Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 913 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (54 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (810 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 601 - 378 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
Multequina     Open Access  
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nano Select     Open Access  
Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Nativa     Open Access  
Natur und Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Natural Areas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Natural Resources     Open Access  
Natural Resources & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Natural Resources and Environmental Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Nature-Based Solutions     Open Access  
Nepal Journal of Environmental Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
NeuroToxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Neurotoxicology and Teratology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
New Zealand Journal of Environmental Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
NJAS : Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Novos Cadernos NAEA     Open Access  
npj Urban Sustainability     Open Access  
Observatorio Medioambiental     Open Access  
Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ochrona Srodowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych : Environmental Protection and Natural Resources     Open Access  
Oecologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Oikos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
One Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
One Ecosystem     Open Access  
Open Environmental Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Our Nature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pace Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Packaging, Transport, Storage & Security of Radioactive Material     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Particle and Fibre Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pastos y Forrajes     Open Access  
Peer Community Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Pharmacology & Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Physio-Géo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pittsburgh Journal of Environmental and Public Health Law     Open Access  
Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Planeta Amazônia : Revista Internacional de Direito Ambiental e Políticas Públicas     Open Access  
Planning & Environmental Law: Issues and decisions that impact the built and natural environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Plant Ecology & Diversity     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Plant Knowledge Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Plant, Cell & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Plant-Environment Interactions     Open Access  
Plants, People, Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Political Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Population and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Population Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Presence: Virtual and Augmented Reality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference     Open Access  
Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Process Safety and Environmental Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Producción + Limpia     Open Access  
Progress in Disaster Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Projets de Paysage     Open Access  
Psychological Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Public Money & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Quaternary     Open Access  
Recursos Rurais     Open Access  
REDER : Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos sobre Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres     Open Access  
Regional Environmental Change     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rekayasa     Open Access  
Remediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Remote Sensing Applications : Society and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Rendiconti Lincei     Hybrid Journal  
Renewable Energy and Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Renewable Energy Focus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Resources     Open Access  
Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Resources, Conservation & Recycling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Resources, Conservation & Recycling Advances     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rethinking Ecology     Open Access  
Reuse/Recycle Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Revista AIDIS de Ingeniería y Ciencias Ambientales. Investigación, desarrollo y práctica     Open Access  
Revista Ambivalências     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Ambientais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Meio Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Chapingo. Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Ciência, Tecnologia & Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Ambientales     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Ambiental e Socioambientalismo     Open Access  
Revista de Direito e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade - GeAS     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación en Agroproducción Sustentable     Open Access  
Revista de Salud Ambiental     Open Access  
Revista ECOVIDA     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista Eletrônica de Gestão e Tecnologias Ambientais     Open Access  
Revista Geama     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana Ambiente & Sustentabilidad     Open Access  
Revista Kawsaypacha: Sociedad y Medio Ambiente     Open Access  
Revista Laborativa     Open Access  
Revista Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade     Open Access  
Revista Mundi Meio Ambiente e Agrárias     Open Access  
Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rivista di Studi sulla Sostenibilità     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
RUDN Journal of Ecology and Life Safety     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science     Open Access  
SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Saúde e Meio Ambiente : Revista Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health     Partially Free   (Followers: 13)
Science of The Total Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du Cemagref     Open Access  
Social and Environmental Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sociedad y Ambiente     Open Access  
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Soil and Tillage Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
South Australian Geographical Journal     Open Access  
South Pacific Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
Southern African Journal of Environmental Education     Open Access  
Southern Forests : a Journal of Forest Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sriwijaya Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Sustainability Agri Food and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainability in Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure     Hybrid Journal  
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Development Strategy and Practise     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sustainable Horizons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Sustainable Technology and Entrepreneurship     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Sustinere : Journal of Environment and Sustainability     Open Access  
TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Tecnogestión     Open Access  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The International Journal on Media Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
The Ring     Open Access  
Theoretical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicologic Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Toxicological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Toxicology and Industrial Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Toxicology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Toxicon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Toxicon : X     Open Access  
Toxin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Transactions on Environment and Electrical Engineering     Open Access  
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Transportation Safety and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Trends in Ecology & Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 242)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UD y la Geomática     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
Universidad y Ciencia     Open Access  
UNM Environmental Journals     Open Access  
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Urban Transformations     Open Access  
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Waste Management & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Water Conservation Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Water Environment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Water International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Water Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution : Focus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Weather and Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Weather, Climate, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Web Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Wetlands     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Waste Management & Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.519
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0734-242X - ISSN (Online) 1096-3669
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Still edible wasted food from households: A regional Italian case study

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      Authors: Massimiliano Boccarossa, Daniele Cespi, Ivano Vassura, Fabrizio Passarini
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      A 2-year monitoring campaign was carried out within the Marche Region (Italy) to quantify the potential still edible wasted food (seFW) within the sorted (seFWsorted) and unsorted (seFWunsorted) waste streams. Results were elaborated to estimate the distribution of seFW among the five provinces and the amount per capita. Results in terms of total quantities per inhabitants (seFWindex per capita) depict an important variability between districts but almost constant in years (26–38 kg/inhabitants in 2018 and 26–36 kg/inhabitants in 2019). Scores in Marche were then used to study the national situation, adopting the same percentage factors. Analysis was performed on 2019 data. Gradual colour shade was used to identify the Regions with greater seFW production potential. Worst scores are achieved by Lazio, Lombardia and Sicilia (red), followed by others classified as orange and yellow. More than 1.5 Mt potential seFW was estimated at national level, 29% of which is due to the unsorted fraction. Results at national level were used to assess the potential environmental impact related to seFW in terms of climate change. Carbon footprint indicator was quantified per capita (69 kg equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2e)/inhabitant/year in the case of Marche) and overall (3.5 MtCO2e). In addition, an evaluation of the potential economic implications related to the greenhouse gases emitted was made using the Social Cost of Carbon. Results showed that cost of the tCO2e global damage related to seFW in Italy ranges from 35 to 700 M$.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T01:17:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105447
       
  • Transboundary movement of waste review: From binary towards a contextual
           framing

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      Authors: Kaustubh Thapa, Walter JV Vermeulen, Pauline Deutz, Olawale Olayide
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Multiple cases of toxic waste dumping from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries to non-OECD countries in the 1980s led to scholarly attention to transboundary waste movements. The Basel Convention was established to provide an international legal framework to tackle such problems in the early 1990s, focusing on hazardous waste. However, the transboundary movement of all waste, not just hazardous waste, remains a societal challenge globally, frequently surfacing as an ethical question on the one hand and a story of resource management/trade on the other. This phenomenon has been studied across disciplines resulting in diverse, scattered and often contested understandings. Despite previous and ongoing efforts, waste production, management and transboundary movements are increasing and are predicted to grow significantly with global social, environmental and economic implications. This literature review uses a research synthesis and problematisation approach to critically analyse the transboundary waste literature since 1985. The findings highlight research trends, the need for data reliability and policy coherence, and the sustainability implications of the phenomenon. One recurring theme in the literature is the reduction of the complex phenomenon involving multiple countries, policies, actors and waste streams into simple opposite narratives, which we called transboundary waste binaries. We have identified and then challenged assumptions behind transboundary waste binaries and discussed the implications of such assumptions on the broader discourse. We have concluded with future research recommendations to look past the transboundary waste binaries towards a nuanced and contextual understanding of transboundary waste flows.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T12:13:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105424
       
  • Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens as a potential innovative and
           

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      Authors: Kashif ur Rehman, Clemens Hollah, Karin Wiesotzki, Rashid ur Rehman, Asif Ur Rehman, Jibin Zhang, Longyu Zheng, Theresa Nienaber, Volker Heinz, Kemal Aganovic
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The application of black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens based technology to process organic wastes presents a practical option for organic waste management by producing feed materials (protein, fat), biodiesel, chitin and biofertilizer. Therefore, BSF organic wastes recycling is a sustainable and cost-effective process that promotes resource recovery, and generates valuable products, thereby creating new economic opportunities for the industrial sector and entrepreneurs. Specifically, we discussed the significance of BSF larvae (BSFL) in the recycling of biowaste. Despite the fact that BSFL may consume a variety of wastes materials, whereas, certain lignocellulosic wastes, such as dairy manure, are deficient in nutrients, which might slow BSFL development. The nutritional value of larval feeding substrates may be improved by mixing in nutrient-rich substrates like chicken manure or soybean curd residue, for instance. Similarly, microbial fermentation may be used to digest lignocellulosic waste, releasing nutrients that are needed for the BSFL. In this mini-review, a thorough discussion has been conducted on the various waste biodegraded by the BSFL, their co-digestion and microbial fermentation of BSFL substrate, as well as the prospective applications and safety of the possible by-products that may be generated at the completion of the treatment process. Furthermore, this study examines the present gaps and challenges on the direction to the efficient application of BSF for waste management and the commercialization of its by-products.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T12:11:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105441
       
  • A full-scale black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) bioconversion
           system for domestic biodegradable wastes to resource

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      Authors: Deng Yang-Jie, Fang-Ming Xiang, Xing-Hua Tao, Cheng-Liang Jiang, Ting-Zhou Zhang, Zhi-Jian Zhang
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Domestic biodegradable wastes (DBW) pose a threat to environmental quality and human health. Bioconversion via black soldier fly larvae (BSFL; Hermitia illucens L.) is an expedient way for converting ‘waste to resource’ (insect protein and biofertilizer). Although researches abounded in laboratory-reared experiments and bioconversion mechanisms were pertinent, the void of data from actual and full-scale operation restricts the intensification of BSFL technology and its global adoption. Hence, a full-scale BSFL bioconversion system lasting 4 years in Hangzhou (China) was investigated, and the feasibility and efficiency of 15 tonnes of DBW per day were studied. Through continuous technical optimization, the average production of fresh larvae was increased from 8.5% in 2017 to 15.3% in 2020, along with bioconversion rate of final vermicompost decreased from 35.4% to 14.5%. The total biomass reduction rate in 2020 was 68.7 ± 17.4 kg/(m3 d), equivalent to 0.735 ± 0.215 kg/(kg d) in the form of fresh larvae. Crude fat in fresh larvae accounted for 13.4%, and crude protein accounted for 16.2% in which the determined amino acid profile bore a strong resemblance to fish meal only except histidine and tyrosine. Its economic benefits proved the feasibility of this technology, and the profit reached up to 35.9 US$ per tonne of DBW in 2019. In conclusion, BSFL bioconversion system under current ‘insect-farm’ operation was a promising solution for DBW treatment with value-added waste recycling.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T12:07:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221103936
       
  • Simulation and prediction of the effect of aeration, recirculation and
           degradation on landfill temperature in aerobic operation

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      Authors: Ruoxin Li, Lei Liu, Qianshen Ding, Chao He, Juan Hou, Tengfei Gao
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Much heat is released in aerobic landfills, which leads to temperature change. Quantitative prediction of temperature change with time and space is essential for the safe aerobic operation of landfill. In this article, based on the theory of porous media seepage mechanics and heat transfer, a seepage–temperature coupling model considering aeration, recirculation and degradation was established, which included internal energy change, heat conduction, convection and heat transfer. Moreover, combined with the long-time on-site monitoring temperature data from Wuhan Jinkou Landfill, the model’s reliability was preliminarily verified. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for aeration intensity, aeration temperature, recirculation intensity and recirculation temperature. Among the four factors, recirculation intensity influences the peak temperature most with a decrease of 20.11%. Compared with Borglin’s and Hao’s models, it is found that waste should not be assumed as a cell for temperature prediction. By comparing the results of Non-linear Ascent Stage model, Linear Ascent Stage model and Absent Ascent Stage model, it showed that the temperature difference of the three models decreases with the increase of operation time. In addition, the time point of peak temperature, t0, affects the temperature distribution. The above results provide a reference for predicting the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature and regulations for long-term aerobic landfill operations.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T09:07:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105430
       
  • Disposal of obsolete mobile phones: A review on replacement, disposal
           methods, in-use lifespan, reuse and recycling

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      Authors: Shailesh Prabhu N, Ritanjali Majhi
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Usage/consumption of mobile phones has increased rapidly around the world. As of April 2021, there were 5.27 billion mobile phone users. Meanwhile, the generation of obsolete mobile phones/mobile phone wastes is also increased mainly due to the replacement of mobile phones. The in-use lifespan of mobile phones is correspondingly getting decreased. The inappropriate disposal of obsolete mobile phones leads to adverse consequences on the environment, human health and on metal recovery. This review article provides an insight on findings from various articles on disposal of obsolete mobile phones by users/consumers. The various aspects, such as reasons for replacement, disposal methods adopted by users/consumers, impact due to the adoption of improper disposal methods such as handing them over to the informal recycling sector and storage/hibernation after its in-use lifespan, were covered. Along with this, the study even focuses on reduce, reuse and recycle (3Rs) of sustainability. Reduce means reduction of mobile phone replacement frequency. Storage of mobile phones post-in-use lifespan is the most opted disposal method, and it is one of the significant barriers to reuse, recycling and metal recovery. When it comes to recycling, the research undertaken on the recycling of obsolete mobile phones is not as in-depth when compared to the research done on recycling of e-waste in general. This article identifies future directions for sustainable end-of-life management of obsolete mobile phones.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T08:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105429
       
  • Waste to energy incineration technology: Recent development under climate
           change scenarios

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      Authors: Muhammad Sajid Khan, Ishrat Mubeen, Yu Caimeng, Gaojun Zhu, Azeem Khalid, Mi Yan
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      With the huge generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), proper management and disposal of MSW is a worldwide challenge for sustainable development of cities and high quality of citizens life. Although different disposal ways are available, incineration is a leading harmless approach to effectively recover energy among the applied technologies. The purpose of the present review paper is to detail the discussion of evolution of waste to energy incineration and specifically to highlight the currently used and advanced incineration technologies, including combined incineration with other energy, for instance, hydrogen production, coal and solar energy. In addition, the environmental performance is discussed, including the zero waste emission, leachate and fly ash treatment, climate change contribution and public behaviour. Finally, challenges, opportunities and business model are addressed. Trends and perspectives on policies and techno-economic aspects are also discussed in this review. Different simulation tools, which can be used for the thermodynamic assessment of incineration plants, are debated; life-cycle inventory emissions and most critical environmental impacts of such plants are evaluated by life-cycle analysis. This review shows that waste incineration with energy yield is advantageous to handle waste problems and it affects climate change positively.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T07:13:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105411
       
  • Quantification and characterization of recovered materials in the cycle of
           the informal household electronic waste dismantling in Buriram province,
           

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      Authors: Pattida Thongkaow, Tassanee Prueksasit, Wattasit Siriwong
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The numerous amount of electronic waste (e-waste) has not been managed effectively resulting informal dismantling sites are being expanded in Thailand. The government attempts to improve the efficiency of an integrated e-waste management system, but baseline data of e-waste stream in informal sectors are insufficient. This research aimed to investigate the inflow and outflow of the materials throughout the informal e-waste dismantling processes at the well-known second-largest community in Buriram province during 2017–2018. To describe the quantities of dismantled materials, a material flow analysis was performed. The overall amount of e-waste taken to the community was estimated to be in the range of 1593–12,943 tonnes year−1. Valuable materials could be recovered at more than 90% (by mass) from fans, refrigerators, washing machines, microwaves and air conditioners. The amount of e-waste residue that the local administrative organization had to handle was up to 1144 tonnes year−1. The quantitative data retrieved from this study could provide a satisfactory equation for estimating the amount of separated valuable and non-valuable materials. Recyclable materials from dismantling have an economic incentive, e-waste dismantlers in a small and large household group that can earn approximately 798 and 1262 USD month−1 income, respectively. The notable e-waste characterization and quantification of recovered materials would be useful for improving the potential circular flow of e-waste in Thailand.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T02:04:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105437
       
  • The effect of dietary awareness on household food waste

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      Authors: Zhenhua Wang, Jinqi Jiang, Qiyan Zeng
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      How to reduce household food waste has emerged as an important issue worldwide. Considering the potential endogeneity issue, the present study utilizes the treatment effects model to analyse the effect of dietary awareness on household food waste using data from China. The results showed that improving dietary awareness could significantly increase household food waste overall. However, this impact is heterogeneous among households of different characteristics. Improving dietary awareness leads to more food waste for households with young and old food decision-makers, but contributes to less food waste for households of middle-aged makers. Also, the positive effect of dietary awareness on household food waste weakens as income increases. These findings propose a new perspective to understand the heterogeneity in household food waste in the context of dietary awareness promotion.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T02:01:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105435
       
  • A mini-review of the physical recycling methods for plastic parts in
           end-of-life vehicles

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      Authors: Vicent Martinez Sanz, Adrian Morales Serrano, Martin Schlummer
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Although the use of plastic components is increasing in the automotive industry, yet the recovery rates of these materials in end-of-life vehicle (ELV) is lower compared to metals. One of the main problems of ELV plastic waste is poor separation and sorting. Large car plastic parts consist of fibre-reinforced plastics, whereas other components end up in the automotive shredder residue (ASR), featuring a very heterogeneous mix of light materials that contains mostly non-metallic materials such as textiles, plastics, cartridges and wood. Generally, ASR was disposed in landfill or diverted to thermal treatments, such as pyrolysis or gasification, for energy recovery. Currently, the recovery of raw materials from various waste streams plays a key role in new European strategy for plastics in a circular economy. The approach of physical recycling methods described in this mini-review helps to maintain the value of polymer materials in the value chain allowing the reuse in the original or similar application.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T10:00:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221094917
       
  • Quantifying and managing plastic waste generated from building
           construction in Auckland, New Zealand

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      Authors: German Hernandez, Joanne Low, Ashveen Nand, Alex Bu, Shannon L Wallis, Linda Kestle, Terri-Ann Berry
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Each year, construction and demolition (C&D) waste contributes at least 25,000 tonnes to the total amount of plastic landfilled in Auckland, New Zealand. The growing use of plastic in the packaging of building materials, use of polystyrene and products, such as building wrap, are contributing to this. Unlike countries such as the UK, most construction waste in New Zealand is not sorted on-site, and C&D waste is often co-mingled; therefore, minimal analysis on the recoverability of plastics has been attempted. This study identified and quantified the plastic waste stream produced from four construction sites, generated from various stages of construction in Auckland, New Zealand. Plastic waste was taken over three construction stages including demolition, exterior and weatherproofing and services and cladding, amounting to 112 kg (or 11.2 m3). The main types of plastic analysed were polyethylene, contributing 77% (by mass), and polyvinyl chloride, representing 31% (by mass). The main reason for the generation of plastic waste across the four sites was highly variable and dependent on construction stage. However, it was apparent that plastic packaging of materials was not the single area of concern, and plastic building componentry and protection materials should also be investigated for their contribution. This study supports the requirement for improved understanding and awareness around the composition and fate of plastic C&D waste. Long-term benefits to the construction industry are from raising awareness of the potential to make profits from valuable waste products and to improve environmental performance and reputation, for a competitive advantage in New Zealand.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T06:35:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105425
       
  • A mini-review of biomethane valorization: Managerial and policy
           implications for a circular resource

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      Authors: Idiano D’Adamo, Claudio Sassanelli
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The green transition requires renewable energy resources, especially the role of biomass is very crucial as it promotes resource circularity if sustainable substrates are used. This mini-review focuses on green gas derived from biomass called biomethane, which appears to be strategic in the face of soaring energy costs. Hence, combined Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats–Analytic Hierarchy Process analysis is used to compare and evaluate the critical factors. The results provide not only methodological insights through the application of the local–global priority method, but also managerial insights that see biomethane as a winning element for the green transition, fighting climate change and reducing dependence on external energy sources. Subsidies have played a key role in pursuing economic sustainability; however, their use should be reduced over time and measured to the actual contribution related to environmental and social improvement. The results of this work highlight that biomethane development is important to tackle climate change and to be self-sufficient from an energy perspective. This development plan, based on circularity of resources, includes subsidies for small-scale plants, substrates from neighbouring territories, citizen involvement in decision-making processes, valorization of suitable waste from an environmental perspective and stability of political choices.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-14T06:31:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221102249
       
  • Electronic waste control and management in Ghana: A critical assessment of
           the law, perceptions and practices

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      Authors: Maxwell Y Owusu-Twum, Gifty Kumi-Amoah, William K Heve, Ishmael Lente, Seth Anim Owusu, Lloyd Larbi, Richard Amfo-Otu
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of the study was to assess the impact of Ghana’s hazardous and e-waste control and management Act 917 of 2016 on current e-waste management practices and the level of awareness among key stakeholders (general public, repairers, wholesalers/retailers, recyclers and importers of electronic items) in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and examined in this study. Results showed a low level (12%) of awareness among stakeholders on the e-waste legislation. Almost 13% of respondents had been educated on e-waste management. Community engagement and the mass media were the main sources of information on e-waste. Significant associations between background information of respondents and awareness level on ‘Ghana’s Act 917’ were observed. Relative to general e-waste issues, only education and stakeholder showed significant associations with e-waste legislation and management. The main e-waste disposal methods adopted by respondents were disposal at dumpsites (22.7%), repair and reuse (21.1%) and reselling (20.1%). Almost 10% of respondents made changes to their e-waste disposal practices over the past 5 years. These changes were mainly due to the economic benefits derived from reselling e-waste (37.6%) and the perceived adverse impacts of e-waste on the environment (23.9%). Overall, there is the need to intensify awareness on ‘Ghana’s Act 917’, especially issues regarding sustainable e-waste management practices.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-11T07:27:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221103939
       
  • Synergistic effect of polyvinyl chloride and coal ash on thermal
           separation of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash through molten salt process

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      Authors: Minghai Jing, Peng Zhao, Tongdan Chen, Jiangjiang Li
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) contains high contents of salts and high concentrations of heavy metals, which makes FA disposal extremely difficult. However, heavy metal elements could potentially be separated from FA during thermal treatment process to make it possible to be recycled. This work aims to study the volatilization of heavy metals in FA treated by molten salt method. The influence of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and coal ash (CA) on volatilization of heavy metals was investigated. Within the scope of this study, the highest heavy metal removal rate can be under the condition: the calcium chloride/sodium chloride weight ratio 1:1, the FA/molten salt weight ratio 1:10, treatment temperature 1000°C for 2 hours in reducing atmosphere. The volatilization rates of lead, zinc, copper, chromium and manganese were 86.20, 67.53, 65.24, 50.07 and 39.45%, respectively. On the basis of molten salt treatment, adding PVC could promote the volatilization of heavy metals. The volatilization rate of lead was 96.71%, and the volatilization rates of chromium and manganese were higher than 60% when the content of PVC was 5 wt%. When adding 10 wt% CA and 1 wt% polyvinyl chloride, the volatilization rate of lead could reach 100%. The experiments and thermodynamic calculations showed that silicon dioxide and aluminium oxide in CA and hydrochloric acid decomposed from PVC could promote the chlorination and volatilization of heavy metals. The volatilized heavy metal chlorides provided the possibility of recovery and utilization of heavy metals in FA.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T01:45:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105209
       
  • Effect of CaO and hydrothermal carbonization conditions on the fuel
           characteristics of rice husk hydrochars

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      Authors: Yaoxin Liu, Enyu Wang, Ze Kan, Baotong Liu
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The effects of hydrothermal temperature and catalyst concentration on the basic elements and combustion characteristics and kinetic parameters of hydrochars were investigated using ultimate analyzer and thermogravimetric method with rice husk as the research object and CaO as the additives. The results showed that: (1) the fixed carbon content of hydrochars gradually increased with the increase of hydrothermal temperature, whereas the volatile content gradually decreased. When CaO was added, the changes of fixed carbon and volatile fraction gradually decreased with the increase of hydrothermal temperature, and H/C atomic ratio increased to different degrees, which had a certain inhibitory effect on the degree of hydrothermal carbonization of rice husk. (2) The peak of the volatile fraction combustion section of hydrochars combustion derivative thermogravimetric curve was higher than that of the fixed carbon combustion section. CaO concentration has less effect on the volatile combustion section, and the combustion peak of the fixed carbon section is significantly reduced. (3) When the heating rate of the combustion test is accelerated, the ignition and burnout temperatures of the sample increase and the overall combustion curve shifts to the high temperature region. (4) The comprehensive combustion index SN decreases with the increase in hydrothermal temperature. When the hydrothermal temperature is certain, the CaO concentration causes the SN to increase and then decrease, which finally reduces the combustion performance of hydrochars. (5) The activation energy of the fixed carbon combustion section of hydrochars is lower than that of the volatile combustion section, and the activation energy of both volatile and fixed carbon combustion sections gradually decreases after adding CaO. The primary reaction kinetic model was used to describe the combustion kinetics of hydrochars, and the correlation coefficients (R2) were all above 0.92, and the results were reliable.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T11:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221105412
       
  • Waste audits in healthcare: A systematic review and description of best
           practices

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      Authors: Jonathan E Slutzman, Hannah Bockius, Ilyssa O Gordon, Hannah C Greene, Sarah Hsu, Yiming Huang, Michelle H Lam, Timothy Roberts, Cassandra L Thiel
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Healthcare generates large amounts of waste, harming both environmental and human health. Waste audits are the standard method for measuring and characterizing waste. This is a systematic review of healthcare waste audits, describing their methods and informing more standardized auditing and reporting. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Inspec, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection databases for published studies involving direct measurement of waste in medical facilities. We screened 2398 studies, identifying 156 studies for inclusion from 37 countries. Most were conducted to improve local waste sorting policies or practices, with fewer to inform policy development, increase waste diversion or reduce costs. Measurement was quantified mostly by weighing waste, with many also counting items or using interviews or surveys to compile data. Studies spanned single procedures, departments and hospitals, and multiple hospitals or health systems. Waste categories varied, with most including municipal solid waste or biohazardous waste, and others including sharps, recycling and other wastes. There were significant differences in methods and results between high- and low-income countries. The number of healthcare waste audits published has been increasing, with variable quality and general methodologic inconsistency. A greater emphasis on consistent performance and reporting standards would improve the quality, comparability and usefulness of healthcare waste audits.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T01:16:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221101531
       
  • Energy recovery and waste treatment using the co-pyrolysis of biomass
           waste and polymer

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      Authors: Seok-Young Oh, Jung-In Sohn
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The pyrolysis of spent coffee grounds (SCG) and polymers was examined as a waste treatment option for energy recovery and carbon sequestration. Rice straw–derived biochar was used as control biochar to evaluate the sorption capacity and energy production capability of SCG-derived biochar. SCG are characterised by high levels of volatile matter, rendering them suitable as an energy source. SCG were converted to biochar, bio-oil, and syngas via pyrolysis, with yields of 22%, 33%, and 45%, respectively. The high heating value (HHV) of the biochar and bio-oil was 20.6 and 22.9 MJ kg−1, respectively, indicating that they could be used as supplementary fuels. Co-pyrolysis with polymers (20 v v%−1) increased the HHV of biochar. Accordingly, the maximum production of CH4 and H2 increased from 0.3 and 0.04 mmol g−1 to 3.4−6.3 and 0.8−1.3 mmol g−1, respectively. Polystyrene most strongly enhanced the yields of CH4 and H2, followed by polypropylene and polyethylene; this order was likely to be in accordance with the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms present in the monomers. Similar to rice straw–derived biochar, the biochar produced from SCG demonstrated a high sorption capacity for 2,4-dinitrotoluene and chromate due to its high carbon content and anion exchange capacity, respectively. Laboratory pot tests revealed that the coffee grounds–derived biochar was able to increase the growth of young radish. Our results suggest that the pyrolysis of SCG and polymer may be a promising option for waste treatment, energy production, and carbon sequestration.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T10:01:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221087845
       
  • Calcium-pyro-hydrochar derived from the spent mushroom substrate as a
           functional sorbent of Pb2+ and Cd2+ from aqueous solutions

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      Authors: Marija Kojić, Marija Mihajlović, Milena Marinović-Cincović, Jelena Petrović, Đurica Katnić, Aleksandar Krstić, Svetlana Butulija, Antonije Onjia
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      A calcium-pyro-hydrochar (Ca-PHC) can be distinguished as a novel sorbent of Pb2+ and Cd2+ from an aqueous solution. It was obtained using hydrothermal treatment of the spent mushroom substrate (SMS), followed by a CaCl2·5H2O activation and pyrolysis. The characterisation of chars before and after modifications was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Batch experiments were performed to examine Ca-PHC’s sorption properties and binding mechanisms to selected metal ions. The maximum sorption capacities of Ca-PHC for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 297 mg g−1, and 131 mg g−1, respectively. The obtained results demonstrated that the sorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by Ca-PHC follows a pseudo-second kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm. The binding of the selected metals onto Ca-PHC was enabled by the ion-exchange mechanism, surface complexation, mineral precipitation and cation–π interaction. Thermodynamic parameters indicate that metal ions binding by Ca-PHC are spontaneous and endothermic. Due to the high adsorption capacities, the obtained Ca-PHC has good potential for application in industrial wastewater treatment. In addition, the demonstrated use of SMS highlights another possibility of applying this specific biomass relevant to sustainable and economical waste management in the growing mushroom industry.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T10:55:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221093951
       
  • Syngas production from fast pyrolysis and steam gasification of mixed food
           waste

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      Authors: Dharminder Singh, Aayush Raizada, Sanjeev Yadav
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Food waste generation is a worldwide phenomenon and disposing off it in an environmentally benign way has been a challenge. Thermochemical processes have the potential for not only processing mixed food waste effectively from an environmental point of view but also producing bioenergy in all three forms: solid (biochar), liquid (bio-oil) and gas (syngas). In this study, two thermochemical processes – fast pyrolysis and steam gasification – aimed for producing syngas as main product were carried out at three different temperatures: 600°C, 700°C and 800°C, and resulting syngas was characterised and compared for syngas yield, syngas composition, hydrogen yield and high heating value (HHV). The steam flow rate (SFR) was maintained at 0.625 mL min−1 for all gasification experiments. The syngas yield obtained from steam gasification was higher (1.2 m3 kg−1) than the syngas yield from fast pyrolysis (0.81 m3 kg−1). In addition, the hydrogen fraction was much higher in syngas from steam gasification (63.58%) than that from fast pyrolysis (45.03%). Furthermore, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) and apparent thermal efficiency (ATE) were determined to compare the performance of these two processes. CCE was higher (63.6%) for steam gasification than that for pyrolysis (52.3%) which suggested that steam gasification was much more effective than fast pyrolysis to produce syngas of higher quality.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T10:53:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221093948
       
  • System dynamics-based prediction of municipal solid waste generation in
           high-cold and high-altitude area: The case of Lhasa, Tibet

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      Authors: Hongbo Liu, Qinxiao Zhang, Zhuyuan Xue, Xinying Zhuang, Jiacong Li
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The ecological environment in high-cold and high-altitude area is fragile and sensitive, which raise higher claim for municipal solid waste (MSW) management. In the high-cold and high-altitude area, there are problems, such as the mismatch between the actual amount of MSW generated and the scale of transportation and treatment facilities, and the inefficiency of MSW management. In terms of MSW forecasting methods, it is also difficult to forecast due to the lack of data. This study is the first to propose a system dynamics-based method for predicting the amount of MSW generated in high-cold and high-altitude area, and apply it to Lhasa. The research results show that the total amount of MSW generated in Lhasa is small, but the growth rate is fast. Through dynamic simulation, it is found that the synergistic consideration of gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, urban construction policy and tourism development policy can significantly reduce the growth trend (14% emission reduction in 2030). In addition, strengthening supervision and restraint, publicity and education in high-cold and high-altitude area can produce better waste sorting effects, minimise the pressure on treatment facilities, and improve resource utilisation. Finally, the policy implications are suggested, for example, in the process of MSW management, the impact of economy, urbanisation, tourism and so on, should be taken into account and comprehensively adjusted. It is anticipated that this model and policy implications can be applied to other high-cold and high-altitude cities to provide data support and policy reference for the whole-process management of MSW.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T09:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221084077
       
  • Methane emissions from trees planted on a closed landfill site

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      Authors: Alice Fraser-McDonald, Carl Boardman, Toni Gladding, Stephen Burnley, Vincent Gauci
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Trees have morphological adaptations that allow methane (CH4) generated below ground to bypass oxidation in aerobic surface soils. This natural phenomenon however has not been measured in a landfill context where planted trees may alter the composition and magnitude of CH4 fluxes from the surface. To address this research gap, we measured tree stem and soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CH4 and CO2) from a closed UK landfill and comparable natural site, using an off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyser and flux chambers. Analyses showed average CH4 stem fluxes from the landfill and non-landfill sites were 31.8 ± 24.4 µg m–2 h–1 and –0.3 ± 0.2 µg m–2 h–1, respectively. The landfill site showed seasonal patterns in CH4 and CO2 stem emissions, but no significant patterns were observed in CH4 and CO2 fluxes at different stem heights or between tree species. Tree stem emissions accounted for 39% of the total CH4 surface flux (7% of the CO2); a previously unknown contribution that should be included in future carbon assessments.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T11:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221086955
       
  • Design of gas collection systems: Issues and challenges

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      Authors: TG Parameswaran, GL Sivakumar Babu
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The design of a gas collection system (GCS) for a landfill involves estimating several critical parameters, such as the radius of influence (ROI), suction pressures, number of wells and their spacing. One of the biggest challenges lies in the estimation of ROI for a particular landfill. In this study, the ROI for a Bagalur landfill is estimated for various possible gas generation rates. ROI for active and passive GCS is estimated with numerical modelling (two-dimensional) for all definitions of ROI at different suction pressures. An inverse correlation was observed between the values of various definitions of ROI at different gas generation rates. Justification for this behaviour is brought out by addressing the conceptual difference between these definitions. The number of wells along with their spacing was then calculated, and the efficiency of the design was assessed with three-dimensional modelling. Passive and active systems had average methane recovery rates of 84% and 88%, respectively, with an atmospheric methane flux ranging from 10−9 to 10−10 kg m−2 s−1. The high recovery rate and low methane flux indicate the effectiveness of the design. The values of the methane flow rate from the extraction well were validated with a theoretical method, suggesting the usability of the model for future investigations.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T09:54:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221086949
       
  • Towards recycling of challenging waste fractions: Identifying flame
           retardants in plastics with optical spectroscopic techniques

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      Authors: Tuomas Sormunen, Sanna Uusitalo, Hannu Lindström, Kirsi Immonen, Juha Mannila, Janne Paaso, Sari Järvinen
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The use of plastics is rapidly rising around the world causing a major challenge for recycling. Lately, a lot of emphasis has been put on recycling of packaging plastics, but, in addition, there are high volume domains with low recycling rate such as automotive, building and construction, and electric and electronic equipment. Waste plastics from these domains often contain additives that restrict their recycling due to the hazardousness and challenges they bring to chemical and mechanical recycling. As such, the first step for enabling the reuse of these fractions is the identification of these additives in the waste plastics. This study compares the ability of different optical spectroscopy technologies to detect two different plastic additives, fire retardants ammonium polyphosphate and aluminium trihydrate, inside polypropylene plastic matrix. The detection techniques near-infrared (NIR), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy as well as hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) and mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) range were evaluated. The results indicate that Raman, NIR and SWIR HSI have the potential to detect these additives inside the plastic matrix even at relatively low concentrations. As such, utilising these methods has the possibility to facilitate sorting and recycling of as of yet unused plastic waste streams, although more research is needed in applying them in actual waste sorting facilities.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T07:03:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221084053
       
  • Understanding, controlling and optimising the cooling of waste thermal
           treatment beds including STARx Hottpads

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      Authors: Ryan B Morales, Christopher T DeGroot, Grant C Scholes, Jason I Gerhard
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      STARx (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation ex situ) is a thermal treatment strategy for contaminated soils and organic wastes. Key to this technology is that organics are embedded in porous matrix beds (e.g. sand). STARx induces a self-sustaining smouldering combustion front that traverses the bed, burning away the embedded contaminants/wastes. The time and cost effectiveness of this technology is largely dictated by the time required for cooling of the hot, clean, porous matrix bed that remains after treatment. This study is the first to explore the cooling of these beds. A suite of novel simulations investigated the influence of key parameters on bed-cooling time. The results reveal that cooling time decreased nearly linearly with decreases of volume-averaged bed temperature and bed bulk density. Increased injection air fluxes led to the non-linear decrease of cooling time. Also, cooling time was negatively impacted by bed temperature inhomogeneity, which influenced preferential air flow through cooler regions of the bed, bypassing hotter regions. From these results, using lower bulk density bed materials, increased air fluxes and enhancing wall insulation to improve bed temperature homogeneity were identified as system optimisations to reduce cooling times. While the aim of this research is to improve the STARx cooling process, the results are also highly applicable to many similar engineering systems that involve hot porous bed cooling.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T11:53:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221076308
       
  • Examining challenges and multi-strategic approaches in waste management
           during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review

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      Authors: Sk Ajim Ali, Farhana Parvin
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on the environment. Waste generation and improper management during the COVID-19 pandemic posed a major threat to human health and the environment. Irregular and improper waste collection, handling, suspension of waste recycling and unsanitary disposal were all important issues in the processing and management of generated waste. This study emphasised a systematic review and content analysis to categorise all types of waste management (WM) during the COVID-19 pandemic to accomplish a well understanding of the relation between the COVID-19 pandemic and its impacts on WM within the literature. In this systematic review, a number of published papers on different aspects of WM during March 2020 to February 2021 were considered in order to identify major challenges in handling WM during the pandemic time and highlight multi-strategic approaches suggested. A content analysis of the 58 relevant papers was carried out by incorporating different types of WM at local as well as global scales. The present review results revealed that the COVID-19 has impacted the quantity and composition of waste, and the crisis caused by the pandemic has also altered the nature of global WM system. A comprehensive analysis on how the systems of WM were affected through the advancement of COVID-19 and what would be the healthier solutions was also highlighted in this systematic review. The results of this systematic review would be beneficial for better policymakers to holistically address potential future pandemics, if any.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T04:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221079303
       
  • Disposal of leftover and expired medicines by community pharmacies and
           their clients in Ghana

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      Authors: Mercy Naa Aduele Opare-Addo, Afia Frimpomaa Asare Marfo, Frances Thelma Owusu-Daaku
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Improper and unsafe disposal of expired and unwanted medicines could cause harm to both people and the environment and therefore it is of public health importance. The objective of the study was to determine the methods employed by community pharmacist and their clients in the disposal of unwanted and expired medicines. Furthermore, the role of the pharmacists in the assessment of clients left over medicines was also explored. A cross sectional study design was employed with a sample of 120 pharmacy staff and 200 clients. Semi structured questionnaires were developed and administered to the two groups. Ethical approval was obtained. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v.24). Two hundred and eighty medicines were assessed from 131 respondents (65.5%) who brought their unused or left-over medicines to the pharmacy. These included analgesics 102(36.4%), antibiotics 50 (17.9%) and antacids 22 (7.9%). Disposal of expired and left-over medicines cited by respondents were the general-purpose bin 58(77.0%) and down the sink 11(14.3%). The majority 99(82.9%) of community pharmacies also disposed of solid dosage forms through the general-purpose bin. In addition, 90(75%) community pharmacies disposed of liquid waste in general purpose bin. Lack of enforcement of legislation was cited by community pharmacy staff as a barrier to the proper disposal of pharmaceutical waste. The predominant method of disposal of expired/unwanted medicines by community pharmacies and their clients was via the general-purpose bin. Implementation of interventions such as take back programmes that will enhance proper disposal of expired and left over medicines should be initiated.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T08:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221084060
       
  • Industrial symbiosis in Brazil: A systematic literature review

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      Authors: Iliane Colpo, Mario Eduardo Santos Martins, Shqipe Buzuku, Miguel Afonso Sellitto
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      This study describes how industrial symbiosis is reposed in studies dealing with the Brazilian context. This study was based on a systematic literature review in the Scopus and Web of Science databases, relying on the Prisma method and a research protocol. The results embrace quantitative and qualitative aspects such as the number of publications, the territorial scope of the studies, authors and keywords networks. The sample was also segregated into three categories, theoretical works, opportunities and formed networks, reporting the presence of industrial symbiosis in Brazil in the extant literature. The main contribution of this research is to aggregate the studies already published in the international literature, demonstrate how the IS is reported and how they can be expanded in territories or business cases not yet portrayed.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T01:07:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221084065
       
  • Chemical recycling: A critical assessment of potential process approaches

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      Authors: Peter Quicker, Mathias Seitz, Julia Vogel
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Increased media coverage of plastic pollution in the environment and import bans on plastic waste in several countries have resulted in plastic waste becoming one of the most discussed waste streams in recent years. In the European Union (EU), only about one-third of the post-consumer plastic waste is recycled; the rest goes to energy recovery and landfilling in equal parts. In connection to the necessary increase in efforts to achieve the ambitious EU recycling targets, chemical recycling is currently receiving more and more attention. The assumption is that chemical recycling processes could open up new waste streams for recycling and generate valuable raw materials for the chemical industry. Although there exists no legal definition for chemical recycling, there is more or less agreement that it covers the conversion of plastic polymers into their monomers or chemical building blocks. Techniques such as gasification, pyrolysis and liquefaction as well as solvolysis can be used for chemical recycling. So far, only few large-scale plants for chemical recycling exist worldwide. This article presents the different processes by means of examples from (formerly) running installations and their suitability for plastics recycling is assessed. However, to date, only few chemical recycling plants are in continuous operation, and further scientific evidence for the ecological and economic benefits is still necessary for final evaluation.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T01:05:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221084044
       
  • Environmental policies for the treatment of waste generated by COVID-19:
           Text mining review

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      Authors: Rosa Puertas, Patricia Carracedo, Luisa Marti
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The rapid transmission of COVID-19 has meant that all economic and human efforts have been focused on confronting it, ignoring environmental aspects whose consequences are causing adverse situations all over the planet. The saturation of the sanitary system and confinement measures have multiplied the waste generated, which implies the need to adapt environmental policies to this new situation caused by the pandemic. It is a review article whose objective was to identify the environmental policies that would facilitate an adequate treatment of the waste generated by the pandemic. It was proposed to analyse the current lines of research developed on this paradigm, applying the text mining methodology. A systematic review of 111 studies published in environmental journals indexed in the Web of Science was carried out. The results identified three areas of interest: knowledge of transmission routes, management of the massive generation of plastics and appropriate treatment of solid waste in extreme situations. Leaders are called upon to implement the contingency plans to sustainably alleviate the enormous waste burden caused by society’s adaptation to the restrictions imposed by the pandemic. Specifically, innovation aimed at achieving the reuse of medical products, the promotion of the circular economy and educational campaigns to promote clean environments should be encouraged.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-12T12:48:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221084073
       
  • Carbon material produced by hydrothermal carbonisation of food waste as an
           electrode material for supercapacitor application: A circular economy
           approach

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      Authors: Saikrishna Venna, Hari Bhakta Sharma, Debabrata Mandal, Hari Prasad Reddy, Shamik Chowdhury, Amreesh Chandra, Brajesh K Dubey
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to use landfill leachate (LL) as an aqueous medium during hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of food waste to produce hydrochar (FWH-LL-C), which could be used as an electrode material in energy storage devices. The structural properties and electrochemical performance of the hydrochar were compared to that obtained using distilled water as a reaction medium (FWH-DW-C). The results showed that there is a difference in Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of FWH-LL-C (220 m2 gm−1) and FWH-DW-C (319 m2 gm−1). The electrochemical properties were comparable, with FWH-LL-C having 227 F g−1 specific capacitance at 1 A g−1 current density and FWH-DW-C having 235 F g−1 specific capacitance at 1 A g−1 current density. Furthermore, at a power density of 634 W kg−1, FWH-DW-C achieved the highest energy density of 14.4 Wh kg−1. The energy retention capacity of the electrode was 98% which indicate that the material has an excellent energy storage capacity. The findings suggested that LL could be used as an alternative source of aqueous media during the HTC of food waste to produce hydrochar which could be used as an effective electrode material in supercapacitors.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T10:49:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221081667
       
  • Education and training: Key solution to self-management and economic
           sustainability of waste pickers organisations

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      Authors: Carolina Ibelli-Bianco, Julia Paula Soprani Guimarães, Luciana Harue Yamane, Renato Ribeiro Siman
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Being a waste picker is not considered a profession in the eyes of society. One reason is that it does not require professional qualifications or training. Thus, most waste pickers are individuals who had difficulty entering the labour market, mainly due to low education levels. As members of waste pickers organisations (WPOs), they have difficulties in practicing self-management and, consequently, in maintaining the WPO’s economic sustainability. This is a barrier to waste pickers’ inclusion in the integrated solid waste management, but it can be overcome with investment in their education and professional training. However, it is not clear how this can be accomplished. This article presents guidelines for the education and training of organised waste pickers. These guidelines were developed based on socioeconomic information with a focus on education and training collected from interviews with waste pickers (n = 215) of 24 Brazilian WPOs. The potentials and vulnerabilities of this socioeconomic profile allowed the elaboration of the main following guidelines: the classroom must be the WPO itself; a mentor is needed to conduct the education and training programme using a non-formal teaching and learning method; the content should be defined collectively, based on the knowledge of the organisation’s members and the daily WPO’s issues. In addition to isolated actions, these guidelines should be included in public policy programmes.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T10:44:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221080090
       
  • Fe-POM/attapulgite composite materials: Efficient catalysts for plastic
           pyrolysis

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      Authors: Saira Attique, Madeeha Batool, Oliver Goerke, Ghayoor Abbas, Faraz Ahmad Saeed, Muhammad Imran Din, Irfan Jalees, Irfan Ahmad, Duncan H Gregory, Asma Tufail Shah
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      This article describes the catalytic cracking of low-density polyethylene over attapulgite clay and iron substituted tungstophosphate/attapulgite clay (Fe-POM/attapulgite) composite materials to evaluate their suitability and performance for recycling of plastic waste into liquid fuel. The prepared catalysts enhanced the yield of liquid fuel (hydrocarbons) produced in cracking process. A maximum yield of 82% liquid oil fraction with a negligible amount of coke was obtained for 50% Fe-POM/attapulgite composite. Whereas, only 68% liquid oil fractions with a large amount of solid black residue was produced in case of non-catalytic pyrolysis. Moreover, Fe-POM/attapulgite clay composites showed higher selectivity towards lower hydrocarbons (C5–C12) with aliphatic hydrocarbons as major fractions. These synthesised composite catalysts significantly lowered the pyrolysis temperature from 375°C to 310°C. Hence, recovery of valuable fuel oil from polyethylene using these synthesised catalysts suggested their applicability for energy production from plastic waste at industrial level as well as for effective environment pollution control.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T12:27:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221080084
       
  • Influence of organic loading rate and temperature fluctuation caused by
           solar energy heating on food waste anaerobic digestion

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      Authors: Fangyuan Yang, Lei Feng, Xiaofei Zhen
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Anaerobic digestion, one of the most currently remarkable techniques for biogas production, has provided a method of high organic solid waste disposal. Operating temperature, especially in the winter of northern city, makes biomass degradation less efficient. The microorganisms that take on the role of gas production are greatly affected by temperature. In our study, solar energy was selected for anaerobic digestion and winter was selected as the experimental environment. Anaerobic digestion was performed with solar heating and electric heating separately. Parameters were tested (pH, soluble chemical oxygen demand, total ammonia nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids), and microbial structure was monitored. The volume of methane produced was measured over 60 days. The methane yield differed by 15.92% under different conditions. It is clearly shown that methane yield can be improved by a steady temperature environment. Nevertheless, dominant bacteria and microbial structure did not seem to be much different. This study may provide more energy-saving ideas for winter anaerobic digestion projects in northern regions.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T01:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221081674
       
  • What drives WEEE recycling' A comparative study concerning
           legislation, collection and recycling

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      Authors: Pablo Ribeiro Dias, Marcelo Pilotto Cenci, Andréa Moura Bernardes, Nazmul Huda
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rising worldwide, and its improper management incurs in economic losses and environmental damage. To provide a better understanding of the forces that drive the management of WEEE, economic and political roles are discussed by comparing the WEEE recycling system of Brazil and Australia. Additional insights about the recycling systems were gathered from interviews with recyclers of both countries (in-loco visits and online/phone surveys). Previous studies show that both countries act as first stage recyclers, dismantling WEEE to ship their valuable components for international recyclers (such as printed circuit boards) while keeping less valuable material (such as polymeric and ferrous pieces). Australia has defined the responsibilities of most agents involved in the WEEE management and recycling setup, while Brazil inadvertently has left the system to be defined through free market regulation. As Brazil recently signed a reverse logistic agreement, there is an important opportunity to channel WEEE into formal routes and implement improvements in the entire recycling system (some suggestions are provided). Australian recyclers were found more organised in their disassembly lines, and some characteristics of the Australian model can be adapted for the Brazilian benefit. In conclusion, economic factors will drive first stage recycling (where labour wages are a small fraction of the total costs) and international downstream recycling, while a political framework is necessary to establish a comprehensive collection system, first stage recycling (where wages are representative) and domestic downstream recycling, given these are generally non-profitable activities in the short term.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T01:37:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221081660
       
  • Estimation of end-of-life electric vehicle generation and analysis of the
           status and prospects of power battery recycling in China

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      Authors: Yang Li, Yanhui Liu, Ying Chen, Shiyu Huang, Yiyi Ju
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      With the development of the electric vehicle (EV), vehicle end-of-life (EOL) management has become a significant challenge. This study sets two EV sales scenarios (low and high), compares the impact of two battery replacement methods (buying a new vehicle or replacing the battery) on future EOL EV production, and predicts the difference in the amount of EOL EV battery production under two probability functions (normal and Weibull’s distributions). The results show that when the EV power battery is retired and the vehicle owner chooses to buy a new vehicle, the predicted scrap quantity under low sales and high sales (HS) scenarios in 2030 is 4.3 and 5.3 million, respectively. Replacing the battery and continuing to use the vehicle will mean fewer EOL vehicles are generated. Considering the construction of an EOL EV battery recycling management system in China is still in the exploratory period, it is necessary to encourage vehicle owners to replace the battery and continue to use the vehicle. Under a HS scenario, the predicted number of EOL EV batteries in 2030 is 3.8–7.4 million. In the next 10 years, the issue of EV recycling should be raised to the same level as the issue of EV popularisation.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T01:35:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221080097
       
  • Municipal solid waste landfill: Evidence of the effect of applied landfill
           management on vegetation composition

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      Authors: Magdalena Daria Vaverková, Evan K Paleologos, Dana Adamcová, Anna Podlasek, Grzegorz Pasternak, Jana Červenková, Zdzisław Skutnik, Eugeniusz Koda, Jan Winkler
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Proper management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is crucial to avoid pollution, environmental impacts and threat to public health. The problem of MSW is mainly arising from inadequate landfill site management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of management practices and environmental risks at two landfill sites. The landfills were subject to long-term (10 years) vegetation monitoring. The vegetation was assessed using a floristic survey of identified plant species. The vegetation analysis showed that significant differences existed between the two landfill locations, with neophytes, invasive and expansive species dominating on one of the landfill sites, which may be attributed to climatic and geomorphological differences between the two sites, but also to variations in landfill management. These environmentally problematic species can potentially spread from the landfill into adjacent ecosystems, displace native plants and degrade adjacent farmland areas. The study of vegetation monitoring data suggests that, in addition to other types of monitoring, landfills should be subjected to regular vegetation biomonitoring, too. Landfill management practices should target the regulation of unwanted species, create conditions that are favourable to native plant species and provide as early as possible the restoration of filled cells.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T11:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221079304
       
  • Sustainable waste management solutions for the foodservice industry: A
           Delphi study

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      Authors: Carlos Martin-Rios, Christine Demen Meier, Susana Pasamar
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Foodservice businesses influence the sustainability of their natural environment by producing significant amounts of waste. Yet, research has, thus far, been dominated by studies that limit their scope to food waste alone. Few studies have taken a broader look at sustainable waste initiatives, including innovative waste processing techniques, with a view to constructing management indicators for foodservices. This study combines management innovation practices related to resource management, waste prevention, processing and disposal techniques, and stakeholder involvement to offer sustainable standards. It primarily adopts the Delphi technique to propose specific solutions pertaining to waste management. Experts from government, industry, and academia reveal that potential waste management initiatives comprise three facets – service, process (operational), and organisational practices and innovations, 15 sub-facets and 41 indicators. This study thus establishes a catalogue of solutions for food, packaging and other ‘non-food’ waste that foodservice establishments can implement. In addition to its practical implications, an important contribution is its focus on management systems to establish waste management standards for hospitality, food and beverage (F&B) services, restaurants, and non-commercial catering.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T09:11:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221079306
       
  • Root causes of underperforming urban waste services in developing
           countries: Designing a diagnostic tool, based on literature review and
           qualitative system dynamics

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      Authors: Hans Breukelman, Harold Krikke, Ansje Löhr
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Cities in developing countries struggle with providing good waste collection services to all their citizens. Daily practice mostly shows low service coverage, especially in the poorer parts of cities. Up until now, research has mainly dealt with the symptoms of poor performance. This article aims at designing a qualitative System Dynamics model of the urban system that may serve as a diagnostic tool to find the root causes and leverage points for interventions. The research presented here uses a broad literature review to draw up a complex causal loop diagram describing all relevant urban variables (demographic, economic, social, financial, technical and governance-related) and their relations. The diagram is analysed using qualitative methods, partly derived from graph theory. It results in an evaluation of all variables, paths, loops and branches of the model, and finally in a simplified model. This simplified model is helpful in diagnosing waste management problems in cities, in formulating interventions and their points of leverage and even in formulating a new taxonomy that classifies cities with regard to the effect and delay in their urban processes. When it comes to interventions, the model suggests that the root cause is in populations growing faster than their economies, and that the enabling circumstances are mainly in poor governance practices that are unable to secure that tax incomes keep pace with needed budgets for sound services.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T11:41:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221074189
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 on healthcare waste generation: Correlations and trends
           from a tertiary hospital of a developed country

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      Authors: Jacopo Garlasco, Alessandro Canepari, Gilda Giacobone, Gemma Funicelli, Daniela Kozel, Luciano Bernini, Alida Cotroneo
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) coronavirus pandemic has represented an emergency not only from a clinical point of view, but also for the environment due to the largely increased waste disposal. This study aimed at estimating, in the context of current trends, the increase in healthcare waste (HW) generation during the outbreak, based on data from a tertiary hospital. From the purveying office statements of ‘SS Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo’ Hospital of Alessandria (Italy), monthly HW generation data from January 2015 to March 2021 were retrospectively retrieved. Trends and COVID’s impact were evaluated by Interrupted Time Series (ITS) design with linear regression models. Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing was used to model the relation between infectious HW generation and proportion of COVID-related bed days. HW generation rose from 35.9 ± 3.8 tonnes month−1 (2.4 ± 0.2 kg per patient-day, kg PD−1) in 2015–2019, to 46.3 ± 6.0 tonnes month−1 (3.3 ± 0.7 kg PD−1) during the outbreak. The increasing trend was not appreciably modified as for its slope (p = 0.363), while a significant level change was found between baseline and outbreak (+ 0.72 kg PD−1, p 
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T10:24:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221074195
       
  • Re-assessing global municipal solid waste generation

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      Authors: Amani Maalouf, Antonis Mavropoulos
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      This study contributes to estimate the total waste generated at global level. A few studies have provided an efficient and comprehensive global estimate. However, data reporting is globally inconsistent due to varying interpretation of terminology, lacking standardised categories and varying methodologies used to observe and measure waste amounts. This study employs regression analysis and material flow analysis approaches to ensure a cross-comparability of waste generation data. The result implies that total global waste arisings are around 20 billion tonnes in 2017. This corresponds to 2.63 tonnes of total waste per capita (cap) per year. The total global waste generated is expected to grow to 46 billion tonnes by 2050 under a business-as-usual scenario. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a much smaller amount, ranging from 2.3 to 3.1 billion tonnes (average of 2.7 billion tonnes) in 2019. This figure reflects an increase of between 30% and 50% in MSW generated during the last 15 years (2004–2019). MSW generated is expected to grow to 2.89–4.54 billion tonnes by 2050, depending on which assumptions are used. This represents a 26%–45% increase compared to 2019. The overall assessment in this study reveals that almost one-third of the total MSW generated is not collected, and most of what is collected is not treated accordingly to current ideas of sound management. Moreover, almost 42% of MSW goes to open dumping or uncontrolled burning. The finding provides valuable insight for policymakers to design and assess circular economy policy instruments towards achieving sustainable development goals.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T11:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221074116
       
  • Tapping the potential of biowaste – A valuable resource

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      Authors: Anke Bockreis, Arne M Ragossnig
      First page: 1091
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T12:02:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221106511
       
  • A review of advances in valorization and post-treatment of anaerobic
           digestion liquid fraction effluent

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      Authors: Themistoklis Sfetsas, Stefanos Patsatzis, Afroditi Chioti, Alexandros Kopteropoulos, Georgia Dimitropoulou, Vasiliki Tsioni, Thomas Kotsopoulos
      First page: 1093
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Traditionally, digestate is considered a waste, which is used as fertiliser in the agriculture industry. Recent studies focus on increasing the profitability of digestate by extracting reusable nutrients to promote biogas plants cost-effectiveness, sustainable management and circular economy. This review focuses on the post-treatment and valorization of liquor which is produced by solid–liquid fractioning of digestate. Nutrient recovery and removal from liquor are possible through mechanical, physicochemical and biological procedures. The processes discussed involve complex procedures that differ in economic value, feasibility, legislative restrictions and performance. The parameters that should be considered to employ these techniques are influenced by liquor characteristics, topography, climate conditions and available resources. These are key parameters to keep in mind during designing and manufacturing a biogas plant. In the following chapters, a discussion on available liquor treatment methods takes place. The present study examines the critical aspects of the available liquor treatment methods.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T09:23:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X211073000
       
  • Mini-review of waste sector greenhouse gas and short-lived climate
           pollutant emissions in Tyre Caza, Lebanon, using the Solid Waste Emissions
           Estimation Tool (‘SWEET’)

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      Authors: G Alexander Stege, H James Law, Aditi Ramola, Sandra Mazo-Nix
      First page: 1129
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      In 2020, International Solid Waste Association’s (ISWA) Task Force on Closing Dumpsites completed a study of waste sector short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Tyre Caza, Lebanon, using the Solid Waste Emissions Estimation Tool (SWEET). SWEET model runs used data on municipal solid waste (MSW) generation, collection, disposal, and diversion under existing and potential alternative management scenarios proposed in an Integrated Waste Management Plan (IWMP) for Tyre Caza. Waste sector emissions reductions exceeding 45% of baseline levels are achievable by 2030 if all dumpsites are closed and remediated, waste burning stopped, and a new sanitary landfill developed with 60% methane collection and combustion. Additional emissions reduction accrues from implementing the IWMP and upgrading existing waste treatment facilities to increase waste diversion rates from current levels (22% including informal sector recycling) to 40%. Estimates of all of Lebanon’s waste sector emissions using SWEET were developed for this mini-review article using published data on the amounts of MSW collected, disposed, and diverted, with adjustments to account for indirect GHG reductions from composting and anaerobic digestion (AD). A 50% reduction in emissions from baseline levels can be achieved by 2034, if by 2025 diversion of collected wastes to recycling, composting, and AD facilities is increased from 14% to 28%, and all residual MSW is disposed in sanitary landfills with 65% methane recovery.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T01:34:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221076295
       
  • A holistic overview on corn cob biochar: A mini-review

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      Authors: Harsha Wakudkar, Sudhir Jain
      First page: 1143
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Corn cob is one of the agricultural waste materials subjected to improper burning, which creates pollution. It can be used for the production of green technologies for further applications. Carbonisation or slow pyrolysis could be promising alternative to burning. It has many applications, such as soil ameliorant, waste water treatment, carbon sequestration, composting, supercapacitor, fuel cell and biocomposites material. It motivated to investigate the suitability of corn cob as a potential material for biochar production and its application. The advanced form of analysis, such as thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy, surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, is elaborated for in-depth knowledge of characteristics. The hypothesis is that if the available corn cob is used for biochar production, it will reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. On a global level, conversion of available corn cob into biochar is expected to reduce CO2 emission by 0.13 Gt per year. The reduction in CO2 emission also favours economy. If 1 tonne of biomass per year is converted into biochar, 0.82 tonnes of CO2 can be reduced per year and by considering the emission cost of Rs 1800 per tonne, the cost saving would be Rs 1476 per year. The presented mini-review article provides an outline of the state-of-art information on corn cob biochar and its novel application. It will be helpful to scientific domain to find new opportunities in biochar research and also the humanity will be benefitted due to reduction in greenhouse gases.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T12:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X211069741
       
  • Comparison of end-of-life vehicles management in 31 European countries: A
           LMDI analysis

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      Authors: Predrag Korica, Andreja Cirman, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn
      First page: 1156
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      In 2018, a total of 6,083,000 end-of-life vehicles (EVLs) with a total weight of 6,732,000 tonnes (including waste parts) were generated in the European Union. These vehicles are a subject of particular attention because of their bulky mass, the hazardous components they contain, and the valuable materials present. This article analyses the quantities of ELVs and parts of ELVs that have been recycled, energy recovered, disposed, and reused to assess the impact of the changes in these management options on the total quantities managed. The analysis covered the statistical data on EVLs in 31 European countries for the period 2006–2018, using a new extended version of the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) analysis model, which allows analysts to compare and analyse different waste management options simultaneously. The results show that the changes in the waste intensities and household final consumption expenditure were the greatest drivers of changes in the total quantities managed, while changes in the quantities recycled, energy recovered, disposed of, and reused had the least impact. All countries met or were close to meeting the targets during the period analysed. Changes in the total quantities of waste managed depended on the economic activity, which influenced the quantities of ELVs generated and their subsequent management.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T10:14:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221074118
       
  • Construction waste landfill volume estimation using ground penetrating
           radar

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      Authors: Tianyue Zhang, Di Zhang, Dongyang Zheng, Xiaoyu Guo, Wenji Zhao
      First page: 1167
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Underground landfill, the primary disposal method of construction waste in several areas, negatively affects the surrounding environments. Suitably locating and estimating waste volume in an underground landfill are vital for adequate disposal and recycling of construction wastes. In this study, we investigated the applicability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology to estimate waste depth and volume of a construction waste landfill. The results revealed the following. (1) The GPR technology effectively delineated boundaries between underground waste and the surrounding strata; the topographic structure obtained from the analysis of the associated images was consistent with the actual topography. (2) Layer information from GPR images and electromagnetic wave velocity calculated using the complex refractive index model for construction waste burial depth inversion produced highly accurate results. Waste depth in the landfill was estimated using the GPR inversion results and spatial interpolation. Kriging interpolation exhibited the highest accuracy. (3) The trapezoid, Simpson and Simpson 3/8 rules were suitable for estimating construction waste volume. A three-dimensional model created using the spatial interpolation grid precisely depicted the structure of the buried landfill. Our study provides references for the management, recycling and environmental impact assessment of construction waste.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T07:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221074114
       
  • Modelling the effects of particle size pretreatment method on biogas yield
           of groundnut shells

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      Authors: Kehinde Oladoke Olatunji, Daniel M Madyira, Noor A Ahmed, Simeon O Jekayinfa, Oyetola Ogunkunle
      First page: 1176
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Optimising biogas yields from anaerobic digestion of organic wastes is significant to maximum energy recovery in the biodigestion process and has become an important topic of interest. Substrate particle size is an important process parameter in biogas production, and it precedes other pretreatments methods for the majority of the lignocellulose materials. Optimisation of biogas yield using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was done, and temperature, hydraulic retention time and particle size were considered variables to develop the predictive models. Pretreatment of groundnut shells was investigated using particle size reduction of mechanical pretreatment methods. After pretreatment, 30 samples were digested in a batch digester at mesophilic temperature. The experimental results showed that the temperature, hydraulic retention time and particle size had significant effects of interaction (p 
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T11:02:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X211073852
       
  • Climate impact of an optimised gas treatment on old landfills

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      Authors: Roland Berger, Joachim Lehner
      First page: 1189
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      It is a well-established fact that the quality and quantity of landfill gas (LFG) start declining after a landfill is closed to further waste intake. Conventional gas treatment and utilisation systems such as flares and gas-driven engines require a certain quality of LFG: specifically, a sufficient methane concentration. Various measures are utilised to maintain the necessary quality of LFG, including a turn-down of gas extraction rates and a shutdown of low-quality gas wells, resulting in a decline of LFG production. This, however, does not have to be the case. The low calorific value (LCV) LFG capture and treatment technology developed by e-flox and referred to in this article as ‘LCV LFG System’ can significantly increase the collection rate and the amount of treated methane in an old landfill. This article introduces such new treatment measures, describes gas capture calculation methodologies and presents actual results based on a medium-sized landfill in Germany. The study demonstrates, among other things, that the LCV LFG system can reduce the CO2 avoidance costs to roughly 10 €/tCO2eq. We present this new technology as a quick and straightforward measure of dealing with the climate issues related to methane emissions of old landfills.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-01-10T09:56:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X211070190
       
  • Dynamic routing for waste collection and transportation with
           multi-compartment electric vehicle using smart waste bins

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      Authors: Jia Yang, Fengming Tao, Yanni Zhong
      First page: 1199
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      The municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation issue has been studied by numerous researchers; however, a few studies consider the chance-constrained programming for co-collection of sorted waste with electric vehicles (EVs). Therefore, this article attempts to study on the chance-constrained collection and transportation problem for sorted waste with multiple separated compartments EVs. Considering the uncertainty of the waste generation rate under the scenario of application of smart waste bins, chance-constrained programming is applied to transform the uncertain model into a certain one. A Chance-Constrained Multi-Compartment Electric Vehicle Routing Problem (CCMCEVRP) is introduced and the corresponding mathematical formulation is established. A diversity-enhanced particle swarm optimisation with neighbourhood search and simulated annealing (DNSPSOSA) is proposed to solve this problem, and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is verified by extensive numerical experiments on the newly generated instances. In addition, the application of the model is tested by comparing different compartment and different type vehicles. It is found that, compared with fuel vehicles, 32.66% of the average cost could be saved with EVs. Furthermore, the rate of cost-saving of EVs increases with the increase in the number of compartments: the improvement rate of cost-saving of two-compartment EVs and three-compartment EVs is 52.77% and 68.13%, respectively.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T11:39:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X211069738
       
  • Use of polypropylene pyrolysis oil in alternative fuel production

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      Authors: Jochen Uebe, Zilvinas Kryzevicius, Rasa Majauskiene, Marijus Dulevicius, Lidija Kosychova, Audrone Zukauskaite
      First page: 1220
      Abstract: Waste Management & Research, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, polypropylene (PP) was recycled in a non-stirred batch reactor by slow pyrolysis at low temperature. Virgin PP and waste PP as well as mixed material of equal amounts of virgin PP plus virgin PP pyrolysis oil (ratio 1:1 w/w) were used as raw material. The highest yields of liquid product were obtained at 350°C and 400°C (82.0 and 82.3 w/w%, respectively). The density, viscosity and calorific value of the gasoline and diesel fractions of the obtained pyrolysis oils comply with EN228 and EN590 standards, respectively. The flash point corresponded to the standard only for some of the oils, but the cold filter clogging point, the pour point and especially the oxidation stability were far above the stated reference values of the standards. The pyrolysis oils as products of thermal decomposition were determined by the methods of 1H and 13C and two-dimensional-heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-HSQC NMR) spectra. Spectral analysis showed that only very little aromatic compounds were present in the oils, but they contained many unsaturated compounds, which is presumably consistent with the measured oxidation stability and limits their use in the production of alternative fuels. The research octane number (RON) calculated from the NMR analyses corresponds to the lower limit of gasoline.
      Citation: Waste Management & Research
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T11:38:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0734242X211068243
       
 
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