Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 960 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (58 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 85)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Boletín Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Casopis Slezskeho Zemskeho Muzea - serie A - vedy prirodni     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
China Population, Resources and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access  
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access  
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Earth Surface Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Environmental Modelling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Divulgación Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dynamiques Environnementales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Engineering : X     Open Access  
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 483)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 343)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioral Ecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.871
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 60  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1045-2249 - ISSN (Online) 1465-7279
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [415 journals]
  • Social insect colonies are more likely to accept unrelated queens when
           they come with workers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: De Gasperin O; Blacher P, Chapuisat M, et al.
      Pages: 100 - 101
      Abstract: Relatedness underlies the evolution of reproductive altruism, yet eusocial insect colonies occasionally accept unrelated reproductive queens. Why would workers living in colonies with related queens accept unrelated ones, when they do not gain indirect fitness through their reproduction' To understand this seemingly paradox, we investigated whether acceptance of unrelated queens by workers is an incidental phenomenon resulting from failure to recognize non-nestmate queens, or whether it is adaptively favored in contexts where cooperation is preferable to rejection. Our study system is the socially polymorphic Alpine silver ant, Formica selysi. Within populations, some colonies have a single queen, and others have multiple, sometimes unrelated, breeding queens. Social organization is determined by a supergene with two haplotypes. In a first experiment, we investigated whether the number of reproductive queens living in colonies affects the ability of workers at rejecting alien queens, as multiple matrilines within colonies could increase colony odor diversity and reduce workers’ recognition abilities. As workers rejected all alien queens, independently of the number of queens heading their colony, we then investigated whether their acceptance is flexible and favored in specific conditions. We found that workers frequently accepted alien queens when these queens came with a workforce. Our results show that workers flexibly adjust their acceptance of alien queens according to the situation. We discuss how this conditional acceptance of unrelated queens may be adaptive by providing benefits through increased colony size and/or genetic diversity, and by avoiding rejection costs linked to fighting.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab047
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Experimental shelter-switching shows shelter type alters predation on
           caterpillars (Hesperiidae)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Baer C; Marquis R, Smiseth P.
      Pages: 101 - 102
      Abstract: Caterpillars build various shelters that protect them from natural enemies, but whether specific shelters provide different protection is unknown. To disentangle a caterpillar species’ shelter from the rest of its phenotype, we performed a field experiment in which two caterpillar species (Urbanus dorantes and U. proteus) were removed from their original shelters, placed into shelters made by conspecifics or heterospecifics, and monitored for predation and parasitism. Predation was intense, with 0–48% of caterpillars surviving depending on treatment. Shelter builder identity significantly affected predation independent of occupant identity, with caterpillars placed in U. proteus shelters experiencing higher predation than those in U. dorantes shelters. The effect of shelter builder identity was related to shelter type: shriveled leaf shelters built by U. dorantes had a lower risk of predation than cut-and-fold shelters built by either species. Cut-and-fold shelters built by the two species did not have significantly different shapes. Caterpillar stage also significantly affected predation (mid-instars were more successful than early instars), but caterpillar species identity did not. Surprisingly, parasitism was rare, but both shriveled leaf shelters and cut-and-fold shelters resulted in similar overall caterpillar mortality. The differences in predation and overall mortality between shelter types suggest a trade-off between protection from predators and parasitoids. This experiment demonstrates that shelter type determines the fate of the caterpillar inside, independent of the identity of the caterpillar that built the shelter. This is the first experimental evidence that predation may select for shelter type and associated shelter-building behavior in Lepidoptera.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab057
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Discovery-defense strategy as a mechanism of social foraging of ants in
           tropical rainforest canopies

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Antoniazzi R; Camarota F, Leponce M, et al.
      Pages: 102 - 103
      Abstract: Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the coexistence of ants sharing similar food resources, including ecological trade-offs, however, these hypotheses have mostly been tested in ground-dwelling ant communities. For instance, the discovery-dominance trade-off hypothesis states that species with overlapping food resources differ in their ability to find and dominate resources. However, ant species may use different strategies to share food resources, including discovery-defense, in which the first species to arrive at a food resource maintains control of it. Here, we evaluated whether the discovery-dominance trade-off hypothesis, or the discovery-defense strategy could be a mechanism that promotes coexistence of ant species in the canopy of highly diverse tropical forest canopies. We evaluated the succession of ant species on 72 baits exposed on 24 trees during 13 observation periods (15–195 min) in the canopy of a tropical rain forest in Mexico. In general, we observed little variation in ant species composition (i.e., low β-diversity values) during the 195 min of bait exposure. Moreover, we found that ant species with the greatest ability to discover new food resources were those that dominated them. These findings empirically show that the discovery-defense strategy can be a social foraging strategy in rain forest canopy ants and reject the discovery-dominance trade-off. In short, our results highlight the importance of the discovery of a food resource in the canopy of a tropical rain forest, allowing it to be dominated.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab054
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Interspecific aggression in sympatry between congeneric tropical birds

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Drucker J; Senner N, Gomez J, et al.
      Pages: 103 - 104
      Abstract: Interspecific aggression may shape species distributions through competitive exclusion, resulting in spatial segregation, or facilitate sympatry as an adaptive mechanism for resource partitioning. Competitive exclusion results from asymmetric aggression of one species towards another, but if the aggressive relationship between species is symmetric, they may persist in sympatry. Interspecific aggression is widely cited as a mechanism for maintaining the distributional limits of tropical birds, but how it shapes the spatial dynamics of competing species that are sympatric over larger geographic areas is less clear. To address this issue, we conducted reciprocal playback experiments on two congeneric Antbirds — Thamnophilus atrinucha and T. doliatus — that occur in sympatry across a habitat matrix in Colombia to characterize their relationship as symmetrically or asymmetrically aggressive and analyzed point count data to assess the degree to which they occur sympatrically. We found weak evidence for competitive exclusion, with the larger T. doliatus responding asymmetrically to T. atrinucha, and the two species having a low co-detection rate during point counts. However, despite their 22% difference in body size, T. atrinucha still responded to T. doliatus playback in over half of our trials, and the two species co-occurred on nearly 25% of point counts, indicating that interspecific aggression does not drive complete spatial segregation. Our findings highlight how the degree to which one species can competitively exclude another may vary, especially across a dynamic landscape.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab060
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Multiple constraints on urban bird communication: both abiotic and biotic
           noise shape songs in cities

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: To A; Dingle C, Collins S, et al.
      Pages: 104 - 105
      Abstract: Ambient noise can cause birds to adjust their songs to avoid masking. Most studies investigate responses to a single noise source (e.g., low-frequency traffic noise, or high-frequency insect noise). Here, we investigated the effects of both anthropogenic and insect noise on vocalizations of four common bird species in Hong Kong. Common Tailorbirds (Orthotomus sutorius) and Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) both sang at a higher frequency in urban areas compared to peri-urban areas. Red-whiskered Bulbuls (Pycnonotus jocosus) in urban areas shifted the only first note of their song upwards. Swinhoe’s White-eye (Zosterops simplex) vocalization changes were correlated with noise level, but did not differ between the peri-urban and urban populations. Insect noise caused the Eurasian Tree Sparrow to reduce both maximum, peak frequency, and overall bandwidth of vocalizations. Insect noise also led to a reduction in maximum frequency in Red-whiskered bulbuls. The presence of both urban noise and insect noise affected the sound of the Common Tailorbirds and Eurasian Tree Sparrows; in urban areas, they no longer increased their minimum song frequency when insect sounds were also present. These results highlight the complexity of the soundscape in urban areas. The presence of both high- and low-frequency ambient noise may make it difficult for urban birds to avoid signal masking while still maintaining their fitness in noisy cities.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab058
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The definition of sexual selection

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shuker D; Kvarnemo C, Simmons L.
      Pages: 781 - 794
      Abstract: Sexual selection is a key component of evolutionary biology. However, from the very formulation of sexual selection by Darwin, the nature and extent of sexual selection have been controversial. Recently, such controversy has led back to the fundamental question of just what sexual selection is. This has included how we incorporate female-female reproductive competition into sexual or natural selection. In this review, we do four things. First, we examine what we want a definition to do. Second, we define sexual selection: sexual selection is any selection that arises from fitness differences associated with nonrandom success in the competition for access to gametes for fertilization. An important outcome of this is that as mates often also offer access to resources, when those resources are the targets of the competition, rather than their gametes, the process should be considered natural rather than sexual selection. We believe this definition encapsulates both much of Darwin’s original thinking about sexual selection, and much of how contemporary biologists use the concept of sexual selection. Third, we address alternative definitions, focusing in some detail on the role of female reproductive competition. Fourth, we challenge our definition with a number of scenarios, for instance where natural and sexual selection may align (as in some forms of endurance rivalry), or where differential allocation means teasing apart how fecundity and access to gametes influence fitness. In conclusion, we emphasize that whilst the ecological realities of sexual selection are likely to be complex, the definition of sexual selection is rather simple.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab055
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The tired copepod and the definition of sexual selection: a comment on
           Shuker and Kvarnemo

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kokko H; Simmons L.
      Pages: 795 - 796
      Abstract: Shuker and Kvarnemo (2021; hereafter SK) make a clear case for defining sexual selection based on access to gametes. I wholeheartedly endorse this definition—which should surprise no-one, as SK state theirs is very close to one I have promoted. Here, I focus on two intertwined topics to complement SK’s writing: competition in the absence of direct contact, and whether the costs of a sexually selected trait modify sexual selection itself, or counteract it via natural selection.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab061
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The costs and benefits of re-defining sexual selection: a comment on
           Shuker and Kvarnemo

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Clutton-Brock T; Simmons L.
      Pages: 796 - 797
      Abstract: In their thoughtful, clearly argued and comprehensive review of definitions of sexual selection, Shuker and Kvarnemo make a strong case for defining sexual selection as operating through access to gametes (Shuker and Kvarnemo 2021). This differs from some previous definitions of sexual selection which additionally include selection operating between females or males arising from intrasexual competition for breeding opportunities or the suppression of rivals (Darwin 1871; Clutton-Brock 2007; Watson and Simmons 2010) or from intrasexual competition for access to breeding partners that contribute to the care of offspring in situations where access to the gametes of the opposite sex is unlikely to limit the breeding success of individuals (Andersson 1994, Reynolds and Szekely 1997). For example, Andersson’s widely used definition of sexual selection includes intrasexual competition between females to monopolize access to males in polyandrous birds where the benefit of having access to multiple partners probably lies in their additional contributions to parental care rather than in access to additional gametes (Reynolds and Szekely 1997; Emlen and Wrege 2004). In contrast, Shuker and Kvarnemo would presumably regard this as a form of natural selection.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab062
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Amending Darwin on “sexual selection”: a comment on Shuker and
           Kvarnemo

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Andersson M; Simmons L.
      Pages: 797 - 797
      Abstract: Sexual selection was Darwin’s most controversial idea, and surprisingly, there is still debate over what sexual selection is. In their excellent article, Shuker and Kvarnemo (2021) (S&K) review the issue and present a clear definition of what Darwinian sexual selection is, and what it is not. They also identify and explore several interesting complex situations, where their definition facilitates thinking about how sexual and other selection mechanisms operate together, in the same species and individual. For instance, challenging complications may arise when there is differential reproductive allocation by one or both sexes, depending on characteristics of the mate. Another complication can be trade-offs between traits that play a role at different stages of competition over fertilization, such as pre-and postcopulatory adaptations.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab063
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The devil is in the details: a comment on Shuker and Kvarnemo

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Simmons L; Parker G, Jekyll J.
      Pages: 798 - 799
      Abstract: Shuker and Kvarnemo’s (2021) stimulating review advocates using what they see as a simple definition of sexual selection, being “any selection that arises from fitness differences associated with non-random success in the competition for access to gametes.” One might ask why we need a new definition; after all, Darwin’s definition has served us well for over 150 years. However, our understanding of sexual selection has changed considerably in that time. In particular, over the past half century Darwin’s concept of sexual selection has been extended to cover processes that occur before, during and after ejaculation, and the focus on competition for fertilizations has long been appreciated (Simmons and Wedell 2020; Parker 1970, 2021). We therefore welcome a formal change in emphasis from mates to gametes.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab069
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • A grander view of life that includes gametic processes: a comment on
           Shuker and Kvarnemo

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shuster S; Wade M, Simmons L.
      Pages: 798 - 798
      Abstract: Shuker and Kvarnemo define sexual selection as non-random fertilization resulting from competition-for-gametes. They remove gender, mate number, resources, and mating system from this polysemous term. Here, definitional economy comes at a price: Utility. Consider two predictions that stem from how such competition and subsequent fertilization manifest themselves:
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab065
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Sex differences, sexual selection, and gamete size: a comment on Shuker
           and Kvarnemo

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zuk M; Simmons L.
      Pages: 800 - 801
      Abstract: At first glance, nothing could be more pedantic than a long article focusing on the definition of something that most practitioners in the field would say they already know, and that they already devote considerable effort to studying (Owens 2006). But Shuker and Kvarnemo’s re-examination of sexual selection, one of the cornerstones of behavioral ecology, is both practical and liberating. It is practical because it gives suggestions about what areas remain unexplored and where we might have gone astray. It is liberating because of its emphasis on gametes and fertilization, rather than on any of the other differences (or similarities) between the sexes. What is more, Shuker and Kvarnemo manage to consider what sexual selection is and even how some conceptions of it may be flawed without coming to the sweeping conclusion that Everyone Has Been Completely Wrong and we have to scratch the whole thing and start over.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab084
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Embracing complexity might help us find clarity: a comment on Shuker and
           Kvarnemo

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alonzo S; Servedio M, Simmons L.
      Pages: 800 - 800
      Abstract: In this thoughtful and constructive review, Shuker and Kvarnemo (2021) propose a definition of sexual selection that focuses on competition for access to gametes for fertilization. This review and definition represent a useful step forward. Here, we first emphasize some important points made by Shuker and Kvarnemo (2021), before raising additional points for consideration and suggesting a way forward.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab076
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The definition of sexual selection: a response to comments on Shuker and
           Kvarnemo

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shuker D; Kvarnemo C, Simmons L.
      Pages: 801 - 802
      Abstract: We are very grateful for the seven commentaries on Shuker and Kvarnemo (2021) and the breadth of discussion they bring. Unfortunately, we cannot do justice to each piece and will instead focus on one over-arching aspect of that discussion, the value of a robust concept of sexual selection. That said, we agree wholeheartedly with Andersson (2021), and perhaps contra to Clutton-Brock (2021), that the term “inter-sexual selection” should be retired.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab085
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Smart mating: the cognitive ability of females influences their preference
           for male cognitive ability

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Álvarez-Quintero N; Velando A, Kim S, et al.
      Pages: 803 - 813
      Abstract: Cognitive abilities may be crucial for individuals to respond appropriately to their social and natural environment, thereby increasing fitness. However, the role of cognitive traits in sexual selection has received relatively little attention. Here, we studied 1) whether male secondary sexual traits (colour, courtship, and nest) reflect their cognitive ability, 2) whether females choose mates based on males' and their own cognitive abilities, and 3) how the interplay between secondary sexual traits and cognitive ability determines male attractiveness in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculetaus). For this, we first evaluated the cognitive ability of sexually mature males and females in a detour-reaching task. Then, female preference was repeatedly assessed in a dichotomous-choice test, where the female was exposed to two males with contrasting performances (relatively good and bad) in the detour-reaching task. Female preference for better performing males was affected by the female's own cognitive ability. Females with relatively medium-low cognitive ability preferred males with high ability, whereas females with high ability showed no preference. We also found that males with higher cognitive abilities built more elaborated nests, but showed weaker red nuptial colouration. To our knowledge, this is among the first results that illustrate how cognitive traits of both sexes influence female mate preference, which has implications for the strength and direction of sexual selection.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab052
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Habitat disturbance alters color contrast and the detectability of cryptic
           and aposematic frogs

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Barnett J; Varela B, Jennings B, et al.
      Pages: 814 - 825
      Abstract: Animals use color both to conceal and signal their presence, with patterns that match the background, disrupt shape recognition, or highlight features important for communication. The forms that these color patterns take are responses to the visual systems that observe them and the environments within which they are viewed. Increasingly, however, these environments are being affected by human activity. We studied how pattern characteristics and habitat change may affect the detectability of three frog color patterns from the Bocas del Toro archipelago in Panama: Beige-Striped Brown Allobates talamancae and two spotted morphs of Oophaga pumilio, Black-Spotted Green and Black-Spotted Red. To assess detectability, we used visual modeling of conspecifics and potential predators, along with a computer-based detection experiment with human participants. Although we found no evidence for disruptive camouflage, we did find clear evidence that A. talamancae stripes are inherently more cryptic than O. pumilio spots regardless of color. We found no evidence that color pattern polytypism in O. pumilio is related to differences in the forest floor between natural sites. We did, however, find strong evidence that human disturbance affects the visual environment and modifies absolute and rank order frog detectability. Human-induced environmental change reduces the effectiveness of camouflage in A. talamancae, reduces detectability of Black-Spotted Green O. pumilio, and increases chromatic contrast, but not detectability, in Black-Spotted Red O. pumilio. Insofar as predators may learn about prey defenses and make foraging decisions based on relative prey availability and suitability, such changes may have wider implications for predator–prey dynamics.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab032
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Social and spatial conflict drive resident aggression toward outsiders in
           a group-living fish

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gübel J; Bose A, Jordan A, et al.
      Pages: 826 - 834
      Abstract: Group-living animals often experience within-group competition for resources like shelter and space, as well as for social status. Because of this conflict, residents may aggressively resist joining attempts by new members. Here, we asked whether different forms of competition mediate this response, specifically competition over 1) shelter, 2) spatial position within groups, and 3) social or sexual roles. We performed experiments on wild groups of Neolamprologus multifasciatus cichlids in Lake Tanganyika, either increasing or decreasing the number of shelters (empty snail shells) within their territories. We predicted that increases in resource abundance would reduce conflict and lower the aggression of residents toward presented conspecifics, while decreases in resources would increase aggression. We explored the effects of social conflict and spatial arrangement by introducing same or opposite sex conspecifics, at greater or lesser distances from resident subterritories. We found that changing the abundance of shells had no detectable effect on the responses of residents to presented conspecifics. Rather, aggression was strongly sex-dependent, with male residents almost exclusively aggressing presented males, and female residents almost exclusively aggressing presented females. For females, this aggression was influenced by the spatial distances between the presented conspecific and the resident female subterritory, with aggression scaling with proximity. In contrast, presentation distance did not influence resident males, which were aggressive to all presented males regardless of location. Overall, our results show that group residents respond to presented conspecifics differently depending on the type of competitive threat these potential joiners pose.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab045
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Antipredator responses toward cat fur in wild brown rats tested in a
           semi-natural environment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bedoya-Pérez M; Le A, McGregor I, et al.
      Pages: 835 - 844
      Abstract: Sensitivity to predator-related cues and performance of antipredator behaviors are universal among prey species. Rodents exhibit a diverse suite of antipredator behaviors that have been examined in both field and laboratory studies. However, the results from the laboratory have not always translated to the field. While laboratory studies consistently indicate strong fear-inducing effects of cat fur/skin odors, it is unclear whether this occurs in the field with wild rats. To address this issue, we tested the antipredator responses of wild brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) to predatory (domestic cat fur) and nonpredatory (common brushtail possum fur) odor cues in a semi-natural experimental paradigm. Rats were housed in open air enclosures containing two feeding stations. Following several nights of acclimatization, the feeding stations were paired with cat fur, possum fur, or no fur. Rats spent less time at a feeding station that was paired with cat fur. Duration of time spent at feeding stations increased across consecutive test days and across hours within individual test nights, although the rate of increase within nights was lower for cat fur paired stations. This overall increase might reflect habituation of antipredator behaviors, increasing hunger, or loss of cue potency over time. We suggest that wild brown rats recognize and respond to cat fur odor cues, but their behavioral response is highly adaptable and finely tuned to the trade-off between predation risk and starvation that occurs across short temporal scales.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab038
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The conspecific avoidance strategies of adult female-calf humpback whales

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Indeck K; Noad M, Dunlop R, et al.
      Pages: 845 - 855
      Abstract: During migration, humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) adult females and their calves use acoustic calling to help maintain contact. The signals produced by these pairs, however, may unintentionally attract nearby breeding males, which can result in interactions that have negative physical and physiological effects on the calf. Therefore, maternal females must choose the vocal and/or behavioral strategy that most effectively balances intra-pair communication with male avoidance. Here, we analyzed differences in adult female-calf vocal activity and movement behavior according to the presence of, and distance to, singing whales and other groups likely to contain males. The results of this study found that these pairs make only minimal changes to their vocal behavior in response to nearby males, suggesting that they have instead evolved calls that are naturally difficult to detect (i.e., produced at significantly lower rates and acoustic levels than other whale groups, resulting in a restricted active space). In addition, they maintain spatial separation from nearby groups by moving to shallower, inshore waters, increasing their proportion of time spent near the surface, and favoring a direct migratory course. This combination of cryptic strategies balances avoidance of unwanted conspecific interaction with the necessity of continued contact between maternal female humpback whales and their calves.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab031
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Social network position predicts male mating success in a small passerine

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Beck K; Farine D, Kempenaers B, et al.
      Pages: 856 - 864
      Abstract: Individuals differ in the quantity and quality of their associations with conspecifics. The resulting variation in the positions that individuals occupy within their social environment can affect several aspects of life history, including reproduction. While research increasingly shows how social factors can predict dyadic mating patterns (who will breed with whom), much less is known about how an individual’s social position affects its overall likelihood to acquire mating partner(s). We studied social networks of socially monogamous blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) to investigate whether the number and strength of connections to opposite-sex conspecifics, the ratio between same- and opposite-sex connections, and the tendency to move between social groups in the months prior to breeding affect individuals’ success in acquiring 1) a breeding partner and 2) an extrapair partner. After controlling for differences in spatial location, we show that males that moved more often between social groups were more likely to acquire a breeding partner. Moreover, adult males that associated with more females were more likely to sire extrapair young. The number of female associates also predicted the proportion of familiar female breeding neighbors, suggesting that familiarity among neighbors may facilitate opportunities for extrapair matings. In females, none of the network metrics significantly predicted the likelihood of acquiring a breeding or extrapair partner. Our study suggests that the positioning of males within their social environment prior to breeding can translate into future mating success, adding an important new dimension to studies of (extrapair) mating behavior.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab034
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Are you my baby' Testing whether paternity affects behavior of
           cobreeder male acorn woodpeckers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Koenig W; Prinz A, Haydock J, et al.
      Pages: 865 - 874
      Abstract: Natural selection is expected to favor males that invest more in offspring they sire. We investigated the relationship between paternity and male behavior in the acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), a cooperative breeder that lives in family groups including offspring that remain on their natal territory, sometimes for years, and cobreeders of both sexes. Regardless of group composition, only one communal nest is attended at a time. Whereas cobreeding females share maternity equally, one male usually sires the majority of young in the group’s communal nest. Copulations are rarely observed, and thus it has not been possible to link paternity to sexual behavior. There were no differences among cobreeder males that did or did not sire young in their propensity to roost in the nest cavity at night. However, cobreeder males that attended females continuously prior to egg-laying were more likely to successfully sire young than males that did not, and the relative share of feeding visits and time spent at the subsequent nest were positively related to a male’s realized paternity. These differences in male behavior were partly due to differences among males and partly to plasticity in male behavior covarying with paternity share. Feedings by males successfully siring young also involved a larger proportion of nutritionally valuable insect prey. Males are aware of their paternity success, apparently because of their relative access to females prior to egg laying, and provide more paternal care at nests in which they are more likely to have sired young.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/araa144
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Strong sexual selection fails to protect against inbreeding-driven
           extinction in a moth

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Parrett J; Ghobert V, Cullen F, et al.
      Pages: 875 - 882
      Abstract: Sexual selection is predicted to influence population persistence because skew in male reproductive success may facilitate the purging of mutation load. We manipulated the strength of sexual selection in populations of Indian meal moths, Plodia interpunctella, by adjusting adult sex ratios to be either male- or female-biased, leading to strong and weak sexual selection in males, respectively. After between 19 and 22 generations of experimental evolution, we examined whether mutation load differed between these populations by enforcing successive generations of inbreeding, tracking extinction events, offspring viability and assaying the effect of inbreeding on male mating success and female choice. We found no effect of the strength of sexual selection on the rate of extinction or offspring viability. We did, however, find changes in both male mating success and female choice, with both being influenced by the sex ratio treatment and the number of generations of inbreeding. Males from male-biased populations were more successful at mating with stock females, and mating success declined rapidly with inbreeding regardless of sex ratio treatment. Females from male-biased populations were less likely to mate with stock males at the onset of the experiment, but tended to mate more frequently with increasing inbreeding compared to females from female-biased populations. Our results demonstrate that while mating behaviors have diverged between male-biased and female-biased lines mutation loads remained similar. This suggests that the benefits of sexual selection to population fitness may be low or slow to accumulate under the benign environmental conditions in which these populations evolved.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab056
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Song type and song type matching are important for joint territorial
           defense in a duetting songbird

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wheeldon A; Szymański P, Surmacki A, et al.
      Pages: 883 - 894
      Abstract: Birds have a diverse acoustic communication system, with species-specific repertoires facilitating more complex behaviors in terms of both within- and between-pair communications. Certain song types are produced for specific functions, such as aggressive encounters. In addition, song matching behaviors, whereby neighboring individuals match song types, can be used in aggressive interactions as a sophisticated acoustic behavior. In this study, we examined the functions of song types, in a duet context, of male yellow-breasted boubous (Laniarius atroflavus), an Afromontane bush-shrike with a vocal sexual dimorphism. We aimed at assessing whether, structurally, certain song types elicited a heightened reaction than others and also whether song matching affected response behavior. A dual speaker playback procedure was performed for 18 pairs of boubous, each pair being exposed to duets with three different male song types. We found differences in response toward the different duet types but these differences resulted from the amount at which males matched different song types. Pairs responded stronger when a focal male matched the playback type, and matching was significantly more often found in cases where the rarest type of male song was used. We found no sex differences in terms of response strength to playback type. Our results indicate a two-level way of coding aggression toward intruding pairs. The yellow-breasted boubous utilize their repertoires, linking matching with structure in order to show aggression in terms of territory defense and sexual conflict. This study also confirms joint territorial defense as a main function of duets in this species.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab030
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Red foxes avoid apex predation without increasing fear

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wooster E; Ramp D, Lundgren E, et al.
      Pages: 895 - 902
      Abstract: Apex predators structure ecosystems by hunting mesopredators and herbivores. These trophic cascades are driven not only by the number of animals they kill, but also by how prey alter their behaviors to reduce risk. The different levels of risk navigated by prey has been likened to a “landscape of fear.” In Australia, dingoes are known to suppress red fox populations, driving a trophic cascade. However, most of what we know of this relationship comes from circumstances where predators are persecuted, which can affect their social and trophic interactions. Utilizing camera traps, we monitored fox behavior when accessing key resource points used by territorial dingoes, in a region where both predators are protected. We predicted that foxes would avoid and be more cautious in areas of high dingo activity. Indeed, foxes avoided directly encountering dingoes. However, contrary to our expectations, foxes were not more cautious or vigilant where dingo activity was high. In fact, fox activity and scent-marking rates increased where dingo scent-marking was concentrated. Further, foxes were increasingly confident with increasing levels of conspecific activity. Our results suggest that responses to the threat of predation are more complex than fear alone. In socially stable conditions, it is possible that prey may develop knowledge of their predators, facilitating avoidance, and reducing fear.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab053
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • A quantitative genetics approach to validate lab- versus field-based
           behavior in novel environments

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mouchet A; Dingemanse N, Pinter-Wollman N.
      Pages: 903 - 911
      Abstract: Conclusions about the adaptive nature of repeatable variation in behavior (i.e., “personality”) are often derived from laboratory-based assays. However, the expression of genetic variation differs between laboratory and field. Laboratory-based behavior might not predict field-based behavior thus, cross-context validation is required. We estimated the cross-context correlation between behavior expressed by wild great tits (Parus major) in established laboratory versus field novel environment assays. Both assays have been used as proxies for “exploration tendency.” Behavior in both contexts had similar repeatability (R = 0.35 vs. 0.37) but differed in heritability (h2 = 0.06 vs. 0.23), implying differences in selection pressures. Unexpectedly, there was no cross-context correlation. Laboratory- and field-based behavior thus reflected expressions of two distinct underlying characters. Post hoc simulations revealed that sampling bias did not explain the lack of correlation. Laboratory-based behavior may reflect fear and exploration, but field-based behavior may reflect escape behavior instead, though other functional interpretations cannot be excluded. Thus, in great tits, activity expressed in laboratory versus field novel environment assays is modulated by multiple quasi-independent characters. The lack of cross-context correlation shown here may also apply to other setups, other repeatable behaviors, and other taxa. Our study thus implies care should be taken in labeling behaviors prior to firm validation studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab059
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Males benefit personally from family life: evidence from a wild burying
           beetle population

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Keppner E; Steiger S, Smiseth P.
      Pages: 912 - 918
      Abstract: Family life in animals is often considered as beneficial for offspring but costly for parents. However, parents might also profit from remaining aggregated within a family unit, especially if a nutrient-rich resource is used for reproduction. We aimed to reveal the potential personal benefits of breeding within a family environment for male Nicrophorus vespilloides, a species of burying beetles that use small vertebrate cadavers to raise their larvae. We previously hypothesized that males obtain an advantage from remaining with their family, because they themselves can feed from the cadaver. This, in turn, enables them to produce more sex pheromone, thereby making them more attractive to females after leaving their brood. However, whether such personal benefits arise under natural conditions is currently unclear because we have no knowledge of the nutritional condition of wild beetles. If carrion is abundant anyways, feeding from a vertebrate cadaver during breeding might not have a noticeable positive effect on the males’ body condition. In the current study, we caught wild males with a natural feeding history and compared their body mass and attractiveness before and after participating in family life. We show that wild males gain weight during breeding and attract more and larger females afterwards. Our study suggests that access to a highly nutrient-rich meal can be a driver of the evolution of family life and eventually biparental care. Males benefit indirectly from defending the resource and offspring against competitors and benefit personally by a higher chance of mating again after breeding.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab067
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • A meta-analysis of the group-size effect on vigilance in mammals

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Beauchamp G; Li Z, Yu C, et al.
      Pages: 919 - 925
      Abstract: Group-size effects, whereby antipredator vigilance decreases as group size increases, are widely reported in mammals and birds but a meta-analysis has only been conducted in birds. We systematically reviewed the literature on mammalian group-size effects, estimated the effect sizes in each study, and conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis. We obtained 296 effect sizes from 97 species belonging to 10 Orders and 26 Families. Overall, effect sizes indicated a moderate negative effect of group size (r = −0.44), but 43% of the effect sizes were compatible with a null effect of group size. There was significant heterogeneity in effect sizes. Weaker effect sizes occurred when vigilance was measured as a frequency or a duration rather than as a percentage of time spent vigilant, when measured in closed habitats, during the reproductive season, and in mixed-sex groups or during times when juveniles were absent. We infer a “file drawer problem” because there were relatively few studies with smaller sample sizes reporting small group-size effects. The results confirm the importance of group size in explaining variation in mammalian vigilance but also suggest which a substantial amount of variation remains unexplained. We suggest that future studies should aim to study mammalian group-size effects by quantifying the percentage of time allocated to vigilance rather than lower-power methods such as frequency or duration of vigilance.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab048
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Reproductive aging and pace-of-life syndromes: more active females age
           faster

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Han C; Yang G, Briffa M.
      Pages: 926 - 931
      Abstract: A common pattern of reproductive aging is that reproductive performance increases during early life and reaches a peak, followed by a decline with age. Such quadratic reproductive aging patterns can differ among individuals. Moreover, if individual differences in reproductive aging patterns reflect individual-specific life-history trade-off strategies, they are also predicted to be associated with behavior according to the pace-of-life syndrome. For example, more active, aggressive, or bolder individuals may invest more in early reproduction, resulting in more rapid reproductive aging. In this study, we estimated individual differences in quadratic reproductive aging patterns and the relationship between reproductive aging and the activity of the virgin female bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) in the absence of mating costs. We found that the egg production of virgin females followed a parabolic trajectory with age and that individuals varied significantly in their quadratic reproductive aging patterns. In addition, we found that females that were relatively more active during early life invested in egg production more heavily at a young age and suffered from a sharper decline in egg production later in life. Thus, our results indicate that individual reproductive aging patterns may be a key component in the study of pace-of-life syndromes. We suggest that within-individual plastic characteristics of life-history traits such as reproductive aging patterns may explain the mixed results from multiple studies on pace-of-life syndromes.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab072
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Artificial light at night alters activity, body mass, and corticosterone
           level in a tropical anuran

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Secondi J; Mondy N, Gippet J, et al.
      Pages: 932 - 940
      Abstract: Photoperiod is a major factor regulating biological rhythms in animals and plants. At low latitudes, annual variation in daylength is low and species are expected to strongly rely on photic cues to reset their circadian clocks. A corollary is that individuals should be strongly affected by sudden changes in the photic regime as those generated by artificial light at night (ALAN). We tested this hypothesis in an anuran in Costa Rica (10°N). Using an outdoor experimental design, we exposed adult cane toads Rhinella marina, a broadly distributed tropical anuran species to two ALAN intensities (0.04 and 5 lx). Locomotor activity was reduced at the lowest intensity, and the activity pattern shifted from crepuscular to nocturnal. Contrary to humans and mice in which ALAN favor obesity, toads from the two exposed groups did not gain mass whereas controls did. Corticosterone was reduced at the highest intensity, a possible consequence of the reduced activity of toads or the altered regulation of their circadian pattern. Thus, the behavioral and physiological disruption that we observed supports the hypothesis of the strong reliance on photic cues to regulate circadian rhythms and control homeostasis in this intertropical anuran. Furthermore, our results suggest that the negative effects of ALAN on physiology, in particular body mass regulation, may differ between vertebrate groups, thus preventing anticipated generalization before more comparative studies have been carried out. We stress the importance of considering the impact of the changing nocturnal environment in the intertropical zone which host the largest fraction of biodiversity.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab044
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Visual obstruction, but not moderate traffic noise, increases reliance on
           heterospecific alarm calls

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ratnayake C; Zhou Y, Dawson Pell F, et al.
      Pages: 941 - 951
      Abstract: Animals rely on both personal and social information about danger to minimize risk, yet environmental conditions constrain information. Both visual obstructions and background noise can reduce detectability of predators, which may increase reliance on social information, such as from alarm calls. Furthermore, a combination of visual and auditory constraints might greatly increase reliance on social information, because the loss of information from one source cannot be compensated by the other. Testing these possibilities requires manipulating personal information while broadcasting alarm calls. We therefore experimentally tested the effects of a visual barrier, traffic noise, and their combination on the response of Australian magpies, Cracticus tibicen, to heterospecific alarm calls. The barrier blocked only visual cues, while playback of moderate traffic noise could mask subtle acoustic cues of danger, such as of a predator’s movement, but not the alarm-call playback. We predicted that response to alarm calls would increase with either visual or acoustic constraint, and that there would be a disproportionate response when both were present. As predicted, individuals responded more strongly to alarm calls when there was a visual barrier. However, moderate traffic noise did not affect responses, and the effect of the visual barrier was not greater during traffic-noise playback. We conclude that a reduction of personal, visual information led to a greater reliance on social information from alarm calls, confirming indirect evidence from other species. The absence of a traffic-noise effect could be because in Australian magpies hearing subtle cues is less important than vision in detecting predators.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab051
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Memory extinction and spontaneous recovery shaping parasitoid foraging
           behavior

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: de Bruijn J; Vet L, Smid H, et al.
      Pages: 952 - 960
      Abstract: Animals can alter their foraging behavior through associative learning, where an encounter with an essential resource (e.g., food or a reproductive opportunity) is associated with nearby environmental cues (e.g., volatiles). This can subsequently improve the animal’s foraging efficiency. However, when these associated cues are encountered again, the anticipated resource is not always present. Such an unrewarding experience, also called a memory-extinction experience, can change an animal’s response to the associated cues. Although some studies are available on the mechanisms of this process, they rarely focus on cues and rewards that are relevant in an animal’s natural habitat. In this study, we tested the effect of different types of ecologically relevant memory-extinction experiences on the conditioned plant volatile preferences of the parasitic wasp Cotesia glomerata that uses these cues to locate its caterpillar hosts. These extinction experiences consisted of contact with only host traces (frass and silk), contact with nonhost traces, or oviposition in a nonhost near host traces, on the conditioned plant species. Our results show that the lack of oviposition, after contacting host traces, led to the temporary alteration of the conditioned plant volatile preference in C. glomerata, but this effect was plant species-specific. These results provide novel insights into how ecologically relevant memory-extinction experiences can fine-tune an animal’s foraging behavior. This fine-tuning of learned behavior can be beneficial when the lack of finding a resource accurately predicts current, but not future foraging opportunities. Such continuous reevaluation of obtained information helps animals to prevent maladaptive foraging behavior.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab066
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Past agricultural land use affects multiple facets of ungulate
           antipredator behavior

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bartel S; Orrock J, Candolin U.
      Pages: 961 - 969
      Abstract: Antipredator behavior affects prey fitness, prey demography, and the strength of ecological interactions. Although predator-prey interactions increasingly occur in habitats that experience multiple forms of human-generated disturbance, it is unclear how different forms of disturbance might affect antipredator behavior. Fire is a contemporary disturbance that has dramatic effects on terrestrial habitats. Such habitats may have also experienced past disturbances, like agricultural land use, that leave lasting legacies on habitat structure (e.g., overstory and understory composition). It is unclear how these past and present disturbances affect the use of different antipredator behaviors, like temporal avoidance and vigilance. We examined whether variation in disturbance regimes generates differences in ungulate antipredator behavior by using cameras to measure white-tailed deer vigilance and activity time across 24 longleaf pine woodlands that vary in past land use and contemporary fire regime. Regardless of land-use history, woodlands with high fire frequencies had 4 times less vegetation cover than low-fire woodlands, generating riskier habitats for deer; however, deer responded to fire with different antipredator strategies depending on land-use history. In nonagricultural woodlands, fire affected deer activity time such that activity was nocturnal in low-fire woodlands and crepuscular in high-fire woodlands. In post-agricultural woodlands, fire affected vigilance and not activity time such that deer were more vigilant in high-fire woodlands than in low-fire woodlands. These results suggest that ungulate antipredator behavior may vary spatially depending on past land use and contemporary fire regime, and such disturbances may generate “landscapes of fear” that persist for decades after agricultural use.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab064
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Context-dependent group size: effects of population density, habitat, and
           season

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Webber Q; Vander Wal E, Pinter-Wollman N.
      Pages: 970 - 981
      Abstract: Group size can vary in relation to population density, habitat, and season. Habitat and season may also interact with population density and affect group size through varying foraging benefits of social aggregation in different ecological contexts. We tested the hypothesis that group size varies across ecological contexts, including population density, habitat type, and season, for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in ten herds over 25 years in Newfoundland, Canada. We predicted that group size would increase as a function of population density. Based on the foraging benefits of social aggregation, we predicted larger groups as habitat openness increased because open areas tend to have higher quality foraging resources. We predicted larger groups during winter when foraging resources are covered in snow because caribou and other social animals exploit social information about the location of foraging resources. In contrast to our prediction, group size decreased as a function of population density. In support of our prediction, group size was larger in winter than calving and summer, and we found that group size increased with habitat openness in some, but not all, cases. Patterns of animal grouping are context-dependent and the additive effect of different ecological contexts on variation in group size informs our understanding of the implicit trade-offs between competition, predation risk, and profitability of forage.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab070
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Olfactory cues of large carnivores modify red deer behavior and browsing
           intensity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: van Beeck Calkoen S; Kreikenbohm R, Kuijper D, et al.
      Pages: 982 - 992
      Abstract: This study examined the effect of perceived predation risk imposed by lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) on red deer (Cervus elaphus) foraging behavior under experimental conditions. We hypothesized that in response to large carnivore scent red deer would increase their vigilance, although reducing the frequency and duration of visits to foraging sites. Consequently, browsing intensity on tree saplings was expected to decrease, whereas a higher proportion of more preferred species was expected to be browsed to compensate for higher foraging costs. We expected stronger responses towards the ambush predator lynx, compared with the cursorial predator wolf. These hypotheses were tested in a cafeteria experiment conducted within three red deer enclosures, each containing four experimental plots with olfactory cues of wolf, lynx, cow, and water as control. On each plot, a camera trap was placed and browsing intensity was measured for one consecutive week, repeated three times. Red deer reduced their visitation duration and browsing intensity on plots with large carnivore scent. Despite red deer showing a clear preference for certain tree species, the presence of large carnivore scent did not change selectivity towards different tree species. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found more pronounced effects of wolf (cursorial) compared with lynx (ambush). This study is the first to experimentally assess the perceived risk effects on the red deer foraging behavior of large carnivores differing in hunting modes. Our findings provide insights into the role of olfactory cues in predator–prey interactions and how they can modify fine-scale herbivore–plant interactions.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab071
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Natural noise affects conspecific signal detection and territorial defense
           behaviors in songbirds

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Reed V; Toth C, Wardle R, et al.
      Pages: 993 - 1003
      Abstract: Recent research suggests that anthropogenic noise can substantially alter animal behavior. Although there are many sources of natural background noise, the relative influence of these sounds on behavior has received much less attention. Using landscape-scale playbacks of rushing rivers and crashing ocean surf, we investigated how habitat appropriate natural noise alters territorial defense behaviors in lazuli buntings (Passerina amoena) occupying riparian areas and spotted towhees (Pipilo maculatus) in riparian and coastal areas when exposed to simulated intruder song. We also incorporated naturally occurring cicada noise as an acoustic source influencing lazuli bunting behavior. Both songbird species possess songs that share substantial spectral overlap with low-frequency, water-generated noise, and lazuli bunting song shares an additional high-frequency overlap with cicada calls. Thus, there is potential for background acoustic conditions to mask conspecific signals. We found that detection and discrimination of conspecific playback occurred more slowly for both species as background sound levels increased. Lazuli buntings also exhibited complex flight behavior in noise, suggesting they respond differently depending on the amplitude and type of background noise (with versus without cicada calls). Our results suggest natural noise can impair territorial defense behaviors in songbirds, highlighting natural soundscapes as an under-appreciated axis of the environment.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arab074
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 5 (2021)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 34.236.191.104
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-