Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 960 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (58 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 85)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Boletín Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Casopis Slezskeho Zemskeho Muzea - serie A - vedy prirodni     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
China Population, Resources and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access  
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access  
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Earth Surface Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Environmental Modelling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Divulgación Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dynamiques Environnementales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Engineering : X     Open Access  
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 483)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 343)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Canadian Journal of Soil Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.52
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0008-4271 - ISSN (Online) 1918-1841
Published by NRC Research Press Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Cover crop effects on soil temperature in a clay loam soil in southwestern
           Ontario

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: X.M. Yang, W.D. Reynolds, C.F. Drury, M.D. Reeb
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Although it is well established that soil temperature has substantial effects on the agri-environmental performance of crop production, little is known of soil temperatures under living cover crops. Consequently, soil temperatures under a crimson clover and white clover mix, hairy vetch, and red clover were measured for a cool, humid Brookston clay loam under a corn–soybean–winter wheat/cover crop rotation. Measurements were collected from August (after cover crop seeding) to the following May (before cover crop termination) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm depths during 2018–2019 and 2019–2020. Average soil temperatures (August–May) were not affected by cover crop species at any depth, or by air temperature at 60 cm depth. During winter, soil temperatures at 15, 30, and 45 cm depths were greater under cover crops than under a no cover crop control (CK), with maximum increase occurring at 15 cm on 31 January 2019 (2.5–5.7 °C) and on 23 January 2020 (0.8–1.9 °C). In spring, soil temperatures under standing cover crops were cooler than the CK by 0.1–3.0 °C at 15 cm depth, by 0–2.4 °C at the 30 and 45 cm depths, and by 0–1.8 °C at 60 cm depth. In addition, springtime soil temperature at 15 cm depth decreased by about 0.24 °C for every 1 Mg·ha−1 increase in live cover crop biomass. Relative to bare soil, cover crops increased near-surface soil temperature during winter but decreased near-surface soil temperature during spring. These temperature changes may have both positive and negative effects on the agri-environmental performance of crop production.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0070
       
  • Biochar in temperate soils: opportunities and challenges

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      Authors: Vicky Lévesque, Maren Oelbermann, Noura Ziadi
      Pages: 1 - 26
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Biochar, a carbon (C)-rich material produced by the pyrolysis of organic residues, is frequently used as a soil amendment to enhance soil fertility and improve soil properties in tropical climates. However, in temperate agriculture, the impact of biochar on soil and plant productivity remains uncertain. The objective of this review is to give an overview of the challenges and opportunities of using biochar as an amendment in temperate soils. Among the various challenges, the type of feedstock and the conditions during pyrolysis produces biochars with different chemical and physical properties, resulting in contrasting effects on soils and crops. Furthermore, biochar aging, biochar application rates, and its co-application with mineral fertilizer and (or) organic amendments add further complexity to our understanding of the soil-amendment-plant continuum. Although its benefits on crop yield are not yet well demonstrated under field studies, other agronomic benefits of biochar in temperate agriculture have been documented. In this review, we proposed a broader view of biochar as a temperate soil amendment, moving beyond our current focus on crop productivity, and instead target its capacity to improve soil properties. We explored biochar’s benefits in remediating low-productive agricultural lands and its environmental benefits through long-term C sequestration and reduced nutrient leaching while curtailing our reliance on fertilizer input. We also discussed the persistence of beneficial impacts of biochar in temperate field conditions. We concluded that biochar displays great prospective to improve soil health and its productivity, enhance plant stress resilience, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and restore degraded soils in temperate agriculture.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-12T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0047
       
  • Bentonite effects on soil physical properties and millet yield components
           in a semi-arid region in China

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      Authors: Junzhen Mi, Edward G. Gregorich, Shengtao Xu, Neil B. McLaughlin, Jinghui Liu, Baoping Zhao
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Soil structure plays a critical role in agroecosystems because it controls soil air and water capacity, nutrient availability, and crop root growth. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of bentonite on soil relative water content, soil cone penetration resistance, soil bulk density, aggregate size distribution, and millet crop yield components in a semi-arid region in northern China from 2011 to 2015. Treatments consisted of six bentonite rates (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 Mg·ha−1) applied only in the initial year. Addition of bentonite significantly increased soil relative water throughout the profile (0–60 cm) and aggregates in 0.25–2 mm class in 0–40 cm depth; it significantly decreased soil bulk density, soil cone penetration resistance, and aggregates in 0.053–0.25 mm class in the 0–40 cm depth. All of the bentonite treatments significantly increased 1000-kernel weight and panicle number up to 16% and 33%, respectively, but did not affect kernels per spike. Treatment with 24 Mg·ha−1 bentonite achieved the greatest effect on all the soil physical parameters and crop yield components averaged over all years; the highest application rate (30 Mg·ha−1) had an increasing effect over time. This study indicates that application of bentonite improves soil health in sandy-loam soil in a semi-arid region, and thus it would help promote sustainable agriculture development in regions with similar soil and climate.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0007
       
  • Simulating maize yield at county scale in southern Ontario using the
           decision support system for agrotechnology transfer model

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      Authors: Shuang Liu, Jingyi Yang, Xueming Yang, Craig F. Drury, Rong Jiang, W. Daniel Reynolds
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of the decision support system for agrotechnology transfer (DSSAT) CERES-Maize model to simulate the response to applied nitrogen and soil water storage for maize (Zea mays L.) yields in Woodslee, Ontario. A second objective was to evaluate the CERES-Maize module for maize yield in five southern Ontario counties. The calibrated CERES-Maize module was used in 117 maize yield simulations involving combinations of 45 regional soil datasets and 35 weather datasets covering the five counties. The model evaluation showed a good agreement between the simulated and measured grain yields (i.e., index of agreement, d ≥ 0.96; modeling efficiency, EF ≥ 0.83; normalized root-mean-square error, nRMSE ≤ 15%). The model showed a large deviation using the default soil parameters from 0 to 0.4 m. A sensitivity analysis was made for three soil water parameters, and the calibrated soil parameters showed moderate to good agreements for total soil water storage in the 0–1.1 m soil profile. The model resulted in moderate to good agreement between the simulated and the measured above-ground biomass across growing seasons. There were significant yield differences across the soil types. Drought periods in August 2010 resulted in lower yields in 2010 compared with 2011 and 2012. The simulated average maize yields at each county matched well with the measured data for 2010–2012 except for lower estimated yields in Lambton county in 2010. We concluded that DSSAT CERES-Maize can adequately simulate regional maize yields using the CERES-Maize module calibrated to regional soil and daily weather databases.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-05T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0116
       
  • Co-application of wood biochar and paper mill biosolids affects yield and
           short-term nitrogen and phosphorus availability in temperate loamy soils

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      Authors: Bernard Gagnon, Noura Ziadi, Eric Manirakiza
      Pages: 1 - 16
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Amending croplands with forest residues may help in restoring soil properties in fields subject to intensive land management. Despite their known benefits when applied separately, co-application of wood biochar with paper mill biosolids (PB) has seen little investigation under field conditions. A study was initiated in Québec, QC, Canada, to determine the effect of a single application of wood biochar with and without PB on the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability of two pH-neutral to alkaline loamy soils. Biochar at 0, 10, and 20 Mg dry weight·ha−1 and PB at 30 Mg wet weight·ha−1 were applied before planting of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in 2018. Residual effect of this co-application was determined under soybean and corn in the subsequent year. In both years, corn received supplemental N and P from mineral fertilizers according to local agronomic recommendations. Co-applying biochar and PB reduced soil NO3-N availability in the year of application and decreased corn yield by 1.0 Mg·ha−1 compared with biochar or PB applied alone, but these amendments did not affect soybean yields. In the following year, the previous biochar addition increased soybean yield by 0.6 Mg·ha−1 but had little effect on corn. For both years, biochar addition induced a large increase in soil Mehlich-3 P. This study revealed that wood biochar positively impacted P status of these soils but was not a source of N to crops even when co-applied with PB.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-16T09:20:19Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0025
       
  • Recycled nutrients as a phosphorus source for Canadian organic
           agriculture: a perspective

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      Authors: Jessica Nicksy, Martin H. Entz
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      The challenges associated with the global phosphorus (P) cycle are complex and multifaceted, from geological resource limitation, to P deficiency on arable farmland, to environmental contamination via excess P fertilization. Although no single solution can address all of the challenges associated with the P cycle, the principle of circularity provides a framework toward a more sustainable and food-secure P system. Phosphorus deficiency on farmland is widespread, particularly on organically managed farms due to negative P balances in low-input cropping systems. Recycled nutrient sources divert food and human wastes back onto farmland; they have the potential to ameliorate both the global-scale issues of phosphate rock depletion and environmental contamination and the farm-scale issue of P deficiency, particularly for organic farms. For recycled nutrients to act as viable alternatives to conventional nutrient sources, their ability to supply P and improve yields must be demonstrated. This paper provides an introduction to the importance of recycled fertilizer sources in the global P cycle, and the key role they can play on organic farmland in Canada.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0014
       
  • Short-term impacts of winter bale grazing beef cows on forage production
           and soil nutrient status in the eastern Canadian Prairies

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      Authors: Gwen Donohoe, Don Flaten, Faith Omonijo, Kim Ominski
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      The impact of winter bale grazing on forage productivity and nutrient cycling was determined near Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Variable distribution of nutrients and forage yield within bale-grazed plots on a perennial grass–legume forage field was identified using an intensive grid sampling method. In bale-grazed plots, mean dry matter (DM) yield of forage decreased 68% in year 1 following bale grazing, with no difference in DM yield in year 2 following bale grazing, relative to an untreated control. Decreased yield was attributed to the large mass of waste feed and feces (21% of feed delivered) that remained at the centre of each bale-grazed plot, where each bale was placed. Concentrations of crude protein, total digestible nutrients, phosphorus (P), and potassium in forage increased in the first growing season following winter bale grazing compared with the control, particularly at the centre of each bale-grazed plot. Concentrations of residual nitrate-nitrogen and Olsen P in soil were 15 and 2.5 times greater, respectively, at the centre of the bale-grazed plots compared with untreated control plots. Dispersion of waste feed packs when bale grazing in subhumid climates on clay soils is recommended to minimize smothering and encourage rapid decomposition of waste feed and feces. Long-term studies are needed to determine the potential benefits and risks of bale grazing to forage productivity and soil nutrient status in the eastern Canadian Prairies.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0028
       
  • A soil health scoring framework for arable cropping systems in
           Saskatchewan, Canada

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      Authors: Qianyi Wu, Kate A. Congreves
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Farmers are looking for appropriate tools for assessing and interpreting the health status of their soils; however, there is no standardized and prairie-based soil health scoring framework. Accordingly, we focused on developing one for arable cropping systems in Saskatchewan. In 2018, soil samples (0–15, 15–30, and 30–60 cm depths) were collected from 55 arable fields across Saskatchewan, along with native prairie samples. Various soil chemical, physical, and biological attributes were measured (23 attributes in total). Based on the data distribution for each attribute, we developed scoring functions. The results from multivariate analyses were used to determine the weighting factors needed to integrate the individual scores from each soil attribute into a single Saskatchewan Assessment of Soil Health score. Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) indices (soil organic C, active C, total N, and soil protein) and total phosphorus produced the highest weighting factors. We also tested if there were linkages between the soil health and crop productivity by assessing the cereal yields for the past 10 years as reported from the same rural municipalities where the soil samples were collected. A positive relationship between soil health and yields was most apparent during dry years; thus, we recommend further research to explore this linkage at a finer scale. Overall, this research forms the foundation of a promising framework that can be built upon, and in due course, lead to the development of a tool for producers who are interested in tracking soil health and using the results to inform management.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0045
       
  • The utility of biochar for increasing the fertility of new agricultural
           lands converted from boreal forests

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      Authors: Joinal Abedin, Adrian Unc
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      The agricultural soils of the Happy Valley-Goose Bay (HV-GB) region of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada are Podzols that are converted from boreal forest and have limited productivity due to their sandy texture, acidity, low soil organic matter (SOM), cation-exchange capacity (CEC), and water and nutrient retention capacity. Although numerous studies advocate biochar for mitigating soil quality problems and enhancing agronomic productivity, there is limited information on managing biochar for boosting the productivity of Podzols under newly converted agricultural lands. A 5 year experiment evaluated the impact of eight biochar rates (0–80 Mg C·ha−1) on soil properties including SOM, CEC, and availability of plant nutrients and metals in agricultural soils of HV-GB. Both immediate and long-term impacts were thus assessed. Biochar generally improved soil fertility indicators. Although the largest rates (40 and 80 Mg C·ha−1) led to the greatest changes, significant changes were also found with rates as low as 10 Mg C·ha−1. Increasing biochar rates had diminishing returns for quality parameters of soil. The impact of biochar decreased with time after application, but the largest rate led to longer lasting effects. Although biochar was incorporated in topsoil, its effects were also measurable in the subsoil, albeit with a temporal delay, usually of 1 year. Thus, given the diminishing returns of increasing biochar rates, and that beneficial effects diminish over years, it is advisable that biochar be added in smaller amounts immediately after conversion, as little as 10 Mg C·ha−1, with regular supplementation as needed.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-07-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0002
       
  • Influence of a one-time biosolids application on elemental and nutrient
           concentrations on mine tailings

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      Authors: Michelle E. Harris, Wendy C. Gardner, Thomas Pypker
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Mine tailings are nutrient deficient, contain no organic matter, and have high metal concentrations preventing the long-term establishment of vegetation. The use of organic amendments, including biosolids, can help the revegetation of mine tailings by adding organic matter and nutrients but can increase metals in the receiving soil. There is also uncertainty if biosolids provide a long-term benefit, or if the benefits diminish with time. To test this, a study was conducted on two tailings storage facilities — a sand, and a silt loam — for a copper mine in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. In 1998, biosolids were applied at rates between 50 and 250 Mg·ha−1 and compared with a control and fertilizer treatment. Plots were sampled in 2000 and 2015 for total and available nutrients and metals. This study showed that 17 yr after a one-time biosolids application at different rates, the tailing storage facilities that received biosolids had higher carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and biomass compared with tailings that did not receive biosolids or received conventional fertilizer. Many elements such as carbon (C) did not change from 2000 to 2015 in biosolids-treated plots, indicating a long-term benefit to the tailings. Additionally, biosolids did not result in increased concentrations of metals above the national regulatory limits for agriculture. This study suggests that a one-time biosolids application can provide a long-term benefit to tailings, whereas proper application rates can reduce the risks of metal exceedances.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0022
       
  • An adapted Weibull function for agricultural applications

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      Authors: W. Daniel Reynolds, Craig F. Drury, Lori A. Phillips, Xueming Yang, Ikechukwu V. Agomoh
      Pages: 1 - 23
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      The Weibull function is applied extensively in the life sciences and engineering but underused in agriculture. The function was consequently adapted to include parameters and metrics that increase its utility for characterizing agricultural processes. The parameters included initial and final dependent variables (Y0 and YF, respectively), initial independent variable (x0), a scale constant (k), and a shape constant (c). The primary metrics included mode, integral average, domain, skewness, and kurtosis. Nested within the Weibull function are the Mitscherlich and Rayleigh functions where c is fixed at 1 and 2, respectively. At least one of the three models provided an excellent fit to six example agricultural datasets, as evidenced by large adjusted coefficient of determination (RA2 ≥ 0.9266), small normalized mean bias error (MBEN ≤ 1.49%), and small normalized standard error of regression (SERN ≤ 8.08%). The Mitscherlich function provided the most probable (PX) representation of corn (Zea mays L.) yield (PM = 87.2%); Rayleigh was most probable for soil organic carbon depth profile (PR = 96.4%); and Weibull was most probable for corn seedling emergence (PW = 100%), nitrous oxide emissions (PW = 100%), nitrogen mineralization (PW = 58.4%), and soil water desorption (PW = 100%). The Weibull fit to the desorption data was also equivalent to those of the well-established van Genuchten and Groenevelt–Grant desorption models. It was concluded that the adapted Weibull function has good potential for widespread and informative application to agricultural data and processes.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0046
       
  • Influence of crested wheatgrass on soil water repellency in comparison to
           native grass mix and annual spring wheat cropping

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      Authors: J.J. Miller, M.L. Owen, B.J. Ellert, X.M. Yang, C.F. Drury, D.S. Chanasyk, W.D. Willms
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Crested wheatgrass (CWG) [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] is a commonly introduced grass in the Canadian prairies, but concerns remain about its possible long-term effects on soil quality, and its influence on soil water repellency (SWR) has not been determined. The long-term (24 yr) effects of CWG on SWR in comparison to seeded native grasses and annual cropping were determined for a clay loam soil in southern Alberta, Canada by measuring SOC concentration and SWR using soil hydrophobicity (SH) and soil water repellency index (RI) methods. The cropping treatments were CWG, seeded native grass mix (NGM), continuous wheat, and wheat–fallow rotation, each with fertilized (nitrogen) and non-fertilized subplots, replicated four times. Mean SOC concentration, SH, and RI in samples of surface soil were similar (P > 0.05) for CWG and seeded NGM, and they did not support our hypothesis (seeded NGM > CWG). Mean SOC was significantly greater for seeded perennial grasses than annual crops by 1.7–2 times and SH by 2.1–2.5 times, which supported our hypothesis, but RI was similar among treatments. As expected, nitrogen fertilization significantly increased SOC concentrations, but the effects on SH and RI were undetectable. A strong positive correlation occurred between SOC concentration and SH (r = 0.92) but not for RI (r = 0.10). Our findings suggested that SWR was similar for CWG and seeded NGM. The SWR as measured using SH was greater for seeded perennial grasses than annual cropping but was similar using RI.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-25T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0031
       
  • Slow pyrolysis pine wood-derived biochar reduces nitrous oxide production
           from surface but not subsurface soil

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      Authors: Hongyuan Deng, Leanne Ejack, Shamim Gul, Shiv O. Prasher, Joann K. Whalen
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Soil amended with biochar is expected to produce less nitrous oxide (N2O), although this may depend on nitrate (NO3-N) availability. Our objective was to determine how pine wood biochar, slow pyrolyzed at 500 °C, affects N2O production in soil having different denitrification potentials with variable NO3-N concentrations under controlled laboratory conditions. Sandy loam surface soils (0–30 cm, pH 5.7) and sandy clay loam subsurface soils (40–60 cm, pH 5.6) were amended with four biochar rates (0, 10, 20, and 30 g·kg−1), two nitrogen fertilizer rates (0 and 100 mg·kg−1 NO3-N) and two acetylene levels (0% and 10% headspace), arranged as a full factorial. Soil moisture content was adjusted to 80% water-filled pore space, and flasks were incubated at 20 °C for 30 h. Headspace gas was collected from each flask at 25, 26, 28, and 30 h. There was a significant reduction in N2O production with an increasing rate of biochar in the surface soil but not in the subsurface soil. On average, less N2O was produced in the subsurface soil than in the surface soil. As the NO3-N concentration was not a limiting factor for denitrification, the most likely explanation was that denitrifier activity was influenced by the availability of soluble organic carbon in the soil–biochar mixtures. We recommend further study of the coupled carbon–nitrogen transformations during denitrification to understand how biochar influences soil N2O production in sandy loam soils.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0017
       
  • Pedological trends and implications for forest productivity in a Holocene
           soil chronosequence, Calvert Island, British Columbia, Canada

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      Authors: Lee-Ann Nelson, Paul Sanborn, Barbara J. Cade-Menun, Ian J. Walker, Olav B. Lian
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Chronosequence studies of soil formation and ecosystem development provide important insights into the pathways and rates of change occurring on centennial and millennial time scales. In cool or temperate humid environments, Podzols are the predominant soil type formed under coniferous forests in coarse-textured parent material and have been a major focus of chronosequence studies. This study examined the rate and mechanisms of Podzol development and related forest productivity in a sand dune chronosequence in a hypermaritime climate in coastal British Columbia (BC). The sequence spans 10 760 ± 864 yr over eight sites and is the first documented chronosequence in coastal BC to span most of the Holocene Epoch. Soil samples from each genetic horizon were analyzed for bulk density, pH and concentrations of total carbon (C), pyrophosphate- and oxalate-extractable aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe), and total elements. Within ∼3500 yr, a mature Podzol had formed, with cemented horizons (ortstein and placic) present. Organo-metallic complexation appeared to be the dominant mechanism involved in podzolization. Despite a mild, moist climate conducive to chemical weathering, all soils had similarly low values for the chemical index of alteration, suggesting that congruent dissolution of primary minerals may be occurring. Ecosystem retrogression is apparent in the latter stages of the chronosequence — a phenomenon not previously documented in coastal BC. Further research is needed to examine the interactions of nutrient limitation, soil physical barriers, and other possible drivers of ecosystem retrogression.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-18T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0033
       
  • Landscape position, sampling time, and tillage, but not legume species,
           affect labile carbon and nitrogen fractions in a 4-yr-old rejuvenated
           grazed pasture

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      Authors: G. Issah, J. Schoenau, J.D. Knight
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Termination by tillage is one strategy used for regenerating pasture stands. Yet, research gaps exist on how tillage affects carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) forms and amounts in western Canadian soils. We measured total soil organic C (SOC), dissolved organic C (DOC), total dissolved N (TDN), light fraction organic C (LFOC) and light fraction organic N (LFON), microbial biomass C (MBC) and microbial biomass N (MBN), and inorganic N as indicators of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. After tillage termination in fall 2018, we sampled soils (0–10 cm; 0–15 cm) under three legume species (alfalfa, cicer milkvetch, and sainfoin) three times (spring, summer, and fall of 2019) across three landscape positions. Legume species did not affect the measured parameters. Over time, tillage affected DOC, TDN, and inorganic N. Averaged across three pasture legumes and three landscape positions, tillage increased DOC 29% by summer. Fall-applied tillage led to 59% and 33% higher TDN in the succeeding summer and fall. Inorganic N increased by 14% and 40% across landscape positions and sampling after tillage. Averaged across landscape positions, MBC decreased by 31% from spring to summer and increased by 51% from summer to fall. However, MBN increased by 53% and decreased by 5% within the same period. The seasonal fluctuations in MBC and MBN reflected variations in moisture, temperature, and substrate quality. Total SOC, LFOC, and LFON increased on the upper slopes and fall sampling time. Although single intensive tillage did not affect total SOC, several tillage operations could accelerate SOM loss and reduced total C storage over time.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-18T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0052
       
  • Influence of cropping system and soil type on soil health

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      Authors: Carolyn B. Marshall, David L. Burton, Brandon Heung, Derek H. Lynch
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      There has been a continued adaption and application of soil health tests across all regions of the globe; however, there are challenges related to the interpretation of the results of soil health tests developed in one region but applied elsewhere. To determine the factors that are the most important for interpreting soil health tests in Nova Scotia, a soil health database was constructed using soil samples from diverse cropping systems and soil orders in the region. The Comprehensive Assessment of Soil Health, developed at Cornell University in New York, was adapted and combined with other soil health measures. Principal component analysis (PCA), analysis of variance, and a correlation analysis were applied to the dataset to determine if management (i.e., cropping system) or pedogenesis (i.e., soil order) was more important as a driver of soil health test results. It was determined that cropping systems explained more variance in the dataset than soil order. Although total carbon explained the most variation in the PCA, it was highly correlated to other measures of carbon such as permanganate oxidizable carbon and respiration that may be more responsive to management changes. In addition, autoclaved-citrate extractable protein, a test for nitrogen mineralization, was more related to measures of soil carbon than other measures of soil nitrogen availability. The findings of this study provide a foundation for interpreting soil health testing results for this region and will help indicate which cropping systems and soil management practices have the greatest potential for improving soil health.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0150
       
  • Impact of manure and biochar additions on annual crop growth, nutrient
           uptake, and fate of 15N-labelled fertilizer in two contrasting temperate
           prairie soils after four years

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      Authors: R.D. Hangs, J.J. Schoenau, J.D. Knight
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Liquid hog manure (LHM) and solid cattle manure (SCM) co-applied with biochar could beneficially influence soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) dynamics. A split-plot design was used at two sites (Brown and Black) in Saskatchewan to assess LHM and SCM (100 kg N·ha−1) applied alone or in combination with biochars (8 Mg carbon·ha−1) produced using slow or fast pyrolysis. Crop growth and nutrient uptake, along with fertilizer 15N recovery, were followed over four years in a cereal–oilseed rotation. Crop growth on the Brown soil was more responsive to the treatments than the Black soil, reflecting lower fertility of the Brown soil. The manure and biochar, applied alone or in combination, had little impact on available soil P. Manure and biochar effects on crop growth and nutrient uptake were attributed to temporal effects on soil N immobilization–mineralization influencing plant-available soil N. A negative impact of the fast pyrolysis biochar on growth and plant uptake was observed and attributable to its greater labile-carbon content, which likely promoted soil N immobilization. Synergism observed between SCM and the slow pyrolysis biochar may reflect enhanced net SCM-N mineralization and increased water-holding capacity. The majority (55%–80%) of plant 15N recovery occurred during the first year, with 86% of fertilizer 15N conserved within the soil–plant system after four years. Greater (40%) plant 15N recovery without biochar addition, coupled with increased (38%) soil 15N recovery with added biochar, suggests biochar-related immobilization and (or) sorption in the biochar-amended soils.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0006
       
  • Soil conditions in the “donga” soils in subhumid zone in West
           Africa

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      Authors: Julien Avakoudjo, Félix Kouelo Alladassi, Valentin Kindomihou, Tobi Moriaque Akplo, Mahugnon Socrate Agonvinon, Guillaume Lucien Amadji, Brice Sinsin
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Water erosion threatens large areas around the world. “Donga” is one of the witnesses of gully erosion in northern Benin, which induces serious threats to the natural habitats. This study was conducted to evaluate soil moisture content in different donga types (“microdongas”, “mesodongas”, and “megadongas”) and its variation at different topographic levels. The thermogravimetric soil moisture measurement technique was used for moisture estimation on saturated and unsaturated soil. Data were analyzed through analysis of variance test and t test with SAS software. The results showed that soil moisture content varied according to donga types. On unsaturated soil, higher difference (2.75%, p = 0.0328) was obtained in mesodongas at the middle followed by megadongas at the middle (2.6%, p = 0.034). On saturated soil, higher difference was obtained in mesodongas at the upstream (6.51%, p 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0137
       
  • Soil temperature and water contents among vertical tillage, strip tillage,
           and chisel plowing in the Upper Great Plains

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      Authors: Rashad S. Alghamdi, Aaron Lee M. Daigh, Jodi DeJong-Hughes, Abbey F. Wick
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Long winters in the Red River Valley (RRV) of eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota result in short growing seasons for corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) systems. Historically, producers implement aggressive tillage to warm the soil, which has caused hesitation when considering reduced tillage systems. The association between soil warming–drying and crop yields via research at farmer-operated, production-scale systems practicing reduced tillage is lacking. A two-year study was conducted at three producer-operated, corn–soybean fields in the RRV with five soil series ranging from sandy loams to silty clays. Soil temperature (T), soil volumetric water content (θ), and crop yields were measured to evaluate the effects of soil warming and drying and crop performance under reduced tillage practices of vertical tillage (VT), strip tillage with shanks (STS), strip tillage with coulters (STC), and chisel plow (CP). Results showed that daytime soil T and θ in the tilled strips for STC and STS (i.e., in the plant rows) were similar to CP and significantly different from VT. The ST treatments demonstrated added benefits of higher soil θ between the tilled strips (i.e., between the plant rows) during the mid-growing season when plant water needs are at their highest. However, daily averaged soil T and θ demonstrated little to no significant differences among the tillage treatments. Moreover, crop yields were inconsistent with soil T and θ, indicating weak to no practical association in these on-farm settings.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-17T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0010
       
  • Chemical and molecular scale speciation of copper, zinc, and boron in
           agricultural soils of the Canadian prairies

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      Authors: Noabur Rahman, Ryan Hangs, Derek Peak, Jeff Schoenau
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      The general incidence of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and boron (B) deficiencies in soils of the Canadian prairies may be related to identifiable, highly variable, inherent soil attributes. The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of selected properties and their relationship with the bioavailability, forms, and distribution of Cu, Zn, and B in a range of prairie soils. The nature of these micronutrient distributions were evaluated by measuring extractable concentrations, supply rates, and by separation into various chemical pools through sequential extraction and spectroscopic speciation analyses. Soil pH was found to be the least variable property [coefficient of variation (CV)  130%). The Cu and B availability showed strong negative correlation with the sand content in all soils. Path coefficient results indicated that organic carbon had the highest positive direct effect on availability and supply of Cu and B in Grey soils. Extractable Zn was positively correlated with organic carbon content of Brown and Dark Brown soils. Overall, high sand content and low organic matter were identified as important soil properties contributing to the deficiency of Cu, Zn, and B. The major proportion of Cu, Zn, and B was found in the recalcitrant residual fraction (59%–88%), with the smallest proportions in labile soluble, exchangeable forms (2%–8%). The X-ray absorption near edge structure revealed that Cu and Zn associated with carbonate minerals were dominant forms of these micronutrients present in all soils. Chemisorption is likely a major process regulating the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in prairie soils.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-13T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0162
       
  • Spatial variation of nitrous oxide fluxes during growing and non-growing
           seasons at a location subjected to seasonally frozen soils

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      Authors: Pedro Vitor Ferrari Machado, Richard E. Farrell, Claudia Wagner-Riddle
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils have been widely studied in the literature — mostly with the chamber method — due to the importance of this gas to climate change. Emissions of N2O derive from biological reactions and are controlled by soil parameters, which are by nature heterogeneous (i.e., “hot spots” for N2O emissions) — a source of uncertainty in chamber-based studies. Spatial variation in N2O fluxes has been assessed in the literature, but the information is still needed for contrasting soil management practices (e.g., tillage) and for specific bioclimatic situations [e.g., non-growing seasons (NGS) under cold weather]. Here, we subsampled daily N2O data to assess within-plot and between-block spatial variation from an agronomic experiment under conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT), identifying if patterns differ between growing seasons (GS) and NGS datasets. Within-plot spatial variation in N2O fluxes was a small source of uncertainties, but half of the comparisons in GS datasets presented a slope different from 1 for the regression of N2O averages from two vs. one chamber per plot — a source of uncertainty mitigated when within-plot duplication occurred during N2O “hot moments”. Between-block spatial variation in N2O emissions was much larger than within-plot errors — an effect more accentuated for NGS and CT than GS and NT datasets. Decreasing the number of sampled blocks resulted in averages that did not represent the N2O daily average of the whole field, but exceptions occurred. The methodology proposed here may be used in other locations, after appropriate verification, for improved planning and maximization of the resources associated with N2O measurements.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-05-12T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0003
       
  • Nano-oxides immobilize cadmium, lead, and zinc in mine spoils and
           contaminated soils facilitating plant growth

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      Authors: Srimathie P. Indraratne, Gary M. Pierzynski, Lucas R. Baker, P.V. Vara Prasad
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Nanoparticles with high reactivity can be applied as amendments to remediate soil metal contaminations by immobilizing toxic elements. Nano-oxides of Fe have been studied but Al and Ti nano-oxides have not been tested for their remediation capacity of toxic metals. The potential of synthesized iron (Fe-O), aluminum (Al-O), and titanium (Ti-O) nano-oxides for stabilizing Cd, Pb, and Zn in mine spoil (Chat) and contaminated soil was compared using adsorption studies and a greenhouse experiment. Chat and soil were amended with nano-oxides at two rates (25 and 50 g·kg−1) and a pot experiment was conducted with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Leachates were collected twice per week from plant emergence to harvest at maturity and metals were compared against an unamended control. Chat was contaminated with Cd, Pb, and Zn at 84, 1583, and 6154 mg·kg−1, and soil at 15, 1260, and 3082 mg·kg−1, respectively. Adsorption conformed to the Langmuir linear isotherm and adsorption maxima of metals were in the order of Al-O > Ti-O ≥ Fe-O. Nano-oxides reduced Cd concentration by 28% (Fe-O) to 87% (Ti-O) and Zn concentration by 14% (Fe-O) to 85% (Al-O) in plant tissues compared with unamended Chat. Nano-oxides significantly reduced Cd, Pb, and Zn in leachates and available Cd and Zn in Chat/soil relative to the respective unamended controls. Nano-oxides can be used to remediate heavy metal contaminated Chat and soil and facilitate plant growth under proper nutrient supplements. Nano-oxides of Al-O and Ti-O remediated metals more effectively than Fe-O.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0127
       
  • Biochar–manure changes soil carbon mineralization in a Gray Luvisol used
           for agricultural production

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      Authors: T.L. Weber, C.M. Romero, M.D. MacKenzie
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Biochar is a source of stable organic matter being explored as a manure additive. A 64 d incubation experiment was conducted to quantify the short-term effect of manure (RM), biochar–manure (BM), raw biochar (BC), RM + BC, and BM + BC amendment on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization. Manure increased CO2-C emission rates, with the highest cumulative CO2-C emissions being observed for RM + BC. Treatments with BM halted soil C mineralization, indicating manure-C stabilization. By contrast, neither RM nor BM affected soil N mineralization. Applying BM might benefit soil C sequestration by lowering CO2-C emissions over the long term.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0157
       
  • Recycled nutrients supply phosphorus and improve ryegrass yields on
           phosphorus-depleted soil

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      Authors: Jessica Nicksy, Brian Amiro, Martin Entz
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Recycling phosphorus (P) within the food system is fundamental to long-term sustainability. This greenhouse study compared three sources of recycled P — struvite precipitated from municipal wastewater, black soldier fly frass from food waste, and anaerobic digestate of food waste — to mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP), compost, and a control. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was harvested four times during a 123 d trial from P-depleted soil. In nitrogen (N) sufficient conditions, all amendments significantly increased cumulative ryegrass yields compared with the control and were not significantly different from MAP. Relative P supply was frass = MAP > struvite ≥compost ≥ digestate >> control. The recycled nutrient sources tested show promise as sustainable P sources.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0004
       
  • Evaluation and modeling of factors influencing the depth of mixing layer
           in which soil solute releasing from soil to surface runoff

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      Authors: Beibei Zhou, Xiaopeng Chen, Lijun Su, Hujun Li, Quanjiu Wang, Wanghai Tao
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      The depth of mixing layer is one of the important parameters which cannot be assigned a constant value affected by many factors in the slope runoff. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of slope length and underground biomass on slope runoff, solute transport processes, as well as mixing layer depth. In this study, the experimental plots with the four slope lengths (5, 10, 15, and 20 m) and a width of 2 m were built on the slope with the gradient of 20°. In addition, the plots with the millet or wheat planting were built on the slope. The change of runoff and solute transport was analyzed through simulated rainfall experiments and then to estimate mixing layer depth. The results showed that the runoff rate decreased and more runoff seeped into the slope soil with increasing slope length. Increasing underground biomass also promoted greater rainfall infiltration into the soil. The increase in slope length increased the concentration of solute in runoff, but more underground biomass reduced the nutrients transported with runoff. The effective mixing depth increased with an increase in slope length, but effective mixing depth decreased with increased underground biomass. The modified expression of the equivalent mixing model under different slope lengths and underground biomass could accurately describe the solute transfer process in runoff when compared with complete mixing model and incomplete mixing model based on exponential functions. This research provided a reference for improving the application of mixing layer models in the slope management.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-19T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0141
       
  • Soil Mehlich-3-extractable elements as affected by the addition of
           biochars to a clay soil co-amended with or without a compost

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      Authors: Vicky Lévesque, Bernard Gagnon, Noura Ziadi
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Biochar has the potential to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and it may also contribute nutrients for plant growth in temperate climates. Nutrient availability in biochar-amended soil was assessed in a 338 d incubation study. The clay soil prepared with 4% w/w (dry basis) compost or without compost, then amended with wood-based biochar made at different pyrolysis temperatures [maple bark (Acer saccharum) at 400 (M400), 550 (M550), and 700 °C (M700)] on a dry-rate basis of 5% (w/w). After moistening the soil mixture to 44% volumetric soil water content (equivalent to 70% water-filled pore space), soil mixtures were incubated in the dark at 22 °C. Soil was sampled at days 9, 16, 23, 44, 86, 23 170, and 338 of the incubation. Biochar amendment increased the Mehlich-3 phosphorus, potassium (K), magnesium, and copper concentrations, and reduced the Mehlich-3 aluminum and iron concentrations at each sampling date, and M400 had the most significant effect on Mehlich-3-extractable nutrient concentrations. Compost addition also increased the amounts of extractable nutrients. These results suggested that M400 and carbon-rich compost promoted microbial growth and mineralization in amended soil. In addition, soil mixed with compost and amended with biochar had more Mehlich-3-extractable K than when compost or biochar was applied alone, probably due to greater growth and activity of soil K-solubilizing microorganisms. Overall, our study indicated that co-application of wood-based biochar and compost could improve soil fertility in temperate regions by increasing the availability of most plant macronutrients and micronutrients.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0087
       
  • Wood-based biochar for small fruit production in southern Quebec, Canada

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      Authors: Xuan Shang, Chih-Yu Hung, Barry Husk, Valérie Orsat, Joann K. Whalen
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      The market for small fruits (grapes, blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries) is valued at more than $100 million CAD per year in Quebec, Canada. Wood-based biochar is an amendment that improves soil quality, which may boost small fruit growth and production. The objective of this research was to determine if wood-based biochar could increase the yield and quality of grape, blueberry, strawberry, and raspberry in southern Quebec. We evaluated the fruit yield as well as the quality parameters like average fruit weight, fruit firmness, color, juice pH, total soluble solids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Field trials were established on commercial farms with grape, blueberry, strawberry, and raspberry production systems in plots that received wood-based biochar and no biochar in spring (April–May). Small fruits were harvested at their ripening stage for yield and quality evaluation in the fall (July–October). Biochar application did not improve yield and quality parameters of small fruits, except it gave a marginally higher yield of grape (3.7 vs. 4.4 t·ha−1, P = 0.08) and a higher average fruit weight of strawberry (11.9 vs. 13.2 g, P 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0152
       
  • Spatial dependency of soil chemicals in production systems in the
           anthropogenic dark earth

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      Authors: Marcelo Dayron Rodrigues Soares, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, Milton César Costa Campos, Rose Luiza Moraes Tavares, José Maurício da Cunha
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      In general, anthrosols refer to anthropic soils of high fertility, but the concentration of these nutrients may vary according to the occupation of indigenous people in the past or due to current soil use. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of the chemical attributes of the soil in areas of guandu bean production and pasture and to compare with natural forest systems on anthropogenic dark earth (ADE). For this assessment, 88 sampling points were selected in the area with natural forest vegetation and pasture and 90 sampling points in an area of guandu bean production. Soil samples were collected from layers 0.00–0.05, 0.05–0.10, and 0.10–0.20 m. Chemical analyses of the soil were conducted to determine organic matter, pH, aluminium, soil acidity, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, cation-exchange capacity, sum of bases, and base saturation (V%). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistics to sample range, and sample density was estimated for each attribute. Guandu bean showed high content of soil organic matter in relation to pasture in the superficial layer (0.00–0.05 m). Based on sample density, lower variability and higher spatial continuity were observed for guandu bean in relation to pasture and natural forest in the layers of 0.00–0.05 and 0.05–0.10 m. It was found that the use and continuous management of ADE areas alter the content and distribution of soil fertility and, in some cases, may even improve chemical attributes when compared with areas not used with agricultural crops.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0110
       
  • Understanding soil fertility status in Newfoundland from standard farm
           soil tests

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      Authors: Amana J. Kedir, Mingchu Zhang, Adrian Unc
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Farm soil tests are common decision support tools employed by regulatory agencies and farmers to manage nutrients in an economical and environmentally sustainable way. The complex interplay between the local environment and locally relevant crops makes soil testing, and critically soil-test-based recommendations, site-specific. Newfoundland and Labrador has a relatively small but rapidly growing commercial agriculture industry, mainly on lands converted from the boreal forest over the last 80 yr. A first step towards developing locally calibrated fertilizer recommendations is understanding current practices. For this, we examined regular farm soil test reports and associated recommendations for Newfoundland (Nfld). Following a request distributed to 167 farmers, 1503 soil tests were obtained from 32 farms. Although tests exemplify the gamut of crops in Nfld, more than half were from forage and mixed forage fields in western Nfld, representing dairy farms. Results show that even in the absence of more comprehensive site analyses, an investigative survey of farm tests may be employed to recognize possible environmental and economic inefficiencies of local cropping systems, including regional and crop type-driven differences for both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizations. Soil-test-based identification of possible N and (or) P inefficiencies and associated crop and regional particularities, including excess fertilization, can be employed to devise targeted research for improved, preventative decision tools to increase the sustainability of Nfld agricultural systems.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-14T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0108
       
  • Estimating rill erosion and sediment transport processes along a saturated
           purple soil slope

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      Authors: Zhen Han, Xiaoyan Chen, Yanhai Li, Shiqi Chen, Xiaojie Gu, Chaofu Wei
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      A plough pan with reduced permeability accumulates infiltrated water along slopes then saturates the cultivated layer under continuous rain. Topsoil saturation is a frequent phenomenon and an important process of the special soil slopes. A methodology and device system was used in this study to keep cultivated purple soil saturated. Strands of scouring tests were developed to quantify the rill erosion and sediment transport processes along a saturated purple soil slope at four experiment slopes (5°, 10°, 15°, and 20°) and three flow discharges (2, 4, and 8 L·min−1). The experimental results indicated that the sediment transport capacity on a saturated purple soil slope ranged from 0.03 to 1.56 kg·s−1·m−1 with the increasing trend along the slope gradient and flow discharge, and the increasing trend could be well matched by a nonlinear multivariable equation. The sediment concentration of the saturated purple soil slope exponentially increased with rill length and decreased with the increment rate, and the maximum sediment concentrations observed in this study in different hydraulic events ranged from 108.13 to 1174.20 kg·m−3. Saturated and non-saturated purple soil slopes erode differently with the maximum sediment concentration of saturated purple soil slope recorded at approximately 1.42–2.10 times the values for non-saturated purple soil slope. The findings of this research help illustrate the sediment transportation and erosion behaviors of a saturated purple soil slope and serve as the basis for determining the parameters in the erosion models of the purple soil slope.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-14T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0119
       
  • Effects of mulching with crushed wheat straw padding and plastic film on
           sunflower emergence, yield, and yield components under different
           irrigation intensity in the northwest arid regions, China

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      Authors: Jinxia Zhang, Fu Zhang, Zisheng Xing, Xiaolong Guo, Shijia Hui, Liangliang Du, Lin Ding
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Crops in the northwest arid region of China frequently suffer from low emergence and poor yield due to high water deficit. Mulching is an important approach to reduce irrigation amount while increasing productivity but faces the challenge of ecological adaptability in this region. A field experiment was carried out in the three growing seasons from 2011 to 2013 to study the effects of mulching with crushed wheat straw padding and plastic film on sunflower seed emergence and yield under different irrigation intensities. A two-factor (mulching and irrigation intensity) completely randomized block design was applied, resulting in a total of 12 treatments repeated three times. Mulching treatments include zero mulch (N), straw mulching at the beginning of the experiment (S), plastic film mulching when sowing (F; a commonly used mulching by local farmers), and double mulching with plastic film on the crushed wheat straw layer (SF). Irrigation intensity includes high (H = 900 m3·ha−1), medium (M = 750 m3·ha−1), and low (L = 600 m3·ha−1). Results showed that all mulching treatments promoted the early emergence of seedlings compared with N, with SF and F performing better than the rest. SF was the best-performing mulching approach in this study, and it had significantly improved sunflower yield and yield components compared with other treatments. In SF, medium irrigation level had significantly increased sunflower 100-seed weight. Therefore, SF with M irrigation level showed the most positive effect on sunflower production, and it is now the recommended agronomic solution for sunflower production in the northwest arid regions and, potentially, other irrigated areas with similar ecological conditions.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0145
       
  • Effects of induced water deficit and biofertilization on growth dynamics
           and bulb yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) in a neotropical semi-arid
           environment

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      Authors: Erika Lorena Blanco, Fermín Rada, Jorge Paolini, José Argenis Guerrero
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      In a scenario of world population increase and climate change, an efficient use of water is key for agricultural production. Onion is one of the most profitable crops and can adapt to particular conditions of water stress. The objective of this research was to determine growing degree-days and accumulated radiation under non-stress conditions and yield of an F1 2000 hybrid of onion (Allium cepa L.) under water deficit (WD) and biofertilization in a semi-arid environment. An established nutrient requirement of 247 kg N, 240 kg P2O5 (105 kg P), 240 kg K2O (199 kg K), and two irrigation factors were applied: normal irrigation with a daily and WD with a 3 d interval irrigation frequencies. The effect of biofertilization was evaluated through the inoculation of a microbial consortium (MC) in combination with four NPK fertilizer treatments. The crop accumulated 1334 degree-days and 1188 MJ m−2·d−1 at the time of harvest at 71 d after transplanting. The yield was 36 t·ha−1, similar under both irrigation conditions; and the WD treatment resulted in a 35% water savings, a 47% and 65% increase in water use efficiency and modulus of elasticity, respectively. The MC resulted in a 50% NPK savings under non-limiting water conditions and produced a similar yield compared with the 100% NPK non-inoculated control. The lower irrigation frequency together with the 100% NPK fertilization dose without the MC and the use of the microorganisms and the 50% NPK treatment without water stress are recommended as agrosustainable practices for onion production.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0011
       
  • Fertilizing with composted cattle manure to meet agro-environmental
           targets in continuous corn and corn–soybean agroecosystems in southern
           Quebec

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      Authors: Abdirashid Elmi, You Jiao, Hicham Benslim, Ali Mawof, Shiv O. Prasher, Joann K. Whalen
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Balancing nutrient inputs from manure and supplemental inorganic fertilizers with crop requirements should achieve crop yield goals and agro-environmental targets. We asked if composted dairy cattle manure, alone or in combination with inorganic fertilizers, could sustain the corn and soybean yields, without increasing the residual soil nitrogen (N) and soil phosphorus (P) saturation of a sandy-loam soil in southern Quebec, Canada. Cropping systems were continuous silage corn and corn–soybean rotation, with each phase of the rotation grown every year, for 5 yr. Cropping systems were amended with compost at rates of 0, 15, 30, and 45 Mg (wet weight)·ha−1, and they received supplemental inorganic fertilizer to supply 200 kg N·ha−1·yr−1 to corn while assuring that corn and soybean received 45 kg P·ha−1·yr−1 and 125 kg potassium (K)·ha−1·yr−1 from compost and inorganic fertilizer. Crop yields were similar in compost-amended and inorganically fertilized plots. Corn yield was limited by N availability, and there was no P or K limitation in corn and soybean. Soil P saturation in the 0–15 cm layer exceeded the agro-environmental limit of 13.1% P/Al for a sandy-loam soil in Quebec, indicating that the P input exceeded crop uptake. Residual soil N concentration was affected more by the crop than the fertilizer source, with greater residual soil N in plots with higher grain production. Crop-induced priming can explain how N fertilizer cycles through the soil microbial community and is gradually mineralized during the growing season, and why crop senescence may trigger residual soil N release after harvest.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2021-0013
       
  • Accumulation of straw-derived carbon and changes in soil humic acid
           structural characteristics during corn straw decomposition

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      Authors: XiaoWei Zhang, Sen Dou, Batande Sinovuyo Ndzelu, YiFeng Zhang, Xin Liu
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Appropriate application of corn straw residues increase soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, sequestration and stabilization of added carbon (C) during corn straw transformation are not fully understood. Here, we present changes in soil humus C and humic acid (HA) molecular structure during corn straw decomposition in an incubation experiment carried out for 270 d at 25 °C. Corn straw was applied at the amount of 74.76 g per 18 kg soil (i.e., 1.57 g C·kg−1), in the soil surface (CS1), incorporated within 0–10 cm (CS2), applied below 10 cm soil depth (CS3), and no corn straw applied. The results showed that after corn straw application (CS1, CS2, and CS3), the accumulation of SOC content was rapid in the first 90 d. The HA spectral results of straw-amended soils showed a slight increase in aliphatic C compounds and amino acids on day 90. On day 180, the degree of condensation was less, and aliphatic C compounds were present in large quantities in soil HA. As decomposition advanced to day 270, the aliphatic character of HA appeared to slightly weaken, and soil HA was enriched with aromatic structures. These results suggest that corn straw application enriches soil HA with more aliphatic C compounds in the early stages of decomposition, and aromatic C structures are formed in the later stage of decomposition. Incorporation of corn straw into the soil (CS2 treatment) is more conducive in increasing SOC and aliphaticity in HA during corn straw decomposition, which can potentially increase C sequestration.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-04-08T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0138
       
  • Nitrogen and phosphorus distribution in plant, soil, and leachate as
           affected by liquid hog manure and chemical fertilizers

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      Authors: Vivekananthan Kokulan, Mihiri C.W. Manimel Wadu, Olalekan O. Akinremi, K.E. Buckley
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      A 2 yr field study was conducted on a coarse-textured soil in Manitoba, Canada, to investigate the effects of liquid hog manure (LHM) and chemical fertilizer application on barley (2005) and red spring wheat (2006) yields, crop nutrient uptake, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) movement to the environment. The treatments were LHM applied at two rates as 22 000 L·ha−1 (2500 gal·ac−1, abbreviated as M2500) and 43 000 L·ha−1 (5000 gal·ac−1, abbreviated as M5000) and two rates of chemical fertilizer to match total N and P in LHM treatments, F2500 and F5000, along with an unamended control. The M5000 and M2500 treatments showed similar grain yield and N and P uptake. However, M5000 and M2500 significantly increased grain yield by 67% and 78%, respectively, compared with the control in 2005. In 2006, wheat grain yields from M2500 and M5000 were 71% and 86% greater than the control. In 2005, leachate NO3-N concentrations and leaching loads were higher with chemical fertilizers than M2500. In 2005, the apparent recovery of applied N as leachate was 35% and 23% in F5000 and F2500 treatments, whereas it was 6% and 7% of applied N in M5000 and M2500 plots, respectively. However, the application of M5000 resulted in P accumulation near the surface and may increase the potential risk of P loss with runoff. Our results show that applying LHM at moderate rates (M2500) may ensure desirable crop yields comparable to higher rates of nutrient application with minimal potential losses relative to higher rates.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0080
       
  • Improvement of root morphological characteristics on water percolation
           rate in grassland soils of Yellow River riparian buffer strips

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      Authors: Xiaoyan Yang, Haiping Gu, Zihao Fan, Erhui Guo
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Soil water percolation is an important process required to meet plant water needs, determine soil water storage, and affect soil water quality in riparian buffer strips. However, the effects of plant roots on soil percolation in riparian buffer strips are not totally understood, and contradictory results have been carried out on the effects of the root system on soil percolation rates. This study aimed to investigate soil percolation in natural grasslands and evaluate the relationships between root morphological characteristics and percolation rates. Path analysis was used to provide information on the relative contribution of root characteristics on soil percolation rates. Three mixed grasslands (Imperata cylindrica + Phragmites australis, I. cylindrica + Cynodon dactylon, and I. cylindrica + Juncellus serotinus) were selected in the Yellow River wetland natural reserves of Zhengzhou. Soil percolation rates (initial, average, and steady infiltration rates) were measured by using double-ring methods, and plant root morphological characteristics were analyzed. Soil percolation rates and plant root characteristic parameters of I. cylindrica + P. australis and I. cylindrica + C. dactylon were higher than those of I. cylindrica + J. serotinus. Initial percolation rate of I. cylindrica + P. australis and I. cylindrica + C. dactylon at 0–10 cm depth was 58.06% and 95.55% higher than that of I. cylindrica + J. serotinus, respectively. Percolation rates had a significant positive correlation with root characteristic parameters, and the main factor controlling soil percolation rates was root volume density (RVD). Mixed natural grasslands with more RVD improved soil infiltration and percolation rates.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0120
       
  • Influence of continuous application of feedlot manure and legacy
           treatments on soil organic carbon, soil hydrophobicity, and soil water
           repellency

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      Authors: J.J. Miller, M.L. Owen, X. Hao, X.M. Yang, C.F. Drury, D.S. Chanasyk
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Continuous or discontinued manure applications to agricultural soils may impact soil organic carbon (SOC) and water balances because of manure carbon inputs and the potential for manure-induced soil hydrophobicity (SH) and soil water repellency (SWR). A laboratory study was conducted using a long-term (44 yr) field experiment on a clay loam soil to determine the effect of application rate of feedlot manure under dryland (0, 30, 60, and 120 Mg·ha−1 wet weight) and irrigation (0, 60, 120, and 180 Mg·ha−1) on SOC, SH, and SWR. In addition, we compared the effect of 44 yr of continuous annual manure applications (C44) to legacy treatments which had discontinued applications for 14 (D14) or 30 yr (D30). Laboratory measurements were conducted on air-dried and sieved ( 1.95) SWR. Manure application rate had a significant (P ≤ 0.05) and positive effect on SOC and SH, and both followed an exponential model. In contrast, RI had a negative response to the application rate under dryland and had no response under irrigation. Overall, positive responses of SOC and SH to application rate supported our hypothesis, but it was not supported for RI. The hypothesis of greater SOC, SH, and RI for continuous versus discontinued treatments was also supported for SOC and SH but not for RI.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-22T07:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0074
       
  • Predicting soil nitrogen availability to grain corn in Ontario, Canada

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      Authors: Jessica L. Stoeckli, Mehdi Sharifi, David C. Hooker, Ben W. Thomas, Froogh Khaefi, Greg Stewart, Ian McDonald, Bill Deen, Craig F. Drury, Bao-Luo Ma, Hamid R. Motaghian
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Predicting the soil-available nitrogen (N) to grain corn over a growing season in humid temperate regions is the key for improving fertilizer N recommendations. The objective of this study was to evaluate a suite of soil-N tests to predict soil N availability to grain corn over two growing seasons at 13 individual sites with long-term history of synthetic N fertilization in Ontario, Canada (13 site-years). At each site, fertilizer N was applied at various rates (0–224 kg N·ha−1) to determine the crop response to N fertilizer, relative yield (RY), and the most economic rate of N (MERN). Across the entire dataset, water-extractable mineral N (WEMN) was the only soil test that strongly correlated to both RY (r = 0.74**) and MERN (r = −0.56*) indicating that in grain corn fields with long-term history of N fertilization, mineral forms of N in soil solution can be used for fertilizer N recommendations in southern and eastern Ontario. We also provide evidence that grouping soils based on clay content could further refine fertilizer-N recommendations for grain corn in Ontario. A multi-year validation of the WEMN test with more field sites and development of a fertilizer recommendation table for this soil test are recommended.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0104
       
  • Reducing peat in growing media: impact on nitrogen content, microbial
           activity, and CO2 and N2O emissions

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      Authors: Aimé J. Messiga, Xiuming Hao, Noura Ziadi, Martine Dorais
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Renewable materials including coir, biochar, and composts are investigated worldwide in the horticultural industry to partially substitute peat in growing media. In this study, we assessed the effects of biochar and vermicompost as partial substitution of peat and compared these peat-based growing media with coir in terms of NH4+-N and NO3−-N content, CO2-C and N2O-N emissions and their microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Six growing media mixtures (peat; peat + biochar 9:1 v/v; peat + vermicompost 9:1 v/v; coir; coir + biochar 9:1 v/v; coir + vermicompost 9:1 v/v) replicated three times were incubated in growth chambers during a 60 d period. At day 0 of incubation (DAI), peat amended with biochar retained around 12.81% of NH4+-N compared with peat alone. The concentrations of NO3−-N peaked at 275 mg·kg−1 at 33 DAI for peat and 552 mg·kg−1 at 46 DAI for coir amended with vermicompost. The substitution of peat with biochar resulted in large CO2-C [2070 μg CO2-C·g−1 dry weight (DW)] and N2O-N (62.78 μg N2O-N·g−1 DW) emissions, but not coir. The substitution of coir with vermicompost increased N2O-N emissions at a much lower level (47.53 μg N2O-N·g−1 DW) than peat (111.82 μg N2O-N·g−1 DW). Our results showed that supplements of vermicompost in peat and coir improved N supply which could benefit plant growth, while substituting part of peat with biochar increased CO2-C and N2O-N emissions. In contrast, no effect of biochar was observed with coir, which is beneficial for the environmental footprint of short-cycle growing crops.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0147
       
  • Combining perennial grass–legume forages and liquid dairy manure
           contributes to nitrogen accumulation in a clayey soil

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      Authors: Emmanuelle D’Amours, Martin H. Chantigny, Anne Vanasse, Émilie Maillard, Jean Lafond, Denis A. Angers
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Repeated applications of liquid dairy manure (LDM) and perennial crops generally favor nitrogen (N) stocks in soils, but in ways that may differ with soil type and other management practices. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term (21 yr) changes in soil N stocks (0–50 cm) of a silty clay soil, in a cool humid climate, in response to mineral fertilization (MIN) or LDM, combined with two tillage practices [chisel plow (CP), or moldboard plow (MP)], and two crop rotations [cereal monoculture (monoculture) or cereal–perennial forage rotation (forage-based rotation)]. The forage-based rotation favoured a greater accumulation of N in the first 20 cm of soil (+50 kg N·ha−1·yr−1) when compared with the monoculture. Tillage practices did not impact N stocks in the whole soil profile, but influenced its vertical distribution, with greater accumulation at the surface with CP, and at depth with MP. Annual input of LDM increased N stocks at the surface (0–20 cm) compared with MIN, especially when combined with the forage-based rotation. After 21 yr, soil N stocks (0–50 cm) with LDM were 32% (+2 t N·ha−1) higher in the forage-based rotation than in the monoculture, suggesting better retention and more efficient use of manure-N with perennial forages than cereals. Comparisons between the N mass balance computed for each cropping system, and the changes in soil N stocks indicated that accumulation of N under the forage-based rotation was largely due to symbiotic fixation by legumes in the forage mixture.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0132
       
  • Phosphorus saturation index and water-extractable phosphorus in
           high-legacy phosphorus soils in southern British Columbia, Canada

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      Authors: Aimé J. Messiga, Camellia Lam, Yunkun Li
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding of the risk of phosphorus (P) loss to the environment is crucial to monitor soil P and implement policies for P management. We assessed P sorption characteristics and adapted a P saturation index (PSI) for silage corn and blueberry fields in south coastal British Columbia (BC), Canada. We used 284 composite soil samples with contrasting P levels collected from eight silage corn and 23 blueberry fields across south coastal BC. The P sorption maximum (Smax) varied between 982 and 2532 mg P·kg−1 and was influenced by aluminum concentration and organic matter content. The degree of P saturation was related to water-extractable P (Pw) by a quadratic regression with R2 = 0.85. A critical Pw = 3.7 mg·kg−1 was established across the two cropping systems. The silage corn fields with pH > 5.5 had critical PSI value of 10.4%, and blueberry fields with pH 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0129
       
  • Soybean and soil responses to biochar amendment in controlled environments
           with elevated temperature and carbon dioxide

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      Authors: Runshan W. Jiang, Mae Galo, Maren Oelbermann
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Warmer atmospheric temperatures (eT) will increase plant nutrient uptake, and elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) is expected to enhance plant growth, whereas a multicomponent eTeCO2 effect should also be beneficial for agroecosystems. Our goal was to understand if single- (eT, eCO2) or multicomponent (eTeCO2) climate effects, predicted for southern Ontario, Canada, will affect soybean and soil properties differently when soil is amended with manure and biochar (MB) or with manure, nitrogen (N) fertilizer, and biochar (MNB) compared with the addition of manure and N fertilizer (MN). We hypothesized that biochar regulates climate effects and causes soybean and soil properties to be similar to ambient climate conditions than soil without biochar. However, soil amended with biochar functioned independently of single- or multicomponent climate effects. Soybean pod and shoot biomass, shoot height, and shoot:root ratio were greater (p 
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2020-0133
       
  • Wheat straw and biochar effect on soil carbon fractions, enzyme
           activities, and nutrients in a tobacco field

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      Authors: Yi Wang, Jianxin Dong, Xuebo Zheng, Jiguang Zhang, Peilu Zhou, Xiaopei Song, Wenjing Song, Shusheng Wang
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Ahead of Print.
      Annual removal of tobacco residues and insufficient input of organic materials have exacerbated total organic carbon (TOC) depletion and soil degradation in a tobacco field in the Huanghuai area. Straw residue and biochar application may be effective ways to increase TOC accumulation and improve soil fertility. In this field experiment, wheat straw (WS) and wheat-straw-derived biochar (BC) with mineral fertilizer were compared with mineral fertilizer alone (CK), and we assessed their effects on soil organic carbon fractions, enzyme activities, and nutrients in Shandong Province, China, during 2016 and 2017. At 0–20 cm depth, the WS treatment had a greater overall effect on the measured soil properties. Compared with the control, the WS treatment significantly increased the concentrations of microbial biomass carbon (MBC), hot-water-extractable carbon (HWC), and permanganate-oxidizable carbon concentrations (POXC; by 252.41%, 107.02%, and 65.53%, respectively); the activities of sucrase, urease, and phosphatase (by 112.52%, 7.81%, and 34.33%, respectively); and the contents of alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium (by 92.22%, 100.78%, and 10.57%, respectively). Compared with the control, the BC treatment significantly increased TOC content, MBC content, light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), and potassium (TK) concentration (by 74.93%, 86.24%, 153.73%, and 21.92%, respectively). Most soil enzyme activity and nutrient parameters were significantly correlated with MBC. Thus, straw application improved soil fertility by increasing the concentrations of high labile organic carbon fractions (HWC, MBC, and POXC), stimulating soil enzyme activities, and releasing more soil available nutrients, and BC addition contributed to the accumulation of TOC, MBC, LFOC, and TK.
      Citation: Canadian Journal of Soil Science
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T08:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1139/cjss-2019-0092
       
 
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