a, b contents) indicators were analyzed to determine tolerability of genotypes. The results indicated that, all genotypes tolerated only under low level of salinity stress (40 mM NaCl) while a severe growth suppress in general was observed at higher levels (80 and 120 mM NaCl). Asia Bok was found more sensitive to salinity with 0.626g shoot fresh weight whereas Desi (1.103g) is comparatively salt tolerant under 120mMNaCl. Chlorophyll a and b contents and transpiration rate decreases with increases in salinity level in all genotypes with almost similar trend. Na+ accumulation increase with increase in salinity level but found maximum (14 mg g-1DW) in Asia Bok while minimum (10.8 mg g-1DW) in Desi. However K+ contents behave reversely to salt concentration and was recorded maximum in Desi (33 mg g-1DW) at maximum (120 mM NaCl concentration). Stomata conductance and transpiration rate was found maximum in Desi as compare to the all other three genotypes under all salinity levels except control. For all above physiological determinants Sanam and Asia Bok have similar behavior while Desi and Kundri have diversified under all salinity levels. Correlation between varieties and salinity resulted that continuous increase in salinity affected growth, physiological aspects and cation accumulation in chilies.
       
 
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