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ENGINEERING (1240 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 265)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 244)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Applied Catalysis B: Environmental
  [SJR: 2.322]   [H-I: 158]   [18 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0926-3373
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Efficient degradation of clofibric acid by electro-enhanced
           peroxydisulfate activation with Fe-Cu/SBA-15 catalyst
    • Authors: Heng Lin; Xin Zhong; Carmen Ciotonea; Xiaohui Fan; Xiaoyu Mao; Yating Li; Bin Deng; Hui Zhang; Sébastien Royer
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 230
      Author(s): Heng Lin, Xin Zhong, Carmen Ciotonea, Xiaohui Fan, Xiaoyu Mao, Yating Li, Bin Deng, Hui Zhang, Sébastien Royer
      Mesoporous silica supported mono and bimetallic oxides are employed for the degradation of clofibric acid (CFA) in the heterogeneous electro-enhanced persulfate activation system. The oxidation system includes heterogeneous peroxydisulfate (PDS, S2O8 2−) activation coupled with electrochemical process, leading to the production of highly reactive radicals (SO4 − and OH). The influence of degradation reaction parameters, amongst the initial solution pH, current density, S2O8 2− concentration and catalyst loading, is investigated. Efficiency of catalyst to generate reactive radicals is confirmed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and radical quenching experiments. The catalytic performance was evaluated in terms of CFA concentration abatement, while the stability of catalyst is followed by quantifying the metal leaching into the aqueous solution during reaction and the evolution of surface characteristics of the materials before and after reaction. The main degradation intermediates were identified in order to propose a possible degradation pathway of CFA.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
  • Defect enhances photocatalytic activity of ultrathin TiO2 (B) nanosheets
           for hydrogen production by plasma engraving method
    • Authors: Xiangchen Kong; Yiming Xu; Zhenduo Cui; Zhaoyang Li; Yanqin Liang; Zhonghui Gao; Shengli Zhu; Xianjin Yang
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 230
      Author(s): Xiangchen Kong, Yiming Xu, Zhenduo Cui, Zhaoyang Li, Yanqin Liang, Zhonghui Gao, Shengli Zhu, Xianjin Yang
      As for practical application, ultrathin two-dimension (2D) materials have exhibited high performances in photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, and supercapacitors. Usually, when used 2D TiO2 (B) nanosheet as a photocatalyst, it absorbs only ultraviolet light, and several approaches have been taken to narrow the band gap of TiO2. Thus, we demonstrated a facile and environmental friendly method to enhancing hydrogen production by introducing defects of O vacancy and Ti3+ in surface and bulk TiO2 (B) nanosheets through the ambient-temperature plasma engraving treatment. After plasma treatment, the band gap of the 2D TiO2 (B) nanosheets decreased from approximately 3.13 eV–2.88 eV and the H2 evolution performance of them is almost twice as high as pristine TiO2 (B) nanosheets under AM 1.5 illumination. The enhanced photocatalytic performances arise from the doping defect of O vacancy and Ti3+, narrowing the energy band gap and increasing more active sites of material surface with function of plasma engraving. The findings in this work may provide a new approach for improving the photocatalytic activities of other metal oxides.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
  • Ceria nanoparticles shape effects on the structural defects and surface
           chemistry: Implications in CO oxidation by Cu/CeO2 catalysts
    • Authors: Maria Lykaki; Eleni Pachatouridou; Sónia A.C. Carabineiro; Eleni Iliopoulou; Chrysanthi Andriopoulou; N. Kallithrakas-Kontos; Soghomon Boghosian; Michalis Konsolakis
      Pages: 18 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 230
      Author(s): Maria Lykaki, Eleni Pachatouridou, Sónia A.C. Carabineiro, Eleni Iliopoulou, Chrysanthi Andriopoulou, N. Kallithrakas-Kontos, Soghomon Boghosian, Michalis Konsolakis
      Copper-ceria binary oxides have been extensively used in a wide variety of catalytic processes due to their unique catalytic features in conjunction to their lower cost as compared to noble metal-based systems. However, various parameters related to different counterparts characteristics, such as particle size and morphology, can exert a profound influence on the structural/redox properties of binary oxides and, consequently, on their catalytic performance. Here, we report on ceria nanoparticles shape effects: nanorods (NR), nanopolyhedra (NP) and nanocubes (NC) on the solid state properties of copper-ceria binary oxides. A thorough characterization study by both ex situ (surface area determination, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, H2-temperature programmed reduction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and in situ (Raman spectroscopy) techniques was undertaken to gain insight into the impact of the support morphology on the surface, structural and redox properties. A novel approach based on sequential in situ Raman spectra obtained under alternating oxidizing and reducing atmospheres was employed to reveal the impact of ceria exposed facets on the structural defects. CO oxidation was employed as a probe reaction to disclose structure-property relationships. The results clearly revealed the key role of ceria morphology rather than structural/textural characteristics on the reducibility and oxygen mobility, following the sequence: NR > NP > NC. The latter seems to have a profound influence on copper-ceria interactions towards the stabilization of Cu+ species, via Ce4+/Ce3+ and Cu2+/Cu+ redox equilibrium. Interestingly, CuO incorporation in different ceria carriers boosts the catalytic activity without, however, affecting the order observed for bare ceria, i.e., CeO2-NR > CeO2-NP > CeO2-NC, implying the key role of support. The Cu/CeO2 sample with the rod-like morphology exhibited the highest catalytic performance, offering almost complete CO elimination at temperatures as low as 100 °C. A perfect relationship between the catalytic performance and the following parameters was disclosed, on the basis of a Mars-van Krevelen mechanism: i) abundance of weakly bound oxygen species, ii) relative population of Cu+/Ce3+ redox pairs, iii) relative abundance of defects and oxygen vacancies.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.035
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
  • In search of membrane-catalyst materials for oxidative coupling of
           methane: Performance and phase stability studies of gadolinium-doped
           barium cerate and the impact of Zr doping
    • Authors: Valentina Omoze Igenegbai; Randall J. Meyer; Suljo Linic
      Pages: 29 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 230
      Author(s): Valentina Omoze Igenegbai, Randall J. Meyer, Suljo Linic
      Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) is a promising technology for the direct conversion of methane to ethylene and ethane (C2). This process is yet to be commercialized due its poor yield reflected in the formation of undesired products such as CO and CO2 (COx) as methane conversion increases, particularly in conventional packed bed reactors (PBRs). It has been argued that by applying O2− conducting membrane reactors that distribute the oxygen feed, the selectivity to the C2 products can be increased. A practical design for these membrane reactors would include combining a selective catalyst, preferably O2− conducting, with an O2− conducting membrane. In this work, we studied an O2− conducting material, gadolinium-doped barium cerate (BaCe0.8Gd0.2O3-δ or BCG), to evaluate its potential applicability as a catalyst and membrane in OCM membrane reactors. From PBR tests, we found that this material was active for OCM, and achieved a maximum C2+ yield of ∼14% at 1023 K. Furthermore, at low oxygen partial pressures, a C2+ selectivity of ∼90% was obtained at methane conversions of ∼3%. Although the C2+ yield from this material was stable over 48 h on stream at high methane conversions, X-ray diffraction data showed that the BCG perovskite phase, which is required for its conductive (membrane) properties, decomposes into BaCO3, CeO2 and Gd2O3 like phases, due to reactions with CO2. We showed that doping BCG with Zr was effective at suppressing the phase instability in OCM without significantly affecting the C2+ yields.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.040
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
  • ZnO1−x/carbon dots composite hollow spheres: Facile aerosol synthesis
           and superior CO2 photoreduction under UV, visible and near-infrared
    • Authors: Liang-Yi Lin; Shalinee Kavadiya; Bedia Begum Karakocak; Yao Nie; Ramesh Raliya; Steven T. Wang; Mikhail Y. Berezin; Pratim Biswas
      Pages: 36 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 230
      Author(s): Liang-Yi Lin, Shalinee Kavadiya, Bedia Begum Karakocak, Yao Nie, Ramesh Raliya, Steven T. Wang, Mikhail Y. Berezin, Pratim Biswas
      For the first time, ZnO1−x/carbon dots composite hollow spheres (denoted ZnO1−x/C) have been synthesized via a single-step aerosol process and employed for CO2 photoreduction over the whole UV–vis-NIR spectrum. The effects of the precursor component ratio and synthesis temperature on the physicochemical properties of the composites are systematically investigated to maximize CO2 conversion efficiency. Under UV–vis–NIR light, the best performing sample had an average CO production rate of 60.77 μmol g−1 h−1, which is about 54.7 times higher than that of pristine ZnO, and 11.5 times higher than that of commercial TiO2 (Degussa-P25). More importantly, whereas ZnO and Degussa-P25 are photocatalytically inactive, the photocatalytic response of the ZnO1−x/C composite was successfully achieved under NIR illumination alone, with an average CO production rate of 15.98 μmol g−1 h−1. The realization of NIR-driven CO2 photoreduction with enhanced photocatalytic activity benefits from 1) the hollow structure, which allows multiple internal reflections of light for enhanced light absorption; 2) the oxygen deficiency of ZnO1−x and the deposited carbon, which enable efficient charge carrier transfer and improved CO2 adsorption; and 3) the strong NIR absorption of ZnO1−x/C, in which ZnO1−x is excited by absoring the up-converted photoluminescence emissions (410–560 nm) of the carbon dots.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
  • Enhanced visible-light photocatalysis via back-electron transfer from
           palladium quantum dots to perylene diimide
    • Authors: Weiqin Wei; Zhen Wei; Di Liu; Yongfa Zhu
      Pages: 49 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 230
      Author(s): Weiqin Wei, Zhen Wei, Di Liu, Yongfa Zhu
      The electronic-coupling interaction between noble-metal cocatalysts and host semiconductor nanocrystals has been found to be effective for the utilization of the solar energy. However, electron transfer (ET) mechanism between noble metals and self-assemblies has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we revealed a mechanism of back-electron-transfer-enhanced photocatalysis, which contributed to the visible-light photocatalytic improvement of perylene diimide (PDI) assembly for phenolic degradation and hydrogen generation. By compared with the energy level of PDI and Pd quantum dots (QDs), it seemed to be disadvantageous for ET from PDI assembly to Pd QDs, but surface photovoltage spectra showed that this can come true under visible-light irradiation, indicative of formation of a new Schottky barrier resulting from other light-induced transition species. Absorption spectra showed that an additional electronic state existed above the conduction band of PDI assembly originating from PDI radical anions. Such active species provided the light-driven dissipative structure with stable energy and electron flow through two opposite types of ET pathway: one is ET from light-excited PDI anions to Pd QDs and the other is direct electron injection from plasma Pd QDs accumulated with high-energy electrons to PDI neutral molecules. It has been found that continuous ET from PDI assembly to Pd QDs caused the plasma resonance of the Pd QDs to be higher in energy to overcome interfacial energy barrier. And then back-ET from Pd QDs to neutral PDI molecules occurred and led to formation of more PDI radical anions that were important for the improvement of the photocatalytic activity. These findings provide a new strategy for the development of highly efficient visible-light photocatalysts based on self-assembly for energy production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.032
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
  • One-pot synthesized boron-doped RhFe alloy with enhanced catalytic
           performance for hydrogen evolution reaction
    • Authors: Lishang Zhang; Jiajia Lu; Shibin Yin; Lin Luo; Shengyu Jing; Angeliki Brouzgou; Jianhua Chen; Pei Kang Shen; Panagiotis Tsiakaras
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 230
      Author(s): Lishang Zhang, Jiajia Lu, Shibin Yin, Lin Luo, Shengyu Jing, Angeliki Brouzgou, Jianhua Chen, Pei Kang Shen, Panagiotis Tsiakaras
      Electrochemical water splitting has been highly recognized as a clean and sustainable method to produce hydrogen with high purity. An one-pot method to synthesize boron-doped RhFe alloy with excellent catalytic performance for hydrogen evolution is reported in the present work. Rhodium-Iron (RhFe) alloy nanoparticles, with diameter ranging from 1 to 5 nm, are distributed uniformly on the carbon support. The corresponding physicochemical and electrochemical results display that the sample of Rh:Fe = 2:1 post-treated at 200 °C (BRF21) shows the best performance for hydrogen evolution in 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous solution; it exhibits good catalytic activity at a near zero onset potential. The required overpotential is found to be of about 25 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm–2, which is 4 mV less than that of commercial Pt/C (29 mV); the Tafel slope is also comparable (32 mV dec–1) with Pt/C (30 mV dec–1). This work may provide a facile and environmentally-friendly method to prepare B-doped catalysts with high electrochemical hydrogen evolution efficiency.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.034
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2018)
  • Single-crystal TiO2 nanorods assembly for efficient and stable
           cocatalyst-free photocatalytic hydrogen evolution
    • Authors: Yong Jiang; Hongyan Ning; Chungui Tian; Baojiang Jiang; Qi Li; Haijing Yan; Xuliang Zhang; Jianqiang Wang; Liqiang Jing; Honggang Fu
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Yong Jiang, Hongyan Ning, Chungui Tian, Baojiang Jiang, Qi Li, Haijing Yan, Xuliang Zhang, Jianqiang Wang, Liqiang Jing, Honggang Fu
      TiO2 with abundant surface oxygen vacancies is notoriously difficult to stabilize upon photochemical oxidation, which in turn limits its photocatalytic application. To address this limitation, the gray fries cake-like TiO2 assembly composed of single-crystal TiO2 nanorods by in-situ carbon adherence was fabricated via hydrogenation of protonic titanate nanosheets (PTN) under normal pressure. During the hydrogenation process, the residual butyl alcohol adsorbed on PTN from tetrabutyl titanate hydrolysis can be in-situ converted into carbon in company with the formation of oxygen vacancies (O-vacancies) on TiO2. The carbon layer and O-vacancies are able to induce the growth of single-crystal TiO2 nanorods and their assembly to form the fries cake-like structure. Moreover, the carbon layer can not only offer a favorable reduction environment to generate rich O-vacancies on TiO2, but also efficiently improve these O-vacancies and TiO2 nanorods’ stability during catalytic reaction. O-vacancies/carbon layer can serve as electron trap active sites which can capture and transfer electrons to improve the separation of electron-hole pairs. As a consequence, in the absence of any co-catalysts, a high efficiency of hydrogen evolution was achieved for the TiO2 assembly with 69.7 μmol h−1 (quantum efficiency ∼2.3% at 420 nm) under solar light irradiation. After laying six months, our TiO2 assembly still exhibited high photocatalytic performance, which is superior to previous TiO2-based photocatalyst. The results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 assembly can be enhanced by stabilizing the surface rich oxygen vacancies with carbon coating.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.079
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Remarkable positive effect of Cd(OH)2 on CdS semiconductor for
           visible-light photocatalytic H2 production
    • Authors: Qin Li; Ting Shi; Xin Li; Kangle Lv; Mei Li; Fangling Liu; Hongying Li; Ming Lei
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Qin Li, Ting Shi, Xin Li, Kangle Lv, Mei Li, Fangling Liu, Hongying Li, Ming Lei
      In the past decade, photocatalytic H2 production over CdS semiconductor has garnered considerable interest due to its visible-light response, suitable band structure, and controllable morphologies. To pursue higher photocatalytic efficiency and more feasibility for practical industrial applications, Cd(OH)2 nanoparticle decorated CdS rod composites were designed and successfully fabricated in this study by a facile one-step hydrothermal method in strong alkali NaOH solution. The synthesis process followed a “mother liquor circulation” criteria since no NaOH was lost during the whole preparation course, which could greatly save costs and be conducive to the realization of large-scale production. When the content of Cd(OH)2 was 17.6 mol% in the obtained composite, the photocatalytic H2 production rate reached the highest (579.0 μmol h−1) with the help of 0.6 wt% platinum (Pt), which was more than 386 and 15 times higher than that of Pt/Cd(OH)2 and Pt/CdS, respectively. It was evidenced that such surprising and prominent enhancement of photoactivity was mainly attributed to the presence of Cd0 as an electron transport intermediary, which was produced by in-situ photoreduction of Cd(OH)2 interfacial layer between CdS and Pt. This work could not only highlight the significant roles of Cd(OH)2 on invigorating the photoactivity of CdS for H2 production, but also open an avenue of using the concept of mother liquor circulation in the photocatalyst synthesis process to satisfy the industrial manufacture requirement.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.078
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Solar pilot plant scale hydrogen generation by irradiation of Cu/TiO2
           composites in presence of sacrificial electron donors
    • Authors: M.I. Maldonado; A. López-Martín; G. Colón; J. Peral; J.I. Martínez-Costa; S. Malato
      Pages: 15 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): M.I. Maldonado, A. López-Martín, G. Colón, J. Peral, J.I. Martínez-Costa, S. Malato
      A Cu/TiO2 photocatalyst has been synthesised by reducing a Cu precursor with NaBH4 onto the surface of a sulphate pretreated TiO2 obtained by a sol-gel procedure. The catalyst, that shows a clearly defined anatase phase with high crystallinity and relatively high surface area, and contains Cu2O and CuO deposits on its surface, has been used to produce hydrogen in a solar driven pilot plant scale photocatalytic reactor. Different electron donor aqueous solutions (methanol, glycerol, and a real municipal wastewater treatment plant influent) have been tested showing similar or even higher energy efficiency than those obtained using more expensive noble metal based photocatalytic systems. The glycerol solutions have provided the best reactive environments for hydrogen generation.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Electronic properties of β-TaON and its surfaces for solar water
    • Authors: Habib Ullah; Asif A. Tahir; Salma Bibi; Tapas K. Mallick; Smagul Zh. Karazhanov
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Habib Ullah, Asif A. Tahir, Salma Bibi, Tapas K. Mallick, Smagul Zh. Karazhanov
      Recently, oxynitrides materials such as β-TaON has been using as a photoanode material in the field of photocatalysis and is found to be promising due to its suitable band gap and charge carrier mobility. Computational study of the crystalline β-TaON in the form of primitive unit cell, supercell and its N, Ta, and O terminated surfaces are carried out with the help of periodic density functional theory (DFT). Optical and electronic properties of all these different species are simulated, which predict TaON as the best candidate for photocatalytic water splitting contrast to their Ta2O5 and Ta3N5 counterparts. The calculated bandgap, valence band, and conduction band edge positions predict that β-TaON should be an efficient photoanodic material. The valence band is made up of N 2p orbitals with a minor contribution from O 2p, while the conduction band is made up of Ta 5d. Turning to thin films, the valence band maximum; VBM (−6.4 eV vs. vacuum) and the conduction band minimum; CBM (−3.3 eV vs. vacuum) of (010)-O terminated surface are respectively well below and above the redox potentials of water as required for photocatalysis. Charge carriers have smaller effective masses than in the (001)-N terminated film (VBM −5.8 and CBM −3.7 eV vs. vacuum). However, due to wide band gap (3.0 eV) of (010)-O terminated surface, it cannot absorb visible wavelengths. On the other hand, the (001)-N terminated TaON thin film has a smaller band gap in the visible region (2.1 eV) but the bands are not aligned to the redox potential of water. Possibly a mixed phase material would produce an efficient photoanode for solar water splitting, where one phase performs the oxidation and the other reduction.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Enhanced catalytic hydrogenation reduction of bromate on Pd catalyst
           supported on CeO2 modified SBA-15 prepared by strong electrostatic
    • Authors: Jingya Sun; Jiarun Zhang; Heyun Fu; Haiqin Wan; Yuqiu Wan; Xiaolei Qu; Zhaoyi Xu; Daqiang Yin; Shourong Zheng
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Jingya Sun, Jiarun Zhang, Heyun Fu, Haiqin Wan, Yuqiu Wan, Xiaolei Qu, Zhaoyi Xu, Daqiang Yin, Shourong Zheng
      Supported Pd catalysts on CeO2 modified SBA-15 (Ce-SBA-15) were prepared using the strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) method. For comparison, supported Pd catalysts on SBA-15 and Ce-SBA-15 were prepared using the impregnation method. Liquid-phase catalytic hydrogenation of bromate was investigated on those catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, measurement of the point of zero charge (PZC), transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy − energy dispersive spectroscopy, and H2 chemisorption. Characterization results showed that CeO2 modification resulted in increased PZC of SBA-15 from 2.7 to 4.8. For Pd/Ce-SBA-15 catalysts prepared using the SEA method, Pd particles were site-specifically deposited on CeO2 moieties. As a result, much higher Pd dispersion and stronger metal-support interaction were observed as compared with the catalysts prepared using the impregnation method. Furthermore, increasing CeO2 modification amount and decreasing Pd loading amount effectively enhanced Pd dispersion and metal-support interaction. For the catalytic reduction of bromate, Pd/SBA-15 prepared using the impregnation method exhibited negligible catalytic activity. In contrast, markedly enhanced catalytic activities were observed on Pd catalysts supported on Ce-SBA-15. Additionally, Pd/Ce-SBA-15 prepared using the SEA method displayed much higher activity than that prepared using the impregnation method. For Pd/Ce-SBA-15 prepared using the SEA method, increasing CeO2 modification amount led to enhanced catalytic activity. The present findings clearly indicate that Pd/Ce-SBA-15 prepared by the SEA method can be used as a promising catalyst in liquid phase catalytic hydrogenation of disinfection byproducts.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Zn-vacancy mediated electron-hole separation in ZnS/g-C3N4 heterojunction
           for efficient visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen production
    • Authors: Xuqiang Hao; Jun Zhou; Zhiwei Cui; Yicong Wang; Ying Wang; Zhigang Zou
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Xuqiang Hao, Jun Zhou, Zhiwei Cui, Yicong Wang, Ying Wang, Zhigang Zou
      Vacancy defects play an important role in modifying the electronic structure and the properties of photoexcited charge carriers by introducing additional energy levels and consequently enhanced the photocatalytic activity of photocatalyst. In this work, we report a ZnS/g-C3N4 heterostructure with abundant zinc vacancy defects on the surface of ZnS to emphasis the synergistic promotion on charge separation. The ZnS/g-C3N4 heterostructured photocatalyst possesses low over-potential, extended absorption in the visible light region, and promoted photoinduced electron-hole separation capability. Fluorescence emission spectra and XPS results confirm that existence of abundant zinc vacancies on ZnS. VZn-rich CZV20 (g-C3N4/ZnS-20 wt%) heterojunction exhibits more than 30 times higher photocatalytic H2 evolution rate (713.68 μmol h−1 g−1) than that of pure g-C3N4 (24.09 μmol h−1 g−1) under visible light irradiation and high stability during the prolonged photocatalytic operation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the intimate interfacial contact between g-C3N4 and ZnS nanoparticles, increasing the light-absorbing capacity and charge separation efficiency of ZnS/g-C3N4 heterojunction. And more importantly, the visible-light photocatalytic H2 production activity can be ascribed to the two-photo excitation in the middle band gap of ZnS. This work demonstrates that appropriate Zn vacancy defects modified ZnS/g-C3N4 heterojunction can be used for highly efficient visible-light photocatalysis.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Structural requirements of manganese oxides for methane oxidation: XAS
           spectroscopy and transition-state studies
    • Authors: Xiuyun Wang; Yi Liu; Yangyu Zhang; Tianhua Zhang; Huazhen Chang; Yongfan Zhang; Lilong Jiang
      Pages: 52 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Xiuyun Wang, Yi Liu, Yangyu Zhang, Tianhua Zhang, Huazhen Chang, Yongfan Zhang, Lilong Jiang
      Different crystallographic structures of Mn oxides usually lead to diverse coordination geometries and oxidation states of MnO6, which in turn show strikingly different catalytic activities. In this study, methane oxidation performances over Mn oxides with various crystalline structures were investigated, including α-MnO2 (double chains of Mn4+O6 octahedra), α-Mn2O3 (symmetry-inequivalent Mn3+O6), two-dimensional mesoporous β-MnO2 (labels as Meso-MnO2, single chains of Mn4+O6 octahedra) and one-dimensional β-MnO2 (single chains of Mn3+/4+O6 octahedra). The results demonstrate that the methane oxidation activities are dependent on their crystallographic structures, and follow an order of α-MnO2 > β-MnO2 > α-Mn2O3 > Meso-MnO2. Meanwhile, α-MnO2 exhibits good durability and excellent 9.5vol%H2O/10vol%CO2 resistance ability. EXAFS, Raman, XPS, O2-TPD-MS and CH4-TPR-MS studies indicate that the outstanding catalytic activity over α-MnO2 is due to higher surface Mn concentration, more active oxygen species and mono-μ-oxo bridged corner-shared [MnO6] sites, and excellent reducibility. More importantly, a new insight into reaction mechanism of methane oxidation over Mn oxides was proposed at the molecular level.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Disinfection of urine by conductive-diamond electrochemical oxidation
    • Authors: Salvador Cotillas; Engracia Lacasa; Cristina Sáez; Pablo Cañizares; Manuel A. Rodrigo
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Salvador Cotillas, Engracia Lacasa, Cristina Sáez, Pablo Cañizares, Manuel A. Rodrigo
      This work focuses on the application of electrolysis with diamond anodes for the disinfection of urine. To do this, a synthetic human urine was polluted with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and then, it was electrolyzed at current densities within the range 0–100 A m−2. Results show that it is possible to disinfect completely the effluent even at applied electric charges lower than 2 kAh m−3, regardless the current density applied. This good performance is related to the production of powerful oxidants from the oxidation of the ions present in synthetic urine. Likewise, these species also react with the organics contained in urine (urea, creatinine and uric acid), favoring their degradation. The process efficiency for both microorganisms and organics is higher when working at low current densities. The removal of organics leads to the release of significant amounts of nitrogen in the form of nitrate which are later electroreduced to ammonium, that, in turn, reacts with the electrogenerated hypochlorite, favoring the production of chloramines (which can also contribute to the disinfection process). Regarding the mineralization, TOC removal higher than 90% can be achieved but higher applied electric charges than those required for disinfection have to be applied (around 30 kAh m−3).
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Tailored synthesis of active reduced graphene oxides from waste graphite:
           Structural defects and pollutant-dependent reactive radicals in aqueous
           organics decontamination
    • Authors: Yuxian Wang; Hongbin Cao; Lulu Chen; Chunmao Chen; Xiaoguang Duan; Yongbing Xie; Weiyu Song; Hongqi Sun; Shaobin Wang
      Pages: 71 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Yuxian Wang, Hongbin Cao, Lulu Chen, Chunmao Chen, Xiaoguang Duan, Yongbing Xie, Weiyu Song, Hongqi Sun, Shaobin Wang
      Anode graphite was recovered from a spent lithium ion battery (LIB) and reutilized as a carbon precursor to obtain graphene-based materials. Characterization results revealed that impurities were removed from the obtained graphite powder by cleansing processes. The as-synthesized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) from the purified graphite (LIB-rGO) demonstrated excellent catalytic ozonation activity against organic pollutants removal. To probe potential catalytic active sites, LIB-rGOs with different defective levels but similar oxygen contents were synthesized. Catalytic ozonation tests revealed that a higher defective level resulted in a greater catalytic activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation further demonstrated that ozone molecules could spontaneously decompose into active oxygen species on graphene structural vacancies and edges, which consolidated the role of defective structure in catalytic ozonation activity. Meanwhile, we discovered the pollutant-structure-dependent behavior of dominant reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the aid of radical scavenging tests and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. For phenolic pollutants vulnerable to direct ozone attacking, superoxide radicals (O2 −) and singlet oxygen (1O2) were found to be responsible ROS, whereas hydroxyl radicals (OH) were identified as the principle ROS for aliphatic organic pollutants destruction. This study not only put forward a possible way for reutilization of waste LIB anode, but also stepped further for investigating the catalytic ozonation mechanism towards the graphene-based materials including the active sites and the generation of ROS.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 over short-range ordered
           WOFe structures with high thermal stability
    • Authors: Ying Xin; Nana Zhang; Qian Li; Zhaoliang Zhang; Xiaoming Cao; Lirong Zheng; Yuewu Zeng; James A. Anderson
      Pages: 81 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Ying Xin, Nana Zhang, Qian Li, Zhaoliang Zhang, Xiaoming Cao, Lirong Zheng, Yuewu Zeng, James A. Anderson
      The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO x with NH3 was studied over poorly-crystalline WFe composite oxides (W a FeO x ). The short-range order present within the WOFe structure was found to be responsible for the excellent SCR activity, in which the strong atomic-level interaction between Fe and W atoms promoted the formation of both Lewis and Brønsted acidity. The WOFe structure existed as amorphous overlayers, approximately 2 nm thick over the surface of crystalline particles after high-temperature aging as shown by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). After treatment at 800 °C for 5 h, the W a FeO x catalysts still showed almost 100% NO conversion in the range 300–450 °C with 100% N2 selectivity, despite the loss in surface area. This resistance to the impacts of high temperature ageing guarantees high activity of SCR catalysts which often suffer during high-temperature excursions as in the case of diesel exhaust due to diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Role of potassium in the enhancement of the catalytic activity of calcium
           oxide towards tar reduction
    • Authors: Pavleta Knutsson; Valentina Cantatore; Martin Seemann; Pui Lam Tam; Itai Panas
      Pages: 88 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Pavleta Knutsson, Valentina Cantatore, Martin Seemann, Pui Lam Tam, Itai Panas
      Gasification in fluidized bed systems is considered to be a highly promising alternative for the thermal conversion of biomass. A major challenge for this process is the formed tars, which represent a loss of energy from the product gas and entail additional costs for their removal. Olivine is considered to be the most effective catalytic bed material in terms of its impact on tar levels in the product gas. Additions and modifications to olivine have revealed the potential to enhance its catalytic activity. In the present study, the effect of the addition of K2CO3 to the gasification process on the tar decomposition capability of olivine were evaluated. The effect of the added K2CO3 on the product gas was assessed in the 30-MWth pilot gasification plant GoBiGas. Once decreases in the tar level were detected, samples of the bed material were extracted from the system and evaluated for morphological and chemical changes related to the observed catalytic effect. SEM-EDX and XPS analyses of the surfaces of the olivine particles indicate that the additive is involved in the formation of mixed oxides of Ca and K within the outermost layer of the olivine particles. DFT modeling showed that the formation of mixed Ca and K oxides changes the oxidation potential of the surface, which may explain the increased activity of ash-coated olivine towards tar reduction.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Influence of the support on Ni catalysts performance in the in-line steam
           reforming of biomass fast pyrolysis derived volatiles
    • Authors: Laura Santamaria; Gartzen Lopez; Aitor Arregi; Maider Amutio; Maite Artetxe; Javier Bilbao; Martin Olazar
      Pages: 105 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Laura Santamaria, Gartzen Lopez, Aitor Arregi, Maider Amutio, Maite Artetxe, Javier Bilbao, Martin Olazar
      The influence the support has on the performance of Ni catalysts used in the reforming of biomass fast pyrolysis volatiles has been assessed. Accordingly, five catalysts have been prepared by wet impregnation method, namely Ni/Al2O3, Ni/SiO2, Ni/MgO, Ni/TiO2 and Ni/ZrO2. These catalysts have been characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, temperature programmed reduction and X-ray diffraction techniques. The pyrolysis-reforming runs have been performed in a bench scale unit operating in continuous regime. The biomass (pine wood sawdust) pyrolysis step has been carried out in a conical spouted bed reactor at 500 °C, with the volatiles produced (a mixture of gases and bio-oil) being reformed in-line on the prepared catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor at 600 °C. Remarkable differences have been observed amongst the catalyst prepared, with Ni/Al2O3, Ni/MgO and Ni/ZrO2 being those leading to the most encouraging results, whereas Ni/TiO2 and, especially Ni/SiO2, having a limited reforming activity. The performance of each catalyst has been related to its properties determined in the characterization.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Fabrication of carbon bridged g-C3N4 through supramolecular self-assembly
           for enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution
    • Authors: Huiliang Li; Fengping Li; Zeyan Wang; Yachen Jiao; Yuanyuan Liu; Peng Wang; Xiaoyang Zhang; Xiaoyan Qin; Ying Dai; Baibiao Huang
      Pages: 114 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Huiliang Li, Fengping Li, Zeyan Wang, Yachen Jiao, Yuanyuan Liu, Peng Wang, Xiaoyang Zhang, Xiaoyan Qin, Ying Dai, Baibiao Huang
      Carbon bridged graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was prepared by a facile supramolecular self-assembly method. Experimental results and theoretical calculations indicate C atoms were introduced into the g-C3N4 lattice by substituting the bridged N atoms. As a result, the delocalized big π bonds can be formed among the adjacent heptazine rings, which could both enhance the light absorption and promote the charge separation. Beneficial from the efficient charge separation and enhanced light absorption, the carbon bridged g-C3N4 exhibits high efficient photocatalytic activity, where the H2 evolution rate is about 7 times as high as that of pristine g-C3N4. This work demonstrates carbon bridged C3N4 can be fabricated by a simple supramolecular self-assembly process, which could be useful for the further development of high efficient g-C3N4 photocatalysts.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.026
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Photocatalytic hydrogen peroxide production by anthraquinone-augmented
           polymeric carbon nitride
    • Authors: Hyoung-il Kim; Yeoseon Choi; Shu Hu; Wonyong Choi; Jae-Hong Kim
      Pages: 121 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Hyoung-il Kim, Yeoseon Choi, Shu Hu, Wonyong Choi, Jae-Hong Kim
      We describe the exploitation of the selective catalytic property of anthraquinone (AQ) for solar photocatalytic synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a green, sustainable alternative to organic-solvent-based and energy-intensive industry-benchmark processes that also rely on AQ catalysis. We accomplished this by anchoring AQ onto polymeric carbon nitride (C3N4), a metal-free visible light photocatalyst (band gap energy = 2.7 eV), that has been previously demonstrated for selective H2O2 synthesis. A net H2O2 production rate of 361 μmol g−1 h−1 and an apparent quantum yield (AQY) of 19.5% at 380 nm excitation were achieved using AQ-augmented C3N4 under simulated 1-sun illumination in the presence of an organic electron donor (2-propanol); these results were 4.4-fold and 8.3-fold higher than those reported for bare C3N4, respectively. A suite of experimental analyses confirmed the unique roles of AQ co-catalysis in (i) capturing electrons from the conduction band of C3N4, thereby reducing futile exciton recombination, which is otherwise prevalent in bare C3N4; (ii) effectively mediating electron transfer to drive hydrogenation reaction to form anthrahydroquinone (AQH2) from AQ; and (iii) catalyzing oxygen reduction to H2O2 through the dehydrogenation of AQH2 back to AQ, resulting in the facile and selective formation of H2O2. In addition, the reduced decomposition of produced H2O2 by the C3N4/AQ composite photocatalysts, when compared to bare C3N4 or C3N4 composited with common metallic co-catalysts such as Pt and Ag, was found to contribute to the significant enhancement in H2O2 production through the oxidation of both organic and water.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.060
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Thermally stable TiO2 quantum dots embedded in SiO2 foams:
           Characterization and photocatalytic H2 evolution activity
    • Authors: Donglai Pan; Zhiya Han; Yingchun Miao; Dieqing Zhang; Guisheng Li
      Pages: 130 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Donglai Pan, Zhiya Han, Yingchun Miao, Dieqing Zhang, Guisheng Li
      Highly dispersed and thermally stable TiO2 quantum dots (TiO2-QDs) were achieved in the pore channels of SiO2 foams with large pore size (14–20 nm) via in-situ hydrolysis of Ti-alkoxide. Owing to the anchoring effect between TiO2-QDs and the pore-wall of SiO2 foam, both the TiO2 phase transformation from anatase to rutile and the aggregation of TiO2-QDs were effectively prohibited. The anatase TiO2-QDs anchored on the surface of silica foams could be well maintained with a ultrafine crystal size (<7.0 nm) even after high temperature (up to 1000 °C) calcination in air, suggesting a high thermal stability. The sample of TiO2-QDs/SiO2 photocatalysts (molar ratio of Ti/Si = 60%, 900 °C) still exhibited a high H2 evolution rate (HER, 10399 μmol g−1 h−1) for reducing water with a quantum efficiency of 17.8% under UV light irradiation (λ = 365 nm), slightly lower than that of the sample treated at 500 °C. In the absence of the silica foam, the pure TiO2 crystals calcined at 900 °C crystals nearly cannot exhibit an obvious HER value. Such excellent photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance was ascribed to the short electron-transfer distance, high anatase crystallinity, uniform dispersity in silica foam, and excellent stability of the TiO2-QDs. This proposed route offered an effective platform for fabricating highly active metal oxide QDs with high thermal stability, greatly prolonging the recyclability.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Mo promoted Ni-Al2O3 co-precipitated catalysts for green diesel production
    • Authors: Eleana Kordouli; Barbara Pawelec; Kyriakos Bourikas; Christos Kordulis; Jose Luis G. Fierro; Alexis Lycourghiotis
      Pages: 139 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Eleana Kordouli, Barbara Pawelec, Kyriakos Bourikas, Christos Kordulis, Jose Luis G. Fierro, Alexis Lycourghiotis
      Three Mo promoted Ni-Al2O3 co-precipitation catalysts with practically the same composition (49–52%wtNi, 6-7%wtMo) were prepared using three different co-precipitation modes: co-precipitation at room temperature using ammonia as precipitating agent as well as co-precipitation at higher temperature (110 °C) using ammonia or urea as precipitating agent. The corresponding un-promoted catalysts were also synthesized for comparison. The catalysts were exhaustively characterized using various techniques and evaluated for the selective deoxygenation (SDO) of natural triglycerides using two different feedstocks: sunflower oil (SO) and waste cooked oil (WCO). The catalytic tests were performed under solvent free conditions in a semi-batch reactor at 310 °C, hydrogen pressure 40 bar and very high reactant volume to catalysts mass ratio (100 mL/1 g). The promoting action of the Mo(VI) and Mo(IV) well dispersed oxidic phases, was demonstrated in all cases. This was attributed to the impressive decrease in the size of the nickel nanoparticles and to the inhibition of the formation of the catalytically inactive nickel aluminate. Moreover, the Mo (VI) and Mo(IV) oxidic phases affect the network of the SDO favoring the hydrodeoxygenation of the intermediate alcohols with respect to the decarbonylation of intermediate aldehydes. The catalyst prepared at high co-precipitation temperature using ammonia as precipitating agent was proved to be the most efficient for the SDO of SO. An almost complete transformation of SO into n-C15, n-C16, n-C17, n-C18 (green diesel: 97% of liquid products) was obtained under the above mentioned conditions. This catalyst was proved to be very stable. The catalyst prepared at room co-precipitation temperature using ammonia as precipitating agent was proved to be the most efficient for the SDO of WCO (green diesel: 76% of liquid products). Its improved efficiency with respect to the other Mo promoted catalysts was attributed to its smaller pore size which prohibits the blockage of active sites located inside the corresponding pores by bulky compounds present in WCO.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • AgBr-loaded hollow porous carbon nitride with ultrahigh activity as
           visible light photocatalysts for water remediation
    • Authors: Xuewen Li; Dongyun Chen; Najun Li; Qingfeng Xu; Hua Li; Jinghui He; Jianmei Lu
      Pages: 155 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Xuewen Li, Dongyun Chen, Najun Li, Qingfeng Xu, Hua Li, Jinghui He, Jianmei Lu
      Nowadays, the lack of water resources is mainly due to frequent industrial discharge of dyes wastewater such as azo dyes, so the demand of photocatalysts with rapid degradation rate is growing. We report the synthesis of a new morphology of AgBr-loaded carbon nitride nanoparticles with hollow porous nanostructures, HCNS/AgBr, which was prepared by a hard-templating and the deposition-precipitation method. The morphology, surface elements and optical properties of the HCNS/AgBr hybrids were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Different mass ratios of HCNS/AgBr were prepared and HCNS/AgBr60 showed the highest photoactivity for Orange G (OG) dye degradation under visible light irradiation. Degradation efficiency was shown to reach 97% within 10 min, which could be attributed to the formation of a heterojunction structure and the high separation efficiency of holes and electrons, meanwhile the mechanism was evidenced by free radical and hole scavenging experiments. The results demonstrate the potential application of this new photocatalyst in the removal of dye from wastewater.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Nanofibrous cobalt oxide for electrocatalysis of CO2 reduction to carbon
           monoxide and formate in an acetonitrile-water electrolyte solution
    • Authors: Abdalaziz Aljabour; Halime Coskun; Dogukan Hazar Apaydin; Faruk Ozel; Achim Walter Hassel; Philipp Stadler; Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci; Mahmut Kus
      Pages: 163 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Abdalaziz Aljabour, Halime Coskun, Dogukan Hazar Apaydin, Faruk Ozel, Achim Walter Hassel, Philipp Stadler, Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci, Mahmut Kus
      The electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) is an attractive option to efficiently bind electrical energy from renewable resources in artificial carbon fuels and feedstocks. The strategy is considered as crucial part in closing the anthropogenic carbon cycle. In particular, the electrosynthetic production of C1 species such as carbon monoxide (CO) would radiate immense power, since these building blocks offer a versatile chemistry to higher carbon products and fuels. In the present study we report the exploration of the catalytic behavior of semiconducting Co3O4 nanofibers for the conversion of CO2 to CO predominantly with a Faradaic efficiency of 65%. We assist the process by expanding the electrode network with nanofibrous interconnections and hence are able to demonstrate the electrosynthesis of CO without applying any metal supplement. We use polyacrylnitrile (PAN) as template polymer to generate highly crystalline Co3O4 fibers to expand the catalytically active surface to volume ratio. The stability of the nanofibrous electrodes remains for 8 h at a geometric current density of approximately 0.5 mA/cm2 on a flat surface. The ease of synthesis and the comparatively high Faradaic yield for CO makes Co3O4 nanofibers a potential candidate for future large scale electrode utilization.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • A novel 3D plasmonic p-n heterojunction photocatalyst: Ag nanoparticles on
           flower-like p-Ag2S/n-BiVO4 and its excellent photocatalytic reduction and
           oxidation activities
    • Authors: Zhao Wei; Dai Benlin; Zhu Fengxia; Tu Xinyue; Xu Jiming; Zhang Lili; Li Shiyin; Dennis Y.C. Leung; Cheng Sun
      Pages: 171 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Zhao Wei, Dai Benlin, Zhu Fengxia, Tu Xinyue, Xu Jiming, Zhang Lili, Li Shiyin, Dennis Y.C. Leung, Cheng Sun
      A novel 3D structure Ag/p-Ag2S/n-BiVO4 plasmonic p-n heterojunction photocatalyst was successfully fabricated via a depositing p-type Ag2S on n-type BiVO4, followed by light reduction. In this innovative plasmonic p-n heterojunction photocatalyst strcture, p-n heterojunction can play the role of suppression of charge recombination, and surface plasmon resonance of Ag can enhance the absorption of visible light confirmed by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations method. For the photocatalytic oxidation of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTH) and reduction of Cr6+, the Ag/p-Ag2S/n-BiVO4exhibits excellent photocatalytic performance, compared with BiVO4 and p-Ag2S/n-BiVO4. The results of active species detection reveal that h+ radical is the main reactive species in the photocatalytic oxidation of OTH. Moreover, 13 photocatalytic degradation intermediates and products of OTH were also identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Finally, the photocatalytic oxidation and reduction mechanism over Ag/p-Ag2S/n-BiVO4 was discussed in detail. The present study will benefit the development of the new plasmonic p-n heterojunction photocatalysts and would be of great importance to meet ever-increasing environmental demands in the future.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Petal-like CdS nanostructures coated with exfoliated sulfur-doped carbon
           nitride via chemically activated chain termination for enhanced
           visible-light–driven photocatalytic water purification and H2 generation
    • Authors: Yan Wu; Hou Wang; Wenguang Tu; Shuyang Wu; Yue Liu; Yong Zen Tan; Hanjin Luo; Xingzhong Yuan; Jia Wei Chew
      Pages: 181 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Yan Wu, Hou Wang, Wenguang Tu, Shuyang Wu, Yue Liu, Yong Zen Tan, Hanjin Luo, Xingzhong Yuan, Jia Wei Chew
      Novel composite photocatalysts consisting of petal-like cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles and varying amounts of exfoliated sulfur-doped carbon nitride (SCN) were successfully prepared. The as-obtained materials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and photocurrent-time measurement. Results indicate a strong electric coupling interaction between SCN and CdS due to the heterojunction formed at the amine functionalities sites and oxidized chain terminations of SCN. Two typical pollutants like rhodamine B (RhB) and colorless bisphenol A (BPA) were used for the evaluation of photocatalytic activity. The best-performing CdS/SCN composite (i.e., CS5) synthesized exhibited enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic RhB efficiency of about 8.71 and 4.06 times higher than those of pure exfoliated SCN and CdS, respectively. As for BPA degradation, the CS5 composite was 9.00 and 3.61 times more efficient than that of exfoliated SCN and CdS, respectively. These excellent performances were found to be attributable to the remarkable charge carrier separation between CdS and exfoliated SCN with the aid of heterojunction interfacial structures. More importantly, the exfoliated SCN substantially reinforced the photostability of the CdS nanoparticles. Evaluation of the photocatalytic H2 evolution showed that the visible-light H2 production rate of the best-performing CS5 composite was also much greater than the constituents at 247.72 μmol h−1 g−1. Cyclic tests demonstrated the stability of the CS5 composite over repeated use. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain the photocatalytic reaction process. This study provides new insights into the preparation of highly efficient and stable sulfide-based composite photocatalysts, which are promising for implementation in wide-ranging environmental applications.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Fabrication, characterization and mechanism of a novel Z-scheme
           Ag3PO4/NG/polyimide composite photocatalyst for microcystin-LR degradation
    • Authors: Qiang Guo; Hui Li; Qian Zhang; Yanlin Zhang
      Pages: 192 - 203
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Qiang Guo, Hui Li, Qian Zhang, Yanlin Zhang
      In recent years, the frequent eutrophication of water bodies around the world has led to the accumulation of microcystins (MC-LR) in water bodies, causing great harm to humans and aquatic organisms. In this study, a Z-scheme Ag3PO4/NG/PI composite photocatalyst was fabricated by using silver orthophosphate, nitrogen-doped graphene and polyimide for photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR under visible light irradiation. The structure, morphology and optical properties of Ag3PO4/NG/PI were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, FT-IR, BET, and UV–vis DRS. The degradation ratio of MC-LR by Ag3PO4/NG/PI photocatalysts was higher (up to 94.4%) than that of pure Ag3PO4 for MC-LR degradation within 10 h under visible light irradiation, and the kinetic constant over Ag3PO4/NG/PI was ∼7 times of pure Ag3PO4. Based on the results of Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC–MS), the possible degradation pathways of MC-LR were proposed. Photoelectrochemistry measurement (the photocurrent response, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky plots), radical trapping experiment, electron spin resonance test, PL spectroscopy and analysis of band gap have revealed that the photocatalysis of Ag3PO4/NG/PI follows the Z-scheme mechanism, which can not only promote the separation and migration of photogenerated carriers to reduce re-combination, but also maintain a strong redox capacity. Meanwhile, the stability of Ag3PO4/NG/PI photocatalyst is greatly improved because the photogenerated electrons (e−) of Ag3PO4 are migrated to NG to suppress the photo-corrosion of Ag3PO4.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Multiaspect insight into synergetic modification of carbon nitride with
           halide salt and water vapor
    • Authors: Wenting Wu; Wenming Xu; Xianghui An; Lizhuo Wang; Jing Zhang; Zhongtao Li; Mingbo Wu
      Pages: 204 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Wenting Wu, Wenming Xu, Xianghui An, Lizhuo Wang, Jing Zhang, Zhongtao Li, Mingbo Wu
      Carbon nitride shows great potential in photocatalysis, to some extent, due to its insolubility and high thermal, chemical and optical stability. However, it always brings great difficulties for its surface modification and hinders the photocatalysis development. Traditional salt without melting condition is hard for the direct modification of carbon nitride. Herein, pristine carbon nitride (CN) was further modified through the synergetic modification of halide salts (NaCl and KCl) and water vapor. For the obtained product (Na-K-4h), it was carefully studied from three points: the appearance and morphology, the change of chemical structure and composition, and the chemical analysis of its by-products. These researches reveal that H2O could be divided into H and OH. H helps the halide away from halide salt, while the left OH replaces NH groups and help K and Na chelate with CN. This method could also be applied to other salt mixture system (such as NaCl/KI, NaCl/KBr). In this work, Na-K-4h was further applied in photocatalystic H2 evolution (PHE). Based on this synergistic effect, Na-K-4h show about 27-fold PHE activity higher than CN.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • A metal-free visible light active photo-electro-Fenton-like cell for
           organic pollutants degradation
    • Authors: Dongting Yue; Xufang Qian; Miao Kan; Mengyuan Fang; Jinping Jia; Xudong Yang; Yixin Zhao
      Pages: 211 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Dongting Yue, Xufang Qian, Miao Kan, Mengyuan Fang, Jinping Jia, Xudong Yang, Yixin Zhao
      To avoid the potential secondary metal pollution leached from Fenton-like catalysts and use less or no external chemicals supply, we develop an all-carbon based visible light active photo-electro-Fenton-like (PEF) cell to in-situ generate highly active •OH radical for environmental remediation. In this cell, the mesoporous carbon coated graphite felt (MesoC/GF) cathode could effectively produce H2O2 by electrochemical reduction of oxygen. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with visible light photocatalytic activities acts as an efficient metal-free Fenton-catalyst for H2O2 activation to produce •OH radical under visible light irradiation. The different cell parameters such as applied voltage, photocatalysts dosage and pH condition have been investigated for phenol removal in aqueous solution. This metal-free visible light active PEF cell shows excellent mineralization efficiency of stubborn phenol with high stability and its performance of phenol removal efficiency is much higher than that of the g-C3N4 only photocatalysis cell and MesoC/GF only electrolysis cell. Moreover, our PEF cell presents comparable or even better Fenton-catalytic activities than the similar electro-Fenton cell using MesoC/GF and homogeneous Fe2+ ion. These results demonstrate our all-carbon based PEF cell without external chemicals supply is promising for environmental remediation.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.033
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Z-scheme g-C3N4@CsxWO3 heterostructure as smart window coating for UV
           isolating, Vis penetrating, NIR shielding and full spectrum photocatalytic
           decomposing VOCs
    • Authors: Yuan Li; Xiaoyong Wu; Jun Li; Kai Wang; Gaoke Zhang
      Pages: 218 - 226
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Yuan Li, Xiaoyong Wu, Jun Li, Kai Wang, Gaoke Zhang
      Multifunctional smart window coating is expected for indoor decontaminating and energy-saving, because of the highly desired for comfortable and green quality of indoor conditions. However, normal smart window coating only absorbs UV and NIR light to transform them into heat energy without maximum exploitation of solar energy. Herein, a series of unique g-C3N4@CsxWO3 nanocomposites are prepared via ultrasonic assisted strategy, exhibiting great ultraviolet (UV) isolating, visible light (Vis) penetrating and near-infrared (NIR) heat-shielding features which is superior over that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). More importantly, these composites display excellent VOCs (HCHO or/and toluene) decomposing properties under the full spectrum of UV, visible and NIR lights irradiation. In this case, the shielded NIR light by composites is further utilized instead of wasting as heat. On the other hand, deep analysis revealed that the high efficiency of photocatalytic decomposing of VOCs by g-C3N4@CsxWO3 nanocomposites depends on two sides: firstly, g-C3N4@CsxWO3 constructs a nice Z-scheme structure to promote the separation of charge carriers and then enhance photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) effectively; secondly, the small polaron can jump from localized states (LS) to conduction band (CB) of CsxWO3 under irradiation of NIR (730 nm–1100 nm) and result in a NIR-catalytic reduction. This work provides some indications into the fabrication of the energy-conservation and depollution catalysts as smart window coating with excellent optical characterization and photocatalysis performance.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Defect-rich O-incorporated 1T-MoS2 nanosheets for remarkably enhanced
           visible-light photocatalytic H2 evolution over CdS: The impact of enriched
    • Authors: Xiao-Hong Zhang; Nan Li; Jiaojiao Wu; Yan-Zhen Zheng; Xia Tao
      Pages: 227 - 236
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Xiao-Hong Zhang, Nan Li, Jiaojiao Wu, Yan-Zhen Zheng, Xia Tao
      Structure and phase engineering in low-cost and earth-abundant MoS2 materials have been widely explored in catalytic domains. Designing MoS2 nanostructures associated with the number of catalytically active edge sites is of particular importance for obtaining an effective HER photocatalytic system. We herein report hydrothermal-synthesized defect-rich O-incorporated 1T-MoS2 nanosheets (denoted as DRM), and their implementation as cocatalysts to form photocatalytic heterostructure with CdS nanorods (denoted as DRM-C). For comparison, defect-free O-incorporated 1T-MoS2 nanosheets (denoted as DFM) and corresponding heterostructure i.e. DFM-C were simultaneously synthesized. A carefully comparative study on DRM and DFM demonstrates that the DRM cocatalyst exhibits more abundant defects in the basal planes and edges, and thus leading to the higher density of active sites beneficial to the photocatalytic HER. As a result, the optimized 20 wt% DRM-C exhibits an extraordinary visible-light (λ > 420 nm) photocatalytic H2 production rate of 132.4 mmol h−1 g−1, obviously higher than that of 20 wt% DFM-C (102.1 mmol h−1 g−1). Interestingly, such an impressive activity of 20 wt% DRM-C is demonstrated to be superior to that of pure CdS (20.0 mmol h−1 g−1) and conventional Pt/CdS (89.0 mmol h−1 g−1). To the best of our knowledge, this DRM-C photocatalyst shows the advanced visible-light-driven HER performance among reported MoS2/CdS composites.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.025
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Mechanistic insight into the quantitative synthesis of acetic acid by
           direct conversion of CH4 and CO2: An experimental and theoretical approach
    • Authors: Raghavendra Shavi; Jeonghyun Ko; Ara Cho; Jeong Woo Han; Jeong Gil Seo
      Pages: 237 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Raghavendra Shavi, Jeonghyun Ko, Ara Cho, Jeong Woo Han, Jeong Gil Seo
      Conversion of CH4 and CO2 into value-added products has vital environmental and economic importance. Their direct conversion to acetic acid is challenging due to their high activation energy. Hence, kinetic and mechanistic information are crucial for the carbonylation of CH4 with CO2. Regarding this, single and dual component catalysts with different combinations of ZnO-, CeO2-, and MnO2- supported montmorillonite (MMT) were prepared and characterized by XPS, Raman, and XRD. Quick solid-state NMR, TGA, and FT-IR techniques were used and Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was considered to investigate mechanistic steps involved in the conversion of CH4 and CO2 to acetic acid. The obtained mechanistic and kinetic results were also theoretically proved by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We found that ZnO and CeO2 dual active sites preferentially adsorb the CH4 and CO2, respectively that avoid surface adsorption competition. The rate of acetic acid formation was maximum when these sites exist at appropriate concentration (Ce: 0.44 wt%, Zn: 2.20 wt%). DFT calculations elucidated that the formation of acetic acid is strongly favored on ZnO catalyst with easier migration of the adsorbed CO2 from CeO2 to the ZnO side.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.058
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Photocatalytic cyanation of carbon nitride scaffolds: Tuning band
           structure and enhancing the performance in green light driven CS bond
    • Authors: Lina Li; Daniel Cruz; Aleksandr Savateev; Guigang Zhang; Markus Antonietti; Yubao Zhao
      Pages: 249 - 253
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Lina Li, Daniel Cruz, Aleksandr Savateev, Guigang Zhang, Markus Antonietti, Yubao Zhao
      A new photocatalytic reaction process is described that cyano groups (CN) are successfully grafted on carbon nitride (g-C3N4 materials). The cyano group substitutes the previous surface terminating amino group (NH2) on g-C3N4 by a radical reaction pathway, modifying the electron structure of the conjugated covalent system and engendering favorable properties for the visible-light driven photocatalysis. Cyanidated g-C3N4 (g-C3N4-xCN) has a narrowed band gap of 2.29 eV, as compared to 2.73 eV for the pristine g-C3N4, showing expanded visible light absorbance to 590 nm. Moreover, the photo-induced charge-carrier separation is improved as well. In consequence, g-C3N4-xCN exhibits significantly enhanced performance in photocatalysis, here exemplifyed with the model coupling reaction towards alkenyl sulfones under green light (520 nm) irradiation. The methodology reported herein reveals the potential of the carbon nitride scaffold to be modified as such and illustrates the possiblities of the as-created novel carbon nitride materials grafted with various functional groups on their surface.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.065
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2018)
  • Rational design of donor-π-acceptor conjugated microporous polymers for
           photocatalytic hydrogen production
    • Authors: Yunfeng Xu; Na Mao; Chong Zhang; Xue Wang; Jinghui Zeng; Yu Chen; Feng Wang; Jia-Xing Jiang
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Yunfeng Xu, Na Mao, Chong Zhang, Xue Wang, Jinghui Zeng, Yu Chen, Feng Wang, Jia-Xing Jiang
      Developing highly efficient catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water splitting is one of the grand challenges in solar energy conversion. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a library of donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) photocatalysts using pyrene, benzothiadiazole, and benzene (biphenyl) as donor, acceptor, and π crosslinker units, respectively. By adjusting the ratio of pyrene to benzothiadiazole units, a range of CMPs with various polymeric structures and components was synthesized and the influence of the molecular structures on the photocatalytic performance was comparatively investigated. Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate (HER) up to 106 μmol h–1 was achieved on PyBT-2 with a ratio of 9:2 of pyrene to benzothiadiazole under UV–vis light irradiation (λ > 300 nm). The structure-performance relationships revealed in this work offer a fundamental understanding in the rational design of CMPs for high performance organic photocatalysts.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:23:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.073
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Boosting photocatalytic water oxidation reactions over strontium tantalum
           oxynitride by structural laminations
    • Authors: Shunhang Wei; Xiaoxiang Xu
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Shunhang Wei, Xiaoxiang Xu
      Perovskite oxynitrides often own a poor photocatalytic activity under normal conditions, being incommensurate to their strong visible light absorbance. This is particularly true for SrTaO2N which undergoes self-oxidative decompositions even under protection of a hole scavenger. In this work, we laminate the crystal structure of SrTaO2N by inserting extra layers of SrO to form a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) compound Sr2TaO3N. This structural modification not only improves the light absorption of SrTaO2N but also effectively suppresses the defect formation such as Ta4+ species etc. More importantly, Sr2TaO3N is able to drive photocatalytic water oxidation reactions under visible light illumination (λ ≥ 420 nm) without the aid of a cocatalyst and self-oxidative decompositions found for SrTaO2N are largely inhibited. Further analysis suggests that the presence of extra SrO layers positively shifts the valence band edge and stabilizes N species in the structure according to Pauling’s second rule. Theoretical calculations indicate that Sr2TaO3N has typical 2D charge transportation properties which are associated with the structural laminations. Its conduction band minimum (CBM) and valence band maximum (VBM) are found to be located within TaN2O2 square planes which favors efficient charge transportations.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:23:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.071
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Three-dimensional graphene supported catalysts for organic dyes
    • Authors: Kai He; Guiqiu Chen; Guangming Zeng; Anwei Chen; Zhenzhen Huang; Jiangbo Shi; Tiantian Huang; Min Peng; Liang Hu
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Kai He, Guiqiu Chen, Guangming Zeng, Anwei Chen, Zhenzhen Huang, Jiangbo Shi, Tiantian Huang, Min Peng, Liang Hu
      Three-dimensional graphene based materials (3D GBMs) as emerging materials have been widely used in various fields. This mini-review selectively highlights the recent research progress in the application of 3D GBMs in organic dyes removal. In particularly, the application potential, catalytic performance, and degradation mechanisms of the 3D GBMs are summarized in this mini-review. The factors affecting the degradation capacity of 3D GBMs are discussed briefly. Furthermore, the possible ongoing researches on 3D GBMs are also put forward. We deem that this mini-review will provide a valuable insight into the design and application of 3D GBMs in environmental field.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:23:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.061
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Simultaneous photoreduction of Uranium(VI) and photooxidation of
           Arsenic(III) in aqueous solution over g-C3N4/TiO2 heterostructured
           catalysts under simulated sunlight irradiation
    • Authors: Xun-Heng Jiang; Qiu-Ju Xing; Xu-Biao Luo; Fei Li; Jian-Ping Zou; Shan-Shan Liu; Xiang Li; Xiang-Ke Wang
      Pages: 29 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Xun-Heng Jiang, Qiu-Ju Xing, Xu-Biao Luo, Fei Li, Jian-Ping Zou, Shan-Shan Liu, Xiang Li, Xiang-Ke Wang
      In the present work, the hererostructured catalysts of g-C3N4/TiO2 were synthesized and well characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra, PL, Mott-Schottky, and XPS. Simultaneous photoreduction of Uranium(VI) and photooxidation of Arsenic(III) was firstly achieved over the g-C3N4/TiO2 catalysts. And the experimental results show that the removal rate of U(VI) decreases with the increase of As(III) concentration, whereas the photooxidation rate of As(III) to As(V) increases with the increase of As(III) concentration. Noteworthily, the photoreduction of U(VI) to U(IV) and photooxidation of As(III) to As(V) was confirmed by XPS analysis in time-scale. The experimental results of free radical capture and quantitative test indicate that holes, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical are the major active species for photooxidation of As(III), while U(VI) was reduced to U(IV) by the photogenerated electrons. Furthermore, a possible mechanism was proposed to well explain the improved photocatalytic performance of the g-C3N4/TiO2 and the competitive relationship between photoreduction of U(VI) and photooxidation of As(III). The present work develops a heterostructured catalyst for potential application to the simultaneous removal of U(VI) and As(III), and makes clear the effect of photooxidation of As(III) on photoreduction of U(VI) for the first time.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:23:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.062
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • MoS2-MoO3-x hybrid cocatalyst for effectively enhanced H2 production
           photoactivity of AgIn5S8 nano-octahedrons
    • Authors: Shuaishuai Song; Jinming Wang; Tianyou Peng; Wenli Fu; Ling Zan
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Shuaishuai Song, Jinming Wang, Tianyou Peng, Wenli Fu, Ling Zan
      A new binary Mo-based cocatalyst consisting of partially reduced α-MoO3 (MoO3-x) nanoparticles and few-layer MoS2 nanosheets is deposited on AgIn5S8 nano-octahedrons (Octa-AIS) with only (111) facets exposed via an in situ growth process, in which the oxygen-deficient MoO3-x nanoparticles enable facile charge transport due to its high conductivity, while the few-layer MoS2 nanosheets provide more active sites and then excellent catalytic property for H2 evolution. The resultant MoS2-MoO3-x hybrid cocatalyst utilizes the best properties of each component while mitigating their deficiencies, and thus realizes an effective enhancement of visible-light-driven H2 evolution activity on Octa-AIS as compared with the single co-catalyst (such as MoS2, MoO3-x, and even Pt nanoparticles). This study not only presents a rare example of binary Mo-based cocatalyst consisting of MoS2 and MoO3-x components, but also paves a new way to develop an inexpensive photocatalytic system for energy conversion to achieve highly efficient H2 evolution without noble metal-loading.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.077
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Microwave irradiation induced UIO-66-NH2 anchored on graphene with high
           activity for photocatalytic reduction of CO2
    • Authors: Xiaojun Wang; Xiaolong Zhao; Dieqing Zhang; Guisheng Li; Hexing Li
      Pages: 47 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Xiaojun Wang, Xiaolong Zhao, Dieqing Zhang, Guisheng Li, Hexing Li
      Carbon dioxide (CO2), as a kind of the greenhouse gas, was highly desirable to be converted into fuels by using solar energy. Herein, a novel microwave-induced synthesis route was explored for the in-situ growth and assemble of highly dispersed UIO-66-NH2 nanocrystals onto graphene (GR) with the formation of highly active photocatalyst for converting CO2. The as-obtained UIO-66-NH2/GR hybrid exhibited both high activity and selectivity in the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to formic acid under visible-light irradiation (λ > 410 nm, 300 W Xe lamp). The photo-reduction efficiency of CO2 for UIO-66-NH2/GR was about 11 times of that for the pure UIO-66-NH2, and 2 times of as that for the UIO-66-NH2/GR sample obtained via traditional hydrothermal synthesis. The proposed microwave-assisted synthesis route may produce lots of "super hot spots" (SHS) on the surface of GR. These SHS not only resulted in small UIO-66-NH2 nanocrystals with a high dispersion onto the surface of GR, but also can greatly improve the interaction between UIO-66-NH2 and GR. Such highly dispersed UIO-66-NH2 ultrafine nanocrystals can allow more active surface for both trapping CO2 and enhancing the light absorption capability to generate photogenerated electrons from UIO-66-NH2 frameworks for reducing CO2 molecules. The strong UIO-66-NH2/GR interaction can effectively facilitate the photoelectron-hole separation and inhibit the leaching of UIO-66-NH2 from GR, contributing a high CO2 photo-reduction activity and excellent recyclability. Such work supplied a novel route for constructing strong interaction between MOFs and graphene with the aim at efficiently reducing CO2 under visible-light irradiation. It could also be explored for other applications, including N2 reduction, water-splitting, and solar cells.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.066
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Ordered layered N-doped KTiNbO5/g-C3N4 heterojunction with enhanced
           visible light photocatalytic activity
    • Authors: Chao Liu; Huajun Zhu; Yisong Zhu; Pengyu Dong; Haijun Hou; Qixiang Xu; Xiaowei Chen; Xinguo Xi; Wenhua Hou
      Pages: 54 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Chao Liu, Huajun Zhu, Yisong Zhu, Pengyu Dong, Haijun Hou, Qixiang Xu, Xiaowei Chen, Xinguo Xi, Wenhua Hou
      A facile one-step calcination approach for the synthesis of ordered layered N-doped KTiNbO5/g-C3N4 (NTNO/CN) heterojunction composites was developed. It was found that KTiNbO5 layers were in-situ doped by nitrogen atoms to form N-KTiNbO5 and two-layered g-C3N4 nanosheets were formed within the interlayers of N-KTiNbO5 due to the space-confined effects. The photocatalytic performance of the resulted composites was evaluated by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation. N-KTiNbO5 coupled with a proper amount of g-C3N4 exhibited an excellent photocatalytic performance due to the synthetic effects of N doping and layered heterojunction, leading to the high efficiency of light harvesting and charge separation. Especially, the in-situ intercalated two-layered g-C3N4 nanosheets can significantly increase the contact area with N-KTiNbO5 layers for efficient charge transfer across the interface, showing a much greater effect on the enhanced photocatalytic activity than those on the pure surface of N-KTiNbO5. It is expected that such a layered heterojunction can greatly speed up the separation and efficient transfer of photogenerated charge carriers. The active species of O2 − played a leading role in the photocatalytic process while h+ contributed to a lesser extent during the photocatalytic degradation of RhB over NTNO/CN-1, as determined by the active species capture experiment and ESR spectra. This work provides a new insight into the preparation of layered heterojunction hybrids with ordered alternative layered structure, and thus opens up the possibility of ‘design-and-build’ 2D layered heterojunctions for large-scale theoretical exploration and practical applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.074
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • 0D (MoS2)/2D (g-C3N4) heterojunctions in Z-scheme for enhanced
           photocatalytic and electrochemical hydrogen evolution
    • Authors: Yazi Liu; Huayang Zhang; Jun Ke; Jinqiang Zhang; Wenjie Tian; Xinyuan Xu; Xiaoguang Duan; Hongqi Sun; Moses O Tade; Shaobin Wang
      Pages: 64 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Yazi Liu, Huayang Zhang, Jun Ke, Jinqiang Zhang, Wenjie Tian, Xinyuan Xu, Xiaoguang Duan, Hongqi Sun, Moses O Tade, Shaobin Wang
      MoS2 quantum dots (MSQDs) with high and stable dispersion in water were prepared via a facile one-pot hydrothermal process. The MSQDs were then applied to decorate graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4, CN) nanosheets to obtain modified g-C3N4 photocatalysts (MSQD-CN). Compared to pristine g-C3N4, the hybrid photocatalysts showed a slight red shift and stronger light absorption with remarkably improved photocatalytic activity in water splitting to generate hydrogen. The hydrogen-evolution rate over 0.2 wt% MSQD-CN increased by 1.3 and 8.1 times as high as that of 0.2 wt% Pt-CN and g-C3N4, respectively. With deposition of 2 wt% Pt as a cocatalyst, 5 wt% MSQD-CN exhibited the highest photocatalytic efficiency with an average hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) rate of 577 μmol h−1 g−1. Photoluminescence spectra (PL) and photoelectrochemical measurements inferred that MSQDs introduction drastically promoted the electron transfer for more efficient separation of charge carriers, which could lower HER overpotential barriers and enhance the electrical conductivity. In addition, the well-matched band potentials of the MSQD-CN hybrid with an intimate contact interface of p-n heterojunction also inhibited the recombination of photo-generated carriers, leading to enhanced photocatalytic HER performance. A direct Z-scheme charge transfer mechanism of the MSQD-CN hybrid was proposed to further elaborate the synergistic effect between MSQDs, Pt and g-C3N4. This work underlines the importance of heterojunction interface and presents a feasible protocol for rational construction of g-C3N4 based photocatalysts for various photocatalytic applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.067
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • H2 Evolution over g-C3N4/CsxWO3 under NIR light
    • Authors: Anye Shi; Huihui Li; Shu Yin; Jiachi Zhang; Yuhua Wang
      Pages: 75 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Anye Shi, Huihui Li, Shu Yin, Jiachi Zhang, Yuhua Wang
      Single layer g-C3N4 and nanorod CsXWO3 are coupled to form a composite photocatalyst. During a simple method, no destruction has occurred and the optimal mass ratio of g-C3N4 is 80% as evidenced by systematic analyses. In comparison to pure g-C3N4 and CsXWO3, the composite exhibits significantly high photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity for H2 evolution and RhB/phenol degradation under UV, visible and NIR light irradiation. The enhanced photoactivities are attributed to the strong synergistic effect between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and the heterojunction interface sensitization, which results in the improvement of charge carriers generation and separation in the composite.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.070
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Visible light driven selective oxidation of amines to imines with BiOCl:
           Does oxygen vacancy concentration matter'
    • Authors: Chengliang Mao; Honggang Cheng; Hao Tian; Hao Li; Wen-Jing Xiao; Hu Xu; Jincai Zhao; Lizhi Zhang
      Pages: 87 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Chengliang Mao, Honggang Cheng, Hao Tian, Hao Li, Wen-Jing Xiao, Hu Xu, Jincai Zhao, Lizhi Zhang
      The relationship between oxygen vacancy (OV) concentration of semiconductors and their photocatalytic performances is far from clarified. In this study, by tuning the OV concentration of BiOCl (001) surface via a novel H2O2 treatment coupled infrared irradiation method, we demonstrate that OV concentration of BiOCl (001) surface strongly determine its surface atomic and electronic structures to modulate the photocatalytic pathways. Being of shorter BiBi and BiO bond lengths as well as more electrons being less localized, BiOCl (001) surface with higher OV concentration favored molecular oxygen activation to generate O2 2− via a two-electron transfer pathway, while the generated O2 2− could prevent the over oxidation of amines and thus achieve high selectivity in the oxidation of amines to imines. Similar phenomena were also observed for other semiconductor photocatalysts such as TiO2 and Nb2O5, suggesting the generality of oxygen vacancy concentration mediated selectivity enhancement. These findings shed light on the relationship between the oxygen vacancy concentration and the surface structure of semiconductor photocatalysts and offer a novel pathway to realize photocatalytic selective oxidation of amines to imines.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Photooxidation of N-acylhydrazones to 1,3,4-oxadiazoles catalyzed by
           heterogeneous visible-light-active carbon nitride semiconductor
    • Authors: Bogdan Kurpil; Katharina Otte; Markus Antonietti; Aleksandr Savateev
      Pages: 97 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Bogdan Kurpil, Katharina Otte, Markus Antonietti, Aleksandr Savateev
      The remarkable bioactivity of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles permanently motivates chemists to develop new milder and broader approaches to synthesize new derivatives, as well as to improve the preparation methodologies of the known compounds. Potassium poly(heptazine imide), a well crystallized representative of carbon nitrides family, shows great performance as a heterogeneous and hence recyclable photocatalyst in the visible light driven oxidative cyclization of N-acylhydrazones to the corresponding oxadiazoles. The proposed method uses elemental sulfur as a cheap and selective electron scavenger. A series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles bearing aryl, hetaryl and alkyl substituents were obtained with 42–84% isolated yield.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.072
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Fabrication of ternary GO/g-C3N4/MoS2 flower-like heterojunctions with
           enhanced photocatalytic activity for water remediation
    • Authors: Ming-hong Wu; Lin Li; Yuan-cheng Xue; Gang Xu; Liang Tang; Ning Liu; Wen-yuan Huang
      Pages: 103 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Ming-hong Wu, Lin Li, Yuan-cheng Xue, Gang Xu, Liang Tang, Ning Liu, Wen-yuan Huang
      It is extremely important to design excellent nanojunction to improve photocatalytic performance. In this study, we use a simple method to construct GO/g-C3N4/MoS2 ternary-layered nanostructures as an effective photocatalyst for environmental purification using solar energy. The as-prepared materials have more adsorption sites and response sites due to the dual effects of NMP and CTAB. With the visible light irradiation, it has great photodegradation performance for MB, RhB and CV, as well as the photocatalytic reduction ability to Cr (VI). Meanwhile, the nanocomposites exhibit good reproducibility and stability during the cycle of the experiment. The designed heterostructures have a flower structure, which effectively improves the collection of electrons in MoS2 and holes in g-C3N4, effectively reducing the binding of photogenerated electron carriers. Furthermore, GO acts as a fast transport holes, which is attributed to superior its electrical conductivity. This work provides a new field of view for establishing high-efficient and easy-made photocatalysts with environmental remediation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.063
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Er-W codoping of TiO2-anatase: Structural and electronic characterization
           and disinfection capability under UV–vis, and near-IR excitation
    • Authors: Anna Kubacka; Mario J. Muñoz-Batista; Manuel Ferrer; Marcos Fernández-Garcia
      Pages: 113 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): Anna Kubacka, Mario J. Muñoz-Batista, Manuel Ferrer, Marcos Fernández-Garcia
      The codoping of the anatase structure with tungsten and erbium was carried out using a microemulsion preparation procedure. Tungsten and erbium single doped and pure anatase nanomaterials were also prepared. The corresponding solids were characterized using X-ray diffraction, surface area, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron and absorption (X-ray near-edge and extended X-ray absorption) spectroscopies as well as UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Results provided a complete structural and electronic characterization of the solids, showing the unique features generated by the copresence of tungsten and erbium at substitutional positions of the anatase structure. The disinfection capability of these single and codoped TiO2-based materials was tested against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria and under ultraviolet, visible and near infrared light excitations. The ErW-anatase solid presents significant photoactivity in the elimination of both microorganisms in the whole UV–vis-nearIR range of excitation wavelengths. The biocidal results were interpreted with the help of a kinetic modelling of the experiments and correlated with results from the physico-chemical characterization of the samples and from an electron paramagnetic resonance and optical study of the radicals species produced under illumination. This procedure indicates a different physical origin of the photoactivity for light excitation above and below ca. 500 nm.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.064
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Sn modification of TiO2 anatase and rutile type phases: 2-Propanol
           photo-oxidation under UV and visible light
    • Authors: María Fernanda Gálvez-López; Mario J. Muñoz-Batista; Clemente Guadalupe Alvarado-Beltrán; Jorge Luis Almaral-Sánchez; Belén Bachiller-Baeza; Anna Kubacka; Marcos Fernández-García
      Pages: 130 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 July 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 228
      Author(s): María Fernanda Gálvez-López, Mario J. Muñoz-Batista, Clemente Guadalupe Alvarado-Beltrán, Jorge Luis Almaral-Sánchez, Belén Bachiller-Baeza, Anna Kubacka, Marcos Fernández-García
      In this work binary Sn-Ti samples having Sn:Ti atomic ratios from zero to one were prepared through a hydrothermal method. The resulting high surface area powders were characterized using a combination of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and porosimetry techniques. The series of samples covers catalysts with anatase and rutile type structures. Each sample is composed of a main (anatase or rutile) Ti1-xSnxOy phase decorated by different Sn-containing entities. The photo-catalytic performance in the 2-propanol photo-oxidation was assessed through the measurement of the reaction rate and true quantum efficiency. The latter required the measurement of the optical properties of the powders and the computation of the local superficial rate of photon absorption. Although relatively similar activity maximum can be obtained for anatase and rutite type samples based in the comparison of the reaction rates, the calculation of the true quantum efficiency demonstrates that the optimum anatase type material displays superior performance than the rutile one. The physico-chemical origin of this behavior is analyzed in terms of the electronic and structural properties of the binary Sn-Ti samples.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.01.075
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2018)
  • Construction of carbon dots modified MoO3/g-C3N4 Z-scheme photocatalyst
           with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of
    • Authors: Zhijie Xie; Yiping Feng Fengliang Wang Danni Chen Qianxin Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 August 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 229
      Author(s): Zhijie Xie, Yiping Feng, Fengliang Wang, Danni Chen, Qianxin Zhang, Yongqin Zeng, Wenying Lv, Guoguang Liu
      Carbon quantum dots (CDs) have been frequently used for broadening spectrum light response due to their superior up-conversion photoluminescence (UPPL) property and effective charge separation capacity. In this study, a novel CDs modified Z-scheme photocatalyst (CDs/g-C3N4/MoO3) was successfully constructed. The morphologies, chemical compositions, and optical properties of the prepared catalysts were investigated via a series of characterization techniques. Systematic studies indicated that the CDs/g-C3N4/MoO3 photocatalyst exhibited remarkably enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of tetracycline (TC) compared to pristine g-C3N4 and MoO3/g-C3N4 composite. Doping 0.5% CDs resulted in the highest TC degradation rate, which was 3.5 and 46.2 times higher than that of MoO3/g-C3N4 and g-C3N4, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of CDs/g-C3N4/MoO3 can be attributed to the synergistic effects of CD properties (i.e., excellent UPPL activity and high charge separation capacity and the Z-scheme heterojunction structure). Reactive species scavenging experiments revealed that photogenerated holes are the main active species during the photocatalytic process. Possible photocatalytic degradation pathways of TC were proposed through the identification of intermediates using HPLC-MS and the frontier electron density calculation. Experimental results showed that the newly fabricated Z-scheme CDs/g-C3N4/MoO3 is a promising photocatalyst for the removal of TC from the environment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:34:03Z
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