Subjects -> ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Total: 960 journals)
    - ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)
    - POLLUTION (31 journals)
    - TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY (58 journals)
    - WASTE MANAGEMENT (18 journals)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (853 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 378 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Chemical Health & Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ACS ES&T Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Brasiliensis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultura Tecnica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural & Environmental Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agro-Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agroecological journal     Open Access  
Agronomy for Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ambiência     Open Access  
Ambiens. Revista Iberoamericana Universitaria en Ambiente, Sociedad y Sustentabilidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambiente & sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ambiente & Agua : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 85)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Environmental Science and Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of GIS     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)
Annual Review of Environment and Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Annual Review of Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Applied Environmental Education & Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Arcada : Revista de conservación del patrimonio cultural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement     Full-text available via subscription  
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Archives of Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arctic Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Atmospheric Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Atmospheric Environment : X     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Augm Domus : Revista electrónica del Comité de Medio Ambiente de AUGM     Open Access  
Austral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australasian Journal of Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Basic and Applied Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Behavioral Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biocenosis     Open Access  
Biochar     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bioremediation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Boletín Instituto de Derecho Ambiental y de los Recursos Naturales     Open Access  
Boletín Semillas Ambientales     Open Access  
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Canadian Journal of Soil Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Water Resources Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Casopis Slezskeho Zemskeho Muzea - serie A - vedy prirodni     Open Access  
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenges in Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemosphere     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
China Population, Resources and Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ciencia, Ambiente y Clima     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
City and Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clean Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cleanroom Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Climate Change Ecology     Open Access  
Climate Change Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Climate Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Climate Resilience and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Environmental Science     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computational Ecology and Software     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Conservation Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Conservation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Problems of Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Critical Reviews in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica / Geographical Research Letters     Open Access  
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Current Environmental Health Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Forestry Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Landscape Ecology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology     Open Access  
Current Research in Environmental Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Developments in Earth and Environmental Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Earth Surface Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Developments in Environmental Modelling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Developments in Environmental Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Die Bodenkultur : Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
disP - The Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Divulgación Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug and Chemical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Dynamiques Environnementales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E3S Web of Conferences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Earth Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Earth Science Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
Earth System Science Data (ESSD)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Earth Systems and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Earthquake Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Eco-Thinking     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ecocycles     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecohydrology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ecologia Aplicada     Open Access  
Ecología en Bolivia     Open Access  
Ecological Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Engineering : X     Open Access  
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ecological Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecological Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Ecological Monographs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Ecological Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecological Questions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecological Restoration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 483)
Ecology and Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 104)
Ecology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 343)
EcoMat : Functional Materials for Green Energy and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Économie rurale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecoprint : An International Journal of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ecosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ecosystem Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ecosystems and People     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.773
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0703 - ISSN (Online) 0090-4341
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Dissolved Organic Matter Mitigates the Acute Toxicity of Thulium to
           Hyalella azteca but Ca, Mg and Na Do Not

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      Abstract: The demand for rare earth elements (REEs) is growing and as a result, environmental exposure is a concern. The objective of this research was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Tm to Hyalella azteca and to understand the potential for toxicity modification by dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the cations Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+. Standard methods were followed for 96 h static exposures in a medium with a hardness of 60 mg CaCO3/L, pH of 7.3 at 23 °C. H. azteca neonates (2–9 d of age) were used and in unmodified media the LC50 concentration was 3.4 µM [95% CI 2.9–3.9 µM; 573 µg/L (482–663)] based on measured dissolved concentrations at the end of the test. Tests done with different concentrations of Ca (0.25, 0.5 and 1.5 mM) did not show consistent trends and there was no clear evidence of a protective effect from Ca. Variations in Na (0.26, 0.5 and 1.6 mM) resulted in no significant changes in toxicity. Similarly, Mg (0.07, 0.14 and 0.4 mM) did not result in significant changes in LC50 values, except for a reduction in toxicity for measured total Tm at the lowest Mg concentration. Our results indicate that Tm toxicity is not influenced by cationic competition (Ca, Na and Mg). Dissolved organic matter (sourced from Luther Marsh ON) offered significant protection against Tm toxicity. Addition of 9 mg DOC/L resulted in significantly increased LC50 values. This study contributes toward understanding the toxicity of Tm and the importance of considering dissolved organic matter in estimating the potential for environmental risk of REEs.
      PubDate: 2021-10-23
       
  • Effect of Activated Carbon in Thin Sand Caps Challenged with Ongoing PCB
           Inputs from Sediment Deposition: PCB Uptake in Clams (Mercenaria
           mercenaria) and Passive Samplers

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      Abstract: Ongoing inputs, in the form of sediment deposition along with associated dissolved contaminants, have challenged the assessment of cap performance at contaminated sediment sites. To address this issue, thin 2–3 cm layer sand caps amended with activated carbon (AC) were investigated for the remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated marine sediments using 90-day mesocosms. All treatments were challenged with (1) ongoing clean or marker-PCB-spiked sediment inputs and (2) bioturbation. Bioaccumulation in hard clams (filter feeding near the cap-water interface) was evaluated to best understand cap effectiveness, relative to sheepshead minnows (confined to the surface water) and sandworms (which burrowed through the caps). All caps (sand and AC amended sand) provided isolation of native bedded PCBs (i.e., PCBs sourced from the bed), reducing uptake in organisms. Total PCB bioaccumulation in clams indicated that AC addition to the cap provided no benefit with spiked influx, or some benefit (56% reduction) with clean influx. Spiked input PCBs, when added to the depositional input sediment, were consistently detected in clams and passive samplers, with and without AC in the cap. PCB uptake by passive samplers located in the caps did not reflect the performance of the remedy, as defined by clam bioaccumulation. However, PCB uptake by passive samplers in the overlying water reasonably represented clam bioaccumulation results.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
       
  • Phytotoxic Effects of Antibiotics on Terrestrial Crop Plants and Wild
           Plants: A Systematic Review

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      Abstract: This review examines the state of knowledge on the phytotoxic effects of antibiotics on terrestrial crop plants and wild (non-crop) plants with the goal of evaluating differences in their sensitivity. This is important because environmental risk assessments of antibiotics currently consider their potential effects only on crop species but not wild species. Overall, we analysed 275 datasets consisting of antibiotic-plant species-endpoint combinations for germination (mg/L) and 169 datasets for plant growth (elongation and biomass) (mg/kg). EC10 and EC50 of each parameter were compared using a quotient approach, in which the geometric mean and the 5th percentile of the crop data were divided by wild data. Quotients were > 1 for elongation growth, suggesting that wild species were more sensitive than crops, while they were < 1 for biomass growth, suggesting quite the contrary. However, < 1% of the data in each dataset came from wild species, preventing definitive conclusions. Merging crop and wild data to evaluate differences in sensitivity among classes of antibiotics and plant families, we found using a linear mixed effect model and post hoc test that plants were most sensitive to phenicol and least sensitive to macrolides and tetracyclines. Further work must be conducted to gain a better understanding of the phytotoxic effects of antibiotics on terrestrial wild plants and subsequently assess whether the current approach to environmental risk assessment of antibiotics is sufficient to protect plant biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
       
  • Metal Accumulation and Ion Regulation in the Fish Hyphessobrycon luetkenii
           Living in a Site Chronically Contaminated by Copper: Insights from
           Translocation Experiments

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      Abstract: Fish living in the João Dias creek (southern Brazil) have to deal with trace-metal contamination in the long-term basis, as this aquatic environment has been historically impacted by copper mining activities. In order to survive in this harsh environment, the local biota had to develop adaptations related to pollution tolerance. The aim of this study was to test if biochemical mechanisms related to osmoregulation were among these adaptations, using translocation experiments. Water ionic and trace-metal compositions were measured in a nonmetal impacted site (NMIS) and in a metal impacted site (MIS) of this creek. Also, whole-body metal accumulation, ion concentration and branchial enzyme activity (Na,K-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase) were evaluated in Hyphessobrycon luetkenii. In both NMIS and MIS, fish were collected and immediately stored, kept caged or translocated from sites. The result shows that waterborne Cu was 3.4-fold higher at the MIS. Accordingly, animals that had contact with this site showed elevated whole-body Cu levels. Moreover, both translocated groups showed elevated Na,K-ATPase activity. Additionally, fish translocated from the NMIS to the MIS showed lower carbonic anhydrase activity. These findings indicate that H. luetkenii chronically or acutely exposed to naturally elevated waterborne Cu showed a rapid Cu bioaccumulation but was unable to readily excrete it. Moreover, classic Cu osmoregulatory toxicity related to Na,K-ATPase inhibition was not observed. Conversely, impacts in ammonia excretion related to carbonic anhydrase inhibition may have occurred.
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
       
  • Technology-Critical Elements: An Emerging and Vital Resource that Requires
           more In-depth Investigation

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      PubDate: 2021-10-16
       
  • Organochlorine and Metal Contaminants in the Blood Plasma of Green
           Sturgeon Caught in Washington Coastal Estuaries

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      Abstract: Non-invasive monitoring was used to evaluate the concentrations of 40 contaminants in the blood plasma of the North American Green Sturgeon Acipenser medirostris caught and released from three estuaries in Washington State. The highest contaminant concentrations were found in fish caught in the most urbanized sites. Few statistical differences were found when evaluating contaminant levels according to sex, maturation stage, or distinct population segments of Green Sturgeon. The results indicate that recent exposure to legacy contaminants was reflected in Green Sturgeon plasma. Aldrin, 4,4-DDE, α-HCH, copper, and selenium were the most frequently detected contaminants. This study also explored the challenges of assessing toxicity in threatened species using non-lethal approaches. There is currently a lack of environmental contaminant monitoring data in estuaries frequented by Green Sturgeon and limited plasma to tissue toxicity correlations.
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
       
  • Sensitivity of Freshwater Australian Bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) and
           Silver Perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) to Waterborne Antimony:
           Exposure–Dose–Response Characteristics and Ion Homeostasis

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      Abstract: We conducted acute toxicity studies using semi-static protocols to examine the lethal responses of Australian bass and silver perch exposed to antimony (Sb) oxidation states in Sb(III) (10.5–30.5 mg L−1) and Sb(V) (95.9–258.7 mg L−1). Bioavailability and the effects of Sb on body ion regulation (Na, Ca, Mg, and K) were also investigated. Antimony species-specific effects were observed with exposure to both Sb oxidation states. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s) for Sb(III) were 13.6 and 18 mg L−1 for Australian bass and silver perch, respectively, and the LC50 for Sb(V) in Australian bass was 165.3 mg L−1. The LC50 could not be calculated for silver perch exposed to Sb(V) as the maximum exposure concentrations produced 40% mortality but a larger-than value of > 258.7 mg L−1 was estimated. Relative median potency values derived from the LC50s were 0.1 Sb(III) and 12.2 and 16.6 Sb(V) for Australian bass and silver perch, respectively, demonstrating greater toxicity of Sb(III) to both fish species. Antimony uptake in fish was observed. Median critical body residue (CBR50) values of 77.7 and 26.6 mg kg−1 for Sb(III) were estimated for Australian bass and silver perch, respectively, and 628.1 mg kg−1 for Sb(V) in Australian bass. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for both Sb(III) and Sb(V) did not change with exposure but the greater BCFs for fish exposed to Sb(III) indicate that it is more bioavailable than Sb(V) in acute exposure. No effects on whole-body Na, Ca, Mg, or K ions were observed with fish exposure to either Sb species.
      PubDate: 2021-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00891-7
       
  • Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in
           Surface Water of China: National Exposure Distributions and Probabilistic
           Risk Assessment

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      Abstract: This study presents a comprehensive application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which are two types of perfluoroalkyl acids frequently studied in recent years. The exposure characteristics of PFOA and PFOS in Chinese surface water on a nationwide scale were summarized. Individual predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and the sensitivities for taxonomic groups of primary producers, invertebrates, and vertebrates were derived by the species sensitivity distributions method. Both hazard quotients (HQs) and joint probability curves were calculated to assess the risks to aquatic organisms. Among seven Chinese river basins, the mean concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the Yangtze River Basin were the highest (58 ng/L and 22 ng/L, respectively), while the lowest concentrations (< 1 ng/L) were in the Songhua River Basin. The acute PNEC value was 2.43 mg/L for PFOA and 0.96 mg/L for PFOS, and the chronic PNEC value was 0.0067 mg/L for PFOA and 0.0012 mg/L for PFOS, respectively. The sensitivities of different taxonomic groups revealed higher sensitivity of primary producers for PFOA and higher sensitivity of invertebrates for PFOS. The acute HQs of PFOA and PFOS were less than 1. The probabilities of exposure concentrations exceeding 5th percentile toxicity value of the chronic data for all aquatic organisms were 1.65% for PFOA and 1.23% for PFOS, respectively, suggesting a low probability of effects to aquatic organisms. Compared with the risk scenarios worldwide, the ecological risks for chronic effects decreased in the order of PFOS (worldwide) > PFOA (China) > PFOS (China) > PFOA (worldwide).
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00837-z
       
  • Microplastics in Tissues (Brain, Gill, Muscle and Gastrointestinal) of
           Mullus barbatus and Alosa immaculata

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      Abstract: The researches on MPs in commercial marine fish are very limited although in marine environments microplastic (MPs) pollution is a global problem. In this study, the presence, composition, and characterization of MPs in different tissues (brain, gill, muscle, and gastrointestinal tract) of commercial fish species [red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and pontic shad (Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835)] from the Black Sea were investigated. M. barbatus (demersal) and A. immaculata (pelagic) fish were preferred in the selection of fish species in order to represent demersal and pelagic environments. After dissected the fish, MPs were obtained from the tissues by extraction using the flotation method; then the MPs were counted and categorized according to shape, size, and color. The composition of the MPs was determined via ATR–FTIR spectroscopy. In terms of microplastic abundance in fish tissues, the gastrointestinal tract (40.0%) ranked first in both fish species, while the lowest MPs density was determined in brain tissues (7.0%). After the gastrointestinal tissue, gills were identified as the second tissue with the highest MPs density. Regardless of fish species, MPs characterization was mainly fibrous (51.0%), black colored (49.0%), and 50–200 µm in size (55.0%). Among the nine different polymers determined, polychloroprene (18.8%) and polyamide (15.0%) were found most frequently. This research provides data for tissue-based assessment of MPs in fish. The obtained data showed that MPs (one of the anthropogenic pollutants) are quite high in all tissues regardless of fish species. Moreover, it has emerged that these two fish species are suitable for monitoring microplastics in the study area.
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00885-5
       
  • Single and Combined Effects of Cypermethrin and UVR Pre-Exposure in the
           Microalgae Phaeodactylum Tricornutum

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      Abstract: Coastal marine microalgae are exposed to anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides from aquaculture/agriculture/household uses. Some microalgae species, such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum, can induce and accumulate UV-absorbing compounds (UACs) upon ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to prevent deleterious effects. Tolerance mechanisms activated by natural stressors might also protect organisms from anthropogenic stressors. This work assesses the effects of the insecticide cypermethrin (Cyp) and UVR in the marine microalgae P tricornutum. Considering the pro-oxidant properties of both stressors and UACs’ induction in P tricornutum, lethal and sublethal effects of Cyp were tested in cultures with and without UVR acclimation. After a 24-h exposure to 10 μg L−1 of technical Cyp or culture medium, UACs, growth, glutathione-S-transferase activity (GST), sulfhydryl groups (SH-g), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analyzed. Results showed differences in terms of growth between Cyp and Cyp + UVR pre-exposure. UACs’ content was induced after UVR acclimation and diminished after 24 h of growth in control and UVR pre-treated cultures, while levels remained constant under Cyp exposure. A single Cyp exposure exerted GST induction, SH-g depletion, and LPO increments. In UVR-acclimatized treatments, oxidative stress responses showed similar or more pronounced effects than the single chemical exposure, suggesting a potential additive effect of the UVR acclimation. The contrasting effects of Cyp + UVR observed between growth and biochemical responses suggest different compensatory mechanisms that need to be further investigated. Also, it highlights the need to include both lethal and sublethal endpoints to understand microalgae’s tolerance and its significance in the multiple stressors’ context. Graphical
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00889-1
       
  • Colony Formation in Three Species of the Family Scenedesmaceae
           (Desmodesmus subspicatus, Scenedesmus Acutus, Tetradesmus Dimorphus)
           Exposed to Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and its Interference with Grazing of
           DAPHNIA Galeata

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      Abstract: By mimicking the info-chemicals emitted by grazers, the common anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) can induce colony formation in the green algal genus Scenedesmus at environmentally relevant concentrations. The morphometric effects can hinder the feeding efficiency of grazers, reducing energy flow along the pelagic food chain from Scenedesmus to consumers. Despite this potential ecological risk, few studies exist on whether the SDS-triggered induction of colonies is common in other species of the family Scenedesmaceae. Here, we investigated the effects of SDS on the growth and morphology of three species of Scenedesmaceae (Desmodesmus subspicatus, Scenedesmus acutus, and Tetradesmus dimorphus) and on the clearance rates of Daphnia galeata grazing on the SDS-induced colonies. SDS triggered colony formation in all algal species at concentrations nonlethal to them (0.1–10 mg L−1) in 72 h; however, the induction levels of colony formation were generally lower than for those in the Daphnia culture medium. We also found that the SDS-induced colonial algae reduced D. galeata clearance rates. Our results highlight the potential effect of SDS on the Daphnia–Scenedesmaceae system by triggering the morphological response of Scenedesmaceae at concentrations below those that exert toxicity. Such disruptive effects of pollutants on predator–prey interactions should be considered within the framework of ecological risk assessments.
      PubDate: 2021-09-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00890-8
       
  • Occurrence, Geochemistry and Speciation of Elevated Arsenic Concentrations
           in a Fractured Bedrock Aquifer System

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      Abstract: The presence of elevated arsenic concentrations (≥ 10 µg L−1) in groundwaters has been widely reported in areas of South-East Asia with recent studies showing its detection in fractured bedrock aquifers is occurring mainly in regions of north-eastern USA. However, data within Europe remain limited; therefore, the objective of this work was to understand the geochemical mobilisation mechanism of arsenic in this geologic setting using a study site in Ireland as a case study. Physicochemical (pH, Eh, d-O2), trace metals, major ion and arsenic speciation samples were collected and analysed using a variety of field and laboratory-based techniques and evaluated using statistical analysis. Groundwaters containing elevated dissolved arsenic concentrations (up to 73.95 µg L−1) were characterised as oxic-alkali groundwaters with the co-occurrence of other oxyanions (including Mo, Se, Sb and U), low dissolved concentrations of Fe and Mn, and low Na/Ca ratios indicated that arsenic was mobilised through alkali desorption of Fe oxyhydroxides. Arsenic speciation using a solid-phase extraction methodology (n = 20) showed that the dominant species of arsenic was arsenate, with pH being a major controlling factor. The expected source of arsenic is sulphide minerals within fractures of the bedrock aquifer with transportation of arsenic and other oxyanion forming elements facilitated by secondary Fe mineral phases. However, the presence of methylarsenical compounds detected in groundwaters illustrates that microbially mediated mobilisation processes may also be (co)-occurring. This study gives insight into the geochemistry of arsenic mobilisation that can be used to further guide research needs in this area for the protection of groundwater resources.
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00887-3
       
  • Contamination of Water, Sediment and Fish with Residues of Pesticides Used
           in Cotton Production in Northern Benin

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      Abstract: In Northern Benin, insecticides are used for cotton production. These insecticides can be easily transferred to water ponds close to cotton fields. To monitor insecticides levels in water, sediments and fish samples from water ponds, a GC–MS analytical method was developed to detect residues of endosulfan, DDT and its parent compounds, isomers of HCH, pyrethroids and chlorpyrifos. In addition, the influence of storage conditions of water sample on pesticides determination performance has been studied. The limits of quantification were between 0.16 and 0.32 µg/L in water, 0.5 and 1 μg/kg in sediment and 1 and 2 μg/kg in fish. Twenty samples of water, twenty of sediments and forty of fish were taken in four different water reservoirs at five different times. Alpha-endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin were identified in sediment while p,p′-DDE, α- and β-HCH, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin were detected in fish. Only organochlorines were determined in water because of the lack of recovery of pyrethroids from water stored in glass. Concentrations of insecticide residues in sediment for all water ponds ranged from non-detected to 101 µg/kg and from non-detected to 36 µg/kg in fish. Preliminary risk assessment for consumers of the North of Benin showed that the Estimated Daily Intakes were lower than the Acceptable Daily Intakes and Acute Reference Doses for all consumers. However, as one fish can be contaminated by five pesticide residues at the same time, it is not possible to exclude a risk for the consumer due to his exposure to mixtures of pesticides.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00888-2
       
  • Microplastics Contamination in Commercial Green Mussels from Selected Wet
           Markets in Thailand

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      Abstract: Mussels have been identified as sentinel organisms (around the world) that indicate microplastic (MP) pollution. Since they are filter feeders, they easily uptake MPs. Mussels sold in commercial markets have been identified as an ideal way to directly quantify human exposure to MPs through seafood consumption. There are no studies reported on MP contamination of market-sold species in Thailand. This study investigates the level of MP contamination in market-sold green mussels, which is a popular seafood in Thailand. A total of 90 green mussels (Perna viridis) collected from three markets were analyzed for the number, polymer types, and morphology of the MPs. Fourier-Transform Infrared Micro-Spectroscopy (micro-FTIR) analysis was used for polymer identification. Nile Red (NR) tagging was used for the enumeration of MPs. MPs were widely discovered in green mussels from all three markets with 100% detection frequency. The average abundance of MPs in green mussels was quantified as 7.32 ± 8.33 items/mussel and 1.53 ± 2.04 items/g (wet weight). Ethylene/propylene copolymer followed by low-density polyethylene (PE-LD), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were found. Fragments (75.4%) were the most common morphotype, followed by fibers (24.6%). Results indicate that the consumption of green mussels as a food can be one of the exposure pathways for the Thai population. Moreover, smaller size MPs were predominant, which are reported to cause higher impacts.
      PubDate: 2021-09-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00886-4
       
  • Risk Assessment of Arsenic Toxicity Through Groundwater-Soil-Rice System
           in Maldah District, Bengal Delta Basin, India

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      Abstract: Arsenic (As), a toxic trace element, is of great environmental concern due to its presence in soil, water, plant, animal and human continuum. Its high toxicity and increased appearance in the biosphere have triggered public concern. The present study measured As concentrations in soil, groundwater and rice plant samples of five selected blocks of Maldah district, West Bengal, India. Soil, irrigation water and rice plant samples were collected from the fields of the selected study areas. The results revealed the presence of As in higher concentrations than the maximum permissible limit of As in irrigation water (0.1 mg L−1 by FAO, 2010) in groundwater of Manikchak (0.553 ± 0.17 mg L−1), Kaliachak III (0.528 ± 0.20 mg L−1), and Kaliachak II (0.449 ± 0.15 mg L−1), Kaliachak I (0.207 ± 0.19 mg L−1). The soil As was also found higher in those four blocks. The As content in rice grain of the study area was positively correlated (r = 0.896**, p < 0.001) with As content in irrigation water. The data of consumption of rice per day in the survey were used for the measurement of average daily intake, Hazard quotient (HQ) and Incremental Life time Cancer Risk. Kaliachak III, Manikchak and Kaliachak II showed HQ greater than 1, indicating the possibility of non-carcinogenic health hazard due to As exposure to the local residents. The study emphasized the severity of As problem in remote areas of West Bengal where people consume As tainted rice due to lack of awareness about the As associated health issues. Graphic
      PubDate: 2021-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00883-7
       
  • Ten Bird Species, Six Guilds, Three Habitats, and 59 Chlorinated and
           Brominated POPs: What do 64 Eggs from the Largest Economic Hub of Southern
           Africa tell us'

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      Abstract: There is little information on how POPs in eggs of different terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic birds share a large urban and rural landscape relate. We collected and analysed 64 eggs belonging to ten species of six feeding guilds, and compared organic chlorinated pesticide (OCP), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and brominated flame retardants (BFR) residue concentrations and compositions. The eggs were collected in the Gauteng and the northern part of the Free Sate provinces of South Africa, one of the largest economic hubs in Africa. White-breasted Cormorant and African Darter eggs (at the highest trophic level as large aquatic predators) had the highest ΣOCP and ΣPCB concentrations, and Cape Sparrow and Southern Masked Weaver (granivores) eggs had the lowest concentrations, corresponding to the lowest trophic level in our collection. The highest percentage p,p’-DDT were in eggs of the terrestrial insectivore Crowned Lapwing (24%) and the scavenging African Sacred Ibis (17%), and the lowest in African Darter (1.0%) and White-breasted Cormorant (0.9%) eggs, suggesting that recency of DDT releases in a region cannot be gauged by this metric. African Sacred Ibis and Southern Masked Weaver eggs had the highest ΣBFR concentrations, with Crowned Lapwing, Cattle Egret, and White-breasted Cormorant eggs the least. Based on feeding guilds, the mean ΣPOP concentrations increased from granivore, aquatic omnivore, scavenger, terrestrial insectivore, small aquatic predator, to large aquatic predator. Mean ΣPOP concentrations in eggs increased from terrestrial, to wetland, to aquatic habitat birds. Interesting patterns were observed with multivariate analyses. There were no significant regressions between egg size and any summed POP classes. ΣBFR concentrations were not correlated with ΣOCPs or ΣPCBs. Eggshell thinning of African Darter eggs was associated with p,p’-DDE and ΣPCB suggesting risk. Other metrics also suggest risk. Therefore, different species of terrestrial and aquatic birds from the same area acquire and deposit POPs in different proportions and quantities in their eggs. Trophic levels and habitat explain the overall patterns, but detailed differences were found, some of which we are unable to explain. Based on POPs residues in terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic bird eggs, different POPs classes behave differently in a shared large inland industrial area, complicating deductions about POPs and associated risks based on one or few species.
      PubDate: 2021-09-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00882-8
       
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Indoor Dust Across China:
           Occurrence, Sources and Cancer Risk Assessment

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      Abstract: In this study, the occurrence of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in 31 household dusts that were sampled from 27 areas located in 10 provinces, China. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑ PAHs) were in the range of 613–10,111 ng·g−1 with a median of 2565 ng·g−1. The predominant PAHs were 2 to 3 ringed compounds, accounting for 85.3% of ∑ PAHs. The geographical location had little impact on the contents of PAHs. Higher concentrations of ∑ PAHs and individual homologues of PAHs except for naphthalene (NAP) were observed in rural areas, which is related to the higher usage of coal or biomass for cooking. Cooking method played a major role in contributing to the concentrations of PAHs. Both household cooking and petrogenic sources from outdoors were the primary sources of PAHs in household dust. Cancer risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and ingestion are the main exposure pathways to indoor residents. Furthermore, the average values of sum of incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) were 2.22 × 10–7 for adults and 2.51 × 10–7 for children, suggesting that there is a low health risk posed by PAHs in indoor dust. The contribution percentage of 4 to 6 rings PAHs to ILCRs was up to 96.3%, indicating that higher molecular weight PAHs in indoor dust, especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DahA), are major factors contributing to cancer risk.
      PubDate: 2021-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00881-9
       
  • Multiple Level Effects of Imazethapyr on Leptodactylus latinasus (Anura)
           Adult Frogs

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      Abstract: Imazethapyr is an herbicide that is used in a variety of crops worldwide, including soybean and corn. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biomarkers responses of adult Leptodactylus latinasus exposed to the formulation Pivot® H (10.59% imazethapyr) in the laboratory at concentrations and under conditions that simulate two potential field exposure scenarios: an immersion in field runoff (Scenario 1: 10 mg/L) and a direct exposure to the droplets emitted by spray noozles (Scenario 2: 1000 mg/L). In both scenarios, the experimental procedure involved completely immersing the frogs over a period of 15 s. Different endpoints were evaluated at several ecotoxicological levels 48 and 96 h after the herbicide exposure. These included individual (biometric indices and behavior alterations), histological (liver pigments and lesions), biochemical (catalase, glutathione system and cholinesterase activities) and genotoxic effects (micronuclei induction and nuclear abnormalities). Forty-eight hours after imazethapyr exposure, frogs submitted to Scenario 1 presented an inhibition of liver glutathione-S-transferase activity, whereas histological alterations and increased hepatic cholinesterase levels were observed in frogs exposed under Scenario 2. Ninety-six hours after exposure to the imazethapyr formulation, frogs from the Scenario 1 treatment presented a decrease in liver melanin and hemosiderin, increased hepatic catalase activity and micronuclei induction. For their part, frogs exposed to Scenario 2 presented a decrease in the hepatosomatic index, an increase in liver alterations, melanin reduction and micronuclei induction. The multivariate analysis enables correlations to be made between biomarkers of different organizational level in exposed anurans. Our result indicates that real exposure to imazethapyr formulations under field conditions may pose a risk to Leptodactylus latinasus populations living in the agroecosystems.
      PubDate: 2021-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00880-w
       
  • Hydrogeochemical Processes Governing Uranium Mobility: Inferences from the
           Anthropogenically Disturbed, Semi-arid Region of India

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      Abstract: Khetri Copper Belt, Rajasthan, is anthropogenically active and geologically belongs to the Delhi super-group. A study was designed to understand the geochemical processes controlling the elemental mobility in the groundwater. Sampling sites were divided into three zones, i.e. copper, quartzite and granite mine zones depending on the type of mineral excavated. A total of 32 representative groundwater samples were collected and analysed for heavy metals and radionuclide (U) using ICP–MS. A maximum U concentration (average 87 µgL−1) is observed in the quartzite mine zone, and minimum (average 13 µgL−1) is found in the copper mine zone samples. A high concentration of U (maximum of 430 µgL−1) in groundwater is attributed to mineral dissolution due to geogenic and anthropogenic activities. Despite the presence of Jaspura and Gothra granitoid in the copper mine zone, the abundance of U is low suggesting the scavenging of U by sulphides or iron oxides. Additionally, at the confluence of two geological groups, Fe concentration is found high with a low concentration of U which further confirms scavenging of U. It is evident from the results that in the absence of iron-bearing sulphides, U concentration in groundwater would be very high compared to the current concentration. It also indicates low concentration of U in the copper mine zone is due to dissolution of Fe sulphide-rich waste. The present study recommends further research to understand the feasibility of mining waste for the removal of U contamination from groundwater.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00879-3
       
  • Groundwater Pollution Source Identification and Apportionment Using PMF
           and PCA-APCS-MLR Receptor Models in Tongchuan City, China

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      Abstract: Potential sources of groundwater pollution in Tongchuan City, China, were qualitatively identified based on 14 key water quality indicators of 59 groundwater samples, and the contribution of each source to groundwater quality was quantitatively evaluated. Groundwater pollution sources were analyzed using PMF and PCA-APCS-MLR models, and their applicability in groundwater pollution assessment in Tongchuan City was tested. Results indicate that both models identified four sources of groundwater contamination. Natural evolution was the main cause of groundwater pollution in the study area, followed by the coal industry, agriculture, and urbanization. Although the spatial distribution of pollution sources in the two models differed, the urbanized area to the east of the study area was more severely affected by sewage discharge, the west was more obviously affected by the coal industry, and the north was mainly polluted by agriculture. Both of the fitting results of the two models are good, but R2 values obtained by the PMF model (0.4440–0.9991) were generally higher than those obtained by the PCA-APCS-MLR model (0.5180–0.9530), indicating that PMF model results were more accurate than the PCA-APCS-MLR model.
      PubDate: 2021-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00877-5
       
 
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