Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 960 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (58 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 85)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Boletín Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Casopis Slezskeho Zemskeho Muzea - serie A - vedy prirodni     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
China Population, Resources and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access  
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access  
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Earth Surface Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Environmental Modelling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Divulgación Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dynamiques Environnementales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Engineering : X     Open Access  
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 483)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 343)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

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Journal Cover
Current Research in Microbiology
Number of Followers: 27  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1948-982X - ISSN (Online) 1948-9838
Published by Science Publications Homepage  [31 journals]
  • Identification and Characterization of Antibiotic-Producing Actinomycetes
           Isolates

    • Abstract: Actinomycetes are a gram-positive, filamentous subgroup of bacteria most known for antibiotic production. In fact, most of the antibiotics available today have originated from actinomycetes, namely from the genus Streptomyces. Novel bacteria with antimicrobial activities have been discovered from bacterial screen studies for decades and there is still much more yet to be unearthed. One hundred seventy five strains of actinomycetes were isolated from 38 different soil samples from different locations in Patna, India. Potential antibiotic producers were screened against four test microorganisms (Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Streptomyces lividans TK23 MTCC 4 and Candida albicans MTCC 227). The bioassay revealed that about 26% of actinomycetes isolates were active against at least one of the test microorganism. Characterization of a selected isolate has led to identification of a unique strain of actinomycetes (MP 525) showing broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal properties. The strain MP 525 has been morphologically characterized as Streptomyces sp. and deposited at MTCC, Chandigarh, India with accession number 8723. The 16S rRNA gene of the strain Streptomyces sp. US7 MTCC 8723 was sequenced and the DNA sequence was deposited at NCBI, Bethesda (GenBank accession. No. HQ659005). On the basis of λmax values of culture filtrates, it has been suggested that the strain might be producing LL-E19085-like antibacterial and a flavone glycoside-like antifungal antibiotics, which can be further exploited for industrial and biological applications.
       
  • Antidiarrheal Activity of Apus Bamboo (Gigantochloa apus) Leaf Extract and
           its Bioactive Compounds

    • Abstract: Most of every part of bamboo plants had economical value. The wood is used as building and furniture, the shoot is processed as health foods and medicines, the root and culms are used as traditional medicine. The leaf has been believed that it could heal diarrhea in piglets, rabbit, poultry and calves. This research was designed to investigate the inhibition activity of apus bamboo leaf extracts against four strains pathogenic Escherichia coli. The leaf of apus bamboo (G. apus) was extracted in methanol, ethanol and methanol-ethanol (1:1), subsequently dried and assayed for their antibacterial activity using diffusion and dilution. Among three solvents used in this study, ethanol was the best with a yield of 18.74% and its effectivity was about 0.44% compared to tetracycline. The bioactive compounds in the extract were fatty acids, esters and alcohols.
       
  • Sero-Prevalence of Malaria, Hepatitis B and Syphilis Among Pregnant Women

    • Abstract: Malaria, syphilis and Hepatitis B during pregnancy are detrimental to the life of the pregnant women and the foetus. In this study, we documented the prevalence of the three diseases among pregnant women attending selected Comprehensive Health Care centers in Osogbo, Nigeria using serological kits of the 200 participants who consented to participate in the study, 26 (13%) were positive for malaria while 6 (3%) were positive for Hepatitis B. The co-infection of malaria and Hepatitis B was found only in two participants (1%) while none of the participants was positive for syphilis. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of malaria and Hepatitis B in relation to age (p>0.05). All the participants had good knowledge that mosquitoes transmit malaria but only 29 (14.5%) claimed to be sleeping under insecticide treated bed-net, About 169 (84.5%) relied solely on insecticide spray of the room and 2 (1%) did not practice any mosquito control measures. The results suggest the low prevalence of malaria, Hepatitis B and syphilis at the study area. However, early surveillance and adequate public health education will be immeasurable in safe-guiding the pregnant women from the detrimental effects of these infections.
       
  • Bacteriological Examination of Computer Keyboards and Mouse Devices and
           Their Susceptibility Patterns to Disinfectants

    • Abstract: Computers are ubiquitous and have been shown to be contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria in some communities. There is no economical way to test all the keyboards and mouse out there, but there are common-sense ways to prevent bacterial contamination or eliminate it if it exists. In this study, swabs specimens were collected from surfaces of 250 computer keyboards and mouse and plated on different bacteriological media. Organisms growing on the media were purified and identified using microbiological standards. It was found that all the tested computer keyboards and mouse devices, were positive for microbial contamination. The percentages of isolated bacteria (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp.) were 43.3, 40.9, 30.7, 34.1, 18.3, 18.2, 7.7 and 6.8% for computer keyboards and mouse respectively. The isolated bacteria were tested against the 6 different disinfectants (Dettol, Isol, Izal, JIK, Purit and Septol®). Antibacterial effects of the disinfectants were also concentration dependent. The agar well diffusion technique for determining Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was employed. The Killing rate (K) and Decimal Reduction Time (DRT) of the disinfectants on the organism were also determined. The overall result of this study showed that Dettol®, followed by JIK® was highly effective against all the bacterial isolates tested while Septol and Izal® were least effective. Isol and Purit® showed moderate antibacterial effects. Keyboards and mouse should be disinfected daily. However, it is recommended that heightened surveillance of the microbial examination of computer keyboards should be undertaken at predetermined intervals.
       
  • In Vitro Activity of Tigecycline in the Era of NDM-1

    • Abstract: In the current era of New Delhi Metallo-betalactamase-1 (NDM-1) infections and a dry antibiotic pipeline, managing infections caused by Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial infections (MDR-GNBs) presents a great challenge to physicians in the developing world. Tigecycline, a broad spectrum glycylcycline is a one among the few treatment options against MDR-GNBs. However it has been studied mostly in the western world, where the prevalence of MDR-GNB infections is less than the developing world. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of tigecycline and selected antimicrobials against gram-negative bacterial isolates. We evaluated the in vitro activity of tigecycline against 80 gram-negative bacterial isolates and compared its susceptibility against Cefoperazone-Sulbactam (CS), imipenem and colistin in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Tigecycline showed 100% activity against E.coli, similar to colistin and better than impenem and cefoperazone-sulbactam. However only 80% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates remained susceptible to tigecycline and colistin had higher in vitro activity against Acinetobacter. Tigecycline is a good option for the management of MDR E.coli and an alternative option against Acinetobacter infections in India. However the decline in susceptibility of tigecycline against K.pneumoniae is a worrisome phenomenon.
       
  • Relationship Between Metronidazole and Co-Trimoxazole on Eradication of
           Entamoeba Histolytica

    • Abstract: To present the efficacy and safety of Metronidazole and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of diarrhea caused by Entamoeba histolytica, cyst and trophozyed in patients presented to the emergency department and emergency pediatric clinic in Queen Alia Hospital (Jordan). A strategy for diagnosis Entamoeba histolytica was evaluated by studying 181 patients aged 2-50 years. Between the 1st of May 2009 and the beginning of May 2010, 181 patients with intestinal amoebiasis were recruited for this study from the Emergency Department and emergency Pediatric Clinic at Queen Alia Military Hospital. After doing stool analysis for every patient, Metronidazole 500 mg three times was given to the adult group and 40 mg kg-1day in three divided doses for the pediatric group for 10 days and two tablets twice daily for adults and 5 mL twice daily for children for ten days of co-trimaxazole, with follow up stool analysis after one week of treatment. Out of 181 patients (81) patients were adult’s age (14-50 years) and (100 patients) were children aged (2-14 years). About 5.5% of the patient showed the amoebic trophozoite in their stool while the remaining showed only the amoebic cysts. Over all metronidazole and co-trimoxazole produced a clinical response rate of 95% in both adults and children group after 10 days course of Metronidazole. Our findings demonstrated the efficacy of 10 day of course Metronidazole and co-trimoxazole in eradication intestinal amoebiasis for which the causative organism is identified by simple stool examination.
       
  • Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Producing Escherichia coli Strains
           Monitored Over 4 Years in The University Hospital in Košice,
           Slovakia

    • Abstract: Thebeta-lactamases with extended spectrum of activity (ESBL) are medically one ofthe most important group of enzymes. The presented study providesidentification and determination of the spectrum of resistance againstdifferent and clinically used antimicrobial drugs in the clinical isolates of Escherichiacoli. These isolates had their origin in different departments of theUniversity Hospital L. Pasteur in Košice. The second goal was the detection ofbeta-lactamase production with extended-spectrum effect (ESBL) and testing ofAmpC-type cephalosporinases by several phenotypic tests in clinical isolates.We used both the microdilution method and the method with an active agent,respectively. Samples were positively tested for ESBL with the use of the CLSIdisk diffusion method. PCRs were performed with a series of primers designedfor the detection of Ambler class A, B and C beta-lactamase genes. About 307strains of E. coli were investigated. The growth of E. coliresistance to selected antibiotics was present in 83.25% of clinical isolates.There were identified 85 positive isolates in the studied group and the prevalence of the ESBL positive strains ofE. coli reached 27.78%. An E. coli strain was isolated withmutations in the promoter region of the AmpC chromosomal gene that isassociated with overproduction of the relevant enzyme. We describe a complexESBL epidemiology. The study revealed a high rate of ESBL-producing E. coliisolates. The blaTEM and blaSHV enzymesdominated in ESBL-positive E. coli isolates in the University HospitalL. Pasteur in Košice.
       
  • Chemical Mutagenesis for Improvement of Production of a Biologically
           Active Extracellular Polymeric Substance by Halomonas xianhensis SUR308

    • Abstract: A moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas xianhensis SUR308 (Genbank Accession No. KJ933394) isolated from solar saltern of Surala, Odisha, India was found to produce significant amount of a biologically active extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Under optimized cultural conditions, the strain was able to produce 7.05 g L-1 of EPS after 8 days of incubation under shake culture. To enhance the EPS production efficiency, the isolate SUR308 was subjected to chemical mutagenesis following the use of hydroxylamine (HA), acridine orange (AO) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Evaluation of the toxicity of these mutagens indicated that EMS was comparatively toxic but effective for mutagenesis. Mutagenic treatments have resulted in the isolation of 58 amoxycillin resistant morphologically distinct phenotypes. Three of these mutant phenotypes (EM3, EM13 and HM6) were capable of producing 12.98, 11.97 and 11.21 g L-1 of EPS respectively in malt extract-yeast extract medium supplemented with casein hydrolysate with significant reduction of incubation  period. Compared to wild type strain, mutant strains were found to produce 1.6-1.8 fold more EPS. However, the physico-chemical nature of the EPS derived from the mutants remained unaltered when compared with that of the wild type strain. These findings, therefore, have more impact on production economy of EPS for biotechnological applications.
       
  • Colistin Resistance among Gram Negative Organisms; an Evolving Problem
           from Tertiary Care Hospital, Pakistan 2014

    • Abstract: This Study was design to report the evolving Colistin Resistant Gram Negative Organisms from Pakistan in 2014. From 885 isolates of hospitalized patients, 03 Colistin resistant isolates were reported, 02 were Escherichia coli and 01 was Acinetobacter specie. Colistin of all three isolates was tested by Disk diffusion method, MIC by Phoenix 100 (BD) and E-strip. This report contributes a useful addition in literature of Gram Negative Organisms Susceptibility pattern reported from Pakistan, as Colistin is extensively used for the treatment of Multi drug resistant Gram Negative’s in hospital settings.
       
  • Bacteria Contaminants and their Antibiotic Sensitivity from Selected
           Herbal Medicinal Products from Eldoret and Mombasa, Kenya

    • Abstract: Herbal products are used worldwide for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and currently represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. However, these products have the potential of being contaminated by different microorganisms due to poor hygienic practices during handling, processing and packaging. The main aim of this study was to evaluate microbial quality of herbal products marketed to the general population in Eldoret and Mombasa, Kenya. The study employed an exploratory as well as laboratory based experimental design. The herbal products were purchased from the markets and transported to Kenya Medical Research Institute laboratories for processing and analysis. Microbial contaminants were determined according to Pharmacopoeias and World Health Organization standards. Microbial pathogens were isolated, identified and drug susceptibility test was done as per National Laboratory Standards Institute protocol. The herbal products were in-form of powders, liquids, tablets, oils and capsules. Bacterial contamination was observed in 90% of the total samples and those with >1000?104cfu/gm or ml was 20% for Eldoret and 46% for Mombasa samples. Analysis of variance showed that the rate of microbial contaminants for Eldoret and Mombasa samples had no significant association (p = 0.084). Bacteria belonging to seven genera were isolated and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that 13.2% of the bacteria isolates were resistant. Multidrug resistance was observed with Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella sonnei, Serratia erwinia, Serratia liquefaciens and Proteus penneri. These findings imply that conditions during harvest or postharvest processing of herbal products were unsanitary. Proper handling and storage of herbs should be observed in order to reduce the amount of microbial contaminants. Only 16% of herbal product samples evaluated met the standards for microbial limits as specified in Pharmacopoeias. Thus, emphasis on improvement of plant material quality and establishing better hygienic conditions during production of herbal medicines is recommended.
       
  • Serum Adenosine Deaminase Level in Iraqi Women with Toxoplasmosis with a
           History of Abortion

    • Abstract: Sixty women who had abortion were selected for this study. Serum was collected from the women. ELISA test was used to detect anti-Toxoplasma specific antibodies. Those women were divided into three groups according to the presence or absence of specific anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. These groups included the women with IgG (18), the women with IgM (14) and the women with both IgG and IgM (12). The other 16 women had no antibodies against Toxoplasma. Twenty-four healthy-looking women had been selected as controls. Serum was collected from those women and tested for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Those that revealed any antibody titer against Toxoplasma were excluded from the study. The activity of ADA was determined in the serum according to the method of Giusti. The mean concentration of ADA in the women who had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody was significantly higher (P<0.0001) than that of healthy controls and the women who had IgG, while there was no significant differences between women who had IgG antibody and healthy controls (P>0.05). Since a relationship exists between ADA activity and the cell mediated immune response, this result confirms the fact that Toxoplasma antigen induces T-lymphocytes proliferation.
       
  • Bacteriological Quality in Some Hand-Dug well Water as Source of Drinking
           Water in Ban Village, Plateau State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Access to potable water and healthy environment has been a concern worldwide. Developing nation like Nigeria has been facing critical challenge in accessing safe drinking water. Therefore, the people still depend on unsafe water sources such as rivers, streams and hand dug wells. This study examined the bacteriological quality of 16 drinking dug well water in four selected communities (Bantin, Tom, Bator and Rek) in Ban village of Plateau state, Nigeria. Four samples from each of the wells were collected from the communities. Biological contaminations were investigated using standard method (Multiple test tube method). The biological contamination rates were higher (110coliforms/100 mL) in Tom and 108 coliforms/100 mL in Bantin followed by 81.27 coliforms/100 mL in Banton and Rek with 67.78 coliforms/100 mL being the least (Tom>Batin>Bator>Rek), all indicated gross pollution. However, the only well that was found to be fit for human consumption was Bator B. The results suggested that the well water contamination in these areas is largely due to faecal contamination. It is recommended that hand-dug well water be treated prior to consumption in order to curtail infection and distance between latrine and dug well should not be less than 30 m.
       
  • Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity test of Salmonella Serovars from
           Enteric Fever Suspected Patients Visiting Alka Hospital, Lalitpur

    • Abstract: Enteric fever is still an important public health problem in developing countries including Nepal. A changing antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A has increased to a great concern. To determine the prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of S. enteric serovars Typhi and Paratyphi from blood specimen in enteric fever suspected culture positive cases. A cross-sectional study was carried out at Alka hospital, lalitpur. Blood culture samples were collected from suspected enteric fever patient and tested microbiologically by standard procedure. AST was based on Kirby disc diffusion method and results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Of total 37 (6.10%) Salmonella serotype isolated from 604 blood culture samples, 25 (67.57%) were S. Typhi and 12 (32.43%) were S. Paratyphi A. Among the culture positive cases, the incidence rate was high in male 70.27% and the age group of 21-30 years showed maximum number of growth i.e., 14 (37.8%). Among the tested antibiotics S. Typhi was fully susceptible towards Ceftriaxone. In case of S. Paratyphi A Ciprofloxacin, Cefriaxone and Cefixime showed 100% susceptibility. Resistant pattern of Salmonella serovars was seen in higher number 34 (91.9%) in the case of Nalidixic acid. Among 37 Salmonella serovars isolated six were found to be Multidrug Resistance (MDR) where four were Salmonella Typhi and two were Salmonella Paratyphi A. Ceftriaxone and Cefixime was the most effective drugs as no isolates were resistant. Ceftriaxone and Cefixime can be the better choice of antibiotic for Salmonella isolates and remains the last drug of choice for S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A which are also resistant to the first line agents.
       
  • Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Production of Exopolysaccaride by
           Halomonas marina HMA 103 under Batch-Culture

    • Abstract: A moderately halophilic bacterium, Halomonas marinaHMA 103 (MTCC 8968) accumulating intracellular polyesters also producedsignificant amount of exopolysaccharides (EPS) under batch-culture. Productionof EPS by the bacterium was more or less parallel with the growth in modifiedbasal synthetic medium. During growth, it produced 0.46 g/L of EPS after 50 hof incubation and was accompanied by the complete utilization of glucose fromthe medium. EPS production was maximum in 2% (w/v) glucose followed by sucroseand maltose and was positively influenced by yeast extract, beef extract andpeptone. Optimum concentrations of sulfate and phosphate for EPS productionwere 2.4% (w/v) and 0.03% (w/v) respectively. High concentration (10% w/v) ofNaCl stimulated both growth and EPS production by H. marina HMA 103.Characteristically, this EPS is a heteropolymer of glucose and mannose and the FourierTransform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum showed distinct absorption peaks at 3424.2,1638.7, 1122.9 and 622.3 cm-1 indicating the presence of freehydroxyl, phenyl or carbonyl groups of carbohydrate. Further, the detailedphysico-chemical analysis will indicate the significance and potentialimportance of this EPS in biotechnology.
       
  • Etiology of Meningitis from Patients Suspected of Meningitis Attending
           Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal

    • Abstract: Meningitis is an inflammatoryinfection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, which occurseither as a primary disease or secondarily to disease in some other parts ofthe body. Its most frequent causes are Neisseriameningitidis, Streptococcuspneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.The epidemiological trend of acute meningitis varies with time and geography.Information on the relative frequency of the isolation and antibioticsusceptibility patterns of these pathogens is scarce in Nepal. To analyze thevarious causative agents of meningitis in all age group patients and to knowthe antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from theCerebrospinal Fluids (CSF) of suspected cases of meningitis, were the primeobjectives of this paper. In this cross sectional study, a total 356 CSFspecimens were collected from patients suspected of meningitis and processedmacroscopically, microscopically and microbiologically by standardmicrobiological methods in Emergency Laboratory of Tribhuvan UniversityTeaching Hospital (TUTH) Kathmandu, Nepal over a period of six months, fromMarch to August 2014. Out of 356 CSF samples, 16(4.5%) were found to be culturepositive. Among the culture positive isolates, the most common bacterialisolate was Staphylococcus aureus,4(25%). Isolation rate of Cryptococcusneoformans, the only fungal etiology of meningitis, was 3(18.8%), which wasseen in elderly patients indicating increased susceptibility of C.neoformans in immune-compromised status of patients. All bacterial isolateswere found to be sensitive to Chloramphenicol. The isolation rate of pathogenscausing meningitis from CSF is low (4.5%). Chloramphenicol may be used for thetreatment of bacterial meningitis.
       
  • Fungal Concentrations in Dust Samples of Animal Rearing Houses of
           Bangalore, India

    • Abstract: Fungal concentrations in dust samples analyzed by molecular methods were carried out of animal rearing house at Hessaraghatta village, Bangalore. Handy air sampler EnviroTech-APM 821 was used to collect the dust samples in triplicate and sampling time was limited to eight hours. The sampled filter papers were used for the assay of DNA extracted from all the four animal rearing locations were used for PCR amplification using Universal ITS fungal identification primers PCR products were analyzed on 2% agarose gel out of four different locations were rabbit house, cow shed, poultry farm and swine house. The sequencing was then blasted against known sequences in the NCBI database to provide species identification and phylogenetic tree was also constructed with 20 closely related blast sequences. The rabbit house and cow shed dust samples did not show any amplifications even with varying conditions while poultry farm (Cladosporium oxysporium DFFSCS018) and swine house (Peniophora species1306-hpF-04) isolate samples gave amplicons of 550bp and 600bp respectively with ITS region showing 99% similarity. These studies useful for clinicians to identify the cause of the dust allergic diseases of the animal rearing house workers and suggest amendment strategies.
       
  • Bioactive Endophytic Actinomycetes of Cinnamomum sp.; Isolation,
           Identification, Activity Guided Purification and Process Optimization of
           Active Metabolite

    • Abstract: Studying on endophytic actinomycetes of Cinnamomum sp. from Indian rainforest, Cherapunji, one of our isolated strains designated as CH1 was found to produce significant antibacterial activity against test pathogens (Aeromonas caviae (ATCC 15468), Vibrio parahemolyticus ATCC 1782, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 12453), Shigella flexnerii (ATCC 12022), Escherichia coli (human sample isolate), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 11774) and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579). Scanning electron microscopic studies, morphological characterization and 16s ribosomal RNA gene sequence based classification strongly suggest that the isolate is a new strain of Streptomyces rochei. The rRNA gene sequenced was submitted to NCBI (GenBank accession number KJ486840.1). An antibacterial metabolite was extracted from fermented culture broth and purified by repeated silica gel column chromatography. TLC and bioautogram study of active fraction showed compound of Rf 0.196 was active metabolite where as HPLC study showed two major peak of RT 2.433 and 2.632 min. Parameters influencing optimal antimicrobial production were also determined and the active compound was found nonmutagenic by Ames test. Based on above experiments it is concluded that this entophytic isolate can be further exploited for industrial and biological applications.
       
  • ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF 15 EUCALYPTUS SPECIES ESSENTIAL OILS
           AGAINST CLINICALLY RELEVANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    • Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the potential of 15 Eucalyptus species essential oils as alternatives to clinical surface disinfectants with known association to antibiotic resistance. Four reference pathogenic bacteria were tested: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC10145), Escherichia coli (CECT434), Staphylococcus aureus (CECT976) and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC15313). Gram-positive bacteria revealed higher sensitivity than Gram-negative. Essential oils from E. bosistoana, E. botryoides, E. camaldulensis, E. cinerea and E. citriodora showed bacterial inhibition for Gram-positive, even higher than with gentamicin and ciprofloxacin (positive controls). L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive and P. aeruginosa demonstrated resistance to all essential oils. The antimicrobial potential values were 6.25, 6.25 and 12.5% for E. coli, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively. This study reveals that Eucalyptus essential oils may be useful in order to control pathogenic bacteria as potential complementary treatment or as disinfectants in clinical/hospital environments.
       
  • TESTING CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULASE ACTIVITY SECRETED BY TRICHOPHYTON
           TERRESTRE IN CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE SOLUTION

    • Abstract: The techniques employed for bioconversion of cellulosic biomass to simple sugars by cellulases have a great industrial brunt. Cold-adapted microorganisms are potential resource of cold-active carboxymethyl cellulases secluded from the cold regions. In this study, Trichophyton terrestre-a rare fungal species in Indian soils, isolated from the rhizosphere of Juglans regia L. during winter season was subjugated for the production and commotion of an enzyme carboxymethyl cellulase in carboxymethyl cellulose solution by DNS method at an ample range of temperatures, using Lineweaver-Burk plot which offers a practical graphical method for the analysis of Michealis-Menten equation, to establish the imperative terms in enzyme kinetics as Km and Vmax. The enzyme kinetic parameters like maximum activity (Vmax), Km and turnover number were recorded at varying concentrations of CMC and different temperatures (4°C and 50°C). The enzyme was found to be tolerant and stable at two varying temperatures which enables this fungal species to survive in the extreme environmental conditions of northern India. Such property of carboxymethyl cellulase enzyme has extensive range of applications and the potential to open new application fields in the areas of industrial processes.
       
  • FUNGAL LEACHING OF IRON ORE: ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLEACHING
           STUDIES OF PENICILLIUM VERRUCULOSUM

    • Abstract: Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical technologies for recovery of metals from low grade ores require high energy and capital costs. Use of microorganisms in leaching of mineral ores is gaining importance due to the implementation of stricter environmental rules. Microbes convert metal compounds into their water soluble forms and are biocatalysts of leaching processes. This study was performed to isolate and characterize iron solubilizing fungi from low grade iron ore for bioleaching process. Soil samples from iron mine area were used for isolation of iron solubilizing fungi and two fungal species (NTS-1 and NTS-2) were obtained from enrichment culture method. Bioleaching experiments were carried out in batch culture to determine the iron solubilising efficiencies of the isolates. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to determine the solubilized iron concentration and strain NTS-2 exhibited 40% higher iron solubilization than strain NTS-1. The strain was subjected to 18S-ITS sequence of rRNA studies and the phylogenetic analyses justify a taxonomic position for the strain as a member of Penicillium verruculosum. The isolated strain could be used in solubilizing iron from low grade ores as an efficient, economical and eco-friendly alternative to conventional operations.
       
  • HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PREGNANT WOMEN INFECTED WITH MALARIA PARASITES
           AT FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL ABAKALIKI, EBONYI STATE

    • Abstract: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and has important consequences on birth outcome. There are subtle and substantial changes in hematological parameters of malaria in pregnancy. This work is designed to ascertain the impact of malaria in pregnant women visiting Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki II. Out of the 100 pregnant women screened for malaria, 44 (44.0%) were positive for malaria parasite. Of the 44.0% pregnant women positive for malaria parasite, the age range of 26-30 years (31.8%) were more infected with malaria parasite, followed by 21-25 years (22.7), while 41-45 (4.5%) years were the least infected. Pregnant women with no formal education were most infected (36.4%), followed by primary education (27.3%), while secondary education showed the lowest rate of malaria in pregnancy (13.6%). Housewives reported the highest cases of malaria in pregnancy, while student reported the lowest (9.2%). Married women showed the highest cases of malaria in pregnancy (79.5%), while widow reported the lowest (2.3). Christian reported in the highest cases of pregnancy in malaria (46.0%) and Muslim the least (40.0%). The mean values of the haematological parameters of pregnant women with respect to parasitaemia were Heamoglobin (9.78±37.45 g/dL), Packed cell volume (31.56±2721.14%), White blood count (8.58±50.06×103/mm2), Neutrophils (57.96±1004.97%), Lymphocyte (28.24±1392.97%), Mesophils (7.28±110.49%), Eosinophils (3.62±1156.91%) and Platelets (141.88±133873.07×109/l). This study have shown that the adverse consequences of malaria in pregnancy has great impact on heamatological parameters which may affect not only the neonate and infant but also increase the risk of non communicable diseases when the child grows into an adult and the risk of low birth weight in the next generation.
       
  • PHENOTYPICAL AND MASS SPECTRAL ASSESSMENT METHODS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF
           SOME CONTAGIOUS MASTITIS PATHOGENS

    • Abstract: Mastitis is one of the most economic disease affecting dairy cows worldwide. Identification of mastitis pathogens still depends principally on culture and phenotypical method, which is a difficult and time-consuming. Newly, microbiologists have focused their attention on the use of Mass Spectrometry (MS) for microbial identification, especially Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF). Therefore, this study was designated to evaluate the ability of MALDI-TOF to identify some contagious mastitis pathogens comparing with phenotypical methods such as API panels and VITEK 2 system. A total of one hundred twenty of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (Strept. agalactiae) strains isolated from milk of cows affected by clinical and subclinical mastitis were used in the study. According to the results, ~95% of S. aureus, 100% of CNS and Strept. agalactiae were correctly identified by MALDI TOF MS. All S. aureus isolates were then confirmed by a nuc-based PCR technique. While ~92% of S. aureus, 87% of Strept. agalactiae and 76% of CNS were identified by VITEK 2 system. Moreover, ~89% of S. aureus, 80% of Strept. agalactiae and 72% of CNS were identified by API system. In brief, the results demonstrated that MALDI-TOF is a fast and truthful technique which has the capability to replace conventional identification of several bacterial strains usually isolated in clinical laboratories of microbiology. Therefore, it is recomended that MALDI-TOF MS technology can be regularly used in veterinary laboratories for identification of different species of bacteria, particularly when failure of phenotypic methods forces clinical microbiologists.
       
  • EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA) LEAF EXTRACT

    • Abstract: In this study the antimicrobial activity of Olive Leaf Extracts (OLE) was screened against five gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods. The diameters of inhibition zones of the olive leaf extract were observed 13.33±2.08 mm against S. typhimurium and 21.67±1.53 mm against B. cereus. There was a similarity between the inhibition zones of olive leaf extract and Gentamicin discs against S. typhimurium, P. vulgaris and P. aeruginosa. While Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of olive leaves extract against, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157, E. sakazakii and P. aeruginosa was ≥32 mg mL-1, the MIC against the other bacteria (B. cereus, S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. vulgaris, E. coli, S. typhimurium) that used in this study was ≥16 mg mL-1. It’s considered that some other works should be conducted about using olive leaf extract in food industry as a natural antimicrobial food additivie as well as medicine and pharmaceutical industry.
       
 
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