Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 960 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (58 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 85)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Boletín Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Casopis Slezskeho Zemskeho Muzea - serie A - vedy prirodni     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
China Population, Resources and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access  
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access  
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Developments in Atmospheric Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Earth Surface Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Environmental Modelling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Divulgación Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dynamiques Environnementales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 214)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Engineering : X     Open Access  
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 483)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 343)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.323
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 38  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0762 - ISSN (Online) 0340-5443
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Year-round spatial distribution and migration phenology of a rapidly
           declining trans-Saharan migrant—evidence of winter movements and
           breeding site fidelity in European turtle doves

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Populations of migratory bird species have suffered a sustained and severe decline for several decades. Contrary to non-migratory species, understanding the causal mechanisms proves difficult (for migratory bird species) as underlying processes may operate across broad geographic ranges and stages of the annual cycle. Therefore, the identification of migration routes, wintering grounds, and stopover sites is crucial for the development of relevant conservation strategies for declining migrant bird species. We still lack fundamental data of the non-breeding movements for many migratory species, such as European turtle doves Streptopelia turtur, a trans-Saharan migrant. For this species, knowledge of non-breeding movements is mainly based on ringing data that are limited by a low recovery rate in Africa, and tracking studies with a strong bias towards individuals breeding in France. We used Argos satellite transmitters to obtain detailed year-round tracks and provide new insights on migration strategies and winter quarters, of turtle doves breeding in Central and Eastern Europe. The tracking data along with analysis of land cover data confirm previously assumed use of multiple wintering sites and the use of a wide range of forest and agricultural landscapes at the breeding grounds. Tracking data in combination with environmental parameters demonstrated that most environmental parameters and niche breadth differed between breeding and wintering grounds. “Niche tracking” was only observed regarding night-time temperatures. Furthermore, we provide evidence for breeding site fidelity of adult individuals and for home range size to increase with an increasing proportion of agricultural used areas. Significance statement The European turtle dove, a Palearctic-African migrant species, is one of the fastest declining birds in Europe. The rapid decline is presumed to be caused mainly by habitat modification and agricultural changes. Here, we represent data on migration strategies, flyways, and behavior on European breeding and African non-breeding sites of turtle doves breeding in Central and Eastern Europe equipped with satellite transmitters. Our results confirm the use of different migration flyways and reveal an indication for “niche switching” behavior in terms of environmental factors during the different annual phases. The migratory behaviors revealed by the tracking approach, e.g., prolonged stopovers during autumn migration in Europe overlapping with time of hunting activities, stopovers in North Africa during spring migration, or evidence for loop migration, are important protection-relevant findings, particularly for the Central-Eastern flyway, for which no tracking data has been analyzed prior to our study.
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
       
  • Comparison of digital photography and spectrometry for evaluating colour
           perception in humans and other trichromatic species

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Digital photography and spectrometry are widely used for colour measurement, but both methods have a number of advantages and disadvantages. Comparative studies can help determine the most appropriate method for quantifying animal colour perception, but few have attempted to compare them based on colour model conversion. Here we compare colour measurements from digital photography and spectrometry in a controlled standard experimental environment using the three-dimensional colour space model CIE L*a*b* which is designed to approximate colour perception in humans and assess the repeatability and agreement of the two methods. For digital photography, we first extracted RGB values from each colour patch and transferred these to L*a*b* values using colour model conversion. For spectrometry, we measured the spectral reflectance (SR) value and subsequently transferred SR values to L*a*b* values. Using a consensus of correlation analysis, intraclass correlation coefficients, concordance correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman analysis, we found that although spectrometry showed a slightly higher repeatability than photography, both methods were highly repeatable and showed a strong agreement. Furthermore, we used Bland-Altman analysis to derive the limits of agreement, which can be used as criteria for identifying when photography and spectrometry could be as a suitable alternative for measuring colour perception in humans and other trichromatic species. We suggest that our workflow offers a practical and logical approach that could improve how we currently study colour perception in trichromats. Significance statement Measuring colour efficiently and accurately is necessary for investigating the evolutionary biology of colour perception in animals. Digital photography and spectrometry are two methods widely used for colour measurement, but there are benefits and limitations to using either method. Comparative studies based on colour model conversion are therefore critical for helping researchers determine which method is most appropriate. Here we test the repeatability and agreement of the two measuring methods using standard colour patches, as a comparative case study of broader interest in measuring colour perception in humans and similar primates. Our results demonstrate that both methods are highly repeatable, and the two methods may be used interchangeably to measure colour perception in humans under experimental conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-10-08
       
  • How does host social behavior drive parasite non-selective evolution from
           the within-host to the landscape-scale'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Social interactions with conspecifics are key to the fitness of most animals and, through the transmission opportunities they provide, are also key to the fitness of their parasites. As a result, research to date has largely focused on the role of host social behavior in imposing selection on parasites, particularly their virulence and transmission phenotypes. However, host social behavior also influences the distribution of parasites among hosts, with implications for their evolution through non-random mating, gene flow, and genetic drift, and thus ability to respond to that selection. Here, we review the paucity of empirical studies on parasites, and draw from empirical studies of free-living organisms and population genetic theory to propose several mechanisms by which host social behavior potentially drives parasite evolution through these less-well studied mechanisms. We focus on the guppy host and Gyrodactylus (Monogenea) ectoparasitic flatworm system and follow a spatially hierarchical outline to highlight that social behavior varies between individuals, and between host populations across the landscape, generating a mosaic of ecological and evolutionary outcomes for their infecting parasites. We argue that the guppy-Gyrodactylus system presents a unique opportunity to address this fundamental knowledge gap in our understanding of the connection between host social behavior and parasite evolution. Individual differences in host social behavior generates fine-scale changes in the spatial distribution of parasite genotypes, shape the size, and diversity of their infecting parasite populations and may generate non-random mating on, and non-random transmission between hosts. While at population and metapopulation level, variation in host social behavior interacts with landscape structure to affect parasite gene flow, effective population size, and genetic drift to alter the coevolutionary potential of local adaptation. Significance statement Social interactions between animals shape the evolution of the pathogens that infect them. Most research exploring this phenomenon has focused on the selection such interactions impose, but social hosts also shape parasite evolution by determining the ability of their parasites to respond to that selection. Here, we explore how host social behavior drives parasite evolution by shaping non-random mating, gene flow, and genetic drift, from the scale of the individual to the landscape. The relative strength of these evolutionary mechanisms can have striking implications for the evolution of parasite traits such as virulence and alter the evolutionary trajectories of populations across the landscape. We emphasize the importance of studies combining parasite population genetics, host social behavior, and landscape processes to illuminate complex host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics.
      PubDate: 2021-10-06
       
  • Parasite infection impairs the shoaling behaviour of uninfected shoal
           members under predator attack

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: A key benefit of sociality is a reduction in predation risk. Cohesive group behaviour and rapid collective decision making are essential for reducing predation risk in groups. Parasite infection might reduce an individuals’ grouping behaviours and thereby change the behaviour of the group as a whole. To investigate the relationship between parasite infection and grouping behaviours, we studied groups of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, varying the number of individuals experimentally infected with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. We studied groups of six sticklebacks containing 0, 2, 3, 4 or 6 infected individuals before and after a simulated bird attack. We predicted that infected individuals would have reduced shoaling and swimming speed and that the presence of infected individuals within a group would reduce group cohesion and speed. Uninfected fish increased shoaling and reduced swimming speed more than infected fish after the bird attack. In groups containing both infected and uninfected fish, the group behaviours were dominated by the more frequent character (uninfected versus infected). Interestingly, groups with equal numbers of uninfected and infected fish showed the least shoaling and had the lowest swimming speeds, suggesting that these groups failed to generate a majority and therefore displayed signs of indecisiveness by reducing their swimming speed the most. Our results provide evidence for a negative effect of infection on a group’s shoaling behaviour, thereby potentially deteriorating collective decision making. The presence of infected individuals might thus have far-reaching consequences in natural populations under predation risk. Significance statement Parasite-infected individuals often show deviating group behaviours. This might reduce the anti-predator benefits of group living. However, it is unknown whether such deviations in group behaviour might influence the shoaling behaviour of uninfected group members and thereby the behaviour of the group as a whole. By experimentally infecting sticklebacks and investigating groups varying in infection rates, we show that infected sticklebacks differ in their shoaling behaviours from uninfected sticklebacks. Additionally, the presence of infected sticklebacks within the group affected the behaviour of uninfected shoal members. We show that shoals of infected fish are less cohesive and move slower compared to shoals of uninfected fish. Furthermore, we show that the infection rate of the shoal is crucial for how the group behaves.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
       
  • Disturbance cues facilitate associative learning of predators in a coral
           reef fish

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Aquatic prey can gauge predation risk using chemical information, including chemical alarm cues — released when prey are injured, disturbance cues — released when prey are threatened, or the odour of the predator itself. While a lot of work has focused on alarm cues, disturbance cues remained poorly studied in freshwater systems, and has been virtually omitted in marine ones. In the current study, we document the first evidence of disturbance cue use in a marine fish. Juvenile damselfish Pomacentrus nagasakiensis were exposed to cues from undisturbed or disturbed conspecifics, a water control (negative control) and conspecific alarm cues (positive control). Juveniles displayed increased antipredator responses when exposed to alarm cues and disturbed conspecifics, but not when exposed to undisturbed ones. In addition, we demonstrated that disturbance cues, just like alarm cues, could mediate learned predator recognition, a phenomenon undemonstrated in freshwater fishes. Given disturbance cues are thought to be comprised of nitrogenous waste, it has been hypothesised that the constant and dilute release of such products in the hypotonic freshwater environment results in a high level of ‘background chemical’ noise masking subsequent releases. Extending this hypothesis, we propose that in the marine environment, disturbance cues are more easily detected due to low background noise. Significance statement Prey animals must accurately assess their current predation risk. Aquatic prey rely on chemical cues to gain information on risk. These cues can include odours released when nearby prey are damaged or disturbed, or the odour of a known predator. Prey exposed to a novel odour for the first time must learn if the odour is an indication of risk or benign. This is accomplished when the odour of a known risk (e.g. cues released from a damaged individual) is paired with a novel odour (e.g. a novel predator). In the current paper, we show for the first time that coral reef fishes can use disturbance cues (cues released when prey are chased or otherwise disturbed) as a ‘known risk’ and when paired with a novel odour, are subsequently able to respond to the novel odour when presented alone.
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
       
  • Decoupling of female phonotaxis and mating propensity in a tree cricket

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: In species where males use long-distance acoustic signals for mate attraction, male mating success is typically attributed to condition-dependent male signalling and female mate choice in response to the variation in male signal quality. However, condition-dependent female response to male signals might also affect male mating success, especially in orthopteran insects, where mating pair formation usually depends on a female successfully performing phonotaxis in response to a signalling male. Female motivation to engage in mate search and mating will depend on the associated costs and benefits, which can in turn be influenced by female condition. In this study, we assessed the role of adult female condition, including diet and mating status, in determining female mate search and mating propensity in the polyandrous tree cricket, Oecanthus henryi, where mating involves nuptial feeding of females by males. We also investigated the effect of female diet and mating status on mating behaviour, including female latency to mount males (LM), courtship feeding duration (CFD) and spermatophore attachment duration (SPAD). We found that female mating status is an important determinant of motivation to perform phonotaxis to male calls. We also observed a distinct decoupling of phonotactic and re-mating propensity in mated females. While most O. henryi females re-mated readily within and across nights, the phonotactic propensity of mated females dropped significantly compared to virgins. Female diet, however, did not affect their phonotactic and mating behaviour. Mated females had longer LM and shorter CFD and SPAD, suggesting lower fitness for males when paired with mated females. Significance statement This study illustrates a condition-dependent decoupling of female mate search and mating behaviour through the longitudinal assessment of reproductive behaviour in Oecanthus henryi females. We establish female mating status as a key determinant of female motivation to perform phonotaxis, interestingly decoupled from the motivation to mate. Tree cricket females typically find mates by locating the calling songs of signalling males (phonotaxis). Our results suggest that the low proportion of phonotactically active females observed in wild O. henryi populations may reflect their mated status. Low proportion of actively searching females in a population could lead to stronger sexual selection pressure on males and consequent emergence of alternative male reproductive strategies. The reduced phonotaxis, increased latency to mount and reduced spermatophore attachment duration in non-virgin females may be due to either male suppression of female responses, indicating sexual conflict, or greater pre- and post-copulatory female choice.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Social thermoregulation in Mediterranean greater white-toothed shrews
           (Crocidura russula)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Social thermoregulation is the huddling of two or more individuals that share endogenous warmth to reduce thermoregulation costs. Strategies vary widely depending on the species’ social behavior and the ambient ecological conditions. In greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula), huddling is employed in communal nests only in the colder months, which suggests that temperature is an important factor in the species’ social thermoregulation strategy. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the behavior and physiology of five groups of shrews from winter, acclimated to 14 °C, and four groups from summer, acclimated to 24 °C. Each group consisted of six captive males that were first housed singly for 2 days and later allowed to interact with other shrews of the same group. Our analysis revealed all group mates were frequently found huddling in the same shelter, regardless of acclimation temperature. However, mass-adjusted resting metabolic rate decreased in winter shrews with larger huddle sizes and remained constant in summer shrews in huddles with three or more individuals. Body temperature was also significantly lower and more varied in winter shrews. After being group-housed, winter shrews used less torpor and significantly increased their body mass and food intake in the first days. Our results suggest that temperature had a small influence in huddling behavior but a large one in physiological factors, such as metabolism, body temperature, and food intake, after shrews started interacting socially. Therefore, social thermoregulation provides benefits to C. russula besides energy savings. Significance statement Small mammals often huddle to reduce thermoregulation costs during cold. Previous studies in wild greater white-toothed shrews suggested that this species only employs social thermoregulation in the colder months of the year. We captured wild shrews and assessed the energetic advantages of this social thermoregulation strategy under controlled conditions. We confirmed that social thermoregulation indeed has more energetic benefits to shrews in winter than in summer. However, huddling between individuals still occurs at warm temperatures, when energetic benefits are no longer significant. Such observations suggest that huddling is advantageous to shrews in multiple ways beyond thermoregulation. Furthermore, social interaction between individuals influenced daily torpor, body mass, and feeding, further supporting the hypothesis that sociality in greater white-toothed shrews has direct and indirect effects on their energy budget.
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
       
  • Female polyandry dilutes inbreeding in a solitary fast-living hibernator

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Inbreeding depression is commonly considered an evolutionary influence on pre-copulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance. Inbreeding may be minimized by: (1) delayed maturation and reproduction, (2) sex-biased dispersal, (3) behavioural avoidance of mating with relatives, and/or (4) mating by females with multiple males (polyandry). Time constraints on reproduction and limited opportunities for outbred matings may limit mate choice, forcing females to mate with relatives and favouring multiple paternity to reduce the costs of inbred matings. Using parentage, relatedness, and spatial genetic analyses, we studied genetic mating system, dispersal and inbreeding patterns in a wild partially isolated colony of the yellow ground squirrels (Spermophilus fulvus), fast-living hibernators. Females were phylopatric, while males dispersed within the colony. Nevertheless, male-biased dispersal could not completely separate closely related males and females, and the potential risk of inbreeding was high, in particular due to early maturation of males — some of them matured before dispersal. Females did not mate assortatively with respect to relatedness of males, mating both with close kin and non-kin, and 38% of sire-mother pairs were closely related (coefficient of relatedness > 0.125). Multiple paternity was common (56% of all litters), and multiply sired litters combined offspring from inbred and outbred matings. Parents of singly sired litters were mostly unrelated. The overall level of inbreeding was low. We conclude that, under strong time constraints on reproduction and mate choice, females do not mate selectively with unrelated males. However, multiple paternity dilutes inbred matings effectively enough to maintain the overall low level of inbreeding. Significance statement Models predict that inbreeding should be more common in nature than is observed. Time constraints on reproduction and low availability of mates should make females tolerant of inbreeding, while multiple mating partners of females can help them reduce its costs. Based on observations in a free-living colony of the yellow ground squirrel, Spermophilus fulvus, a hibernator with a fast pace of life, we report high rates of inbred matings in females who have limited mate choice and face severe time constraints on reproduction. However, multiple paternity observed in more than half of females reduced the average relatedness between partners and, therefore, among their offspring, resulting in the overall low inbreeding within the colony. This is a new evidence for inbreeding tolerance under limited mate choice and female polyandry as a bet-hedging strategy against inbreeding.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
       
  • Brighter is better: bill fluorescence increases social attraction in a
           colonial seabird and reveals a potential link with foraging

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) are colonial seabirds with brilliant orange bills during the breeding season. We characterized the bill pigment with spectroscopy methods (resonance Raman, fluorescence, absorbance). We excluded carotenoids as a possible chromophore and showed that the pigment most closely resembles pterins. Like pterins, the bill pigment fluoresces, and it occurred in two phenotypes that may differ geographically, perhaps due to environmental heterogeneity. The pigment is unique in the genus Aethia, and its spectra did not match any known molecule. The UV–Vis absorbance spectrum of the bill pigment overlaps with the extracted pigment of euphausiids, a favored food of crested auklets. A color preference associated with prey may have favored characteristics of the crested auklet’s accessory bill plates. Crest size, a signal of dominance, tended to correlate positively with the highest fluorescence in the single-band phenotype. Brighter bills may function in self-advertisement and verify the status signal of the crest ornament. We tested for a behavioral preference using identical decoys that differed only in bill fluorescence. Crested auklets approached models with fluorescent bills at a higher frequency. In cases where the sex of crested auklets was known, males responded at a higher frequency to fluorescent bills, but females did not. In an evolutionary context, bill fluorescence could have conferred an advantage in social interactions, e.g., in dimly lit rock crevices. Bill brightness and color may communicate success in foraging and may function as an honest signal of mate quality. Significance statement Preferences embedded in sensory systems may influence the evolution of ornamental traits. Overlap in chemical properties of zooplankton and brilliant orange bills suggests that crested auklets prefer a bill pigment patterned on a food preference. The pigment is unique in its genus, but occurs in two fluorescent phenotypes that may vary geographically, possibly due to environmental heterogeneity. The pigment resembles a class of compounds known as pterins but could be novel. Rictal plates are bill plates that flare out from the corners of the mouth, and they tend to be brighter in crested auklets with larger feather crests. Birds with larger crests are more attractive and dominant. Brighter bills may advertise foraging success and verify status. Bill fluorescence is attractive to crested auklets. Crested auklets approached decoys with fluorescent bills at a higher frequency.
      PubDate: 2021-09-25
       
  • Maternal stress effects on infant development in wild Verreaux's sifaka
           (Propithecus verreauxi)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Maternal effects mediated by nutrients or specific endocrine states of the mother can affect infant development. Specifically, pre- and postnatal maternal stress associated with elevated glucocorticoid (GC) output is known to influence the phenotype of the offspring, including their physical and behavioral development. These developmental processes, however, remain relatively poorly studied in wild vertebrates, including primates with their relatively slow life histories. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal stress, assessed by fecal glucocorticoid output, on infant development in wild Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), a group-living Malagasy primate. In a first step, we investigated factors predicting maternal fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations, how they impact infants’ physical and behavioral development during the first 6 months of postnatal life as well as early survival during the first 1.5 years of postnatal life. We collected fecal samples of mothers for hormone assays and behavioral data of 12 infants from two birth cohorts, for which we also assessed growth rates. Maternal fGCM concentrations were higher during the late prenatal but lower during the postnatal period compared to the early/mid prenatal period and were higher during periods of low rainfall. Infants of mothers with higher prenatal fGCM concentrations exhibited faster growth rates and were more explorative in terms of independent foraging and play. Infants of mothers with high pre- and postnatal fGCM concentrations were carried less and spent more time in nipple contact. Time mothers spent carrying infants predicted infant survival: infants that were more carried had lower survival, suggesting that they were likely in poorer condition and had to be cared for longer. Thus, the physical and behavioral development of these young primates were impacted by variation in maternal fGCM concentrations during the first 6 months of their lives, presumably as an adaptive response to living in a highly seasonal, but unpredictable environment. Significance statement The early development of infants can be impacted by variation in maternal condition. These maternal effects can be mediated by maternal stress (glucocorticoid hormones) and are known to have downstream consequences for behavior, physiology, survival, and reproductive success well into adulthood. However, the direction of the effects of maternal physiological GC output on offspring development is highly variable, even within the same species. We contribute comparative data on maternal stress effects on infant development in a Critically Endangered primate from Madagascar. We describe variation in maternal glucocorticoid output as a function of ecological and reproductive factors and show that patterns of infant growth, behavioral development, and early survival are predicted by maternal glucocorticoids. Our study demonstrates how mothers can influence offspring fitness in response to challenging environmental conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-09-25
       
  • Plasticity and flexibility in the anti-predator responses of treefrog
           tadpoles

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Tadpoles can respond to perceived predation risk by adjusting their life history, morphology, and behavior in an adaptive way. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity can evolve by natural selection only if there is variation in reaction norms and if this variation is, at least in part, heritable. To provide insights into the evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, we analyzed the environmental and parental components of variation in predator-induced life history (age and size at metamorphosis), morphology (tail depth), and behavior of Italian treefrog tadpoles (Hyla intermedia). Using an incomplete factorial design, we raised tadpoles either with or without caged predators (dragonfly larvae, gen. Aeshna) and, successively, we tested them in experimental arenas either with or without caged predators. Results provided strong evidence for an environmental effect on all three sets of characters. Tadpoles raised with caged predators (dragonfly larvae, gen. Aeshna) metamorphosed earlier (but at a similar body size) and developed deeper tails than their fullsib siblings raised without predators. In the experimental arenas, all tadpoles, independent of their experience, flexibly changed their activity and position, depending on whether the cage was empty or contained the predator. Tadpoles of the two experimental groups, however, showed different responses: those raised with predators were always less active than their predator-naive siblings and differences slightly increased in the presence of predators. Besides this strong environmental component of phenotypic variation, results provided evidence also for parental and parental-by-environment effects, which were strong on life-history, but weak on morphology and behavior. Interestingly, additive parental effects were explained mainly by dams. This supports the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity might mainly depend on maternal effects and that it might be the expression of condition-dependent mechanisms. Significance statement Animals, by plastically adjusting their phenotypes to the local environments, can often sensibly improve their chances of survival, suggesting the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity evolved by natural selection. We test this hypothesis in the Italian treefrog tadpoles, by investigating the heritable variation in the plastic response to predators (dragonfly larvae). Using an incomplete factorial common-garden experiment, we showed that tadpoles raised with predators metamorphosed earlier (but at similar body size), developed deeper tails, and were less active than their siblings raised without predators. The plastic response varied among families, but variation showed a stronger maternal than paternal component. This suggests that plasticity might largely depend on epigenetic factors and be the expression of condition-dependent mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2021-09-23
       
  • Escape-hatching decisions show adaptive ontogenetic changes in how embryos
           manage ambiguity in predation risk cues

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: As animals develop, their capacities to sense cues, assess threats, and perform actions change, as do the relative costs and benefits that underlie behavioural decisions. We presented ambiguous cues to test if hatching decisions of red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas, change developmentally following adaptive predictions based on changing costs of decision errors. These arboreal embryos hatch prematurely to escape from egg predators, cued by vibrations in attacks. Young embryos modulate hatching based on the frequency and temporal properties of cues, reducing false alarms that unnecessarily expose them to risk in the water. Since the cost of false alarms decreases developmentally, we hypothesized that hatching responses to ambiguous cues would increase. We tested this using vibration playbacks at two ages, with two sets of 3 stimuli. We matched sampling costs and varied ambiguity in either temporal or frequency properties, so one stimulus elicited high hatching (positive control) and two elicited low hatching but differed in ambiguity, based on prior results with younger embryos. Older embryos hatched faster, indicating reduced cue sampling. They responded strongly to both clear threat cues and ambiguous stimuli but little when either property clearly indicated low risk. In both experiments, we saw the greatest ontogenetic change in response to the more ambiguous stimulus. These playback experiments improve our understanding of how embryos facing risk tradeoffs make adaptive decisions based on incidental cues from predators. Ambiguity in incidental cues is ubiquitous and developmental changes in behaviour due to ontogenetic adaptation of decision processes are likely to be widespread. Significance statement Animals must use imperfect information to guide their behavior, and the costs of decision errors often change with development. We found the decision rules that embryos apply to ambiguous cues to deploy escape behavior change developmentally, matching adaptive predictions based on changing cost–benefit tradeoffs. Our results, consistent across two different forms of ambiguity, suggest selection has shaped behavioral development to improve how embryos use ambiguous incidental cues for defense. This work both extends and generalizes earlier experiments varying the cost of information. It cautions against oversimplifying assumptions about embryo information use—at least for species and in contexts where a history of strong selective tradeoffs may have honed their capacity to make a key decision well—and demonstrates the value of vibration playbacks and embryo hatching behavior for research in animal cognition.
      PubDate: 2021-09-18
       
  • Fertilization success suggests random pairing in frogs with regard to body
           size

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Size-assortative mating is a pattern of non-random pairing among individuals that has been presumed to arise due to the enhanced reproductive success that may accrue from mating with an individual of similar size. Its proximal mechanism may be female choice for similarly sized mates and/or large-male advantage during bouts of direct male-male competition. The hallmark for the occurrence of size-assortative mating is a significant correlation between female and male body sizes in mated pairs. In this study, we investigated the mating pattern of the emerald glass frog, Espadarana prosoblepon, whose mating system is purportedly based on female choice and therefore is a suitable study system for testing hypotheses of size-assortative mating. We specifically tested whether E. prosoblepon males found in amplexus were larger than solitary males, indicating a large-male advantage in mating and whether either larger males or size-matched pairs of frogs had a higher proportion of their eggs fertilized, consistent with a benefit to size-assortative mating. We found no evidence for any of these relationships in E. prosoblepon despite a positive correlation between female size and clutch size. Males in amplexus were not larger than unmated males, and male size did not predict the proportion of fertilized eggs. Our evidence thus indicates that the mating pattern of E. prosoblepon is random with respect to body size, in conformity with a growing body of evidence that body size is likely not a significant factor influencing mating patterns in anurans. Significance statement Size-assortative mating occurs when similarly sized individuals mate together more often than expected by chance. Studies addressing this question test for a correlation between female and male sizes within mating pairs, but few studies test whether mating with similarly sized individuals provides proximate benefits. Size-assortative mating should occur in species where mate choice is possible to occur, in which individuals can discriminate and choose to mate with similarly sized individuals. In frogs, many previous studies have searched for size-assortative mating, but evidence for its occurrence or selective advantage remains scant. We used the emerald glass frog, Espadarana prosoblepon, as a study system to test the predictions of size-assortative mating. We found that both mating preference and fertilization success are random with respect to body size.
      PubDate: 2021-09-17
       
  • Motivation matters: lighter littermates of the domestic cat compete more
           successfully for meat at weaning

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Widespread recognition of the contribution of individual differences in behavioral phenotype to evolutionary processes raises questions as to their developmental origin: when and in what contexts such differences emerge and what aspects of the developmental environment contribute to these' We studied individual differences among littermates of the domestic cat Felis silvestris catus when competing for meat at weaning, a challenging period in mammalian development. During postnatal weeks six, seven, and eight, we tested 67 weanling kittens (40 males, 27 females) from 16 litters of mixed breed cats maintained as part of a free-ranging breeding colony. Twice a week, we tested the kittens’ behavior after they were food deprived and presented together with their siblings for 2 min with a highly palatable food, a piece of raw beef. We found stable individual differences among littermates across 3 weeks of testing in latency to reach the meat, time spent eating from it, time spent monopolizing it, and number of aggressive behaviors directed toward littermates. There was no effect of sex on any of the behavioral measures. However, kittens with lower body mass at birth (and then also lower body mass at the age of testing) relative to their littermates competed more vigorously and successfully for the meat than their heavier siblings. This suggests the importance of motivational factors arising during early development in shaping individual differences in behavior such as among littermates in the present study, when competing for a biologically relevant resource. Significance statement In polytocous mammals, body mass at birth is a good predictor of growth and survival, with heavier young relative to their littermates usually obtaining a greater share of resources such as the mother’s milk. It is therefore often assumed that this advantage will translate into differences in behavior in other contexts, such that heavier littermates will gain more resources at later life stages by showing a more aggressive, “dominant” behavioral style. The findings of the present study challenge this view by demonstrating that in the domestic cat, lighter littermates were more competitive in obtaining meat at weaning. We suggest that differences in the motivational state of individuals should also be considered when accounting for the early development of individual differences in behavior, including among littermates, and may contribute to what might be broadly considered an individual’s personality or behavioral style.
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
       
  • Territoriality is just an option: allocation of a resource fundamental to
           the resource defense polygyny in the European wool carder bee, Anthidium
           manicatum (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: The wool carder bee Anthidium manicatum is one textbook example of resource defense polygyny among solitary bees, known for intense male–male competition, forced copulations, and the extreme form of interspecific territoriality toward other flower visitors. This mating system depends on the spatial structure of the defended resource and requires several adaptations in males. The allocation of patches with host plants as well as male body size and phenology was analyzed over 3 years in the diverse habitat of a botanical garden. Anthidium manicatum males searched in groups up to 12 individuals a wide diversity of patches with various food plants of foraging females. Territories were established in small high-quality patches only. Males abandoned aggressive and territorial behavior in large patches. Available patches were occupied by males of the various body size fractions independently of each other according to patch profitability. The higher competitive weight of large males in small patches compared to spacious ones was balanced by an opposing correlation of patch profitability. Although the mating system in A. manicatum is clearly a resource defense polygyny, males were found to be plastic in their behavior, and territoriality was not consistently observed. Mate acquiring tactics, be they territory holder (bourgeois), sneaker, floater, or scrambler for mating, can be considered to be different behavioral phenotypes within one environmentally sensitive conditional strategy. Significance statement Territoriality is a rare and derived pattern in solitary bee mating behavior. In most cases of territoriality, males defend rendezvous places to meet freshly emerged, virgin females. While this type of mating behavior fits still into the framework of ancestral monandry of aculeate Hymenoptera, the continually polyandric resource defense polygyny found in the genus Anthidium is highly derived. Males occupy flower resources exploited for larval provisions and extort copulations from provisioning nesting females. Territoriality in Anthidium does not lead to a monopolization of females, the exclusion of many competitors from reproduction, and a reduction of sperm competition as is typical for resource-based mating systems. Contrary, Anthidium is a highly promiscuous species and both males and females are lifelong engaged in copulations with multiple mates. Also, the allocation of the resource fundamental to the defense polygyny was found to be more fairly balanced than expected. This study diversifies the mating system of anthidiine bees and demonstrates unusually high plasticity in the resource allocation of a territorial species.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
       
  • Social group size influences pathogen transmission in salamanders

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Individuals within animal societies are expected to mitigate the costs and enhance the benefits associated with group living. For example, sociality can facilitate the sharing of beneficial microbes among individuals, but can also increase transmission of pathogens, representing a major cost of group living. We examined the costs of sociality in the California slender salamander (Batrachoseps attenuatus), a terrestrial salamander which naturally forms close social aggregations. We investigated whether innate sociality (e.g., skin-to-skin contact) increases an individual’s transmission risk of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen that emerged throughout the salamander’s range over the last 50 years and has decimated hundreds of amphibian species globally. We found that in captivity, B. attenuatus exhibit random mixing within social groups, resulting in high contact rates and high potential for Bd transmission. Our experimental infection trials resulted in 50% mortality after 1 month in moist conditions. In order to test how group size affects pathogen transmission, we manipulated social group size and found a marked effect on the spread Bd among individuals; a single, uninfected individual contracted Bd much more rapidly in larger groups of infected individuals. Surprisingly, this did not translate into a more rapid death rate or higher pathogen infection loads. Our results show that the innate behavior of group formation represents a per-individual risk of socially acquired pathogens, with direct transmission being magnified in larger social groups. This study highlights one important cost of sociality in terrestrial salamanders and underscores the general susceptibility of social animals to novel invasive pathogens. Significance statement Social behaviors typically evolve due to the benefits of associating with others, but they can also present risks such as disease transmission. The California slender salamander is highly social, with individuals forming close aggregations underneath cover items. Populations of this species have recently been discovered to suffer from the widespread and deadly fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) which is transmitted through aquatic zoospores. Because this salamander host species is fully terrestrial, we set out to determine if close aggregations (leading to skin-to-skin contact) provide opportunities for direct transmission of Bd. Infection trials in larger social groups revealed a more rapid spread of Bd; however, we did not witness more rapid death rates or ultimately higher pathogen infection loads. Our results show that the social behavior of these salamanders leads to a higher probability of acquiring Bd, highlighting the complex effects that emergent pathogens may have on social species.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
       
  • Transfer of information between a highly social species and heterospecific
           community members

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Many group-living individuals produce specific vocalizations while mobbing (when individuals move toward and harass a predator), a behavior that can recruit conspecifics. Although these vocalizations may be a source of information for heterospecifics, it remains largely unknown how heterospecifics respond to mobbing calls given by group-living species. In this study, we investigate whether the mobbing calls given by Western Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen dorsalis) lead to the recruitment of heterospecifics. By presenting a taxidermied red fox (Vulpes vulpes)—representing a terrestrial predator threat—to a population of magpies and heterospecific species occupying the same area, we demonstrate that magpie calls given in response to a terrestrial predator recruit heterospecifics to the mobbing event. Heterospecifics are more likely to approach and engage in mobbing behavior when the predator is associated with magpie presence than when magpies are absent. We found that larger magpie groups produced more alarm calls than did smaller groups, but we found no evidence that group size affected heterospecific recruitment to the mobbing site. Therefore, the occurrence of magpie alarm calls, rather than the number of individuals giving alarm calls, seems to be the primary predictor of heterospecific recruitment to a mobbing site. Moreover, we used a playback experiment to test if heterospecifics responded more to single-magpie mobbing alarm calls than to single mobbing alarm calls given by a non-social species (red wattlebird, Anthochaera carunculata). We found that heterospecifics responded more to the playbacks of magpie than to red wattlebird alarm calls. Our study therefore suggests that Australian magpies may play a central role as information sources for heterospecific species during predator detection and mobbing events. Significance statement Mobbing—when individuals move toward and vocalize or harass a predator—is a good example of interspecific communication. Loud vocalizations produced during mobbing behavior have been known to not only modify the behavior of the predator but to also recruit individuals to the mobbing event from a variety of different species. Although the response to heterospecific mobbing calls is becoming well documented, it remains largely unknown how heterospecifics respond to the mobbing calls of group-living species, even though these species can provide significant benefits for heterospecific species sharing the same habitat (via increased vigilance and predator detection rates for example). By presenting a predator model and using a series of playback experiments, we demonstrate that group-living Western Australian magpies may play a central role as information sources during predator detection and mobbing events.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
       
  • Cooperatively breeding banded mongooses do not avoid inbreeding through
           familiarity-based kin recognition

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: In species that live in family groups, such as cooperative breeders, inbreeding is usually avoided through the recognition of familiar kin. For example, individuals may avoid mating with conspecifics encountered regularly in infancy, as these likely include parents, siblings, and closely related alloparents. Other mechanisms have also been reported, albeit rarely; for example, individuals may compare their own phenotype to that of others, with close matches representing likely relatives (“phenotype matching”). However, determinants of the primary inbreeding avoidance mechanisms used by a given species remain poorly understood. We use 24 years of life history and genetic data to investigate inbreeding avoidance in wild cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo). We find that inbreeding avoidance occurs within social groups but is far from maximised (mean pedigree relatedness between 351 breeding pairs = 0.144). Unusually for a group-living vertebrate, we find no evidence that females avoid breeding with males with which they are familiar in early life. This is probably explained by communal breeding; females give birth in tight synchrony and pups are cared for communally, thus reducing the reliability of familiarity-based proxies of relatedness. We also found little evidence that inbreeding is avoided by preferentially breeding with males of specific age classes. Instead, females may exploit as-yet unknown proxies of relatedness, for example, through phenotype matching, or may employ postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. Investigation of species with unusual breeding systems helps to identify constraints against inbreeding avoidance and contributes to our understanding of the distribution of inbreeding across species. Significance statement Choosing the right mate is never easy, but it may be particularly difficult for banded mongooses. In most social animals, individuals avoid mating with those that were familiar to them as infants, as these are likely to be relatives. However, we show that this rule does not work in banded mongooses. Here, the offspring of several mothers are raised in large communal litters by their social group, and parents seem unable to identify or direct care towards their own pups. This may make it difficult to recognise relatives based on their level of familiarity and is likely to explain why banded mongooses frequently inbreed. Nevertheless, inbreeding is lower than expected if mates are chosen at random, suggesting that alternative pre- or post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms are used.
      PubDate: 2021-09-10
       
  • Rapid shifts in behavioural traits during a recent fish invasion

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Biological invasions are a prominent example of human-induced environmental change that pose a significant threat to worldwide biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests that behavioural traits play a key role in mediating invasion success. However, little research has investigated how rapidly behavioural traits can change during the initial stages of invasion. We investigated the influence of invasion on behaviour in a recent aquatic invader, the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), in northern Australia. These fish represent a recent introduction (ca. 2010) and are thought to be descended from ornamental varieties released into the wild from the aquarium trade. Using fish reared under captive conditions, we measured differences in three ecologically relevant behaviours (activity, foraging, and aggression) across invasive and domestic fighting fish. We found that fish descended from the recent invasive population were more active and consumed fewer food items than their domestic counterparts. Furthermore, foraging latency was repeatable in invasive, but not domestic fish, and this seemed to be driven by an increase in among-individual variation in the invasive population. Finally, while we detected a positive relationship between activity and number of food items eaten in domestic fish, this relationship was absent in the invasive population, suggesting that invasion may have disrupted this behavioural syndrome. Our results highlight that invasion can alter ecologically important behavioural traits and behavioural syndromes, even during the initial stages of invasion, and emphasise the importance of incorporating behaviour into our understanding of invasion biology. Significance statement Alien species must rapidly adapt to novel environmental conditions in order to establish a successful invasive population. As behaviour mediates how organisms interact with their environment, behavioural traits may play a key role in facilitating invasion success. We investigated rapid changes in behavioural traits in a recently introduced (ca. 2010) ornamental fish, the Siamese fighting fish. We found that invasive fish differed from their domestic source population in two key behavioural traits—activity and foraging behaviour. Furthermore, we extend previous work by showing that invasion not only causes changes in average-level behavioural traits but can also result in changing patterns of behavioural variation and repeatability in newly established populations. Overall, our findings highlight that invasion can induce shifts in ecologically relevant behaviours, even during the early, crucial stages of invasion.
      PubDate: 2021-09-08
       
  • Parasitic cowbird development up to fledging and subsequent post-fledging
           survival reflect life history variation found across host species

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Generalist avian brood parasites commonly serve as a model system to test for plasticity in offspring growth and behavior under various host environmental and parental regimes. While past research has provided compelling evidence that developmental rates differ among hosts, the fitness consequences of such variation remain unclear. In hosts, carryover effects from the nesting to the post-fledging stage are critical in driving differential post-fledging survival within and among species, as well as the evolution of songbird life histories. Consequently, offspring of brood parasites may be subject to the same carryover effects and life history constraints observed in host species. Applying a pre- to post-fledging carryover effect framework to avian brood parasites may therefore provide novel insights into parasite life histories as well as parasite-host interactions. We assessed the potential influence of host carryover effects on the development and survival of juvenile cowbirds using empirical data from 10 realized host species in east-central Illinois, USA. We found that life history variation among juvenile cowbirds reflects variation in tradeoffs between mortality risk and nestling period length as well as pre- to post-fledging carryover effects found across host species. Cowbirds from host nests with higher mortality rates had shorter nestling periods, fledged with less developed wings, and exhibited higher rates of post-fledging mortality. Cowbird mass at fledging also predicted post-fledging survival, but was not associated with other life history traits. Our results provide novel links between juvenile growth, development, and mortality that help to explain differential survival in parasitic young across host species. Significance statement Offspring of avian brood parasites develop at different rates based on the host environment in which they are raised, but the fitness consequences of such plasticity are poorly understood. Parasitic offspring may be subject to carryover effects from the nesting to the post-fledging stages and other life history constraints operating in host systems. We assessed the potential influence of host carryover effects on the development and survival of juvenile brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) using empirical data from 10 realized host species. Reflecting pre- to post-fledging carryover effects found across host species, cowbirds from host nests with higher mortality rates had shorter nestling periods, fledged with less developed wings, and exhibited higher rates of post-fledging mortality. Our results provide novel links between juvenile growth, development, and mortality that help to explain differential survival in parasitic young across host species.
      PubDate: 2021-09-04
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.236.253.192
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-