Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 401 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Environment and Pollution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environment, Workplace and Employment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environmental Health Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Exergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Global Warming     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications : A Leading Journal of Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Mining and Geo-Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Phytoremediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Process Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Reliability and Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Stress Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Materials and Structural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Commons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Health and Environment     Open Access  
ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies     Hybrid Journal  
JACEE (Journal of Advanced Civil and Environmental Engineering)     Open Access  
Jahangirnagar University Environmental Bulletin     Open Access  
Journal for the History of Environment and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal Of Advances In Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International     Open Access  
Journal of Air Pollution and Health (رتبه علمی- پژوهشی)     Open Access  
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211)
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Applied Volcanology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosystems Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Climate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Climate Change and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Coastal Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of East African Natural History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Journal of Ecology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy and Environment Technology of Graduate School Siam Technology College     Open Access  
Journal of Environment and Earth Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Environment and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Analysis and Progress     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental and Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Environmental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Extension     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Environmental Geography     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Environmental Media     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Environmental Professionals Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B: Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Environmental Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Environments     Open Access  
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Fisheries and Environment     Open Access  
Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Freshwater Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International     Open Access  
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection     Open Access  
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Hazardous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances     Open Access  
Journal of Health Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Health Organisation and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Housing and the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Hydrology X     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers     Open Access  
Journal of Land Use Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Management and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mega Infrastructure & Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Natural Resources and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Operational Oceanography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Plant Science and Phytopathology     Open Access  
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Population and Sustainability     Open Access  
Journal of Reliable Intelligent Environments     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Rural and Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Safety Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Journal of School Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Sustainable Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Planning Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Journal of Tropical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Vietnamese Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Water Security     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Julius-Kühn-Archiv     Open Access  
Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pengendalian Pencemaran Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Presipitasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Rekayasa Kimia & Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sains & Teknologi Lingkungan     Open Access  
Jurnal Wilayah dan Lingkungan     Open Access  
Knowledge Management Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lake and Reservoir Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Landscape Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Landscapes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Latin American Journal of Management for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal  
Letras Verdes. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Socioambientales     Open Access  
Limnological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Living Reviews in Landscape Research     Open Access  
Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Low Carbon Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Luna Azul     Open Access  
M+A. Revista Electrónica de Medioambiente     Open Access  
Macquarie Journal of International and Comparative Environmental Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Management International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Management of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Marine Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Marine Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Marine Pollution Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Medio Ambiente y Urbanizacion     Full-text available via subscription  
Mediterranean Geoscience Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Membranes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Metabarcoding and Metagenomics     Open Access  
Michigan Journal of Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Risk Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Microplastics and Nanoplastics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mine Water and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Monteverdia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.735
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 22  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1660-4601 - ISSN (Online) 1661-7827
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7552: Number of Bacteria in Saliva in the
           Perioperative Period and Factors Associated with Increased Numbers

    • Authors: Yuki Sakamoto, Arisa Tanabe, Makiko Moriyama, Yoshihiko Otsuka, Madoka Funahara, Sakiko Soutome, Masahiro Umeda, Yuka Kojima
      First page: 7552
      Abstract: Perioperative oral management is performed to prevent postoperative complications, but its indication and management method are unclear. This study aimed to investigate salivary bacterial counts pre-and postoperatively, and factors related to increased bacterial count postoperatively. We included 121 patients who underwent surgery under general anesthesia and perioperative oral management. The bacterial count in saliva was determined preoperatively, and first and seventh days postoperatively using the dielectrophoresis and impedance measurement methods. The relationships between salivary bacterial count and various variables were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis. The salivary bacterial count increased significantly on the first day postoperatively but decreased on the seventh day. Multivariate analysis showed that age (p = 0.004, standardized coefficient β = 0.283) and xerostomia (p = 0.034, standardized coefficient β = 0.192) were significantly correlated with increased salivary bacterial count preoperatively. Salivary bacterial count on the day after surgery was significantly increased in patients with a large number of bacterial counts on the day before surgery after preoperative oral care (p = 0.007, standardized coefficient β = 0.241) and postoperative fasting (p = 0.001, standardized coefficient β = −0.329). Establishing good oral hygiene before surgery and decreasing salivary bacterial count are necessary in patients with a high risk of postoperative surgical site infection or pneumonia, especially in older adults or postoperative fasting.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137552
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7553: Healthcare Burden of Rare Diseases: A
           Population-Based Study in Tuscany (Italy)

    • Authors: Silvia Baldacci, Michele Santoro, Anna Pierini, Lorena Mezzasalma, Francesca Gorini, Alessio Coi
      First page: 7553
      Abstract: Patients with rare diseases (RDs) need tailored, continuous, and multidisciplinary hospital care. This retrospective cohort study aimed to analyse the healthcare burden of RD patients using a multi-database approach, by linking the data of the Rare Diseases Registry of Tuscany with the regional hospital discharge database. The study population included 21,354 patients diagnosed with a RD between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2017. The healthcare burden was evaluated for all the RDs during 2009–2018 period. The hospitalisation rate (per 1000) decreased over the years, ranging from 606.9 in 2009 (95% CI: 589.2–625.0) to 443.0 in 2018 (95% CI: 433.2–453.0). A decrease in the average length of stay (LOS) was observed in the earlier years, followed by an increase up to a steady trend (8.3 days in 2018). The patients with RDs of metabolism and the genitourinary system showed the highest hospitalisation rate (903.3 and 644.0 per 1000, respectively). The patients with rare immune system disorders and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue showed the highest LOS (9.7 and 9.5 days, respectively). The methodological approach presented in this popula-tion-based study makes it possible to estimate the healthcare burden of RDs, which is crucial in the decision-making and planning aimed at improving patient care.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137553
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7554: Ageism, Job Engagement, Negative Stereotypes,
           Intergenerational Climate, and Life Satisfaction among Middle-Aged and
           Older Employees in a University Setting

    • Authors: Jasmin T. McConatha, V. K. Kumar, Jaqueline Magnarelli
      First page: 7554
      Abstract: This study examined whether age-related discrimination, negative age-related stereotypes about declining abilities due to age, job engagement (cognitive, physical, and emotional), and workplace intergenerational climate in terms of positive intergenerational affect (PIA) and workplace intergenerational inclusiveness (WIG) correlated with life satisfaction in a university setting. The analysis was based on 115–117 faculty and staff, 50 years or older. A Principal Axis factor analysis with Promax rotation on the job-related variable revealed three factors: Experiencing Ageism (discrimination and negative stereotypes), Work Climate (PIA and WIG), and Job Engagement (physical, emotional, and cognitive). The factor-based regression scores on the three-factor-based scores were correlated with life satisfaction and also subjected to hierarchical regression analyses with age, sex, and education entered on the first step and the three factors on the second step. The results of both the correlational and hierarchical regression analysis indicated that experiencing ageism was significantly predictive of life satisfaction, and that ageism may play a more primary role than job engagement and work climate-related variables in accounting for life satisfaction.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137554
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7555: How Do Family Court Judges Theorize about
           Parental Alienation' A Qualitative Exploration of the Territory

    • Authors: Telma M. Marques, Isabel Narciso, Luana C. Ferreira
      First page: 7555
      Abstract: Parental alienation (PA) and its conceptualization or understanding of the process underlying this dynamic has long been controversial, but it has also been frequently brought to courtrooms. This study provides an account of how legal professionals conceptualize “parental alienation” and how they describe the characteristics of the phenomenon. Using a qualitative design, 21 family court judges (range 33–60 years; 11 men and 10 women), working with child custody cases, participated in an individual in-depth interview. A qualitative analysis based on Grounded Theory basic procedures revealed a complex picture of alienation dynamics with five interconnected results. First, PA contexts and landscapes, which included the judges’ perceptions on the PA nurturing contexts, its strategic behavior patterns and functions, portraits of PA and clues for its identification; second, considerations on PA severity; third, the influential factors, including those related to the emergence of PA; fourth, individual and relational impact of being exposed to PA; and fifth, perceived signs of change. The results also allowed for the complexification of the judges’ theories, revealing six properties of the PA concept: elasticity, intentionality and camouflage, power asymmetries, multifactorial nature, and destructiveness. Directions for future research are expanded from these results and pragmatic contributions of knowledge on judges’ critical thinking on PA issues and its manifestations in legal practice are discussed.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137555
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7556: Identifying Algicides of Enterobacter
           hormaechei F2 for Control of the Harmful Alga Microcystis aeruginosa

    • Authors: Bin Zhang, Ying Yang, Wenjia Xie, Wei He, Jia Xie, Wei Liu
      First page: 7556
      Abstract: Eutrophication has become an increasingly serious environmental issue and has contributed towards an explosion in harmful algal blooms (HABs) affecting local development. HABs can cause serious threats to ecosystems and human health. A newly isolated algicidal strain, Enterobacter hormaechei F2, showed high algicidal activity against the typical HAB species Microcystis aeruginosa. Potential algicides were detected through liquid chromatograph–mass spectrometer analysis, revealing that prodigiosin is an algicide and PQS is a quorum sensing molecule. RNA-seq was used to understand the algicidal mechanisms and the related pathways. We concluded that the metabolism of prodigiosin and PQS are active at the transcriptional level. The findings indicate that E. hormaechei F2 can be used as a potential biological agent to control harmful algal blooms to prevent the deterioration of the ecological and economic value of water bodies.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137556
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7557: Socioeconomic Differences in Lifetime and
           Past 30-Day E-Cigarette, Cigarette, and Dual Use: A State-Level Analysis
           of Utah Youth

    • Authors: Christopher Cambron, Kaitlyn J. Thackeray
      First page: 7557
      Abstract: Socioeconomic disparities in combustible cigarette use are well established among youth in the United States and lead to substantial health effects. Given the noteworthy rise in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among youth in recent years, health professionals have expressed concern that e-cigarette use will follow similar socioeconomic patterns. The current study examined this question using a 2019 state-representative sample of youth in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 from Utah (N = 78,740). Logistic regression models estimated associations between neighborhood- and individual-level factors with lifetime and past 30-day e-cigarette, combustible cigarette, and dual use across 267 neighborhoods. After controlling for individual-level sociodemographic factors, results indicated that youth living in higher-poverty neighborhoods were at a significantly increased risk of lifetime e-cigarette, combustible cigarette, and dual use. Additionally, youth living in households with higher levels of education were at a significantly lower risk of lifetime and past 30-day e-cigarette, cigarette, and dual use. Results suggest that e-cigarettes may follow a similar pattern of socioeconomic disparities among youth as combustible cigarettes. Additionally, most youth using combustible cigarettes also used e-cigarettes, suggesting that any potential harms from e-cigarettes may exacerbate existing socioeconomic disparities in health effects from combustible cigarette use. Research should continue to examine individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic disparities in youth e-cigarette, combustible cigarette, and dual use.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137557
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7558: Comment on Laroche, E.;
           L’Espérance, S. Cancer Incidence and Mortality among
           Firefighters: An Overview of Epidemiologic Systematic Reviews. Int. J.
           Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2519

    • Authors: Tee Guidotti
      First page: 7558
      Abstract: This is a letter to the Editor critiquing Laroche and L’Esperance, “Cancer Incidence and Mortality among Firefighters: An Overview of Epidemiologic Systematic Reviews” [...]
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137558
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7559: Are Measures of Health Status for the Total
           Population Good Proxies for the Health of the Older Population in
           International Comparison Studies'

    • Authors: Ewa Kocot, Sabina Denkowska, Kamil Fijorek
      First page: 7559
      Abstract: In the face of population aging, the health of older people is becoming especially important, impacting various areas of life, societies and countries’ economies. To provide the basis for effective decisions to achieve better health, comparative analyses can be used to find best practices to follow. The aim of the research was to check whether drawing conclusions about the older population’s health based on the health status of the total population is justified in international comparison analyses. An analysis was conducted for six population health indicators for European countries from 2010–2019. Rankings were created for the total population and the older subpopulation, and then ranks for these two populations were compared using statistical methods. The statistical analyses indicate that there is a strong, statistically significant relationship between the ranks for the total and the older population. However, looking at the descriptive analysis and visual presentation of data, differences in international rankings of indicator values for these two populations can be observed. As older people comprise a specific group of the population that is growing ever bigger and increasingly significant, it would be advisable to present the results of international comparisons not only for the total, but separately for the older population as well.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137559
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7560: Reply to Guidotti, T. Comment on
           “Laroche, E.; L’Espérance, S. Cancer Incidence and
           Mortality among Firefighters: An Overview of Epidemiologic Systematic
           Reviews. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2519”

    • Authors: Elena Laroche, Sylvain L’Espérance
      First page: 7560
      Abstract: We have reviewed the comment [...]
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137560
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7561: The Impact of Housing Insecurity on Access to
           Care and Services among People Who Use Drugs in Washington, DC

    • Authors: Monica S. Ruiz, Allison Williams, Allison O’Rourke, Elizabeth MacIntosh, Shareese Moné, Cyndee Clay
      First page: 7561
      Abstract: People who use drugs are highly marginalized communities and are disproportionately affected by environmental changes—e.g., neighborhood gentrification—that affect housing availability and stability, particularly in urban locations. These changes could negatively affect individuals’ access to and utilization of health care and social services, resulting in poorer health outcomes. This study examined the impact of gentrification and housing instability on drug users’ access to harm reduction and other health services. Data were collected from 139 clients of a large harm reduction organization. Results showed that 67% of the participants were either unstably housed or homeless, and about one-third of participants indicated that their current housing situations negatively affected their access to primary care (33.9%), behavioral health services (36.7%) and basic services (38.3%). While homeless individuals were still able to access services generally, a greater percentage—compared to those unstably or stably housed—reported difficulty accessing care. As these data were collected prior to the COVID pandemic, it is likely that many of our participants faced greater struggles with housing insecurity and health care access issues due to shutdowns and increased need for social isolation and quarantine. More work is needed to address housing instability and homelessness among already marginalized populations.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137561
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7562: Research-Driven Guidelines for Delivering
           Group Exercise Programs via Videoconferencing to Older Adults

    • Authors: Tracy L. Mitzner, Elena T. Remillard, Kara T. Mumma
      First page: 7562
      Abstract: Telehealth holds much potential for supporting older adults’ physical and social health. In particular, telewellness interventions to support the physical and social wellness of older adults are needed to overcome participation barriers with in-person programs. This paper presents guidelines for delivering telewellness interventions to older adults, which were informed by a human factors approach to developing a Tele Tai Chi intervention for older adults with mobility disabilities, including reviewing user needs literature and conducting user-centered needs assessment research. From these findings, we developed a protocol and support materials for delivering a telewellness intervention and conducted a feasibility study. We also established an adaptation committee to provide recommendations on the intervention. The outcome of our human factors approach was the establishment of research-driven design guidelines for delivering group exercise programs to older adults using videoconferencing. The guidelines provide direction for designing a telewellness protocol, supporting remote participation, and promoting socialization and engagement. These guidelines can be used to deliver interventions that increase access to socially-engaging, physical activity programs for older adults, which can ultimately help support their physical health, mental health, and quality of life.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137562
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7563: Construct Validity and Responsiveness of
           Instruments Measuring Depression and Anxiety in Pregnancy: A Comparison of
           EPDS, HADS-A and CES-D

    • Authors: Hanna Margaretha Heller, Stasja Draisma, Adriaan Honig
      First page: 7563
      Abstract: Depression and anxiety occur frequently in pregnancy and may have unfavourable consequences for mother and child. Therefore, adequate symptom measurement seems important. Commonly used instruments are the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, anxiety subscale (HADS-A). We compared the (1) structural and (2) longitudinal validity of these instruments. The data originated from a study on the effectiveness of an Internet intervention for pregnant women with affective symptoms. (1) A confirmatory factor analysis was used to estimate the construct validity. The theoretical factorial structure that was defined in earlier studies of the CES-D and the EPDS, but not the HADS-A, could be sufficiently replicated with acceptable CFI and RMSEA values. (2) Since there were two measurements in time, the hypotheses concerning plausible directions of the change scores of subscales that were (un)related to each other could be formulated and tested. In this way, longitudinal validity in the form of responsiveness was estimated. Ten of sixteen hypotheses were confirmed, corroborating the longitudinal validity of all constructs, except anhedonia, probably due to inconsistent conceptualization. The HADS-A seems less suitable to screen for anxiety in pregnancy. Anhedonia needs better conceptualisation to assess the change of symptoms over time with the CES-D and the EPDS.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137563
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7564: Mindful Parenting Intervention MinUTo App for
           Parents of Preschool Children: Study Protocol of a Randomised Controlled
           Trial

    • Authors: Annalisa Guarini, Alessandra Sansavini, Chiara Suttora, Stefania Bortolotti, Margherita Fort, Daniela Iorio, Chiara Monfardini, Maria Bigoni
      First page: 7564
      Abstract: Background: Mindful parenting and the use of technology for parenting intervention have expanded separately from one another with promising results, but their relationship is underexplored. The current study protocol proposes a new universal intervention via app, MINd Us TOghether (MinUTo), based on mindful parenting for parents of typically developing children of 4–5 years of age. Methods: The effect of the intervention is evaluated using a randomised controlled trial. Around 2000 parents are enrolled and randomised to the intervention and control groups. Data are collected in three different waves from parents at baseline and endline; APP usage data allow for the analysis of intervention adherence. The MinUTo app proposes contents and activities for five dimensions of mindful parenting. Each dimension is presented within a two-week distance, explaining its importance, providing information, and offering activities for parents and children. Expected results: We hypothesise a positive effect of the intervention on primary outcomes (mindful parenting, parenting stress, parent behaviours and parental time investment), increasing parents’ skills and promoting a positive parent–child relationship. We also test possible effects on secondary outcomes (parenting attitudes and beliefs) at an explorative level. Conclusions: The study will add new considerations about the psychological and economic impact of technologies in implementing parenting interventions in non-clinical populations.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137564
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7565: Social Network Analysis on the Mobility of
           Three Vulnerable Population Subgroups: Domestic Workers, Flight Crews, and
           Sailors during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Hong Kong

    • Authors: Weijun Yu, Cheryll Alipio, Jia’an Wan, Heran Mane, Quynh C. Nguyen
      First page: 7565
      Abstract: Background: Domestic workers, flight crews, and sailors are three vulnerable population subgroups who were required to travel due to occupational demand in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the social networks among three vulnerable population subgroups and capture temporal changes in their probability of being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 via mobility. Methods: We included 652 COVID-19 cases and utilized Exponential Random Graph Models to build six social networks: one for the cross-sectional cohort, and five for the temporal wave cohorts, respectively. Vertices were the three vulnerable population subgroups. Edges were shared scenarios where vertices were exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Results: The probability of being exposed to a COVID-19 case in Hong Kong among the three vulnerable population subgroups increased from 3.38% in early 2020 to 5.78% in early 2022. While domestic workers were less mobile intercontinentally compared to flight crews and sailors, domestic workers were 1.81-times in general more likely to be exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: Vulnerable populations with similar ages and occupations, especially younger domestic workers and flight crew members, were more likely to be exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Social network analysis can be used to provide critical information on the health risks of infectious diseases to vulnerable populations.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137565
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7566: Predictors of Suicide Re-Attempt in a Spanish
           Adolescent Population after 12 Months’ Follow-Up

    • Authors: Xavier Alvarez-Subiela, Carmina Castellano-Tejedor, Mireia Verge-Muñoz, Kike Esnaola-Letemendia, Diego Palao-Vidal, Francisco Villar-Cabeza
      First page: 7566
      Abstract: Background: This study aims to identify the main predictive factors that allow for the recognition of adolescents with a higher risk of re-attempting suicide. Method: A longitudinal 12-month follow-up design was carried out in a sample of 533 Spanish adolescents between 12 and 17 years old. The data collection period comprised September 2013 to November 2016, including a one-year follow-up after hospital discharge. Results: A statistically significant regression model was obtained to predict suicide re-attempt at 12-months’ follow-up (χ2 = 34.843; p < 0.001; Nagelkerke R2 = 0.105), including personal history of self-injury (OR = 2.721, p < 0.001, 95% CI [1.706, 4.340]) and age (OR = 0.541, p = 0.009, 95% CI [0.340, 0.860]), correctly classifying 82.6% of the sample. Our results show that having a personal history of self-injury and being younger than 14 years old were predictors of suicide re-attempt during the first year after an adolescent’s first admission to emergency services. Conclusions: Considering these factors could contribute to the design of more tailored and effective interventions to prevent suicidal behavior in adolescents at high risk of re-attempting suicide.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137566
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7567: The Effects of Environmental Regulations on
           Medical Expenses: Evidence from China

    • Authors: Hongshan Ai, Xiaoqing Tan, Zhen Xia
      First page: 7567
      Abstract: In this study, we examine the effects of a special period regulation (SPR), implemented in the Chang-Zhu-Tan (Changsha City, Zhuzhou City, and Xiangtan City; CZT) region, regarding medical expenses paid by the Urban and Rural Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URRBMI) and Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) programs, using a difference-in-differences (DID) design. We find that the SPR significantly reduces medical expenses in the CZT region, which appears to be driven by improved air quality. Furthermore, this regulation has a significantly negative and positive impact on medical expenses paid by the UURBMI and UEBMI, respectively. In summary, our results provide empirical evidence for the orderly implementation of command-and-control environmental regulation policies from the perspective of health benefits.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137567
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7568: Psychological and Physical Changes Caused by
           COVID-19 Pandemic in Elementary and Junior High School Teachers: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Authors: Nobuyuki Wakui, Nanae Noguchi, Kotoha Ichikawa, Chikako Togawa, Raini Matsuoka, Yukiko Yoshizawa, Shunsuke Shirozu, Kenichi Suzuki, Mizue Ozawa, Takahiro Yanagiya, Mayumi Kikuchi
      First page: 7568
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine psychological and physical differences in elementary and junior high school teachers during COVID-19. This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 427 teachers in Tokyo, Japan (between 15 and 30 October 2020). The questionnaire explored school type (elementary and middle schools), sex, age, and COVID-19 changes (psychological changes, physical changes, impact on work, and infection control issues perceived to be stressed). Post hoc tests for I cannot concentrate on work at all, found a significant difference for no change–improved and male teacher in elementary school female teacher in junior high school (p = 0.03). Regarding stress situation due to implementation of COVID-19 infection control, there were significant differences for disinfection work by teachers between male teachers in elementary school female teachers in junior high school (p = 0.04) and female teachers in elementary school female teachers in junior high school (p = 0.03). COVID-19 produced differences in psychological and physical changes between male and female teachers in elementary and junior high schools. Some experienced psychological and physical stress, whereas others showed improvement. Given that teachers’ mental health also affects students’ educational quality, it is important to understand and improve teachers’ psychological and physical circumstances and stress.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137568
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7569: Examining the Factors That Affect the
           Diagnosis of Patients with Positive Fecal Occult Blood Test Results

    • Authors: Yin-Wen Cheng, Ying-Chun Li
      First page: 7569
      Abstract: Due to the threat of colorectal cancer (CRC) to health, Taiwan included the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) under preventive health services in 2010. We examined the factors that affect the diagnosis of people with positive FOBT results. Data were retrospectively collected from the CRC screening database. In the model predicting factors that affect the diagnosis of 89,046 people with positive FOBT results, the risks of disease in the CRC group were lower in medical institutions that conducted follow-up examinations in regions such as Northern Taiwan compared to that in Eastern Taiwan (p = 0.013); they were lower in the age group of 50 to 65 years than those in the age group of 71 to 75 years (p < 0.001, p = 0.016), and lower in the outpatient medical units that conducted follow-up examinations than those in the inpatient medical units by 0.565 times (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.493–0.647). Factors affecting the diagnosis of patients with positive FOBT results were gender, the region of the medical institution, medical unit for follow-up examinations, age, screening site, family history, type of follow-up examinations, and follow-up time. Therefore, the identification of characteristics of patients with positive FOBT results and the promotion of follow-up examination are important prevention strategies for CRC.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137569
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7570: The Effect of Medical Choice on Health Costs
           of Middle-Aged and Elderly Patients with Chronic Disease: Based on
           Principal-Agent Theory

    • Authors: Dongxu Li, Min Su, Xi Guo, Weile Zhang, Tianjiao Zhang
      First page: 7570
      Abstract: (1) Background: The discussion on how to reduce the health costs of chronic disease patients has become an important public health issue. Limited research has been conducted on how chronic disease patients’ medical choice of public and private medical institutions affect health costs. (2) Methods: This study used the panel data composed of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) from 2011 to 2018, adopted the quasi-natural experimental research method, and set up a control group and an experimental group that chose public medical institutions and private medical institutions, to analyze the association between the medical choice and health costs of chronic disease patients. (3) Results: Compared with chronic disease patients who chose private medical institutions, patients who chose public medical institutions increased their total cost by 44.9%, total out-of-pocket cost by 22.9%, and decreased the total out-of-pocket ratio by 0.117%, total drug cost out-of-pocket ratio by 0.075%, and drug cost ratio by 0.102%. (4) Conclusions: According to the triple principal-agent relationships, the resource advantages given by the government to public medical institutions, the salary incentive system of medical institutions, and the information asymmetry advantage held by physicians may be important factors for the increase in health costs for chronic disease patients.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137570
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7571: Do Improvements in Maternal Mental Health
           Predict Improvements in Parenting' Mechanisms of the Mindful with Your
           Baby Training

    • Authors: Eva S. Potharst, Manon Kuijl, Daphne Wind, Susan M. Bögels
      First page: 7571
      Abstract: Postpartum mental health symptoms are associated with parenting difficulties, which have negative consequences for child development. Interventions for young mothers should target their mental health problems and parenting difficulties. Mindful with Your Baby (MwyB) is an intervention for parents, with a baby, who experience (mental) health problems and/or stress or insecurity in parenting. This study seeks to replicate previous effects of MwyB regarding mindfulness, mindful parenting, maternal (mental) health (psychological distress, depressive mood, physical health complaints) and parenting outcomes (parenting stress, parental self-efficacy, bonding), and gain insight into the working mechanisms of the training. Mothers with babies aged 1–18 months (n = 61) completed questionnaires at waitlist, pretest, posttest, and 8-week follow-up. No significant differences were seen between the waitlist and pretest. Significant improvements in all outcomes were shown in the posttest (except for physical health complaints) and follow-up, compared to the pretest. Improvements in depressive symptoms and physical health complaints were dependent on improvements in mindfulness. Improvements in parental self-efficacy were dependent on improvements in mindful parenting. Improvements in some (mental) health and parenting outcomes seemed to be bidirectional. The results suggest that both mindfulness and mindful parenting are important for mothers who experience psychological distress and/or stress or insecurity in parenting their babies.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137571
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7572: Conservative Media Use and COVID-19 Related
           Behavior: The Moderating Role of Media Literacy Variables

    • Authors: Porismita Borah, Kyle Lorenzano, Anastasia Vishnevskaya, Erica Austin
      First page: 7572
      Abstract: At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was no vaccine to cure or slow its impact due to the novelty of the virus, nor were there were any other standardized measures to handle its spread. Yet, despite the detrimental consequences of the pandemic and its impact on people’s lives, the behavior of individuals to combat the pandemic was not necessarily consistent with official guidelines. To make things worse, the pandemic was highly politicized in countries such as the U.S. With a help of a national survey from the U.S., we examine the associations between media literacy variables and willingness to perform recommended COVID-19 related health behavior. Moreover, we also examine the moderating role of conservative media use in this relationship. Our findings show that conservative media use was negatively associated with these protective behaviors, and that both media literacy variables were positively related with willingness to perform recommended COVID-19 related health behavior. Our results show that media literacy can mitigate some of the impact of conservative media use on individuals. Our findings help understand the complexity of protective behavior against the virus during a highly politicized pandemic.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137572
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7573: Exploring the Impacts of Preventative Health
           Behaviors with Respect to COVID-19: An Altruistic Perspective

    • Authors: Yi-Fang Luo, Shu-Ching Yang, Shih-Chieh Hung, Kun-Yi Chou
      First page: 7573
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the impact of gender and anxiety on various preventative health behaviors, and the relationships among these preventative health behaviors, individual well-being and depression, from the perspective of altruism. This study employed an online questionnaire survey, and 136 males and 204 females participated in the survey. The results of this study showed that females exhibited better preventative health behaviors than males, including hygiene habits, social distancing and behaviors intended to help others mitigate the epidemic. Anxiety regarding COVID-19 infection encouraged individuals to adopt hygienic habits and social distancing measures rather than to help others mitigate the epidemic. Hygiene habits improved the individual’s psychological well-being. Helping others mitigate the epidemic improved the individual’s psychological well-being and social well-being and contributed to reducing individual depression. However, the preventative health behavior involved in social distancing was not conducive to emotional well-being or social well-being. Affective elements are related to individual behaviors. Therefore, the use of prosocial, altruistic language may play an important role with respect to encouraging people to comply with preventative health behaviors in the context of COVID-19. In addition, it is worth noting that different preventative health behaviors may have different effects on people’s mental health, especially when implementing social distancing-related epidemic mitigation behaviors. The question of how to prevent negative psychological effects in restricted actors must be answered, and the degree of life satisfaction experienced by those actors must also be taken into account.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137573
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7574: The Effect of Health Change on Long-Term
           Settlement Intentions of International Immigrants in New Destination
           Countries: Evidence from Yiwu City in China

    • Authors: Tao Xu
      First page: 7574
      Abstract: Previous studies on settlement intentions have mainly focused on the explanations of social and economic rationality, culture, and institution, but insufficient attention had been paid to the relationship between health and settlement intentions. This study explored the relationship between changes in the health status of immigrants and their settlement intentions. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted both in 2018 and 2019. Foreigners who visited the Yiwu Municipal Exit–Entry Administration Office to extend their visas were invited to participate in the study. Quantitative data, such as the participants’ sociodemographic characteristics, job status, employment, immigration experience, key factors associated with the intention to settle down, medical insurance coverage, and changes in health status, were collected by questionnaire. Results: A change in health status significantly affected the intention to settle down: the more healthy that people became, the more likely they intended to settle down (β = 0.233; p < 0.001), and, simultaneously, changes in health status were also moderated by the length of stay in China (β = 0.320; p < 0.001) and medical insurance (β = 0.134; p < 0.001), which affected people’s willingness to settle down. Conclusions: Changes in health status, and not health status itself, affected immigrants’ willingness to settle down. In addition, social insurance, and the length of stay in the place receiving immigrants, affected immigrants’ willingness to settle down not only directly, but also indirectly by moderating the impact of the change in health status on the willingness to settle down.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137574
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7575: Ultra-Orthodox Lesbian Women in Israel:
           Alternative Family Structures as a Bridge between Religious and Sexual
           Identities

    • Authors: Shirley Ben Shlomo, Ayelet Oreg
      First page: 7575
      Abstract: The Jewish ultra-Orthodox community enforces strict rules concerning its members’ way of life and demands that their identities be consistent with that of this conservative community. However, such congruence does not exist for ultra-Orthodox women who identify as lesbians. Drawing on social representation theory, this study examines the unique family structures that lesbian ultra-Orthodox women in Israel have adopted to accommodate their conflicting identities. The study employed a qualitative multiple case study design, conducting in-depth interviews with seven ultra-Orthodox lesbian women, and adopted a phenomenological approach to learn about their lived experience. The women had all married young in arranged marriages and all had children. Four of them were still married, while the other three were divorced. In all cases, however, their lesbian identity was kept hidden. The findings reveal the unique family structures these women created that allowed them to maintain their religious way of life on the surface, while remaining committed to their sexual identity in secret. The study extends the social representation theory and promotes an understanding of the multifaceted identity of ultra-Orthodox lesbian women. The findings can aid in designing interventions that can help such women cope with the secret aspects of their life.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137575
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7576: Erectile Dysfunction in Relation to Metabolic
           Disorders and the Concentration of Sex Hormones in Aging Men

    • Authors: Rył Aleksandra, Szylińska Aleksandra, Rotter Iwona
      First page: 7576
      Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men as diagnosed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire and the respective levels of sex hormones and biochemical parameters, as well as indices of visceral fat accumulation and activity. Material and Methods: The study comprised 148 male (60–75 years) patients from primary care outpatient clinics in the city of Szczecin (Poland). The men were asked to complete a shortened survey questionnaire with sociodemographic data, as well as a shortened version of the IIEF (five items). Venous blood samples were collected. Total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), total cholesterol (ChT), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and albumin were determined. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were calculated. Results: A correlation was found in the analysis of LAP index values (OR = 1.017; p = 0.050). The analysis of hormone concentrations showed a correlation between the diagnosed trait and the value of TT (OR = 1.216; p = 0.046) and SHBG (OR = 1.020; p = 0.007). Conclusions: VAI and LAP have been shown to be good indicators for assessing erectile dysfunction in men over 60 years of age.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137576
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7577: Falls and Preventive Practices among
           Institutionalized Older People

    • Authors: Cristina Lavareda Baixinho, Carla Madeira, Silvia Alves, Maria Adriana Henriques, Maria dos Anjos Dixe
      First page: 7577
      Abstract: The present study about falls among the older adult population essentially explores bio-physiological factors. In light of the complexity of the factors that cause these accidents, it is important to identify the safety and self-care practices of institutionalized older adults and their relationship with falls in order to introduce prevention measures and personalized cognitive–behavioral strategies. The objective of this study was to: (a) determine the frequency of falls and their recurrence among institutionalized older adults, and (b) to associate the occurrence of falls among institutionalized adults with or without cognitive impairment to communication and safety practices. This was a quantitative, correlational, and longitudinal study with 204 institutionalized older adults living in two long-term care facilities in Portugal. The Scale of Practices and Behaviors for Institutionalized Elderly to Prevent Falls was administered to the sample. The prevalence of falls at a 12-month follow-up was 41.6%, of which 38.3% were recurring episodes. Older adults with cognitive decline showed lower mean scores for safety practices. Further research with larger samples should explore the relationships between communication and safety practices and falls, their recurrence, and fear of new falls.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137577
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7578: COVID-19 Victimization Experience and College
           Students’ Mobile Phone Addiction: A Moderated Mediation Effect of
           Future Anxiety and Mindfulness

    • Authors: Lili Chen, Jun Li, Jianhao Huang
      First page: 7578
      Abstract: This study proposed a moderated mediation model to investigate the association between COVID-19 victimization experience and mobile phone addiction, the mediating role of future anxiety, and the moderating role of mindfulness. This study employed the COVID-19 victimization experience scale, the mobile phone addiction scale, a future anxiety scale, and a mindfulness scale in a survey study among Chinese college students; 840 valid questionnaires were received. The reliability and confirmatory factor analysis results showed that all four scales had good reliability and validity. Bootstrap results demonstrated that COVID-19 victimization experience significantly predicted mobile phone addiction in college students (B = 0.202, LLCI = 0.136, ULCI = 0.268). Future anxiety fully mediated the association between COVID-19 victimization experience and mobile phone addiction (B = 0.178, LLCI = 0.136, ULCI = 0.222). Mindfulness moderated the effect of COVID-19 victimization experience on the college students’ future anxiety (B = 0.159, LLCI = 0.007, ULCI = 0.054). A higher level of mindfulness was more likely than a lower level of mindfulness to attenuate the effect of COVID-19 victimization experience on the college students’ future anxiety. These findings broaden our understanding regarding the association between COVID-19 victimization experience and mobile phone addiction and the moderating role of mindfulness.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137578
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7579: Healthy Eating and Mortality among Breast
           

    • Authors: Eunkyung Lee, Vanessa Kady, Eric Han, Kayla Montan, Marjona Normuminova, Michael J. Rovito
      First page: 7579
      Abstract: This systematic review examined the effect of diet quality, defined as adherence to healthy dietary recommendations, on all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Web of Science, Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify eligible studies published by May 2021. We used a random-effects model meta-analysis in two different approaches to estimate pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for highest and lowest categories of diet quality: (1) each dietary quality index as the unit of analysis and (2) cohort as the unit of analysis. Heterogeneity was examined using Cochran’s Q test and inconsistency I2 statistics. The risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for cohort studies, and the quality of evidence was investigated by the GRADE tool. The analysis included 11 publications from eight cohorts, including data from 27,346 survivors and seven dietary indices. Both approaches yielded a similar effect size, but cohort-based analysis had a wider CI. Pre-diagnosis diet quality was not associated with both outcomes. However, better post-diagnosis diet quality significantly reduced all-cause mortality by 21% (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70, 0.89, I2 = 16.83%, n = 7) and marginally reduced breast cancer-specific mortality by 15% (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.62, 1.18, I2 = 57.4%, n = 7). Subgroup analysis showed that adhering to the Diet Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Chinese Food Pagoda guidelines could reduce breast cancer-specific mortality. Such reduction could be larger for older people, physically fit individuals, and women with estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-negative, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive tumors. The risk of bias in the selected studies was low, and the quality of evidence for the identified associations was low or very low due to imprecision of effect estimation, inconsistent results, and publication bias. More research is needed to precisely estimate the effect of diet quality on mortality. Healthcare providers can encourage breast cancer survivors to comply with healthy dietary recommendations to improve overall health. (Funding: University of Central Florida Office of Undergraduate Research, Registration: PROSPERO-CRD42021260135).
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137579
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7580: Developing Village-Based Green Economy in an
           Endogenous Way: A Case Study from China

    • Authors: Lili Li, Yiwu Zeng, Yanmei He, Qiuxia Qin, Jianhao Wang, Changluan Fu
      First page: 7580
      Abstract: The idea of green economy is being taken seriously all over the world. For developing countries, the key to developing green economy is to strike a balance between environmental protection and economic development. As the largest developing country, China has been exploring scientific schemes to deal with the relationship between environmental protection and economic development. Developing rural tourism is an important way to transform ecological advantages into economic benefits. However, the role of rural tourism remains controversial. No scholars have yet provided solutions for village-level practices in developing countries from the perspective of endogenous development theory. Taking Yucun, a village in Zhejiang Province as an example, this paper reveals the endogenous way of green economy development at the village level through the method of case study. It is confirmed that the key to transforming rural ecological advantages into economic benefits is to cultivate the village’s endogenous development capacity, including activating local resources, cultivating local identity, stimulating local participation, and building a collaborative network. Only by implementing the endogenous development mode in rural areas cannot only stimulate the positive role of rural tourism and form a virtuous cycle, but also avoid the negative effects of rural tourism previously pointed out by scholars.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137580
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7581: Research on the Policy Effect and Mechanism
           of Carbon Emission Trading on the Total Factor Productivity of
           Agricultural Enterprises

    • Authors: Junguo Hua, Di Zhu, Yunfei Jia
      First page: 7581
      Abstract: Given the rural revitalization strategy in the new era, agricultural development is faced with the dual constraints of resources and the environment. Promoting the green development of agriculture is one of the important missions to solve major social issues in the new era. The implementation goal of the carbon emission trading system is to achieve a win-win situation between carbon emission reduction and green development. To evaluate the effectiveness of the carbon emission trading system on agricultural enterprises, this paper uses a double-difference model to analyze the policy effect and mechanism research path of the impact of the carbon emission trading system on the total factor productivity of agricultural enterprises. The results based on the panel data of listed agricultural companies from 2010 to 2020 show that (1) carbon emission trading rights have significantly improved the total factor productivity of agricultural enterprises; (2) green innovation in carbon emission trading rights have an impact on the total factor productivity of agricultural enterprises; and (3) heterogeneity analysis shows that the effect of carbon emission trading rights on the total factor productivity of agricultural enterprises mainly exists in large-scale, nonstate-owned, high-debt enterprises, enterprises in the eastern region, and enterprises with government subsidies. Therefore, in the future, China should continue to implement the current carbon emission trading rights system in air pollution control, and at the same time, it needs to be supplemented by government intervention and other means for long-term governance. In conclusion, the study provides a reference value for promoting the realization of the long-term goal of “low carbon” and “high quality” green development of agricultural economy and for making reasonable and effective behavioral decisions for the survival and development of enterprises.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137581
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7582: A Latent Profile Analysis of Precarity and
           Its Associated Outcomes: The Haves and the Have-Nots

    • Authors: Andrea Bazzoli, Tahira M. Probst, Jasmina Tomas
      First page: 7582
      Abstract: A continuing debate on the nature of precarity surrounds its defining characteristics and identification of what constitutes precarity. While early sociological work argued that people either experience precarity or they do not (i.e., the haves and the have-nots), subsequent researchers have gone to great lengths to argue for a more nuanced approach with multiple distinct classes of precarity. Using cross-lagged data from n = 315 U.S. employees collected during the COVID-19 pandemic, we took a person-centered approach to address this central question and uncover latent subpopulations of precarity. Specifically, we conducted a latent profile analysis of precarity using various objective and subjective indicators including perceptions of job insecurity, financial insecurity, prior unemployment experiences, per capita household income, skill-based underemployment, and time-based underemployment. While we anticipated different profiles based on income- vs. employment-based sources of precarity, the best-fitting solution surprisingly comported with Standing’s proposed two-class model. Moreover, membership in the precarious profile was associated with consistently more adverse subsequent outcomes across work, health, and life domains adding to the validity of the obtained two-profile structure. We discuss these results in light of potential loss spirals that can co-occur with the experience of precarity.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137582
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7583: The Effects of School Climate, Parent-Child
           Closeness, and Peer Relations on the Problematic Internet Use of Chinese
           Adolescents: Testing the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem and Depression

    • Authors: Hua Wang
      First page: 7583
      Abstract: Although previous research has investigated the associations among family factors, school factors, peer factors, and problematic Internet use, its causal direction has not been verified, particularly in the Chinese context. Using school-based data, this study aims to explore the possible causal direction among school climate, parent-child closeness, peer relations, and the problematic Internet use of Chinese adolescents. Nine hundred and sixty students in junior and senior high schools participated in a questionnaire survey. The results showed that parent–child closeness, school climate, and peer relations had a significantly direct effect on the problematic Internet use of Chinese adolescents. Meanwhile, the effects of parent-child closeness, school climate, and peer relations on problematic Internet use were mediated by self-esteem and depression. Implications are also discussed to prevent the problematic Internet use of adolescents.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137583
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7584: Recent Advances in Ionic Liquids and Ionic
           Liquid-Functionalized Graphene: Catalytic Application and Environmental
           Remediation

    • Authors: Han Zhou, Shaoyuan Bai, Yanan Zhang, Dandan Xu, Mei Wang
      First page: 7584
      Abstract: Applications of ionic liquids (ILs) for the modification physicochemical properties of porous materials have been extensively studied with respect to various applications based on the understanding and development of properties of ILs. In this review, IL–graphene composites are discussed and provided a perspective of composites of IL. IL has been used as a medium to improve the dispersibility of graphene, and the resulting composite material shows excellent performance in gas separation and catalysis during environmental treatment. The applications of ILs and IL–functionalized graphene are discussed in detail with the actual environmental issues, and the main challenges and opportunities for possible future applications are summarized.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137584
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7585: Perceptions of Smartphone App Use among
           Mothers Raising Young Children

    • Authors: Keum-Hee Jang, Song-Yi Lee
      First page: 7585
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to categorize subjective perceptions of smartphone app use among mothers with young children, derive characteristics of each perception type, and interpret the findings to determine appropriate smartphone use for each perception type. We applied the Q methodology to classify and analyze the types of perceptions of mothers with young children. Ultimately, we selected 40 Q samples by comprehensively analyzing in-depth interviews with mothers of young children and conducting reviews of literature related to smartphone app use. The P samples in the study consisted of 31 mothers. We performed data analysis using the QUANL program. The analysis identified four types of smartphone users: (1) “multi-adapters” who actively utilize functions, (2) “chaos dilemma” users who understand the disadvantages of smartphones but cannot refrain from using smartphone apps, (3) “time-killer dependent” users who utilize apps to relieve temporary stress and anxiety, and (4) “self-development focused users” who pursue positive changes. Based on these findings, we suggest ways in which mothers of young children can utilize smartphone apps in a developmental and appropriate manner.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137585
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7586: Effect of Cloth Masks and N95 Respirators on
           Maximal Exercise Performance in Collegiate Athletes

    • Authors: Matthew E. Darnell, Tyler D. Quinn, Sean P. Carnahan, Tyler Carpenter, Nicholas Meglino, Patrick L. Yorio, Jeanne M. Doperak
      First page: 7586
      Abstract: This study compared exercise performance and comfort while wearing an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (N95), cloth mask, or no intervention control for source control during a maximal graded treadmill exercise test (GXT). Twelve Division 1 athletes (50% female, age = 20.1 ± 1.2, BMI = 23.5 ± 1.6) completed GXTs under three randomized conditions (N95, cloth mask, control). GXT duration, heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcPCO2), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and perceived comfort were measured. Participants ran significantly longer in control (26.06 min) versus N95 (24.20 min, p = 0.03) or cloth masks (24.06 min, p = 0.04). No differences occurred in the slope of HR or SpO2 across conditions (p > 0.05). TcPCO2 decreased faster in control (B = −0.89) versus N95 (B = 0.14, p = 0.02) or cloth masks (B = −0.26, p = 0.03). RR increased faster in control (B = 8.32) versus cloth masks (B = 6.20, p = 0.04). RPE increased faster in the N95 (B = 1.91) and cloth masks (B = 1.79) versus control (B = 1.59, p < 0.001 and p = 0.05, respectively). Facial irritation/itching/pinching was higher in the N95 versus cloth masks, but sweat/moisture buildup was lower (p < 0.05 for all). Wearing cloth masks or N95s for source control may impact exercise performance, especially at higher intensities. Significant physiological differences were observed between cloth masks and N95s compared to control, while no physiological differences were found between cloth masks and N95s; however, comfort my differ.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137586
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7587: Land Use Transition and Eco-Environmental
           Effects in Karst Mountain Area Based on Production-Living-Ecological
           Space: A Case Study of Longlin Multinational Autonomous County, Southwest
           China

    • Authors: Min Wang, Kongtao Qin, Yanhong Jia, Xiaohan Yuan, Shuqi Yang
      First page: 7587
      Abstract: The linkage mechanisms and optimization strategies between land use transition and eco-environmental effects that occur in the production-living-ecological space of karst mountain areas remain under-explored in the current literature. Based on county data collected in Longlin Multinational Autonomous County of Guangxi, which is located in the rocky desertification area of Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guizhou, this study contributes a county-level analysis on land use transition and eco-environmental effects by addressing two research questions: (1) Which factors of land use transition are related to the eco-environmental effects of production-living-ecological space' (2) What are the key land allocation mechanisms behind the interventions of local rocky desertification regulation policies' We conducted two sets of analyses to answer these two questions: quantitative analyses of the spatial and temporal evolution between land use transition, rocky desertification, and its eco-environmental effects, and qualitative analyses of policy interventions on production-living-ecological land development and rocky desertification management. The findings show that the occurrence of rocky desertification accompanied by unreasonable land use structure transition and its important factor is caused by ecological land being restricted by production-living land. Specifically, urbanization strategies coordinating ecological and socio-economic effects is significant to karst mountain areas. Moreover, the orderly increase of woodland slows down rocky desertification. Policies of “returning farmland to forest” and “afforestation of wasteland” have significantly reduced rocky desertification that can be applied to other geographical situations.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137587
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7588: Skin Toxicity of Selected Hair Cosmetic
           Ingredients: A Review Focusing on Hairdressers

    • Authors: Cara Symanzik, Patricia Weinert, Željka Babić, Sarah Hallmann, Martin Stibius Havmose, Jeanne Duus Johansen, Sanja Kezic, Marija Macan, Jelena Macan, Julia Strahwald, Rajka Turk, Henk F. van der Molen, Swen Malte John, Wolfgang Uter
      First page: 7588
      Abstract: The safety assessment of cosmetics considers the exposure of a ‘common consumer’, not the occupational exposure of hairdressers. This review aims to compile and appraise evidence regarding the skin toxicity of cysteamine hydrochloride (cysteamine HCl; CAS no. 156-57-0), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; CAS no. 9003-39-8), PVP copolymers (CAS no. 28211-18-9), sodium laureth sulfate (SLES; CAS no. 9004-82-4), cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA; CAS no. 68603-42-9), and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB; CAS no. 61789-40-0). A total of 298 articles were identified, of which 70 were included. Meta-analysis revealed that hairdressers have a 1.7-fold increased risk of developing a contact allergy to CAPB compared to controls who are not hairdressers. Hairdressers might have a higher risk of acquiring quantum sensitization against cysteamine HCl compared to a consumer because of their job responsibilities. Regarding cocamide DEA, the irritant potential of this surfactant should not be overlooked. Original articles for PVP, PVP copolymers, and SLES are lacking. This systematic review indicates that the current standards do not effectively address the occupational risks associated with hairdressers’ usage of hair cosmetics. The considerable irritant and/or allergenic potential of substances used in hair cosmetics should prompt a reassessment of current risk assessment practices.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137588
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7589: Determination of Critical Power Using
           Different Possible Approaches among Endurance Athletes: A Review

    • Authors: Lucie Lipková, Michal Kumstát, Ivan Struhár
      First page: 7589
      Abstract: Critical power represents an important parameter of aerobic function and is the highest average effort that can be sustained for a period of time without fatigue. Critical power is determined mainly in the laboratory. Many different approaches have been applied in testing methods, and it is a difficult task to determine which testing protocol it the most suitable. This review aims to evaluate all possible tests on bicycle ergometers or bicycles used to estimate critical power and to compare them. A literature search was conducted in four databases (PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) published from 2012 to 2022 and followed the PRISMA guidelines to process the review. Twenty-one articles met the eligibility criteria: records with trained or experienced endurance athletes (adults > 18), bicycle ergometer, a description of the testing protocol, and comparison of the tests. We found that the most widely used tests were the 3-min all-out tests set in a linear mode and the traditional protocol time to exhaustion. Some other alternatives could have been used but were not as regular. To summarize, the testing methods offered two main approaches in the laboratory (time to exhaustion test andthe 3-min all-out test with different protocols) and approach in the field, which is not yet completely standardized.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137589
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7590: Study on the Impact of Income Gap on Health
           Level of Rural Residents in China

    • Authors: Hongpeng Guo, Yang Yang, Chulin Pan, Shuang Xu, Nan Yan, Qingyong Lei
      First page: 7590
      Abstract: With the rapid development of the social economy, health has increasingly become the focus of attention. Therefore, based on the balanced panel data of the China Household Tracking Survey (CFPS) from 2010 to 2018, the Probit model was used to investigate the impact of the income gap in rural areas on residents’ health level, and the relevant influencing mechanism was discussed in this paper. Results: (1) The income gap has a significant negative effect on the health level of rural residents, and the expansion of the income gap will have a more significant impact on the health level of rural residents. (2) The income gap will restrain the health level of rural residents by affecting the family income level and mobility constraints. (3) The restraining effect of the income gap on health formation mainly affects the families of young rural residents, rural male residents, residents with no rental income, and residents with low social capital. This paper analyzes and discusses, from the perspective of income gap, the impact of the income gap on the health status of rural residents in China. Based on the above conclusions, this paper puts forward some feasible suggestions to improve the health level of rural residents.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137590
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7591: Health Communication through Chinese Media on
           E-Cigarette: A Topic Modeling Approach

    • Authors: Qian Liu, Yu Liang, Siyi Wang, Zhongguo Huang, Qing Wang, Miaoyutian Jia, Zihang Li, Wai-Kit Ming
      First page: 7591
      Abstract: Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been a newsworthy topic in China. E-cigarettes are receiving greater consumer attention due to the rise of the Chinese e-cigarettes industry. In the past decade, e-cigarettes have been widely debated across the media, particularly their identity and their health effects. Objective: this study aims to (1) find the key topics in e-cigarette news and (2) provide suggestions for future media strategies to improve health communication. Method: We collected Chinese e-cigarettes news from 1 November 2015 to 31 October 2020, in the Huike (WiseSearch) database, using “e-cigarettes” (Chinese: “电子烟”) as the keyword. We used the Jieba package in python to perform the data cleaning process and the Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic modeling method to generate major themes of the health communication through news content. Main finding: through an analysis of 1584 news articles on e-cigarettes, this paper finds 26 topics covered with 4 themes as regulations and control (n = 475, 30%), minor protection (n = 436, 27.5%), industry activities (n = 404, 25.5%), and health effects (n = 269, 17%). The peak and decline of the number of news articles are affected by time and related regulations. Conclusion: the main themes of Chinese news content on e-cigarettes are regulations and control, and minor protection. Newspapers should shoulder the responsibilities and play an important role in health communication with balanced coverage.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137591
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7592: Elbow Joint Position and Force Senses in
           Young and Adult Untrained People and Gymnasts

    • Authors: Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Stanisław Sawczyn, Kazimierz Kochanowicz, Adam Szulc, Mariusz Zasada, Andrzej Kochanowicz
      First page: 7592
      Abstract: Joint position (JPS) and force senses (FS) are the proprioception modalities. While the development of JPS was investigated both in children/adult and athlete/untrained conditions, there is a lack of insight into the development of FS. Overall, 28 gymnasts and 25 untrained controls underwent proprioception testing. They were divided into two groups: 9 to 11-year-old boys (13 gymnasts and 10 non-athletes) and 18 to 25-year-old adults (15 gymnasts and 15 non-athletes). The testing was performed at an isokinetic dynamometer and included elbow JPS and FS (20% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction) tasks. Children had two times higher error in JPS (p < 0.01) and 50% higher errors in FS of both flexor (p < 0.001) and extensor muscles (p < 0.05) in comparison with adults. Only in the 50% maximal voluntary contraction task, gymnasts showed 33% lower error than the controls (p < 0.01). Untrained boys presented 54%, 132%, and 169% higher error for elbow flexor performance than young gymnasts, untrained adults, and adult gymnasts, respectively (p < 0.01). The 9 to 11-year-old participants were characterized by a lower precision of JPS and FS performance in comparison with adults. Gymnastic training can possibly accelerate the development of FS when higher loads are considered.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137592
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7593: Generalized and Specific Problematic Internet
           Use in Central Siberia Adolescents: A School-Based Study of Prevalence,
           Age–Sex Depending Content Structure, and Comorbidity with
           Psychosocial Problems

    • Authors: Sergey Tereshchenko, Edward Kasparov, Nadezhda Semenova, Margarita Shubina, Nina Gorbacheva, Ivan Novitckii, Olga Moskalenko, Ludmila Lapteva
      First page: 7593
      Abstract: We aimed to assess the prevalence, content structure and, psychological comorbidity of PIU in Russian adolescents. In addition, the design of our research provided an opportunity to compare demographic and psychological patterns of different forms of PIU: generalized (PIUgen) and specific problematic video game use (PUgame), as well as problematic social media use (PUsocial). Methods: This is a one-stage cross-sectional observational study of school sampling in three major Siberian cities. A total of 4514 schoolchildren aged 12–18 (mean age 14.52 ± 1.52 years) were surveyed. The Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents, and the Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify PIU and its types. Results: The prevalence of PIUgen among adolescents in Central Siberia was 7.2%; the prevalence of PUgame was 10.4%; the prevalence of PUsocial was 8.0%. The results of structural equation modelling, as well as the correlation analysis data, suggest two possible patterns of psychosocial problems with PIU—the first one is characteristic of both PIUgen and PUsocial. The second one—which is significantly different—is characteristic of PUgame. Conclusions: Urban adolescents in Central Siberia do not differ significantly from their Asian and European peers. Our findings support the concept of rejecting the term “generalized PIU” as a single psychological construct.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137593
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7594: Sleep Problems and 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin as
           Possible Predictors of Symptom Severity, Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior
           in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    • Authors: Kristina Bartakovicova, Petra Kemenyova, Ivan Belica, Zofia Janik Szapuova, Katarina Stebelova, Iveta Waczulikova, Daniela Ostatnikova, Katarina Babinska
      First page: 7594
      Abstract: In children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), sleep disturbances are a frequent comorbidity with an adverse effect on their behavior and functioning. It was suggested that melatonin deficit is at least partly responsible for the sleep problems. The study aimed to investigate, in a sample of 56 children with ASD aged 2.8–13.3 years, if the sleep problems and melatonin secretion can serve as predictors of adaptive functioning and severity of the ASD core symptoms. We demonstrated that, after adjustment for age, the Sleep score assessed by the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire predicts the Adaptive behavior composite score only in children younger than 6 years, and the preferred predictive model is for the domain Socialization. The age-adjusted Sleep score predicted Externalizing and Internalizing maladaptive behavior, with a near-zero contribution of age to the relationship between the Internalizing maladaptive behavior and Sleep score. After adjustment for age, the reduced night-time melatonin secretion predicted a higher severity of ASD symptoms in the domain Social affect and the Calibrated Severity Score, but not the sleep problems. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing sleep problems as a modifiable predictor of behavior in children with ASD and support the hypothesis about the role of melatonin in pathophysiology of ASD.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137594
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7595: The Management of HIV Care Services in
           Central and Eastern Europe: Data from the Euroguidelines in Central and
           Eastern Europe Network Group

    • Authors: Agata Skrzat-Klapaczyńska, Justyna D. Kowalska, Larisa Afonina, Svitlana Antonyak, Tatevik Balayan, Josip Begovac, Dominik Bursa, Gordana Dragovic, Deniz Gokengin, Arjan Harxhi, David Jilich, Kerstin Kase, Botond Lakatos, Mariana Mardarescu, Raimonda Matulionyte, Cristiana Oprea, Aleksandr Panteleev, Antonios Papadopoulos, Lubomir Sojak, Janez Tomazic, Anna Vassilenko, Marta Vasylyev, Antonija Verhaz, Nina Yancheva, Oleg Yurin, Andrzej Horban
      First page: 7595
      Abstract: Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has been challenging time for medical care, especially in the field of infectious diseases (ID), but it has also provided an opportunity to introduce new solutions in HIV management. Here, we investigated the changes in HIV service provision across Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: The Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe Network Group consists of experts in the field of ID from 24 countries within the CEE region. Between September 11 and September 29, 2021, the group produced an on-line survey, consisting of 32 questions on models of care among HIV clinics before and after the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Results: Twenty-three HIV centers from 19 countries (79.2% of all countries invited) participated in the survey. In 69.5% of the countries, there were more than four HIV centers, in three countries there were four centers (21%), and in four countries there was only one HIV center in each country. HIV care was based in ID hospitals plus out-patient clinics (52%), was centralized in big cities (52%), and was publicly financed (96%). Integrated services were available in 21 clinics (91%) with access to specialists other than ID, including psychologists in 71.5% of the centers, psychiatrists in 43%, gynecologists in 47.5%, dermatologists in 52.5%, and social workers in 62% of all clinics. Patient-centered care was provided in 17 centers (74%), allowing consultations and tests to be planned for the same day. Telehealth tools were used in 11 centers (47%) before the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, and in 18 (78%) after (p = 0.36), but were represented mostly by consultations over the telephone or via e-mail. After the COVID-19 outbreak, telehealth was introduced as a new medical tool in nine centers (39%). In five centers (28%), no new services or tools were introduced. Conclusions: As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, tools such as telehealth have become popularized in CEE countries, challenging the traditional approach to HIV care. These implications need to be further evaluated in order to ascertain the best adaptations, especially for HIV medicine.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137595
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7596: Can the Policy of National Urban
           Agglomeration Improve Economic and Environmental Gains' Evidence from
           Quasi-Natural Experiments with 280 Cities in China

    • Authors: Fanchao Kong, Hongkai Zhang, Xiangyan Meng, Shuai Li, Jia Liu
      First page: 7596
      Abstract: Urban agglomerations are an important symbol in the development of modernization. In this paper, we utilize the National Urban Agglomeration (NUA) policy as a quasi-natural experiment in the Chinese context. Adopting data from 280 cities from 2005 to 2019 as research samples, we use difference-in-differences (DID) and spatial difference-in-differences models (SDID) to examine the effect and mechanism of the implementation of the NUA policy on economic development and environmental pollution in China. The result shows that the NUA policy can achieve urban economic and environmental gains, which still holds after the robustness test. The heterogeneity analysis showed that the effects of the NUA policy are more evident in large and medium-sized cities. The curbing effect of the NUA policy on pollution emissions is apparent in the eastern region. Considering spatial heterogeneity, the expected economic and environmental benefits of the NUA policy are partially borne out. In addition to the green technology innovation, the NUA policy also influences regional economic development and environmental pollution through industrial agglomeration and the upgrading of industrial structures, respectively. It is essential to strengthen regional cooperation and establish the development concept of community interests between cities.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137596
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7597: Effects of Active Breaks on Physical
           Literacy: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study in a Region of Spain

    • Authors: María Mendoza-Muñoz, Violeta Calle-Guisado, Raquel Pastor-Cisneros, Sabina Barrios-Fernandez, Jorge Rojo-Ramos, Alejandro Vega-Muñoz, Nicolás Contreras-Barraza, Jorge Carlos-Vivas
      First page: 7597
      Abstract: Several studies have shown that active breaks (AB) lead to improvements in physical fitness, daily steps taken and participants’ health. However, there are no studies that have evaluated how they affect physical literacy (PL). Aims: Therefore, this study examined the effects of a 4-week recreational AB program based on games whose main objective was to improve motivation and motor skills’ improvement in PL in schoolchildren. Method: A quasi-experimental pilot study was conducted with PL assessments before and after a 4-week recreational AB program. Results: Fifty-seven schoolchildren (10.28 ± 0.43 years) participated in the study, 29 in the control group and 28 in the experimental group. An improvement in PL was found between the experimental and control groups after the intervention (p = 0.017). Moreover, the experimental group also improved (p < 0.001) PL after the intervention. More specifically, within the domain of PL, improvements were found after the intervention in the experimental group in the domains of physical competence (p < 0.001), motivation and confidence (p < 0.001) and knowledge (p < 0.001) but not in the domain of daily activity (p = 0.051). Conclusion: The application of an AB program based on playful games, during four weeks, produced an increase in scores in the general PL level, as well as in the domains of physical competence, motivation, and knowledge and understanding in schoolchildren.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137597
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7598: The Effect of Non-Cognitive Ability on
           Farmer’s Ecological Protection of Farmland: Evidence from Major Tea
           Producing Areas in China

    • Authors: Xiaohuan Wang, Yifei Ma, Hua Li, Caixia Xue
      First page: 7598
      Abstract: Ecological protection of farmland is an important means to reduce agricultural non-point source pollution and improve the quality of agricultural products. As the main body of current agricultural production and operation, the aging labor force has insufficient cognitive ability and low ability to learn actively, which is not conducive to transforming the green output. However, non-cognitive abilities closely related to the acquired environment can promote the elderly farmers’ farmland ecological protection behavior by improving life satisfaction and social adaptability. Based on the above background, using the survey data of 964 farmers in China, the bivariate Probit model was used to empirically test the influence mechanism of non-cognitive ability on the ecological protection behavior of farmland. The study found that non-cognitive ability significantly promoted farmer’s ecological protection of farmland in China. Specifically, the variables of non-cognitive ability, social communication ability, active learning ability, self-efficacy, stress resistance, altruistic tendency and individual resilience were found to significantly promote ecological protection of farmland. Mechanism analysis showed that non-cognitive ability promoted the ecological protection behavior of farmland by expanding social capital, information channels and improving technical value perception. A heterogeneity analysis revealed that non-cognitive ability had a greater impact on ecological protection behavior of farmland in the elderly and low-income groups. Therefore, government should attach importance to improving farmers' non-cognitive abilities, further increase technical publicity, and build a communication platform for farmers in order to promote the ecological protection of farmland.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137598
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7599: Thailand Achievement of SDG Indicator 4.2.1
           on Early Child Development: An Analysis of the 2019 Multiple Indicator
           Cluster Survey

    • Authors: Thitikorn Topothai, Rapeepong Suphanchaimat, Chompoonut Topothai, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Nisachol Cetthakrikul, Orratai Waleewong
      First page: 7599
      Abstract: The early years of a child’s life are the foundation for their future capability development. Poor health, hunger, poverty, low parental education, lack of parental interaction, high screen time, and poor housing environment hamper their development. There is little evidence of a link between early child development (ECD) and sociodemographic factors in Thailand. In response to monitoring the achievement of SDG target 4.2.1 (the proportion of young children who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being) as required by all UN Member States, this study analyses the prevalence of appropriate levels of ECD and its correlates of Thai children aged 3 to 4 years. A cross-sectional study of the 6th Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data in 2019 conducted by the National Statistical Office was employed. Face-to-face interviews with mothers and/or legal guardians were conducted. A total of 5787 children aged 3 to 4 were enrolled in this study. The majority of participants, approximately 92.3%, had achieved an appropriate level of ECD index, defined as children who were developmentally on track in at least three out of these four domains: cognitive, physical, social, and learning. Multivariate logistic regression showed that girls had a higher appropriate development index than boys (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.56, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.28–1.90; children living in the 5th wealth quintile had a higher appropriate index than those in a less well-off family the first wealth quintile (AOR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.86–4.58. Univariate logistic regression showed children living with parents achieving post-secondary education had a significantly greater appropriate index than children living with parents completing secondary education or below (Crude OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.47–2.58); children who had appropriate parental interactions of more than four out of six interactions, had a significantly higher chance of having an appropriate index than less than four interactions (Crude OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.14–2.04). Multi-sectoral policies to support child development in low socio-economic households should be strengthened. In addition, family and community should promote parental interactions through reading and playing with young children. Future studies which directly measure ECD in conjunction with regular monitoring through MICS are recommended.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137599
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7600: Vulnerability Assessment of Farmland
           Groundwater Pollution around Traditional Industrial Parks Based on the
           Improved DRASTIC Model—A Case Study in Shifang City, Sichuan
           Province, China

    • Authors: Yibo Zhang, Hao Qin, Guanping An, Tao Huang
      First page: 7600
      Abstract: In this study, an improved DRASTIC model, including the DRASTIC-LTPD model and the AHP-DRASTIC-LTPD model, with the addition of four extra evaluation factors, including land use type (L), aquifer thickness (T’), aquifer potential (P) and pollution source distance (D’), was constructed and compared to assess the groundwater vulnerability around farmland area in Shuangsheng Industrial Park, Sichuan Province, China. From the vulnerability grading charts of the traditional DRASTIC model, the improved DRASTIC-LTPD model and the AHP-DRASTIC-LTPD model, it showed that the vulnerability presented a lower level in the western and eastern farmland areas, whereas a higher level was in the central industrial park area. This result was consistent with the actual situation where groundwater recharge by rivers, regional land use, and human activities were more active in the middle in these areas. Nevertheless, the area at the same level of vulnerability varied greatly from model to model. The vulnerability index V-level region ratio calculated by the AHP-DRASTIC-LTPD model was 0, indicating that the distribution of vulnerability was smoother without the appearance of extremely good or poor conditions. From the present study, it was revealed that the AHP-DRASTIC-LTPD model could effectively reflect the impact of human activities and dilution on groundwater vulnerability. The adopted AHP method was also of high accuracy to empower the evaluation index leading to a more reliable evaluation results of regional groundwater vulnerability in comparison with the other two models. Therefore, this research could be employed as a reference for the evaluation of groundwater pollution around other similar unplanned industrial parks.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137600
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7601: Parental Burnout and Its Antecedents among
           Same-Sex and Different-Sex Families

    • Authors: Jorge Gato, Anne Marie Fontaine, Filipa César, Daniela Leal, Isabelle Roskam, Moïra Mikolajczak
      First page: 7601
      Abstract: Parental burnout (PB) results from a chronic imbalance between risks and resources and has severe and extended consequences on the wellbeing of parents and their children. Because same-sex (SS) and different-sex (DS) families face partially different stressors (e.g., SS parents are more stigmatized) but have also partially different resources (e.g., more egalitarian task sharing in SS couples), the current research aimed to investigate whether PB differs or not according to family type. Two studies were conducted. In study 1, family type differences in PB were explored among 114 demographically matched SS and DS families from 18 countries. Study 2 further explored the predictive value of family type, age, gender, and balance between risks and resources (BR2) in PB, using a sample of 222 matched SS and DS families. Parental burnout was not associated with family type in either study. Although differentially composed, the global BR2 score did not differ across family type and was a significant predictor of all PB dimensions, while controlling for the effect of family type, age, and gender. Thus, in accordance with reviewed studies, parental sexual identity was not associated with family functioning. Future studies should investigate the impact of specific risks and resources (e.g., social support from chosen social networks or legal climate) on PB levels among SS families.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137601
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7602: Evaluation of Measurement Procedures for
           Solid Particle Number (SPN) Measurements during the Periodic Technical
           Inspection (PTI) of Vehicles

    • Authors: Anastasios Melas, Tommaso Selleri, Ricardo Suarez-Bertoa, Barouch Giechaskiel
      First page: 7602
      Abstract: Periodic technical inspection (PTI) of vehicles guarantees safety and environmental compliance during their lifetime. Particulate matter emissions of diesel vehicles are controlled with opacity measurements. After the introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), particulate matter emissions have drastically decreased and the sensitivity of the opacity method is questioned. Several countries have already or are planning to introduce a solid particle number (SPN) method at their PTI that will either substitute or complement opacity measurements. However, there are differences in the measurement procedures and the limit values. In this study, we compared the different approaches and investigated topics which are still not well defined, such as the uncertainty of the SPN-PTI instruments, repeatability of the procedures, impact of the DPF fill state, and the correlation between type-approval SPN emissions and SPN concentrations during PTI tests. Finally, we compared the SPN-PTI instruments with the opacity meters. Our results showed that SPN-PTI measurements can detect tampered and defective DPFs. We also made suggestions on the measurement procedures and the concentration limit.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137602
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7603: Obesity and COVID-19 in Children and
           Adolescents: Reciprocal Detrimental Influence. Systematic Literature
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Giusy La Fauci, Marco Montalti, Zeno Di Valerio, Davide Gori, Maria Giulia Salomoni, Aurelia Salussolia, Giorgia Soldà, Federica Guaraldi
      First page: 7603
      Abstract: The dramatic lifestyle changes forced by COVID-19-related lockdown promoted weight gain, with a stronger impact on obese subjects, at higher risk of severe infection. The PubMed database was searched to identify original studies assessing: (1) the extent and risk factors of lockdown-induced weight increase; and (2) the impact of obesity on the risk of hospital admission in children and adolescents. A systematic literature review and meta-analyses were performed. Twenty out of 13,986 identified records were included. A significant weight increase was reported in the majority of subjects, with no apparent gender or age differences. It was induced by a higher consumption of hypercaloric/hyperglycemic/junk food and/or the reduction of physical activity, often associated with an altered sleep–wake cycle. On the other hand, obesity increased the risk of hospitalization (OR = 4.38; 95% C.I. 1.46–13.19; p = 0.009; I2 = 96%) as compared to the normal weight population. COVID-19 and obesity represent epidemic conditions with reciprocal detrimental impact. Urgent public health interventions, targeting the various age and social strata, and involving governmental authorities, health care personnel, teachers and families are warranted to increase awareness and actively promote healthy lifestyles to contrast pediatric obesity and its detrimental consequences at a global level.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137603
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7604: COVID-19—What Price Do Children
           Pay' An Analysis of Economic and Social Policy Factors

    • Authors: Stephanie Lange, Claire-Marie Altrock, Emily Gossmann, Jörg M. Fegert, Andreas Jud
      First page: 7604
      Abstract: Numerous studies have addressed the indirect consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for children such as social isolation or increases in reported child maltreatment. Research on the economic and sociopolitical consequences is scarce as they can only be evaluated with a time lag. To improve our understanding of future, long-term developments in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we gathered findings from the still unexploited empirical literature on the aftermath of earlier pandemics, epidemics, and other infectious disease outbreaks. On top of this, we scrutinized research on past economic crises to interpret the link between changes in the economy and the health of children. Many of the side effects of battling the spread of the current pandemic, such as school closures, the stigma of infection, or conflicts about vaccines, are not novel and have already been documented in connection with previous infectious disease outbreaks. Results highlight that changes in the financial situation of families and socio-political challenges affect the situation and daily routine of children and youth in the long term. In consequence, the already pronounced socioeconomic inequalities will likely further increase. On top of this, due to reduced revenues, child protective services are likely to face challenges in the availability of human and financial resources.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137604
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7605: The Association between Urinary Polycyclic
           Aromatic Hydrocarbons Metabolites and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Authors: Xue Wang, Ang Li, Qun Xu
      First page: 7605
      Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be endocrine disruptors. In this study, the evidence on the association between PAHs and diabetes was systematically reviewed. PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science were systematically searched for studies reporting the association between PAHs and diabetes. Of the 698 articles identified through the search, nine cross-sectional studies were included. Seven were conducted in the general population and two in coke oven workers. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to calculate the total effect. Subgroup analysis was further carried out according to the types of PAH metabolites. The results showed that the odds of diabetes were significantly higher for the highest category of urinary naphthalene (NAP), fluorine (FLU), phenanthrene (PHEN), and total mono-hydroxylated (OH-PAH) metabolites compared to the lowest category. The pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.52 (95%CI: 1.19, 1.94), 1.53 (95%CI: 1.36, 1.71), 1.43 (95%CI: 1.28, 1.60), and 1.49 (95%CI: 1.07, 2.08), respectively. In coke oven workers, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OHPh) was significantly correlated with an increased risk of diabetes. Exposure measurements, outcome definitions, and adjustment for confounders were heterogeneous between studies. The results of the current study demonstrate a potentially adverse effect of PAHs on diabetes. Further mechanistic studies and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether PAH metabolite levels are causative, and hence associative, with increased diabetes incidences.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137605
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7606: Shedding Light onto the City Blues
           Myth—The Potential of Stimulating and Activating Effects of Urban
           Public Spaces and the Role of City Relatedness

    • Authors: Lena Lämmle, Eike von Lindern, Dorothee Rummel, Mark Michaeli, Matthias Ziegler
      First page: 7606
      Abstract: The present study aims to investigate whether a sense of relatedness to a city helps to broaden understanding of the restorative potential of urban public spaces. Findings based on a sample of German adults (n = 249) confirm that people experience relatedness to a city. The study’s 3 × 3 (built, mixed, natural environment) × (average, livability environment, bird’s-eye view) design revealed disordinal interactions for being away, fascination, preference, mental fatigue, and stimulating and activating effects associated with cities. This implies that humans’ place perceptions are more complex than previously assumed. Both city and nature relatedness were relevant covariates of these findings. Surprisingly, the construct ‘activating effects’, was found to be mostly perceived as more positive for mixed and built environments compared to natural environments. Thus, complementing restorative environments research by introducing a measure for city relatedness significantly enhances understanding of the potential of urban public spaces for promoting human health and well-being.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137606
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7607: Profile of Subclinical Psychopathy in Spanish
           University Students

    • Authors: Carlos Barbosa-Torres, Mónica Guerrero-Molina, Juan Manuel Moreno-Manso, María Elena García-Baamonde, Natalia Bueso-Izquierdo
      First page: 7607
      Abstract: Psychopaths are portrayed as deceitful, manipulative, domineering and narcissistic; the result of an irregular and irresponsible interpersonal style that harms both the psychopath him/herself and others. Furthermore, psychopathy is frequently associated with both violent and antisocial conduct. However, subclinical psychopaths are known for manifesting this type of profile without committing crimes. The objective of this study is to examine the differences that exist in subclinical psychopathy concerning gender, the number of intimate relationships and the age of the university student. The number of university students participating was 1289. They were given the Integrated/Subclinical Psychopathy Questionnaire (CUPIS). The results show that, in subclinical psychopathy, men present higher scores than women and younger persons have higher scores than older persons. In addition, the scores in psychopathy are higher for students who have had a larger number of intimate relationships. The contributions of this study allow us to determine the profile associated with subclinical psychopathy.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137607
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7608: Exploring the Role of Physical Activity in
           Mediating the Association between Educational Level and Health-Related
           Quality of Life in an Adult Lifespan Sample from Madeira Island

    • Authors: Jesús García-Mayor, Élvio Rúbio Gouveia, Adilson Marques, Ernesto De la Cruz-Sánchez, Antonio Moreno-Llamas, Cíntia França, Bruna R. Gouveia, Andreas Ihle
      First page: 7608
      Abstract: Background: People more socioeconomically vulnerable tend to have a poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Studies are trying to analyse the factors that may condition this relationship, including physical activity (PA), which may influence the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and HRQoL. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between SES and HRQoL through specific domains of PA. Methods: A total of 381 adults (≥18 years) from the Autonomous Region of Madeira completed the measurements. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping methods adjusted for confounding variables were performed to relate SES and HRQoL; the latter was evaluated using the physical component score (PCS) of the SF-12, the mental component score (MCS) of the SF-12, and the total score in the SF-12 questionnaire (SF-12 score), through physical activity. Results: Educational level was positively related to PCS and SF-12 score. Leisure-time PA (not including sports PA) and PA at work, as single mediating variables, did not mediate the relationship between SES and HRQoL. The total PA suppressed the socioeconomic gradient of HRQoL by 8–10%, 39–46%, and 15–16%, respectively, for the PCS, MCS, and the SF-12 score; sports PA mediated the relationship by 13–16%, 50%, and 15–21%, respectively. Conclusions: The results suggest that sports PA contributes to reducing the socioeconomic gradient of HRQoL.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137608
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7609: Is Teledentistry a Method for Optimizing
           Dental Practice, Even in the Post-Pandemic Period' An Integrative
           Review

    • Authors: Andreea Kui, Codruța Popescu, Anca Labuneț, Oana Almășan, Adrian Petruțiu, Mariana Păcurar, Smaranda Buduru
      First page: 7609
      Abstract: Background: For the past two and half years, dentists all across the world, along with their patients, have faced numerous challenges. In this context, the aim of this integrative review was to assess if dentists’ and patients’ attitudes regarding teledentistry (TD) have changed since the COVID-19 outbreak, and if the use of TD will continue to rise, even in the post-pandemic period; (2) Methods: A literature search was performed between August 2021 and January 2022. The PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct databases were searched for articles published between 2012 and 2022 using a combination of the following Mesh terms: “COVID-19”, “pandemic”, “oral telemedicine”, “teledentistry”; (3) Results: Among the 52 included papers, nine papers were published between 2011 and 2019, and 43 articles were published after 2020 (12 were published in 2020, 29 papers were published in 2021, and two in 2022). Among the articles published before 2020, seven out of nine included papers were reviews, and two were original research. Among the 43 papers published after 2020, 18 were reviews and 25 original research. (4) Conclusions: Based on the results of this integrative review, there is clear evidence that the interest in teledentistry and teleassistance in the dental field has increased rapidly, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, while dental practitioners should be encouraged to keep themselves updated about new technologies, patients should also be constantly informed about their options for receiving special oral health care.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137609
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7610: Risk of Attacks by Blackflies (Diptera:
           Simuliidae) and Occurrence of Severe Skin Symptoms in Bitten Patients
           along the Eastern Border of the European Union

    • Authors: Monika Sitarz, Alicja M. Buczek, Weronika Buczek, Alicja Buczek, Katarzyna Bartosik
      First page: 7610
      Abstract: The components of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) saliva secreted during feeding on humans and animals induce various pathological reactions manifested by skin lesions and systemic symptoms. In this study, we describe 43 cases of severe skin lesions induced by blackfly bites and analyze their potential causes. Based on the results of a survey of 418 patients, we identified periods with risk of blackfly attacks and their environmental determinants in the eastern part of the European Union. Especially strong inflammatory reactions after blackfly bites were reported in patients with concomitant cardiovascular diseases (mainly with venous insufficiency), metabolic diseases, and bacterial infections. Enhanced symptoms of simuliosis were also observed in other patients attacked by these insects only once or repeatedly. The greatest number of blackfly attacks in the study area is recorded from May to July, with a peak in June (38.73%) in the afternoon (37.10%) and evening (33.03%), when patients are in fields, forests, or their households. The case analysis indicates interactions of various factors in the development of severe inflammatory reactions in patients bitten by blackflies. Therefore, it is recommended that subjects exposed to the presence of blackflies during their work or rest should limit the length of their stay in a vulnerable environment during the highest seasonal and daily activity of these insects. It is also necessary to take measures to reduce the number of blackflies and popularize methods for prophylaxis of their attacks.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137610
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7611: Medical Education: Patients’
           Perspectives on Clinical Training and Informed Consent

    • Authors: Inês Gil Santos, Cristina Costa Santos, Ivone Duarte
      First page: 7611
      Abstract: There are complex ethical dilemmas inherent to medicine teaching, particularly in clinical practice involving actual patients. Questions must be raised on fulfilling medical students’ training needs while still respecting patients’ fundamental rights to autonomy and privacy. We aimed to assess patients’ perspectives regarding medical students’ involvement in their medical care. An observational, cross-sectional study was developed, and a questionnaire was applied randomly to patients waiting for a consultation/admitted to three distinct departments: General Surgery, Obstetrics/Gynaecology, and Infectious Diseases. Of the 77% interviewed patients who reported previous experiences with medical students, only 59% stated that they were asked for consent for their participation, and 28% stated that students had adequately introduced themselves. Patients from Gynaecology/Obstetrics were the ones who reported lower rates of these practices and were also the ones who were most bothered by students’ presence, stating that they would be more comfortable without the presence of medical students. Male patients received more explanations than female patients regarding the same matters. Thirty-five percent of patients stated that they would feel more comfortable without the medical students’ presence. The study shows a need to pay closer attention to fulfilling patients’ fundamental rights.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137611
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7612: Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on Dietary
           Consumption among Chinese Residents: Evidence from Provincial-Level Panel
           Data

    • Authors: Xiaodong Zheng, Yinglin Wang, Yue Zhang, Tinghe Deng, Yuanzheng Yang
      First page: 7612
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected people’s daily lives, including their dietary behaviors. Using a panel data set of 31 provinces from 2015 to 2020, this study employed two-way fixed effects (FE) models to examine the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on dietary consumption among Chinese residents. The results showed that the COVID-19 pandemic positively affected residents’ consumption of grain, eggs, dairy, and white meat (poultry and aquatic products), while it had a negative effect on individuals’ red meat consumption in both urban and rural areas. These results were robust to different measures of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the number of confirmed cases, suspect cases, and dead cases. Comparatively, the changes in food consumption induced by the COVID-19 pandemic were more prominent for Chinese residents who lived in rural areas than urban areas. In addition, compared to their counterparts, the dietary consequences of the pandemic were more pronounced for residents living in the eastern region and regions with a high old-age dependency ratio and low illiteracy rate. Furthermore, the estimation results of the quantile regression model for panel data suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic had relatively larger impacts on the dietary consumption of Chinese residents at lower quantiles of food consumption compared with those at higher quantiles. Overall, the results of this study suggested that Chinese residents had a healthier diet after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. We discussed possible mechanisms, including health awareness, income, food supply and prices, and other behavioral changes during COVID-19 (e.g., physical activity and cooking). To further improve residents’ dietary behaviors and health, our study proposed relevant measures, such as increasing residents’ dietary knowledge, ensuring employment and income, and strengthening the food supply chain resilience during the pandemic.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137612
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7613: The Relationship between the Outdoor School
           Violence Distribution and the Outdoor Campus Environment: An Empirical
           Study from China

    • Authors: Xidong Ma, Zhihao Zhang, Xiaojiao Li, Yan Li
      First page: 7613
      Abstract: It is widely believed that outdoor environmental design contributes to outdoor violence prevention. To enhance the effectiveness of environmental design, the intrinsic link between the outdoor school violence distribution (OSVD) and the outdoor campus environment (OCE) should be fully considered. For this purpose, this study investigated boarding school L, located in southern Zhejiang Province of China, through a questionnaire and Spatial Syntax theory. Based on the questionnaire marker method (N = 338, 50.59% female), the OSVD was mapped using the kernel density estimation in ArcGIS, including four types of teacher-student conflict: verbal bullying, physical conflict, and external intrusion. The spatial analysis of the OCE (spatial configuration and spatial visibility) then was generated by the DepthmapX, involving four spatial attributes such as integration, mean depth, connectivity, and visibility connectivity. Statistical analysis results indicated the correlation between the OSVD and both the spatial configuration and spatial visibility of the OCE. For the different violence types, there were differences in the impact relationships, with integration being a significant predictor of teacher-student conflict and physical conflict (p < 0.01) and a general predictor of verbal bullying (p < 0.05), while mean depth was a significant predictor of physical conflict (p < 0.01), but not recommended as a predictor of external intrusion. This study explores and predicts the relationship between the OSVD and the OCE, providing guidance and evidence for school violence prevention environmental design. It is a novel attempt, but still challenging and requires more research to refine.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137613
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7614: Association of Received Intergenerational
           Support with Subjective Well-Being among Elderly: The Mediating Role of
           Optimism and Sex Differences

    • Authors: Zixin Pan, Ji-Kang Chen
      First page: 7614
      Abstract: Even though an extensive body of previous research has examined the association between received intergenerational support and the well-being outcomes of older adults in a wide variety of contexts, few studies have been conducted to explore the impacts of intergenerational support on elders’ subjective well-being, especially the intermediary mechanisms in this process. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by exploring the mediating role of optimism in the association between received intergenerational support and subjective well-being among the elderly in China, as well as the sex differences that exist between males and females. The findings show that the intergenerational support received from adult children is positively related to subjective well-being and that this relationship is partly mediated by optimism. Meanwhile, no significant sex difference was found in the interrelations between intergenerational support, optimism, and subjective well-being.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19137614
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 13 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7515: The Association of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and
           Liver Injury in US Adults

    • Authors: Amani Babekir, Sayed Mostafa, Radiah C. Minor, Leonard L. Williams, Scott H. Harrison, Emmanuel Obeng-Gyasi
      First page: 7515
      Abstract: Background: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a ubiquitous obligatory intracellular parasite which infects over 40 million Americans and causes toxoplasmosis. Inside the human body, T. gondii can damage tissues and invade vital organs. Methods: This study evaluated the association of T. gondii infection and liver disease using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, with a sample size of 3371 participants (age 20–80 years). Toxoplasma infection was determined by the level of T. gondii IgG antibody in serum samples. Liver disease was assessed by liver injury biomarkers and the Fatty Liver Index (US-FLI). The evaluation of the association between T. gondii infection and liver disease included the calculation of the Mantel–Haenszel risk ratio (RRMH), Rho-Scott chi-square bivariate analyses, design-based t-tests, and linear and logistic regression models which were adjusted for demographic and anthropometric covariates. Results: Mean levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly more elevated in the T. gondii IgG-positive (IgG+) participants as compared to T. gondii-negative (IgG−) participants, p = 0.0435 and 0.0310, respectively. In linear regression analysis, exposure to T. gondii IgG+ had statistically significant positive associations with AST (p = 0.0211), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p = 0.0221), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (p = 0.0258) after adjusting for BMI, age, gender, and race. T. gondii exposure was associated with an elevated relative risk of chronic liver disease (CLD) (RRMH = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.05–1.51). This association was more pronounced in certain occupations, such as construction, agriculture, forestry, and fishing, where Toxoplasma infection is more common (p = 0.0477). Moreover, Toxoplasma infection increased the odds of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (OR = 6.99, 95% CI = 1.85–26.32, p = 0.0237). Conclusion: T. gondii IgG+ antibody was significantly associated with liver injury biomarkers (ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP) and an increased risk of CLD and NAFLD. Moreover, the association of Toxoplasma with CLD was more evident in specific occupations where the prevalence of Toxoplasma was high. The findings of this study provide insight into utilizing liver biomarkers and US-FLI to assess the health complications of Toxoplasma when imaging tests are not accessible.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127515
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7516: Impact of COVID-19 by Pandemic Wave among
           Patients with Gastroenterology Symptoms in the Emergency Departments at a
           Medical Center in Taiwan

    • Authors: Tony Kuo, Chun-Hao Liu, Cheng-Yu Chien, Chung-Cheng Yeh
      First page: 7516
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected emergency department (ED) usage. This study examines changes in the number of ED visits for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and nonemergency GI conditions, such as acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and constipation, before the pandemic and at the peak and slack periods of the pandemic in Taiwan. This retrospective observational study was conducted at a referral medical center in northern Taiwan. We recorded the number of weekly ED visits for GI bleeding, AGE, and constipation from 2019 to 2021. We then compared the baseline period (calendar weeks 4–18 and 21–31, 2019) with two peak pandemic periods (period 1, calendar weeks 4–18, 2020; period 2, calendar weeks 21–31, 2021) and their corresponding slack periods. The decline in the number of ED visits during the two peak pandemic periods for GI bleeding (−18.4% and −30.2%) were not as substantial as for AGE (−64.1% and −76.7%) or for constipation (−44.4% and −63.6%), but GI bleeding cases were still significantly lower in number relative to the baseline. During the slack period, the number of ED visits for all three diagnoses rebounded but did not exceed the baseline. Our study revealed that there was a significant decline of GI complaint during the pandemic. This phenomenon was more prominent in nonemergency complaints (AGE and constipation) and less prominent in serious complaints (GI bleeding).
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127516
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7517: Pharmacoeconomics Aspects of Antiepileptic
           Drugs in Pediatric Patients with Epilepsy

    • Authors: Dorota Kopciuch, Jędrzej Fliciński, Barbara Steinborn, Anna Winczewska-Wiktor, Anna Paczkowska, Tomasz Zaprutko, Piotr Ratajczak, Elżbieta Nowakowska, Krzysztof Kus
      First page: 7517
      Abstract: Objective: This study assessed the differentiation of treatment costs with newer and older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) through its correlation with treatment effectiveness and an adverse event (AE) in pediatric patients with epilepsy (PPE). Methods: PPE on monotherapy of AEDs for the last 6 months were screened for this study. Seizure frequency during the study was compared with that within 6 months before the study. The following parameters were also assessed: quality of life in epilepsy, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Liverpool AEs Profile. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) analysis based on the costs of pharmacotherapy was also performed. Results: Out of 80 PPE, 67 completed the study, and 13 PPE were lost after failing to meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 56.71% of PPE were on newer AEDs, and 43.28% were on older AEDs. Newer and older AEDs did not differ significantly in seizure frequency reduction and quality of life parameters, although these were improved significantly during the study period. As per ICER, newer AEDs need an additional EUR 36.82 per unit reduction in seizure frequency. Conclusion: Newer AEDs have comparatively better efficacy, although not significantly better than older AEDs. However, the additional cost per unit improvement is quite high with newer AEDs, necessitating pharmacoeconomic consideration in pediatric epilepsy treatment.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127517
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7518: Comprehensive Care after Myocardial
           Infarction (CCMI): Long-Term Investment in the Health of Polish Citizens

    • Authors: Grzegorz Kubielas, Paulina Hydzik, Łukasz Rypicz
      First page: 7518
      Abstract: The comprehensive care model after myocardial infarction (CCMI, in Polish: KOS-Zawał) has been in effect continuously since October 2017. Within the bundle of services financed by the Polish National Health Fund (NHF), patients receive a diagnosis, conservative and invasive treatment, early cardiac rehabilitation and follow-up visits for 12 months. The existing model of managing patients after myocardial infarction (MI) implements all crucial aspects of care recommended by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), emphasised many times. The purpose of this paper was to report and describe the course of the implementation of the unique concept—CCMI model, including the scope of the introduced changes and the implementation and structural evaluation of its effects over the period 2017–2021. Our preliminary study reported that the CCMI programme reduces the risk of patient death in the first year after MI by 29%. Furthermore, the authors point out the strict cause and effect relationship between the cardiovascular disease prevention programme since 2004 as the key instrument for the primary systemic prevention implemented outside the CCMI model.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127518
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7519: The Effects of a Dance and Music-Based
           Intervention on Parkinson’s Patients’ Well-Being: An Interview
           Study

    • Authors: Barbara Colombo, Alison Rigby, Martina Gnerre, Federica Biassoni
      First page: 7519
      Abstract: Previous research has shown the positive effects of music and dance-based interventions on the physical and psychosocial symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate how PD patients subjectively perceive the emotional, cognitive, and social benefits of a music- and dance-based intervention; (2) to apply an innovative methodology for an interview analysis combining findings from a linguistic text with an analytic approach and conducted with the software LIWC and from the content analysis performed by human coders. Extensive, open-ended interviews were conducted with 13 patients with PD who had participated in a dance and music program. The interviews were analyzed using both human coders and the computer-based approach. The results show that emotional and social aspects are considered the most frequent perceived benefits of the dance program. The data confirm the positive impact of dance- and music-based programs on promoting participants’ emotional and social well-being. A combined approach to text analysis appears to be a promising way to achieve more in-depth insights into patients’ subjective perceptions.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127519
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7520: Behavioral Intention and Its Predictors
           toward COVID-19 Booster Vaccination among Chinese Parents: Applying Two
           Behavioral Theories

    • Authors: Meng Zhou, Li Liu, Shu-Yan Gu, Xue-Qing Peng, Chi Zhang, Qi-Feng Wu, Xin-Peng Xu, Hua You
      First page: 7520
      Abstract: The booster vaccination of COVID-19 is being implemented in most parts of the world. This study used behavioral psychology to investigate the predictors of parents’ intentions regarding the COVID-19 booster vaccination for their children. This is a cross-sectional study with a self-designed questionnaire based on two behavioral theories—protective motivation theory (PMT) and theory of planned behavior (TPB). A stratified multi-stage sampling procedure was conducted in Nanjing, China, and multivariable regression analyses were applied to examine the parents’ intentions. The intention rate was 87.3%. The response efficacy (ORa = 2.238, 95% CI: 1.360–3.682) and response cost (ORa = 0.484, 95% CI: 0.319–0.732) in the PMT, were significant psychological predictors of parents’ intentions, and so were the attitude (ORa = 2.619, 95% CI: 1.480–4.636) and behavioral control (ORa = 3.743, 95% CI: 2.165–6.471) in the TPB. The findings of crucial independent predictors in the PMT and TPB constructs inform the evidence-based formulation and implementation of strategies for booster vaccination in children.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127520
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7521: Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of
           Motivation, Anxiety and Leadership in Athletes

    • Authors: Isabel Mercader Rubio, Nieves Gutiérrez Ángel, María Dolores Pérez Esteban, Nieves Fátima Oropesa Ruiz
      First page: 7521
      Abstract: Nowadays, emotional intelligence is not only understood as the recognition of our own emotions but also the regulation of these emotions. In the field of sports, the concept of sports leadership is increasingly relevant, understood as a behavioral and cognitive process closely related to sports success, based on interpersonal relationships, trust, respect and the feeling of coherence. In this study, we intend to analyze the relationship between sports success and emotional intelligence to verify their relationship and the influence of other variables such as sports anxiety. As a sample, we took a total of 165 active sportsmen and women studying for both undergraduate and master’s degrees related to the sciences of physical activity and sport. The expected results aim to demonstrate the relationship between emotional intelligence, sports leadership and sports anxiety.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127521
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7522: Study of the Reliability of Field Test
           Methods for Physical Fitness in Children Aged 2–3 Years

    • Authors: Dandan Ke, Duona Wang, Hui Huang, Xiangying Hu, Jun Sasaki, Hezhong Liu, Xiaofei Wang, Dajiang Lu, Jian Wang, Gengsheng He
      First page: 7522
      Abstract: Physical fitness measures overall physical health. It is the ability of the body to work effectively and stay healthy during leisure and emergencies. Given the progressive integration of 2–3-year-olds into preschool, physical fitness testing of these children has become increasingly important. We aimed to develop and test the reliability of an appropriate field test method for physical fitness in 2–3-year-olds children. One hundred and three children (44 boys and 59 girls) volunteered for this study. Their height and weight were tested, and the same tester conducted the test twice for handgrip strength, 3 m balance walking, stair climbing, 5 m run, and kicking a ball at one-minute intervals. Pearson correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used for reliability testing. The reliability of this field test method for physical fitness was high in the repetitive tests of Chinese 2–3-year-olds for the four items of handgrip strength, 3 m balance walking, stair climbing and 5 m run, and the reliability was moderate for the kicking the ball item. This study indicates that these field-based physical fitness test methods have good reliability and are simple, feasible, safe, and easy to be accepted and understood by 2–3-year-old children; thus, it may be used as a reference for professionals in China and abroad.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127522
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7523: Validation of Content for an App for
           Caregivers of Stroke Patients through the Delphi Method

    • Authors: Ismael Andrades-González, Jesús Molina-Mula
      First page: 7523
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to reach a consensus among experts (using the Delphi technique) to validate the informative content that should be included in an App to be used by informal caregivers of stroke patients in order to improve their quality of life, facilitating access to the health care system and involving them in their own health. This technique was developed between June and December 2021. The group of experts was selected on the basis of previously established criteria, and the coefficient of variation (v) was used as a measure of consensus. In addition, the concordance index was calculated to determine the stability of the different rounds. In the first round, the preliminary content, previously elaborated by the research group, was evaluated as very appropriate for the objectives set (N-P < 1.07). In addition, averages of 4.5 out of five and a coefficient of variation of less than 0.5 were obtained, confirming the consensus. In the second round, suggestions were made by the experts on how to improve the content of the information, obtaining 100% agreement with the results obtained in the first round. The results obtained allow a positive evaluation of the use of the Delphi method for the elaboration of the information to be housed in an App.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127523
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7524: How Diabetes and Other Comorbidities of
           Elderly Patients and Their Treatment Influence Levels of Glycation
           Products

    • Authors: Aleksandra Kuzan, Emilia Królewicz, Irena Kustrzeba-Wójcicka, Karolina Lindner-Pawłowicz, Małgorzata Sobieszczańska
      First page: 7524
      Abstract: Medical care for geriatric patients is a great challenge, mainly due to various overlapping deficits relevant to numerous coexisting diseases, of which the most common are diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. In the case of diabetes, the glycation process is intensified, which accelerates atherosclerosis development and diabetic complications. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between the classical biochemical parameters of diabetes and atherosclerosis, as well as parameters which may indicate a nephropathy, and the parameters strictly related to glycation, taking into account the pharmacological treatment of patients. Methods: We analyzed the patients’ serum concentrations of fluorescent glycation product—pentosidine, concentrations of soluble receptors for advanced glycation products (sRAGE), lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), galectin 3 (GAL3), scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), and scavenger receptor class B (SR-BI), as well as the level of lipid peroxidation and free amine content. Among the identified correlations, the most interesting are the following: sRAGE with triglycerides (r = 0.47, p = 0.009), sRAGE with SR-BI (r = 0.47, p = 0.013), SR-BI with LOX-1 (r = 0.31, p = 0.013), and SR-BI with HDL (r = −0.30, p = 0.02). It has been shown that pentosidine and reactive free amine contents are significantly higher in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease. Pentosidine is also significantly higher in patients with arterial hypertension. Malondialdehyde turned out to be higher in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 that was not treated with insulin or metformin than in those treated with both medications (p = 0.052). GAL3 was found to be lower both in persons without diabetes and in diabetics treated with metformin (p = 0.005). LOX-1 was higher in diabetic patients not treated with metformin or insulin, and lowest in diabetics treated with both insulin and metformin, with the effect of metformin reducing LOX-1 levels (p = 0.039). Our results were the basis for a discussion about the diagnostic value in the clinical practice of LOX-1 and GAL3 in geriatric patients with diabetes and also provide grounds for inferring the therapeutic benefits of insulin and metformin treatment.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127524
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7525: Anxiety towards COVID-19, Fear of Negative
           Appearance, Healthy Lifestyle, and Their Relationship with Well-Being
           during the Pandemic: A Cross-Cultural Study between Indonesia and Poland

    • Authors: Shally Novita, Dhini Andriani, Erika, Mariusz Lipowski, Małgorzata Lipowska
      First page: 7525
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to massive changes in almost all aspects of human life, including emotional states such as anxiety and fear, perspectives about healthy lifestyles, and psychological outcomes. This study aimed to disentangle the mechanisms that underlie the relationships of anxiety towards COVID-19 and fear of negative appearance with well-being, we also investigated the effects of cultural variations on levels of anxiety, fear of negative appearance, healthy lifestyles, and well-being. A total of 881 Indonesians (n = 172) and Poles (n = 709) participated in this study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological well-being, anxiety, fear of negative appearance, compulsive exercise, and eating disorders. Multigroup structural equation modelling (SEM) was used. The results showed no statistically meaningful relationship between anxiety towards COVID-19 and well-being. However, it was found that, in the Polish sample, compulsive exercise and eating disorders mediated the relationship between fear of negative appearance and well-being. Cultural differences were also found in the mean scores of all examined constructs, with eating disorders being an exception. Therefore, this study highlights cultural aspects that determine emotional states, healthy lifestyles, and well-being.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127525
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7526: Healthy Mobile Work: The Relationship of a
           Participative Work Agreement and Workplace Health Management-Qualitative
           Results of a Longitudinal Study

    • Authors: Marlies Jöllenbeck, Olivia Maloku, Ines Berling, Tjorven Stamer, Elke Ochsmann
      First page: 7526
      Abstract: Mobile work is becoming increasingly common, and it has been, consequently, associated with new health-related hazards and resources. Our study examined health-related stresses, strains and resources of mobile work in a medium-sized company. The study aimed to generate implications for a work agreement and for workplace health management (WHM). For this, a multi-method longitudinal study (2019–20) was conducted, with 29 focus group and 6 individual interviews (absolute number of all participants N = 187). It was designed as a qualitative content analysis and theoretically based on the job demands-resources model (JD-R). Positive effects (e.g., increased work–life balance, higher concentration), as well as negative consequences (e.g., alienation in the team, communication effort), can be found. Numerous fields of action for both the work agreement and WHM could be identified. For example, the work agreement regulates the equipment for working from home with support from WHM in order to ensure occupational health-oriented selection and handling, or by fixing core working hours through the work agreement and supporting competence building for leaders in order to enable flexible work commitments for employees. Self-organised work at home can be supported both by rules in the service agreement and by building up self-management skills through the WHM’s offers. The findings illustrate that a work agreement can make a relevant contribution to a healthy design of mobile work by systematically linking it with WHM. The synergies between work agreement, employee health and WHM become clear.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127526
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7527: Gait Alteration Due to Haemophilic
           Arthropathies in Patients with Moderate Haemophilia

    • Authors: Alban Fouasson-Chailloux, Fabien Leboeuf, Yves Maugars, Marc Trossaert, Pierre Menu, François Rannou, Claire Vinatier, Jérome Guicheux, Raphael Gross, Marc Dauty
      First page: 7527
      Abstract: Some patients with moderate haemophilia (PWMH) report joint damage potentially responsible for gait disorders. Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) is a relevant tool for the identification of complex musculoskeletal impairment. We performed an evaluation with 3DGA of 24 PWMH aged 44.3 ± 16.1 according to their joint status [Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) < 10 or HJHS ≥ 10] and assessed the correlation with the radiological and clinical parameters. Sixteen had HJHS < 10 (group 1) and eight had HJHS ≥ 10 (group 2). They were compared to 30 healthy subjects of a normative dataset. Both knee and ankle gait variable scores were increased in group 2 compared to the controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). The PWMH of group 2 had a significant increase in their stance phase, double support duration, and stride width compared to the controls and group 1 (p < 0.01). Very low correlations were found for the ankle gait variable score with the ankle Pettersson sub-score (r2 = 0.250; p = 0.004) and ankle HJHS sub-score (r2 = 0.150; p = 0.04). For the knee, very low correlation was also found between the knee gait variable score and its HJHS sub-score (r2 = 0.290; p < 0.0001). Patients with moderate haemophilia presented a gait alteration in the case of poor lower limb joint status.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127527
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7528: Association between Age-Friendliness of
           Communities and Frailty among Older Adults: A Multilevel Analysis

    • Authors: Jixiang Xu, Yingwei Chen, Yujie Wang, Junling Gao, Limei Huang
      First page: 7528
      Abstract: An age-friendly environment is one of the measures of healthy aging. However, there is scarce evidence of the relationship between the age-friendliness of communities (AFC) and frailty status among Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine this relationship using a multilevel analysis with the data of a cross-sectional study conducted among 10,958 older adults living in 43 communities in four cities in China. The validated Age-friendly Community Evaluation Scale and Chinese frailty screening-10 Scale (CFS-10) were used to measure AFC and Frailty. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between the AFC in two assessments of individual- and community-level and frailty status. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic, health status, and lifestyle variables, compared with older adults in the lowest quartile of the individual-level perception of AFC, the frailty odds ratios for those in the top three quartiles were 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.83), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.61–0.91), and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.48–0.74). However, there was no association between the community-level AFC and frailty. A higher level of age-friendliness in the community is associated with lower frailty odds. Therefore, building age-friendly communities may be an important measure to prevent frailty among Chinese older adults.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127528
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7529: “Immuni” and the National Health
           

    • Authors: Silvia Ussai, Marco Pistis, Eduardo Missoni, Beatrice Formenti, Benedetta Armocida, Tatiana Pedrazzi, Francesco Castelli, Lorenzo Monasta, Baldassare Lauria, Ilaria Mariani
      First page: 7529
      Abstract: Since the early stage of the current pandemic, digital contact tracing (DCT) through mobile phone apps, called “Immuni”, has been introduced to complement manual contact tracing in Italy. Until 31 December 2021, Immuni identified 44,880 COVID-19 cases, which corresponds to less than 1% of total COVID-19 cases reported in Italy in the same period (5,886,411). Overall, Immuni generated 143,956 notifications. Although the initial download of the Immuni app represented an early interest in the new tool, Immuni has had little adoption across the Italian population, and the recent increase in its download is likely to be related to the mandatory Green Pass certification for conducting most daily activities that can be obtained via the application. Therefore, Immuni failed as a support tool for the contact tracing system. Other European experiences seem to show similar limitations in the use of DTC, leaving open questions about its effectiveness, although in theory, contact tracing could allow useful means of “proximity tracking”.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127529
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7530: High Emotional Demands at Work and Poor
           Mental Health in Client-Facing Workers

    • Authors: Chunhui Suh, Laura Punnett
      First page: 7530
      Abstract: This study investigated the association between emotional demands and depression or anxiety in a wide range of jobs. We used data from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (n = 50,032) for all occupational classifications, with no limitations placed on job title or employment type. Among the full set of regular paid workers in addition to self-employed, unpaid family workers, and informal employees such as independent contractors, 23,989 respondents worked with “customers, passengers, students, or patients” (i.e., clients). Emotional demands were evaluated using two questions: handling angry clients and needing to hide feelings for work performance. Any depression or anxiety over the last 12 months was taken to indicate poor mental health. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to calculate adjusted ORs with 95% confidence intervals for the influence of emotional demands on mental health, adjusting for demographic factors (age, gender, education, income), occupational psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, weekly work hours and job insecurity. The prevalence of emotional demands was higher in self-employed and informal employees than in regular paid employees. The more frequent the exposure to the two emotional demands combined was, the higher the risk of depression or anxiety. High psychological demands, low social support, and low job security each further increased the risk of poor mental health. Emotional demands turned out to be widespread in the entire economy, were not limited to service or sales occupations, and were more evident in precarious work. The contribution of emotional demands and other preventable job stressors to the burden of depression or anxiety in society may be substantial.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127530
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7531: Long-Term Effect of Vibration Therapy for
           Training-Induced Muscle Fatigue in Elite Athletes

    • Authors: Yufan Chu, Qiming Wang, Muyan Chu, Baofeng Geng, Huanguang Jia, Xiaolong Li, Tao Lv, Shuyi Jiang
      First page: 7531
      Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the long-term effect of vibration therapy with holistic and local intervention in treating muscle fatigue in elite athletes during their intensive training season. Methods: Study participants included five male athletes from a provincial Greco-Roman wrestling team who were qualified for the finals of China’s national games. During the study, conventional therapeutic intervention was applied during the initial three weeks of the study, and an instrument intervention was adopted in the following three weeks. A surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to measure muscle fatigue of latissimus dorsi, both before and after each intervention session. Specifically, the pre-intervention measurement was conducted right after the daily training completion; and the post-intervention measurement occurred in the following morning. The data analyses were to compare the differences in the muscle fatigue data between the two modes of interventions, conventional and instrument therapy. Results: The conventional intervention showed no significant difference in the sEMG indexes before and after the intervention; while for the instrument intervention, the pre- and post- intervention sEMG indexes differed significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The long-term effects of instrument vibration therapy on muscle fatigue recovery were studied based on observational data from elite athletes. The results indicate that the vibration therapy with holistic and local consideration demonstrated an effective reduction of muscle fatigue and/or fatigue accumulation in elite athletes during their intensive training season.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127531
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7532: COVID-19 Pandemic Psychological Impact and
           Volunteering Experience Perceptions of Medical Students after 2 Years

    • Authors: Esperanza L. Gómez-Durán, Carles Martin Fumadó, Aina M. Gassó, Sandra Díaz, Andrea Miranda-Mendizabal, Carlos G. Forero, Montserrat Virumbrales
      First page: 7532
      Abstract: Undergraduate healthcare students were mobilized to support healthcare systems during the COVID-19 pandemic, but we have scarce information regarding their experience and its impact on their wellbeing. An anonymous online survey was conducted among undergraduate students and recently graduated physicians of a medical university in Spain, regarding their symptoms and volunteering experience during the initial months of the Spanish COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents showed a high prevalence of perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, measured by the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. 14.5% reported healthcare-related volunteering tasks. Volunteering was a satisfactory experience for most of the respondents and the majority felt ready to do volunteering tasks (66.6%). Yet, 16.6% acknowledged not getting appropriate specific-task education before starting, 20.8% reported not having appropriate supervision, and 33.3% feel they did not have proper protective equipment. More than half of volunteers feared getting infected, more than 70% feared infecting their relatives or friends, and 54.2% reported stigmatization. Volunteers showed significantly higher stress, anxiety, and depression scores than the rest of the respondents, and 32% reported a highly traumatic event during volunteering, with high scores on the IES-R in the 16% of volunteers. Our results should help guide future potential volunteering processes in emergencies, enhance academic programs at medical schools and provide valuable data for psychological support services.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127532
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7533: Dynamic Variation of Ecosystem Services Value
           under Land Use/Cover Change in the Black Soil Region of Northeastern China
           

    • Authors: Quanfeng Li, Lu Wang, Guoming Du, Bonoua Faye, Yunkai Li, Jicheng Li, Wei Liu, Shijin Qu
      First page: 7533
      Abstract: A better understanding of the dynamic variation in the ecosystem service value (ESV) under land use/cover change (LUCC) is conductive to improving ecosystem services and environmental protection. The present study took Landsat TM/ETM remote sensing images and socio-economic statistic data as data sources and extracted land-use data using RS and GIS technology at 5-year intervals from 1990 to 2020. Then, we interpreted the spatio-temporal characteristics of LUCC and analyzed ESV changes using the value equivalence method in the black soil region of northeastern China (BSRNC). The main results showed that land use changed significantly during the study period. Cultivated land continued to expand, especially paddy areas, which increased by 1.72 × 106 ha, with a relative change of 60.9% over 30 years. However, grassland decreased by 2.47 × 106 ha, with a relative change of −60.6% over 30 years. The ESV showed a declining trend, which decreased by CNY 607.96 million during 1990–2020. The decline in forest and grassland caused a significant decline in the ESV. Furthermore, the ESV sensitivity coefficients were less than one for all of the different categories of ecosystem services. LUCC has a considerable impact on ESV in the BSRNC, resulting in ecosystem function degradation. As a result, future policies must emphasize the relationship between food security and environmental protection in situations of significant land-use change.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127533
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7534: Air Quality, Pollution and Sustainability
           Trends in South Asia: A Population-Based Study

    • Authors: Saima Abdul Jabbar, Laila Tul Qadar, Sulaman Ghafoor, Lubna Rasheed, Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz, Muzna Sarfraz, Miguel Felix, Ivan Cherrez-Ojeda
      First page: 7534
      Abstract: Introduction: Worsening air quality and pollution lead to numerous environmental health and sustainability issues in the South Asia region. This study analyzes India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal for air quality data trends and sustainability indicators. Methodology: By using a population-based study design, six South Asian countries were analyzed using a step-wise approach. Data were obtained from government websites and publicly available repositories for region dynamics and key variables. Results: Between 1990 and 2020, air quality data indicated the highest rise in CO2 emissions in India (578.5 to 2441.8 million tons) (MT), Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. Greenhouse gas emissions, from 1990 to 2018, nearly tripled in India (1990.4 to 3346.6 MT of CO2-equivalents), Nepal (20.6 to 54.6 MT of CO2-equivalents), and Pakistan, and doubled in Bangladesh. Methane emissions rose the highest in Pakistan (70.4 to 151 MT of CO2-equivalents), followed by Nepal (17 to 31 MT of CO2-equivalents) and India (524.8 to 669.3 MT of CO2-equivalents). Nitrous oxide nearly doubled in Bangladesh (16.5 to 29.3 MT of CO2-equivalents), India (141.6 to 256.9 MT of CO2-equivalents), Nepal (17 to 31 MT of CO2-equivalents), and more than doubled in Pakistan (27 to 61 MT of CO2-equivalents). On noting particulate matter 2,5 annual exposure, India saw the highest rise from 81.3 µg/m3 (in 1990) to 90.9 µg/m3 (2017), whereas trends were steady in Pakistan (60.34 to 58.3 µg/m3). The highest rise was noted in Nepal (87.6 to 99.7 µg/m3) until 2017. During the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic, the pre-and post-pandemic changes between 2018 and 2021 indicated the highest PM2.5 concentration in Bangladesh (76.9 µg/m3), followed by Pakistan (66.8 µg/m3), India (58.1 µg/m3), Nepal (46 µg/m3) and Sri Lanka (17.4 µg/m3). Overall, South Asian countries contribute to the worst air quality and sustainability trends regions worldwide. Conclusions: Air pollution is prevalent across a majority of South Asia countries. Owing to unsustainable industrial practices, pollution trends have risen to hazardous levels. Economic, environmental, and human health impacts have manifested and require urgent, concerted efforts by governing bodies in the region.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127534
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7535: Livelihood Capital Effects on Famers’
           Strategy Choices in Flood-Prone Areas—A Study in Rural China

    • Authors: Yibin Ao, Ling Tan, Qiqi Feng, Liyao Tan, Hongfu Li, Yan Wang, Tong Wang, Yunfeng Chen
      First page: 7535
      Abstract: The global climate change has resulted in huge flood damages, which seriously hinders the sustainable development of rural economy and society and causes famers’ livelihood problems. In flood-prone areas, it is imperative to actively study short and long-term strategies and solve farmers’ livelihood problems accordingly. Following the sustainable development analysis framework proposed by the Department for International Development (DFID), this study collects empirical data of 360 rural households in six sample villages in the Jialing River Basin of Sichuan Province, China through a village-to-household field questionnaire and applies the Multinominal Logit Model (MNL) to explore the influence of farmer households’ capital on livelihood strategy choice. Research results show that: (1) In human capital category, the education level of the household head has a significant positive impact on the livelihood strategies of farmers’ families; (2) In physical capital category, farmer households with larger space have more funds to choose among flood adaptation strategies; (3) In natural capital category, house location and the sale of family property for cash have the greatest negative impact on farmers’ livelihood strategies; (4) Rural households with more credit opportunities in financial capital are more willing to obtain emergency relief funds; (5) Farmers’ families helped by the village for a long time will probably not choose to move to avoid floods, but are more likely to choose buying flood insurance. This study provides an empirical reference for effective short and long term prevention and mitigation strategies design and application in rural in flood-prone areas.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127535
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7536: The Impact of Air Pollution on
           Residents’ Happiness: A Study on the Moderating Effect Based on
           Pollution Sensitivity

    • Authors: Xuan Tian, Cheng Zhang, Bing Xu
      First page: 7536
      Abstract: Promoting people’s happiness is a vital goal of public policy, and air pollution, as the focus of public opinion, is an important influencing factor of residents’ happiness. Although previous literature has explored the relationship between air pollution and happiness, the impact of pollution sensitivity on the relationship has so far received little attention. This paper uses the 2016 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey database (CLDS) to study the impact of air pollution on personal happiness and dissects the moderating effect of air pollution sensitivity from the stock and incremental perspectives. The results found that (1) there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between air pollution and residents’ happiness, such that happiness increases and then decreases with increasing air pollution. The PM10 concentration at the turning point is 119.69 μg/m3, which exceeds the national secondary standard limit (70 μg/m3) by 70.99% and is at the intermediate stage of mild pollution, exceeding the WHO recommended standard (20 μg/m3) by 498.45%, far higher than the international standard recommended level; (2) both air pollution stock sensitivity and incremental sensitivity have a significant positive moderating effect on the relationship between air pollution and happiness, and pollution sensitivity exacerbates the negative effect of air pollution on residents’ happiness by shifting the curve turning point to the left and steepening the curve shape; (3) in addition, the effect of air pollution on different groups is significantly heterogeneous, with lower-age and male groups more likely to have lower happiness due to air pollution; the positive moderating effect of pollution sensitivity is more significant in lower-age, female, and higher-income groups. Therefore, in order to enhance residents’ happiness, the government should not only improve air quality, but also focus on helping residents establish an appropriate subjective perception of air quality.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127536
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7537: Female Homicide in Italy in 2021: Different
           Criminological and Psychopathological Perspectives on the Phenomenon

    • Authors: Claudio Terranova, Laura Marino, Francesco Pozzebon
      First page: 7537
      Abstract: The intentional homicide of female victims, which is most commonly perpetrated by intimate partners or family members, has been recognized in recent years as a matter of grave public concern that needs to be addressed from the cultural and judicial perspectives. To allow an in-depth criminological and psychopathological evaluation of female homicide in Italy in 2021 to be conducted, the authors performed a newspaper report analysis of the phenomenon. All female homicides that occurred in Italy in 2021 (n = 119) were included in the study. The analysis confirmed the low rate of female homicides in Italy when compared with other countries and also showed the phenomenon to be more complex than usually described. The highest rate of homicides was observed in elderly females when compared with other age groups, implying different criminological considerations and suggesting that gender-based violence may only explain some of the identified cases. The high incidence of suicide or attempted suicide among offenders, together with the high incidence of reported mental disorders in that population, suggests that a psychopathological perspective on the phenomenon of female homicide could help with the development and implementation of preventive strategies that focus on managing mental health at a territorial level and intervening in difficult domestic situations.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127537
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7538: Value Realization and Optimization Path of
           

    • Authors: Ning Wang, Caiyao Xu, Fanbin Kong
      First page: 7538
      Abstract: In the last decade, more and more attention has been paid to the efficiency of ecological products’ value in the literature. Studying the value-conversion efficiency of forest ecological products can measure and reflect the huge value contained in forests, which is of great significance to promote the transformation between “clear water and green mountains” and “gold and silver mountains” as well as solve the problem of economic development and environmental protection. Studying the value-conversion efficiency of forest ecological products can scientifically evaluate the results of the mutual transformation of “clear water and green mountains” and “gold and silver mountains”, which is of great significance for deepening the theory of the “two mountains”. This paper took Zhejiang Province as the research object, constructed an index system of forest ecological products’ value accounting, used the super-SBM model and Malmquist index to calculate the conversion efficiency of forest ecological products’ value, and proposed optimization paths according to the research results. The results showed that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the value of forest ecological products in Zhejiang Province showed a fluctuating upward trend. In 2020, the total value of forest ecological products was RMB 973.717 billion. Among them, the value of material products was RMB 12.560 billion, the value of ecological regulatory products was RMB 726.323 billion, and the value of cultural service products was RMB 234.834 billion. (2) There were great differences in the value-conversion efficiency of forest ecological products among cities in Zhejiang Province, but the overall trend was steady and developing in a positive direction. (3) The total-factor productivity of forest ecological products in Zhejiang Province showed a fluctuating trend, and its growth was mainly limited by the technical efficiency and technological progress index. (4) The main reasons for the conversion-efficiency loss of forest ecological products’ value in Zhejiang Province were excessive input and insufficient output. The specific reasons for the loss of efficiency in different cities were different, so it is necessary to find improvement paths according to local conditions. Our research provides a new perspective for the academic community to evaluate the value-realization effect of ecological products as well as a decision-making reference for policy makers of ecological environmental protection and construction.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127538
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7539: Health-Promoting Behavior and Lifestyle
           Characteristics of Students as a Function of Sex and Academic Level

    • Authors: Carsten Müller, Kareem El-Ansari, Walid El El Ansari
      First page: 7539
      Abstract: University students frequently engage in unhealthy behaviors. However, there is a lack of studies examining a wide range of their lifestyle characteristics by sex and academic level of study. This cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in BSc, MSc, or PhD programs at one university in Germany (N = 3389) assessed physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), nutrition, sleep quality, and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use by sex and academic level and was conducted with EvaSys version 8.0. Chi-squared tests compared categorical variables by sex, and binary logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex with Bonferroni adjustments evaluated differences across academic level. Although 91% of students achieved the aerobic PA guidelines, only 30% achieved the muscle strengthening exercises (MSE) guidelines, and 44% had high SB. Likewise, <10% met the fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) recommendations, >40% of students experienced impaired sleep, and >30% had hazardous alcohol consumption. Less than 20% of the sample achieved the guideline/recommendation of all three PA, MSE and SB. Some behaviors exhibited significant sex and academic level differences. The identified at-risk groups included males (lower FVC), females (eating more during stress), and BSc students (poorer nutrition/sleep quality, more ATOD use). Given the above findings, multipronged strategies are needed with an overarching focus highlighting the health–academic achievement links. Behavioral interventions and environmental policies are required to raise awareness and promote student health.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127539
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7540: Research on the Heterogeneity of Carbon
           Emissions under the Government’s Promotion of Urban Agglomeration
           Development: Empirical Evidence from County-to-District Reforms

    • Authors: Jing Jin, Duozhang Chen
      First page: 7540
      Abstract: County-to-district reform (CTDR) is an important policy path for the government to promote the cultivation and construction of urban agglomerations, and exploring its “carbon emission” effect is of great significance for the high-quality development of urban agglomerations and the realization of the “dual carbon” goal. Based on the panel data of 120 counties in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration from 2000–2017, this paper empirically tests the effect of county-to-district reforms on per capita carbon emissions in the counties of the central and peripheral cities of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration under the Kutznets curve (EKC) hypothesis and the integrated difference-in-difference (DID) model and STIRPAT model. The results show that: (1) The carbon emission effect of county-to-district reforms have significant regional heterogeneity. The reforms of the central city of the urban agglomeration significantly reduced the per capita carbon emission of the county by 4.27%, whereas the reforms of the periphery cities of the urban agglomeration significantly increased per capita carbon emission by 6.56%. (2) The impact of county-to-district reforms on county per capita carbon emissions began to appear in the fourth year of reform. (3) Mechanism analysis showed that county-to-district reforms promoted central cities population agglomeration and reduction of carbon emission intensity can help reduce the per capita carbon emission level in counties, whereas peripheral cities have a dual carbon-increasing effect of decreasing population density and increasing carbon emission intensity. Therefore, the approval of county-to-district reforms should be strictly controlled, and the reform of non-central cities would be especially prudent, so as to reduce the negative effect of reform on the high-quality development of cities.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127540
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7541: A Review of the Respiratory Health Burden
           Attributable to Short-Term Exposure to Pollen

    • Authors: Nur Sabrina Idrose, Caroline J. Lodge, Bircan Erbas, Jo A. Douglass, Dinh S. Bui, Shyamali C. Dharmage
      First page: 7541
      Abstract: Respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect millions worldwide and pose a significant global public health burden. Over the years, changes in land use and climate have increased pollen quantity, allergenicity and duration of the pollen season, thus increasing its impact on respiratory disease. Many studies have investigated the associations between short-term ambient pollen (i.e., within days or weeks of exposure) and respiratory outcomes. Here, we reviewed the current evidence on the association between short-term outdoor pollen exposure and thunderstorm asthma (TA), asthma and COPD hospital presentations, general practice (GP) consultations, self-reported respiratory symptoms, lung function changes and their potential effect modifiers. The literature suggests strong evidence of an association between ambient pollen concentrations and almost all respiratory outcomes mentioned above, especially in people with pre-existing respiratory diseases. However, the evidence on sub-clinical lung function changes, COPD, and effect modifiers other than asthma, hay fever and pollen sensitisation are still scarce and requires further exploration. Better understanding of the implications of pollen on respiratory health can aid healthcare professionals to implement appropriate management strategies.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127541
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7542: Identifying the Psychometric Properties of
           

    • Authors: Mohd Helma Rusyda, Nor Ba’yah Abdul Kadir, Wan Nur Khairunnisa Ismail, Siti Jamiaah Abdul Jalil, Nurul-Azza Abdullah, Arena Che Kasim, Suzana Mohd. Hoesni, Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf
      First page: 7542
      Abstract: The Malay version of the WHOQOL-BREF was published approximately 15 years ago. Since then, no known research has been conducted to identify the psychometric properties of the scale using confirmatory factor analysis. This study aimed to establish a model by applying a scientific approach to the translation and adaptation method. The back translation technique was used for the translation process. This cross-sectional study involved 282 employees at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The instrument received satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha reliability values. The data were analysed with SEM using AMOS. Results showed that the model produced is parsimonious, with CMIN/df = 0.23, CFI = 0.93, SRMR = 0.08, RMSEA = 0.08 and PCLOSE = 0.07. Adopting the Malay version of the WHOQOL-BREF for future research is highly recommended due to its properties.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127542
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7543: Factors Associated with Colorectal Polyps in
           Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    • Authors: Song-Seng Loke, Seng-Kee Chuah
      First page: 7543
      Abstract: Colorectal polyps are the precursor lesions of most colorectal cancers. This study aimed to evaluate associations between bone mineral density (BMD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and gastrointestinal diseases with colorectal polyps in middle-aged and elderly populations. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using data from the health examination database of a tertiary medical center in southern Taiwan in 2015. Subjects aged 50 years and older who had been assessed for metabolic factors and had undergone colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (DEXA) were included. Factors associated with colorectal polyps were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. In total, 1515 subjects were included, with mean age 60.1 years. Among them, 710 (46.9%) had colorectal polyps. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high fasting glucose (OR = 1.08, p = 0.001), high triglycerides (OR = 1.02, p = 0.008), high total cholesterol (OR = 1.004, p = 0.009), reflux esophagitis (OR = 1.44, p = 0.002), duodenal polyps (OR = 1.75, p = 0.026), gastric ulcer (OR = 1.38, p = 0.024), duodenal ulcers (OR = 1.45, p = 0.028), osteopenia (OR = 1.48, p = 0.001), and MetS (OR = 1.46, p < 0.001) were independently associated with colorectal polyps. In conclusion, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, MetS, duodenal polyps, gastric and duodenal ulcers, reflux esophagitis, and low BMD are independent risk factors associated with colorectal polyps in the middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese population.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127543
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7544: Healthcare-Acquired Infection Surveillance in
           Neurosurgery Patients, Incidence and Microbiology, Five Years of
           Experience in Two Polish Units

    • Authors: Elżbieta Rafa, Małgorzata Kołpa, Marta Zofia Wałaszek, Adam Domański, Michał Jan Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
      First page: 7544
      Abstract: Introduction: Patients in neurosurgical units are particularly susceptible to healthcare-associated infections (HAI) due to invasive interventions in the central nervous system. Materials and methods: The study was conducted between 2014 and 2019 in neurosurgery units in Poland. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology and microbiology of HAIs and to assess the effectiveness of surveillance conducted in two hospital units. Both hospitals ran (since 2012) the unified prospective system, based on continuous surveillance of HAIs designed and recommended by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (protocol version 4.3) in the Healthcare-Associated Infections Surveillance Network (HAI-Net). In study hospitals, HAIs were detected by the Infection Prevention Control Nurse (IPCN). The surveillance of healthcare infections in hospital A was based mainly on analysis of microbiological reports and telephone communication between the epidemiological nurse and the neurosurgery unit. HAI monitoring in hospital B was an outcome of daily personal communication between the infection prevention and control nurse and patients in the neurosurgery unit (HAI detection at the bedside) and assessment of their health status based on clinical symptoms presented by the patient, epidemiological definitions, microbiological and other diagnostic tests (e.g., imaging studies). In hospital A, HAI monitoring did not involve personal communication with the unit but was rather based on remote analysis of medical documentation found in the hospital database. Results: A total of 12,117 patients were hospitalized. There were 373 HAIs diagnosed, the general incidence rate was 3.1%. In hospital A, the incidence rate was 2.3%, and in hospital B: 4.8%. HAI types detected: pneumonia (PN) (n = 112, 0.9%), (urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 108, 0.9%), surgical site infection (SSI) (n = 96, 0.8%), bloodstream infection (BSI) (n = 57, 0.5%), gastrointestinal system infection (GI) (n = 13, 0.1%), skin and soft tissue (SST) (n = 9, 0.1%). HAI with invasive devices: 44 ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) cases (45.9/1000 pds with ventilator); catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI): 105 cases (2.7/1000 pds with catheter); central venous catheter (CVC-BSI): 18 cases (1.9/1000 pds with CVC). The greatest differences between studied units were in the incidence rate of PN (p < 0.001), UTI (p < 0.001), and SSI (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The way HAIs are diagnosed and qualified and the style of work of the infection control team may have a direct impact on the unit epidemiology with the application of epidemiological coefficients. Prospective surveillance run by the infection prevention and control nurse in hospital B could have been associated with better detection of infections expressed in morbidity, especially PN and UTI, and a lower risk of VAP. In hospital A, the lower incidence might have resulted from an inability to detect a UTI or BSI and less supervision of VAP. The present results require further profound research in this respect.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127544
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7545: An Exploratory Assessment of Factors with
           Which Influenza Vaccine Uptake Is Associated in Hungarian Adults 65 Years
           Old and Older: Findings from European Health Interview Surveys

    • Authors: Gergő József Szőllősi, Nguyen Chau Minh, Cornelia Melinda Adi Santoso, Judit Zsuga, Attila Csaba Nagy, László Kardos
      First page: 7545
      Abstract: Influenza vaccination is an imperative public health task for elderly people due to a higher risk of developing more severe complications. The main aim of our study was to determine the influencing factors of being vaccinated against influenza among subjects aged 65 and above. Data were from the Hungarian implementations of the European Health Interview Survey 2009, 2014 and 2019 studies with a final sample size of 3355. A multivariate logistic regression model with interactions was used to identify the possible factors associated with vaccination. Approximately 32% of the participants were vaccinated for the most recent influenza season. The most important factors were identified that contributed to influenza vaccination among individuals, which were the following: educational attainment, having a partner, the annual frequency of specialist and doctor visits, and having comorbidities. Respondents who thought that they could do a lot for their health had higher odds of being immunized. Being obese seemed to be a risk factor. According to our findings, the current influenza vaccination coverage was considered as low in Hungary; hence, the implementation of minor reformulations in the field of health policy is suggested.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127545
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7546: Predictors of Weight-Control Behavior in
           Healthy Weight and Overweight Korean Middle-Aged Women

    • Authors: Ae-Kyung Chang, Sun-Hui Kim
      First page: 7546
      Abstract: Although obesity level is considered to influence weight-control behavior, few studies have examined how predictors of weight-control behavior differ according to obesity level. We compared the predictors of weight-control behavior in healthy weight and overweight middle-aged Korean women. This study used a comparative cross-sectional design. In total, 352 middle-aged women (131 overweight and 221 healthy) who visited community centers in eight Korean cities participated in the study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires concerning perceived health, body dissatisfaction, health-related concerns, self-esteem, and weight-control behavior. Scores for weight-control behavior in the overweight group were higher than those in the healthy weight group. Stepwise multiple regression showed that health-related concerns, body dissatisfaction, socioeconomic status, and self-esteem predicted weight-control behavior in the overweight group. Perceived health, socioeconomic status, meal regularity, health-related concerns, and age predicted weight-control behavior in the healthy weight group. The findings indicate that nursing strategies should differ according to obesity level to improve weight-control behavior in middle-aged women. In community or clinical settings, nurses are advised to develop customized weight control programs based on obesity levels in middle-aged women.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127546
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7547: Non-Ionic Surfactant Recovery in Surfactant
           Enhancement Aquifer Remediation Effluent with Chlorobenzenes by
           Semivolatile Chlorinated Organic Compounds Volatilization

    • Authors: Patricia Sáez, Aurora Santos, Raúl García-Cervilla, Arturo Romero, David Lorenzo
      First page: 7547
      Abstract: Surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation is a common treatment to remediate polluted sites with the inconvenience that the effluent generated must be treated. In this work, a complex mixture of chlorobenzene and dichlorobenzenes in a non-ionic surfactant emulsion has been carried out by volatilization. Since this techhnique is strongly affected by the presence of the surfactant, modifying the vapour pressure, Pv0, and activity coefficient, γ, a correlation between Pvj0γj and surfactant concentration and temperature was proposed for each compound, employing the Surface Response Methodology (RSM). Volatilization experiments were carried out at different temperatures and gas flow rates. A good agreement between experimental and predicted remaining SVCOCs during the air stripping process was obtained, validating the thermodynamic parameters obtained with RSM. Regarding the results of volatilization, at 60 °C 80% of SVCOCs were removed after 6 h, and the surfactant capacity was almost completely recovered so the solution can be recycled in soil flushing.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127547
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7548: Towards the Validation of an Observational
           Tool to Detect Impaired Drivers—An Online Video Study

    • Authors: Tanja Baertsch, Marino Menozzi, Signe Maria Ghelfi
      First page: 7548
      Abstract: Abuse of alcohol and other drugs is a major risk factor at work. To reduce this risk, workplace drug testing is performed in transportation and other industries. VERIFY, an observational method, is one of the key elements in a procedure adopted by the police of the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, for detecting impaired drivers. The observational method has been successfully applied by adequately trained police officers since 2014. The aim of this study is to examine the interrater reliability of the observational method, the effect of training in use of the method, and the role of having experience in the police force and traffic police force on the outcome when rating a driver’s impairment. For this purpose, driver impairment in staged road traffic controls presented in videos was rated by laypeople (n = 81), and police officers without (n = 146) and with training (n = 172) in the VERIFY procedure. In general, the results recorded for police officers with training revealed a moderate to very good interrater reliability of the observational method. Among the three groups, impaired drivers were best identified by officers with training (ranging between 82.6% and 89.5% correct identification). Trained officers reported a higher impairment severity of the impaired drivers than the other two groups, indicating that training increases sensitivity to signs of impairment. Our findings also suggest that online video technology could be helpful in identifying impaired drivers. Trained police officers could be connected to a road traffic control to make observations via live video. By this method efficiency and reliability in detecting abuse of alcohol and other drugs could be improved. Our findings also apply to workplace drug testing in general.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127548
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7549: Improvements of Warning Signs for Black Ice
           Based on Driving Simulator Experiments

    • Authors: Ghangshin Lee, Sooncheon Hwang, Dongmin Lee
      First page: 7549
      Abstract: Black ice is one of the main causes of traffic accidents in winter, and warning signs for black ice are generally ineffective because of the lack of credible information. To overcome this limitation, new warning signs for black ice were developed using materials that change color in response to different temperatures. The performance and effects of the new signs were investigated by conducting driver behavior analysis. To this end, driving simulator experiments were conducted with 37 participants for two different rural highway sections, i.e., a curve and a tangent. The analysis results of the driving behavior and visual behavior experiments showed that the conventional signs had insufficient performance in terms of inducing changes in driving behavior for safety. Meanwhile, the new signs actuated by weather conditions offered a statistically significant performance improvement. Typically, driver showed two times higher speed deceleration when they fixed eyes on the new weather-actuated warning sign (12.80 km/h) compared to the conventional old warning sign (6.84 km/h) in the curve segment. Accordingly, this study concluded that the new weather-actuated warning signs for black ice are more effective than the conventional ones for accident reduction during winters.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127549
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7550: Pesticide Exposure in Relation to the
           Incidence of Abnormal Glucose Regulation: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    • Authors: Sung-Kyung Kim, Hyun-Jung Oh, Sung-Soo Oh, Sang-Baek Koh
      First page: 7550
      Abstract: Diabetes and prediabetes (called abnormal glucose regulation (AGR)) are adverse health effects associated with exposure to pesticides. However, there are few epidemiological studies on the relationship between pesticide use and the incidence of AGR. We examined the causal relationship between pesticide use and AGR incidence in a rural population using data from a Korean Farmers’ Cohort study of 1076 participants. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to calculate the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to estimate the relationship between pesticide exposure and AGR. The incidence of AGR in the pesticide-exposed group was 29.1%. Pesticide use increased the RR of AGR (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03–1.69). We observed a low-dose effect related to exposure of pesticides to AGR and a U-shaped dose–response relationship in men. Pesticide exposure is related to the incidence of AGR, and the causal relationship differs between men and women.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127550
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • IJERPH, Vol. 19, Pages 7551: Spatial Inequalities and Influencing Factors
           of Self-Rated Health and Perceived Environmental Hazards in a Metropolis:
           A Case Study of Zhengzhou City, China

    • Authors: Hongbo Zhao, Li Yue, Zeting Jia, Lingling Su
      First page: 7551
      Abstract: Research on environmental pollution and public health has aroused increasing concern from international scholars; particularly, environmental hazards are among the important issues in China, focusing public attention on significant health risks. However, there are few studies concentrated on how perceived environmental hazards are characterized by spatial variation and on the impact of these risks on residents’ health. Based on a large-scale survey of Zhengzhou City in 2020, we investigated how the self-rated health of residents and the environmental hazards perceived by them were spatially inequal at a fine (subdistrict) scale in Zhengzhou City, China, and examined the relationship among self-rated health, environmental hazards, and geographical context. The Getis–Ord Gi* method was applied to explore the spatially dependent contextual (neighborhood) effect on environmental health inequality, and the ordered multivariate logistic regression method was used to examine the correlative factors with environmental hazards, geographical context, and health inequality. The results reveal that self-rated health and environmental hazards were disproportionately distributed across the whole city and that these distributions showed certain spatial cluster characteristics. The hot spot clusters of self-rated health had favorable environmental quality where the hot spot clusters of environmental hazards were located and vice versa. In addition, health inequality was evident and was related to gender, income level, educational attainment, and housing area of residents, and the inequalities of environmental hazards existed with respect to income and housing area. Meanwhile, environmental risk inequalities associated with the social vulnerability of residents (the poor and those with low educational attainment) were obvious, with those residents experiencing a disproportionately high exposure to environmental hazards and reporting bad health conditions. The role of the geographical context (subdistrict location feature) also helps to explain the spatial distribution of health and environmental inequalities. Residents with better exposure to green coverage generally reported higher levels of self-rated health condition. In addition, the geographical location of the subdistrict also had a significant impact on the difference in residents’ self-rated health status. The purpose of this study is to provide reference for policy makers to optimize the spatial pattern of urban public services and improve public health and environmental quality at a fine scale.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      PubDate: 2022-06-20
      DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19127551
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 12 (2022)
       
 
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