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ENGINEERING (1208 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 229)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Applied Catalysis B: Environmental
  [SJR: 2.322]   [H-I: 158]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0926-3373
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Hydrogen production by ammonia decomposition over Cs-modified Co3Mo3N
    • Authors: Atthapon Srifa; Kaname Okura; Takeou Okanishi; Hiroki Muroyama; Toshiaki Matsui; Koichi Eguchi
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Atthapon Srifa, Kaname Okura, Takeou Okanishi, Hiroki Muroyama, Toshiaki Matsui, Koichi Eguchi
      The Cs-modified Co3Mo3N catalysts were successfully prepared by a facile single-step decomposition of a mixture containing hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and corresponding metal salts under the flow of nitrogen at 700°C and their catalytic activity for ammonia decomposition was investigated. The Co3Mo3N phase was observed in the XRD pattern of as-prepared sample and acted as the active component for the reaction. The XPS analysis clarified the existence of Cs species, indicating that these species should be dispersed over Co3Mo3N. The addition of a small amount of Cs species significantly improved the catalytic performance of the Co3Mo3N catalyst. The further addition of Cs species had a negative effect on the catalytic activity for the reaction. 15NH3 isotopic studies revealed that the nitrogen species in Co3Mo3N were exchangeable with nitrogen atoms in gas phase, elucidating the mechanism of the reaction over the Co3Mo3N catalysts. The kinetics analysis indicated that the modification by a small amount of Cs species alleviated the negative effect of the hydrogen poisoning on the active sites of Co3Mo3N catalysts. The desorption behavior of hydrogen and nitrogen suggested that the Cs modification facilitated the recombinative desorption of hydrogen and nitrogen atoms from the active components, resulting in the improvement in the activity of Co3Mo3N. This improvement was due to the electronic modification of Co3Mo3N by the electron donation of Cs promoter.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T12:16:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.034
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Band alignment and charge transfer pathway in three phase
           anatase-rutile-brookite TiO2 nanotubes: An efficient photocatalyst for
           water splitting
    • Authors: L.K. Preethi; Tom Mathews; Mangla Nand; S.N. Jha; Chinnakonda S. Gopinath; S. Dash
      Pages: 9 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): L.K. Preethi, Tom Mathews, Mangla Nand, S.N. Jha, Chinnakonda S. Gopinath, S. Dash
      The study reports electrochemical synthesis, phase evolution and hydrogen generation efficiency of anatase, anatase-rutile and anatase-rutile-brookite (ARB) TiO2 nanotubes for the first time. The SEM and TEM micrographs confirm the tubular morphology of the samples. The presence of anatase, rutile and brookite phases in a single nanotube is confirmed from high resolution TEM analysis. The water splitting efficiency of the three systems are studied under one sun illumination. It is observed that the anatase-rutile-brookite TiO2 nanotubes are highly efficient compared to anatase-rutile or anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The hydrogen generated by ARB composites, after four hours of one sun illumination, is found to be nearly twice that of anatase TiO2 nanotubes and 1.6 times that of anatase-rutile TiO2 nanotubes. The results suggest that the ARB in single nanotube having two junction interfaces, highly facilitate inter-particle charge transfer compared to single junction anatase-rutile or bare anatase TiO2 nanotubes. From the deconvolution of PL spectra and the synchrotron radiation assisted valence band edge analysis, the band diagram for the anatase-rutile-brookite phase is constructed. The charge separation and its transfer pathway for efficient photo-assisted water splitting are delineated. This opens a new route for the simple synthesis and study of tri-phase TiO2 for efficient photocatalytic water splitting compared to the widely studied two phase TiO2.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.033
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • The interplay of sulfur doping and surface hydroxyl in band gap
           engineering: Mesoporous sulfur-doped TiO2 coupled with magnetite as a
           recyclable, efficient, visible light active photocatalyst for water
    • Authors: Xiaoqing Yan; Kun Yuan; Nan Lu; Hanjiao Xu; Siyu Zhang; Nobuyuki Takeuchi; Hisayoshi Kobayashi; Renhong Li
      Pages: 20 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Xiaoqing Yan, Kun Yuan, Nan Lu, Hanjiao Xu, Siyu Zhang, Nobuyuki Takeuchi, Hisayoshi Kobayashi, Renhong Li
      Photocatalysis based on TiO2 offers a sustainable pathway to drive chemical reactions, such as water splitting and contaminants decomposition, while band gap engineering of TiO2 is necessary to achieve a visible light response. Herein, we prepare sulfur doped TiO2 (TiO2-S) photocatalyst by using titanium sulfate as a dual precursor for both of TiO2 and S in a one-pot synthetic strategy. Meanwhile, pre-synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles are coupled onto TiO2-S via a hydrothermal method. The resulting Fe3O4/TiO2-S composites with plenty of surface hydroxyl groups act as an efficient photocatalyst for decomposition of Rhodamine B and formaldehyde solution under visible light and solar light irradiation. On the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental observations, we suggest that the electronic interaction induced synergetic effect of doped sulfur and surface hydroxides can not only significantly narrow the band gap (individual surface hydroxyls or S-doping has no such a great effect), but also enhances the surface hydrophility of TiO2, ultimately making itself a robust visible light photocatalyst for organic pollutants decomposition. Thus, this dual nonmetal modification strategy is proved to exert an enormous function on band gap engineering of semiconductor photocatalyst. In addition, Fe3O4/TiO2-S photocatalyst is superparamagnetic and possesses excellent magnetic responsivity and redispersibility, which is advantageous to their photocatalytic applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.022
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Diesel soot elimination over potassium-promoted Co3O4 nanowires monolithic
           catalysts under gravitation contact mode
    • Authors: Chunmei Cao; Lingli Xing; Yuexi Yang; Ye Tian; Tong Ding; Jing Zhang; Tiandou Hu; Lirong Zheng; Xingang Li
      Pages: 32 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Chunmei Cao, Lingli Xing, Yuexi Yang, Ye Tian, Tong Ding, Jing Zhang, Tiandou Hu, Lirong Zheng, Xingang Li
      Herein, we report the high catalytic activity of the potassium-promoted Co3O4 nanowires supported on the monolithic three-dimensional macroporous (3-DM) nickel foam substrate (xKCo-NW) for soot combustion. The 3-DM structure of Ni foam and the space among these nanowires can extremely improve the contact efficiency between soot and catalysts. Loading of potassium provides the new active sites for soot oxidation, improves catalyst-soot contact as a molten salt and increases the number of the surface adsorbed oxygen species. The 5KCo-NW catalyst loaded with 5% potassium shows the highest catalytic performance, as well as a high water resistance. There are two types of potassium species in the catalysts, most potassium species is in the form of separate phases, and few interacts with cobalt oxide. The interaction between potassium species and cobalt oxide stabilizes a part of potassium species, and the stabilized potassium species can promote the catalytic activity for the consecutive soot combustion cycle. Moreover, our results show that the chemisorbed NOx species on the 5KCo-NW catalyst are more active than the gaseous NO2 for soot oxidation. In the presence of O2, soot combustion is accelerated to react with the chemisorbed NOx species; whereas the formed nitrate/nitrite species are catalytically inert.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.035
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Enhancing CO2 electrolysis to formate on facilely synthesized Bi catalysts
           at low overpotential
    • Authors: Xia Zhang; Tao Lei; Yuyu Liu; Jinli Qiao
      Pages: 46 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Xia Zhang, Tao Lei, Yuyu Liu, Jinli Qiao
      The electrochemical reduction of CO2 to fuels and chemicals powered by renewable electricity has been regarded as a promising pathway, which can mitigate the greenhouse effect and energy crisis. However, the development of catalyst with high activity, selectivity, and good stability is still the bottleneck to accomplish this goal. In this communication, we report the promising performance of a micro-structured Bi catalyst which directly converts CO2 to fuels at room temperature and ambient pressure. The Bi catalyst is designed by a simple and facile aqueous chemical reduction strategy, which readily scales up. The Bi45 catalyst exhibits a superior catalytic activity for CO2 conversion to formate, achieving a high Faradic efficiency of 90% at applied potential −1.45V vs. SCE. The overpotential for the Bi45/GDE electrode is only 600mV, a new record to all reported Bi catalysts in the literature. Particularly, the catalyst proves to be robust without any obvious degradation over 20h of continuous electrolysis at −1.45V vs. SCE. The notable activity achieved here is ascribed to the special micro-structure of the Bi catalyst, which may afford more active sites, as indicated by comparison to the structure of commercial Bi.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.032
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Enhanced visible light photocatalytic hydrogen evolution via cubic CeO2
           hybridized g-C3N4 composite
    • Authors: Weixin Zou; Ye Shao; Yu Pu; Yidan Luo; Jingfang Sun; Kaili Ma; Changjin Tang; Fei Gao; Lin Dong
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Weixin Zou, Ye Shao, Yu Pu, Yidan Luo, Jingfang Sun, Kaili Ma, Changjin Tang, Fei Gao, Lin Dong
      In this work, CeO2 nanocubes hybridized g-C3N4 composites had been facilely synthesized to investigate the interfacial effects on photocatalytic water splitting. The c-CeO2/g-C3N4 composites exhibited the superior photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation. The optimal c-CeO2 loading content was 5wt%, with the H2 evolution of 4300μmolg−1 for 5h illumination, higher than that of pristine CeO2, g-C3N4 and irregular CeO2 nanoparticles/g-C3N4. Moreover, UV–vis DRS, PL spectra and photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that 5wt% c-CeO2/g-C3N4 composite possessed more visible light adsorption and faster charge transfer, which was attributed to the stronger interfacial effects through the presence of the hydrogen bond and p-π hybrid between c-CeO2 {100} and g-C3N4, revealed by the FT-IR and XPS results. The work suggested that engineering the structures of the CeO2 and g-C3N4 interface could be an effective strategy to obtain excellent photocatalysts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.085
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Improved photocatalytic activities of g-C3N4 nanosheets by effectively
           trapping holes with halogen-induced surface polarization and
           2,4-dichlorophenol decomposition mechanism
    • Authors: Jiadong Li; Xuliang Zhang; Fazal Raziq; Jinshuang Wang; Chong Liu; Yanduo Liu; Jiawen Sun; Rui Yan; Binhong Qu; Chuanli Qin; Liqiang Jing
      Pages: 60 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Jiadong Li, Xuliang Zhang, Fazal Raziq, Jinshuang Wang, Chong Liu, Yanduo Liu, Jiawen Sun, Rui Yan, Binhong Qu, Chuanli Qin, Liqiang Jing
      It is highly desired for g-C3N4 nanosheets as efficient photocatalysts to greatly enhance the photogenerated charge separation by trapping holes. Herein, it is clearly demonstrated mainly by means of the steady-state surface photovoltage spectra, the time-resolved surface photovoltage responses in N2 and the fluorescence spectra related to the produced OH amount that the modified chloride with a proper amount could effectively trap the photogenerated holes so as to greatly enhance the charge separation of g-C3N4, leading to the obviously-improved photocatalytic activities for degrading 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and converting CO2 to CH4. Interestingly, similar positive effects on g-C3N4 are also confirmed after modification with other halogen anions, like Br− and F−, whereas the Cl− modifier is the best one. Although the used Cl− and Br− have different mechanism for capturing holes from the modified F−, it is concluded that it is feasible to greatly enhance the charge separation by the halogen-induced surface polarization. As excepted, the formed OH as the hole-modulated direct products could dominate the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-DCP. Moreover, the possible decomposition mechanism closely related to OH attack is proposed through the detected main intermediates. This work will help us to well understand the importance to trap the photogenerated holes for efficient photocatalysis on g-C3N4, and also provide a feasible strategy to improve the photocatalytic activities of g-C3N4 for environmental remediation and energy production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.038
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Controlled preparation and highly photocatalytic activity of portable
           MCC-g-GMA@TiO2 photocatalyst by pre-radiation grafting-embedding method
    • Authors: Yue-Sheng Li; Jiang-Tao Qin; Yan Han; Ji-Fu Du; Zhi-Bing Dong; Shao-Fa Sun; Yi Liu
      Pages: 101 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Yue-Sheng Li, Jiang-Tao Qin, Yan Han, Ji-Fu Du, Zhi-Bing Dong, Shao-Fa Sun, Yi Liu
      A portable and high efficient photocatalytic properties of MCC-g-GMA@TiO2 (MGT) photocatalyst based on micocrystaline cellulose (MCC) surfaces is prepared by pre-radiation grafting-embedding method. TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully introduced into the surfaces of novel MCC resin and manifested by FTIR, TG, XRD. Microstructure of MGT was characterized further by FESEM-EDS, FESEM-EDX mapping, HRTEM and BET. The highly photocatalytic activity of MGT was tested by the degradation of methyl blue dye (MB) in the aqueous medium under Xenon arc lamp. The results showed that the portable MGT resin complex system also had a highest photocatalytic performance at the appropriate content of TiO2 (4.22wt%) and suitable radiation dose (60kGy). Perhaps primary reasons were attributed to the synergistic effect of adsorption-enrichment and photocatalytic degradation. In addition, the high recycling ability of MGT complex confirms that photocatalyst is highly photostability and exhibited good separation-free. Overall, this portable MGT photocatalyst has good potential for application in the field of water pollution treatment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.03.083
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Reactivity of novel Ceria–Perovskite composites CeO2- LaMO3 (MCu, Fe) in
           the catalytic wet peroxidative oxidation of the new emergent pollutant
           ‘Bisphenol F’: Characterization, kinetic and mechanism studies
    • Authors: Samia Ben Hammouda; Feiping Zhao; Zahra Safaei; Indu Babu; Deepika Lakshmi Ramasamy; Mika Sillanpää
      Pages: 119 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Samia Ben Hammouda, Feiping Zhao, Zahra Safaei, Indu Babu, Deepika Lakshmi Ramasamy, Mika Sillanpää
      In the present study, ceria, pristine perovskites LaMO3 (Cu, Fe) and novel ceria-perovskite composites CeO2-LaMO3 were successfully prepared and applied as heterogeneous Fenton like- catalysts for the degradation and mineralization of a new emergent compound- bisphenol F (BPF) in aqueous solution. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectrometer (XRD), BET surface area determination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Catalytic bisphenol F behavior shows that the activity of pristine perovskites was improved due to the introduction of cerium. Catalytic activity in terms of TOC removal followed the order of CeO2-LaCuO3 >CeO2-LaFeO3 >LaCuO3 >LaFeO3 >CeO2 with about 83, 79, 68, 64 and 28% respectively. Only the novel composite oxide CeO2-LaCuO3 was found to be effective for Bisphenol F degradation at neutral conditions. EPR analyses and scavenging experiments revealed that BPF was mainly decomposed by the attack of OH, especially the surface-bounded OH. BPF decay followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The absolute rate constant for BPF oxidation by OH was found to 2.09109 M−1 s−1, as determined by the competition kinetic method. Six stable organics intermediates were observed and five of them were identified p-benzoquinone, hydroquinone, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and Bis (4-hyroxyphenyl) methanol. Subsequent attack of these intermediates by OH radicals led to the formation of short chain acids: malonic, succinic, acetic, formic and oxalic acids. On the basis of the analytical results for the intermediate products and the assumption that hydroxyls radicals are the major reactive species, a plausible pathway of BPF mineralization during the heterogeneous Fenton process was proposed. Furthermore, the CeO2-LaCuO3 composite exhibited excellent long-term stability in the heterogeneous Fenton-like process. These results suggested that the novel ceria perovskite material would be a promising candidate for practical wastewater treatment.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.047
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Effect of conjugation degree and delocalized π-system on the
           photocatalytic activity of single layer g-C3N4
    • Authors: Anye Shi; Huihui Li; Shu Yin; Bin Liu; Jiachi Zhang; Yuhua Wang
      Pages: 137 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Anye Shi, Huihui Li, Shu Yin, Bin Liu, Jiachi Zhang, Yuhua Wang
      Single layer g-C3N4 could be obtained from a protonic acid treatment of g-C3N4 or a new sandwich-like orientation growth of melamine. Through the self-assembly of melamine and polyacrylamide by hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions, g-C3N4, with extended planarized atomic single layer, exhibits superiority in both photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation. Besides low efficiency, the acid exfoliation will destroy the delocalized π-system by inducing O atoms. The decrease of conjugation degree increases the optical gaps, making it hard for g-C3N4 to capture photons. On the contrary, the facile sandwich-like orientation growth of melamine highly keeps the conjugation degree of g-C3N4 and extends its delocalized π-system. Such single layer g-C3N4 is more active even better than N-doped TiO2 under visible light irradiation.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.017
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Mechanism, ab initio calculations and microkinetics of hydrogenation,
           hydrodeoxygenation, double bond migration and cis–trans isomerisation
           during hydrotreatment of C6 secondary alcohol species and ketones
    • Authors: Brigita Hočevar; Miha Grilc; Matej Huš; Blaž Likozar
      Pages: 147 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Brigita Hočevar, Miha Grilc, Matej Huš, Blaž Likozar
      Hydrotreatment of secondary hexanone and hexanol, and primary hexene species was investigated over the sulphide-form NiMo/γ-Al2O3 heterogeneous catalyst within the process temperature range 200–275°C. The mechanistic microkinetic model for a three-phase slurry reactor was developed, comprising the mass transfer flux from the dispersed gaseous H2 bubbles to liquid solvent bulk, the external convective resistance at catalytic surface interface, material lattice adsorption and desorption, and intrinsic conversion kinetics (homogeneous and catalysed). It reported the reaction rate constants and activation energies for ketones and alcohols. Intermediate alkene isomers were identified and quantified, demonstrating the same reactive selectivity regardless of the cascade reactant compound. Furthermore, the C6 olefin isomerisation studies under pressurised hydrogen and nitrogen (up to 9.5 times slower) atmospheres indicated a similar equilibrium distribution of the concentrations of 1-hexene, cis-2-hexene, trans-2-hexene, cis-3-hexene and trans-3-hexene. The position of the oxygen-containing (heteroatom) functional group on an aliphatic hydrocarbon chain exhibited only a minor kinetic effect on parallel and serial hydrogenation or de-hydroxylation steps. Quantum chemical (QC) calculations utilising density functional theory (DFT) computational framework were performed to elucidate the mechanism of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The competing main and side pathways were considered in calculating transition state barriers. Simulations showed a very good agreement with measured experimental data. Deoxygenation valorisation routes were examined as they are vital upon converting ligno-cellulosic biomass resources and for the production of the bio-based platform oxygenates in bio-refineries. Hexose(s), for example, are (poly)alcohols, the monomer building blocks of cellulose, which is besides lignin and hemicellulose the principal wood, grass and straw constituent.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.046
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Highly dispersed TiO2 nanocrystals and WO3 nanorods on reduced graphene
           oxide: Z-scheme photocatalysis system for accelerated photocatalytic water
    • Authors: Xiangkang Zeng; Zhouyou Wang; Gen Wang; Thomas R. Gengenbach; David T. McCarthy; Ana Deletic; Jiaguo Yu; Xiwang Zhang
      Pages: 163 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Xiangkang Zeng, Zhouyou Wang, Gen Wang, Thomas R. Gengenbach, David T. McCarthy, Ana Deletic, Jiaguo Yu, Xiwang Zhang
      Coupling TiO2 with WO3 to develop photocatalytic heterojunctions is one of the most widely used strategies to realize their superior photoactivity. However, the interfacial charge transfer in these heterojunctions is not efficient to achieve an optimized activity. For the first time, the present study reports a facile hydrolysis-hydrothermal approach, whereby ultradispersed TiO2 nanocrystals and WO3 nanorods are concurrently anchored onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and formed a novel Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalyst TiO2/rGO/WO3 (TRW). Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) are employed to characterize TRW. Control experiments indicate that, in the synthesis process, glucose and the by-product sodium chloride from the hydrolysis reactions are critical for forming highly dispersed and uniform-sized TiO2 nanocrystals and WO3 nanorods. Compared with TiO2/WO3 nanocomposites, TRW shows enhanced activity for bacterial inactivation under simulated solar light. As confirmed by electrochemical characterizations and the reactive oxygen species, rGO in TRW suppresses the recombination of electron-hole pairs and boosts the O2 reduction reactions during photocatalytic process. Z-scheme electron transfer in TRW is proposed based on surface redox reactions and XPS analysis after light irradiation. This study could provide a new clue for designing graphene-based heterojunction photocatalysts for environmental applications.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.055
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Enhancing reactive oxygen species generation and photocatalytic
           performance via adding oxygen reduction reaction catalysts into the
    • Authors: Shuquan Huang; Yuanguo Xu; Qingqing Liu; Ting Zhou; Yan Zhao; Liquan Jing; Hui Xu; Huaming Li
      Pages: 174 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Shuquan Huang, Yuanguo Xu, Qingqing Liu, Ting Zhou, Yan Zhao, Liquan Jing, Hui Xu, Huaming Li
      In this work, a novel Ag3PO4@CoFe2O4 composite photocatalyst was synthesized via a phosphate salts alkalinity adjustment strategy. Structure, morphology, and chemical component analysis indicated that the magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were evenly decorated on the surface of Ag3PO4 particles, forming a sesame ball like structure. This unique structure ensures that the Ag3PO4@CoFe2O4 composites could be totally separated by the magnet field. Photocatalytic water disinfection and organic pollutants degradation were employed to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of the as-prepared magnetic photocatalysts. The results showed that the optimum 3% Ag3PO4@CoFe2O4 composite could completely inactivate 1*107 cfu/mL of Escherichia coli within 40min, much faster than the pristine Ag3PO4. Meanwhile, the 3% Ag3PO4@CoFe2O4 composite also showed a dramatic enhancement of photocatalytic activities for the organic pollutants degradation. The reactive oxygen species yield measurements, O2 control photocurrents experiments, O2-TPD tests and photoluminescence spectra analysis indicate that the surface modification of CoFe2O4 NPs could facilitate the O2 adsorption and OO bond activation/cleavage/oxide removal and accelerate the two-electron oxygen reduction reaction for H2O2 generation on the surface of Ag3PO4, and thus more ROSs were generated. In addition, due to the acceleration of electrons consumption, more holes will be left for the organic pollutants oxidation, and the photocatalytic activities as well as stability of Ag3PO4 therefore have been greatly improved.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.030
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Kinetic study of the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by
           Fe(III)-Tes=trapolyphosphate (TPP) and Fe(II)-TPP by O2
    • Authors: Ali Safarzadeh-Amiri; Ying Zhang; Mohamed Gamal El-Din
      Pages: 186 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Ali Safarzadeh-Amiri, Ying Zhang, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
      Tetrapolyphosphate (TPP) forms complex with iron(III) (Fe(III)-TTP), which is a highly stable catalyst for the air/O2 oxidation of HS− in both the buffered and non-buffered solutions. The first step in this process is formation of the Fe(III)(HS−)TPP complex followed by an electrontransfer from HS− to Fe(III) and formation of Fe(II)TPP and HS•. The electron transfer process depends on the half-wave potential (E 1/2) of the complex. The E 1/2 of Fe(III)/(II)TPP was measured electrochemically and it was found to decrease from 0.061 to −0.14V vs. SHE (standard hydrogen electrode) with increasing solution pH from 4 to 9. The oxidation of Fe(II)TPP by O2 is shown to follow a four-step reaction mechanism, and the reaction kinetic parameters were calculated using experimental data. The second-order rate constant of the reaction between Fe(III)TPP and HS− at pH 9 was found − within 95% confidence limit − to be about 30.5±21.0M−1s−1. This study provided valuable information about the oxidation characteristics of Fe(II)TPP by O2 and the capability of Fe(III)TPP as a catalyst for the air/O2 oxidation of HS−.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.040
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Inorganic frameworks based on bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in
           hollow MnO2 structures
    • Authors: Gema Cabello; Rogério A. Davoglio
      Pages: 192 - 198
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Gema Cabello, Rogério A. Davoglio
      A novel microwave-assisted hydrothermal route has been demonstrated to allow the synthesis of hollow MnO2 particles with dandelion-like structure. The as-prepared particles show the ability to enclose PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles which good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of glycerol and the reduction of oxygen in alkaline media, in addition to high stability, what we attribute to the MnO2 cage, which is responsible for the confinement of reaction intermediates impeding their diffusion to the bulk electrolyte. Considering the inherent properties of MnO2, such as low acute toxicity to living organisms, biocompatibility, stability in neutral and alkaline media and the ability to enclose other possible different materials, including functionalized nanoparticles, we suggest a broad field of potential application for these structures, such as drug delivery and bioimaging, catalysis, (bio)sensing, etc.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.062
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Water dissociation on multimetallic catalysts
    • Authors: José L.C. Fajín; M. Natália D.S. Cordeiro; José R.B. Gomes
      Pages: 199 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): José L.C. Fajín, M. Natália D.S. Cordeiro, José R.B. Gomes
      DFT based calculations were employed in the study of the dissociation of the water molecule onto copper and nickel (110) and (111) surface models, incorporating two additional metallic elements, because it was found previously that metal alloying leads to strong synergic effects in the catalysis of this reaction. The dissociation reaction was studied on the Pt/Ru/Ni, Pt/Ru/Cu, Rh/Ru/Cu, Ni/Ru/Cu and Al/Zn/Cu combinations, in a total of 25 trimetallic surfaces. Very low activation energy barriers for the dissociation of water were calculated on several of the surface models, suggesting that multimetallic surfaces can be interesting alternatives for catalyzing the dissociation of the water molecule, which is a crucial elementary step in the water gas shift reaction. Encouragingly, the calculations predict a facile dissociation of the water molecule onto the (AlZn)@Cu(111) catalyst model which is in agreement with recent experimental studies where it was found that a Cu0.5Zn0.5Al2O4 spinel oxide catalyst holds improved activity for the water gas shift reaction.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.050
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Facile in-situ design strategy to disperse TiO2 nanoparticles on graphene
           for the enhanced photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine 6G
    • Authors: Shengyan Pu; Rongxin Zhu; Hui Ma; Daili Deng; Xiangjun Pei; Fei Qi; Wei Chu
      Pages: 208 - 219
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Shengyan Pu, Rongxin Zhu, Hui Ma, Daili Deng, Xiangjun Pei, Fei Qi, Wei Chu
      Photogenerated electron/hole recombination greatly limits the catalytic efficiency of TiO2, and recently modification with graphene substance has been regarded as an effective way to enhance the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. When referring to the fabrication of graphene based materials, the reduction process of graphene oxide has been demonstrated to be a key step. Therefore, it is highly required to develop an efficient and simple route for the GO reduction and the formation of TiO2@rGO composites. In this study, we have demonstrated a facile and environmentally friendly strategy for in-situ preparation of the TiO2@rGO “dyade” hybrid and systematically investigated the photodegradation efficiency of the resultant composite by utilizing rhodamine 6G as the model pollutant. The obtained TiO2@rGO has a significant enhancement in photo energy adsorption leading to the effective photocatalytic degradation reactions. The results indicated that the best performance was conducted by the TiO2@rGO (10wt%, 120 min’s irradiation), which exhibited more than triple the higher photodegradation rate than commercial TiO2 (P25) nanoparticles mainly due to two aspects, the rapid separation of h+ /e− and to improve adsorption. This work provides new insight into the synthesis of TiO2@rGO composites as a high performance photocatalyst for the degradation of organic contaminant.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.039
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Bio-adipic acid production by catalysed hydrogenation of muconic acid in
           mild operating conditions
    • Authors: S. Capelli; A. Rosengart; A. Villa; A. Citterio; A. Di Michele; C.L. Bianchi; L. Prati; C. Pirola
      Pages: 220 - 229
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): S. Capelli, A. Rosengart, A. Villa, A. Citterio, A. Di Michele, C.L. Bianchi, L. Prati, C. Pirola
      In this work trans,trans-muconic acid was hydrogenated to adipic acid, a strategic intermediate for the industry of polyamides and high performance polymers. This study: (1) develops a new and robust analytical method for the evaluation of muconic acid conversion and adipic acid selectivity, (2) defines a standard procedure for the confirmation of the kinetic regime using experimental data and some practical criteria to exclude mass transfer limitations, (3) tests Pt/C 5% commercial catalyst for the study of muconic acid hydrogenation at different operating conditions, (4) hypothesizes a reaction pathway in aqueous media, and (5) demonstrates the possibility to recycle the catalyst without loss in activity and selectivity. The developed analytical method evaluates muconic acid conversion by UV–vis analyses, while the selectivity towards adipic acid and mono-unsatured intermediates was determined by GC/TCD analysis after derivatization of the reaction mixture. Under optimized conditions the hydrogenation reaction (70°C, 4bar of hydrogen and 10 substrate/catalyst ratio (wt/wt)) reached full conversion with full selectivity toward adipic acid in 2h. Finally, recycling tests revealed the possibility to reuse catalyst up to 10 times without loss in conversion and selectivity opening the way to a scaling up of the process.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.060
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Visible-light-assisted peroxymonosulfate activation and mechanism for the
           degradation of pharmaceuticals over pyridyl-functionalized graphitic
           carbon nitride coordinated with iron phthalocyanine
    • Authors: Fei Wu; Huawang Huang; Tiefeng Xu; Wangyang Lu; Nan Li; Wenxing Chen
      Pages: 230 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Fei Wu, Huawang Huang, Tiefeng Xu, Wangyang Lu, Nan Li, Wenxing Chen
      Recently, peroxymonosulfate (PMS)-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have received increasing attention because of their capability and adaptability in decontamination. The couple of solar light and PMS activation is an environmentally friendly and efficient strategy for environmental remediation. Herein, the iron hexadecachlorophthalocyanine (FePcCl16) was used to coordinate with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), which was functionalized by pyridine-based ligand isonicotinic acid (INA) to prepare a distinctive catalyst, g-C3N4-INA-FePcCl16. The experimental results revealed that g-C3N4-INA-FePcCl16 can activate PMS efficiently for the elimination of carbamazepine (CBZ) under visible light irradiation over a wide pH range. Upon irradiation with visible light, CBZ was destroyed by the solider g-C3N4 with generated sulfate (SO4 −) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals, on the other hand, high-valent iron (Fe (IV)=O) species accompanied by SO4 − and OH radicals were produced by excited-state FePcCl16 (*FePcCl16) during oxidation, which is different from a traditional PMS activation system. The axial pyridine-based ligand was protected under the FePcCl16 macrocyclic structure shield. Noteworthy, in the absence of visible light, g-C3N4-INA-FePcCl16 showed a higher catalytic performance than pure g-C3N4, FePcCl16 and a mechanical mixture of the two. This study allows for the construction of an effective and environmental catalytic system, which can be applied to purify water that contains refractory pollutants.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.057
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Promotion effects of alkali- and alkaline earth metals on catalytic
           activity of mesoporous Co3O4 for 4-nitrophenol reduction
    • Authors: Batsile M. Mogudi; Phendukani Ncube; Ndzondelelo Bingwa; Naphtaly Mawila; Shitshembiso Mathebula; Reinout Meijboom
      Pages: 240 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Batsile M. Mogudi, Phendukani Ncube, Ndzondelelo Bingwa, Naphtaly Mawila, Shitshembiso Mathebula, Reinout Meijboom
      Mesoporous cobalt oxides doped with alkali (Li, Na, K, Cs) and alkaline earth (Mg, Ca) metals were synthesized and evaluated for their catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The prepared materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) analyses. The characterization techniques used showed the materials to consist of mono-dispersed nanoparticle aggregates with connected, well defined intra-particle voids and the crystalline phase of the cobalt oxide to be cubic Co3O4, while the pore diameters ranged from 12.1 to 19.2nm depending on the metal ion dopant. The reduction of 4-nitrophenol was chosen as a well-controlled model reaction allowing us to determine the catalytic activity as a function of alkali or alkaline earth dopant. Calcium doped cobalt oxide was found to be the most catalytically active with an apparent rate constant of 3.76×10−3 s−1 and the order with respect to dopant was Ca>Cs>Mg>Li>K>Na. From characterization of the catalysts by SEM, TEM and H2-TPR promotion effects of the dopants were found to be due to electronic changes in the catalysts as a result of doping rather than structural changes. The kinetics of the most active calcium doped catalyst was modeled in terms of Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetics. The Langmuir–Hinshelwood surface rate constant for Ca-doped Co3O4 was 5.47×10−5 molm−2 s−1 compared to the undoped Co3O4 at 5.33×10−6 molm−2 s−1. Activation energies were calculated to be 51.3kJmol−1 and 50.7kJmol−1 for undoped and Ca-doped Co3O4.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.045
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Investigation of the role of surface lattice oxygen and bulk lattice
           oxygen migration of cerium-based oxygen carriers: XPS and designed H2-TPR
    • Authors: Dingkai Chen; Dedong He; Jichang Lu; Liping Zhong; Feng Liu; Jiangping Liu; Jie Yu; Gengping Wan; Sufang He; Yongming Luo
      Pages: 249 - 259
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Dingkai Chen, Dedong He, Jichang Lu, Liping Zhong, Feng Liu, Jiangping Liu, Jie Yu, Gengping Wan, Sufang He, Yongming Luo
      The relationship between the oxygen species of cerium-based oxygen carriers and catalytic behavior, namely the correlation between catalytic activity and surface lattice oxygen (OS-L) and that between catalytic stability and bulk lattice oxygen (OB-L), was investigated by using CH3SH and Ce1-xYxO2-δ (x=0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0) solid solutions as examples. Activity and stability experimental studies with corresponding XPS were performed to assess the role of definite surface oxygen in cerium-based oxygen carriers. The surface lattice oxygen (OS-L), rather than the surface adsorbed oxygen (OS-A), was observed to be responsible for the catalytic decomposition of CH3SH. Further, the difference in catalytic activity between CeO2 and Y-doped samples is closely associated with the insertion of Y3+ ion into the lattice of CeO2 leading to the loss of surface lattice oxygen (OS-L). H2-temperature programmed reduction (TPR), a specially designed H2-TPR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reaction product (CO and CO2) analysis, and oxygen storage capacity tests were performed to demonstrate the migration of bulk lattice oxygen, which was directly related to the catalytic stability of CeO2 and Y-doped catalysts. Direct evidences of the migration of bulk lattice oxygen over cerium-based oxygen carriers were obtained. Additionally, the migration rate of bulk lattice oxygen (OB-L) within Ce0.75Y0.25O2-δ was faster compared to the migration rate of bulk lattice oxygen (OB-L) of CeO2. Finally, improvements in catalytic stability are closely associated with the fact that bulk lattice oxygen (OB-L) participates in the decomposition of CH3SH through its faster migration to replenish surface lattice oxygen (OS-L). The factors that influenced the migration rate of bulk lattice oxygen (OB-L) were thus also subsequently investigated and discussed.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.053
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Vertically-aligned silicon carbide nanowires as visible-light-driven
    • Authors: Jindui Hong; Seyyed Shayan Meysami; Vitaliy Babenko; Chun Huang; Santamon Luanwuthi; Jesus Acapulco; Philip Holdway; Patrick S. Grant; Nicole Grobert
      Pages: 267 - 276
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Jindui Hong, Seyyed Shayan Meysami, Vitaliy Babenko, Chun Huang, Santamon Luanwuthi, Jesus Acapulco, Philip Holdway, Patrick S. Grant, Nicole Grobert
      Vertically-aligned crystalline silicon carbide nanowires (VASiCs) (1mm long and 50–90nm in diameter) were synthesised in gram scale using SiO2-infiltrated vertically-aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) and Si powder. In situ residual gas analysis was employed to study their formation and revealed CO to be the main by-product during synthesis. The in situ studies also showed that the formation of VASiCs begins at 1150°C with the growth rate reaching a maximum at 1350°C. A possible growth mechanism was established based on both, in situ and ex situ characterisation. The VASiCs have an estimated band gap of 2.15eV, are photocatalytically active, and show strong light absorbance of up to 577nm. Under UV–vis light (260–800nm) as grown VASiCs could remove 90% Rhodamine B (RhB) within 30min. Over period of 4h under visible light (400–800nm) more than 95% RhB was removed demonstrating their potential as visible-light-driven photocatalysts.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.056
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • The role of thin NiPi film for enhancing solar water splitting performance
           of Ti doped hematite
    • Authors: Jian Wang; Jianying Yang; Zengyao Zheng; Tongbu Lu; Wenhua Gao
      Pages: 277 - 286
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Jian Wang, Jianying Yang, Zengyao Zheng, Tongbu Lu, Wenhua Gao
      Ti doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) usually shows poor photoactivity compared with pristine Fe2O3 at less positive potential. Herein, a thin and relatively homogeneous nickle-hydroxyl-phosphate (NiPi) film was modified on Ti doped Fe2O3 electrode by a new deposit-photoelectrochemical (DPEC) regulation process for promoting hole transport at low bias. The role of Ti doping and NiPi or CoPi coating was studied by photoelectrochemical and electrochemical measurements in detail, in which NiPi coating suppressed the surface states, while CoPi coating couldn’t, Ti doped Fe2O3 possessed relatively rich oxygen vacancies after high temperature annealing, Ti doping only improved carrier density. Desirably, the performance of NiPi was comparable with CoPi. Additional test preliminarily verified that methanol was probably an more effective hole scavenger, while PO4 3− adsorbed Fe2O3/NiPi suppressed the oxidation of low-concentration glucose, resulting into high-energy glucose waste.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.042
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Effect of temperature on the activities and stabilities of hydrothermally
           prepared IrOx nanocatalyst layers for the oxygen evolution reaction
    • Authors: Gabriel C. da Silva; Nickson Perini; Edson A. Ticianelli
      Pages: 287 - 297
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Gabriel C. da Silva, Nickson Perini, Edson A. Ticianelli
      Iridium oxide nanoparticles are prepared via a hydrothermal method, treated at different calcination temperatures, and their activities and stabilities for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) evaluated. The catalysts are physicochemically characterized using several techniques including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Voltammetric profiles obtained for the catalysts calcined up to 300°C are similar to that of electrochemically prepared hydrous iridium oxide, while the CV profiles are characteristic of thermally prepared iridium oxide after calcination at higher temperatures. Performance as an OER catalyst decreases with increasing IrOx calcination temperature, while the opposite trend in stability is observed for these materials. Catalysts calcined between 400 and 500°C exhibit better balances between activity and stability. However, despite higher performance losses, the non-calcined IrOx material still exhibits higher mass activity at the end of the aging experiments at electrode potentials up to 1.6V vs. RHE. The causes of electrode activity degradation are investigated using identical location transmission electron microscopy, which reveal that IrOx electrode instability is due to the degradation of the thin IrOx layer, in addition to iridium oxide dissolution.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.044
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • One-pot sol-gel synthesis of MgO nanoparticles supported nickel and iron
           catalysts for undiluted methane decomposition into COx free hydrogen and
    • Authors: Manoj Pudukudy; Zahira Yaakob; Mohd Zulhamizan Mazuki; Mohd Sobri Takriff; Seri Suriani Jahaya
      Pages: 298 - 316
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Manoj Pudukudy, Zahira Yaakob, Mohd Zulhamizan Mazuki, Mohd Sobri Takriff, Seri Suriani Jahaya
      A single pot sol-gel method was adopted for the synthesis of MgO nanoparticles supported nickel and iron catalysts for undiluted methane decomposition into COx free hydrogen and nanocarbon for the first time. The catalysts were successfully synthesized via a facile sol-gel route without the assistance of any surfactants. The as-synthesized catalysts were completely characterized for their structural, textural and redox properties using several analytical techniques. The X-Ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of NiMgO solid solution and magnesioferrites as the active phases in the fresh catalysts. The inter-aggregation of nanoparticles in the catalyst generated pores, and a mesoporous texture resulted. The hydrogen chemisorption analysis indicated that the NiMgO solid solution was very difficult to reduce compared to the magnesioferrites. The thermocatalytic decomposition of methane at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C fully validated their enhanced catalytic activity and stability for the reaction. The initial hydrogen yield and total carbon yield were found to be significantly increased, when the reaction temperature was increased. However, the highest catalytic performance was shown by the Fe/MgO catalyst. Moreover, no catalyst deactivation was observed for both of the catalysts for a period of 360min of time on stream. This could be ascribed to their enhanced catalytic stability due to the presence of metal nanoparticles dispersed on the surface of the support, with proper metal-support interaction rather than their specific surface area. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes with metal encapsulated carbon particles and few layered graphene sheets were deposited over Ni/MgO and Fe/MgO catalysts, respectively. The studies of the effect of reaction temperature on the crystalline properties of the deposited nanocarbon indicated that the crystallinity and graphitization degree were increased with increasing reaction temperatures.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.04.070
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Hydrogen-rich gas production by steam reforming of n-dodecane. Part II:
           Stability, regenerability and sulfur poisoning of low loading Rh-based
    • Authors: A. Vita; C. Italiano; L. Pino; M. Laganà; V. Recupero
      Pages: 317 - 326
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): A. Vita, C. Italiano, L. Pino, M. Laganà, V. Recupero
      In this paper, 0.6wt.% Rh/CeO2 catalyst was synthesized by the Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) method, producing a low-cost noble metal-based system due to the simultaneous high dispersion and low metal phase content. The catalyst was characterized by the XRD, N2-physisorption, CO-chemisorption, TPR, TPO and TEM measurements. Deactivation by carbon deposition was investigated in Steam Reforming (SR) of n-dodecane, used as surrogate for diesel fuel, in order to explore the appropriate coke-free reaction conditions. The catalyst regenerability was also investigated. Then, the effect of sulfur poisoning was studied in SR of n-dodecane doped with thiophene, used as model compound for the organic sulfur in diesel fuel. Stability tests were performed at various steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C=1–2.5), space velocity (GHSV=16,000–40,000h−1) and sulfur content (0–100ppmS). In order to avoid carbon/coke deposition due to cracking of n-dodecane, tests were carried out using the temperature-controlled bed configuration (500–800°C) previously studied. Stable catalytic performance was achieved under sulfur-free condition. Constant H2 concentration (62%, N2-free basis) in the product mixture and absence of carbon deposition were observed at S/C=1.5 for 100h of time-on-stream. Catalyst deactivation was observed in the presence of sulfur, mainly due to graphitic carbon deposition. Higher amount of steam allowed improving the carbon gasification and the sulfur tolerance, enhancing the catalytic stability of the Rh/CeO2 system.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.059
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Method for polychlorinated biphenyls removal from mussels and its
           photocatalytic dechlorination
    • Authors: Renugambaal Nadarajan; Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar; Rusmidah Ali; Razali Ismail
      Pages: 327 - 337
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Renugambaal Nadarajan, Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar, Rusmidah Ali, Razali Ismail
      A simple method has been proposed for the removal and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from catches using low cost and environmental friendly way. The removal of PCBs from lipid layer to aqueous layer was done by utilizing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as phase transfer agent and photocatalysis technology for its degradation. Experimental involving various types of PEG and concentrations were performed to obtain the highest percentage of removal. The highest total amount of PCBs removal was attained using PEG 400 with concentration of 0.2M. In order to determine the suitable photocatalyst to use for the degradation study, the physicochemical properties of WO3/SnO2/TiO2 prepared from mechanical mixed and sol-immobilization were compared. In situ and ex situ techniques were explored to determine its influence on removal and degradation of PCBs. Substantial degradation of removed PCBs in ex situ method was achieved in the presence of heterostructured WO3/SnO2/TiO2 photocatalyst prepared by mechanical mixing under visible light. Meanwhile significant total amount of PCBs reduction in mussels was observed under in situ method (with PEG 400, 0.2M and photocatalyst) compared to control run. Thus, this study displayed conformity of the method with high degradation.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.066
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Development of stable and efficient CeVO4 systems for the selective
           reduction of NOx by ammonia: Structure-activity relationship
    • Authors: Sylvain Gillot; Grégory Tricot; Hervé Vezin; Jean-Philippe Dacquin; Christophe Dujardin; Pascal Granger
      Pages: 338 - 348
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Sylvain Gillot, Grégory Tricot, Hervé Vezin, Jean-Philippe Dacquin, Christophe Dujardin, Pascal Granger
      Bulk CeVO4 catalysts prepared by hydrothermal synthesis have been developed for the ammonia-selective catalytic reduction of NOx to nitrogen. The catalytic properties were evaluated in standard- and fast-SCR conditions for stationary and mobile applications. The coexistence of low concentration of Ce4+ species stabilized as CeO2 with bulk CeVO4 was found to be crucial for enhancing the intermediate formation of NO2 from NO oxidation. Such cooperative effects impact on the rate of NO conversion to nitrogen regardless of the operating conditions. Aging processes under wet atmosphere at 500°C and 600°C did not destabilize the bulk zircon-type structure of CeVO4. No loss of vanadium was observed due to significant sublimation of vanadium. Despite poorer textural properties with regard to fresh CeVO4, aged CeVO4 catalysts exhibit better catalytic properties in terms of rate of NO conversion and selectivity thus providing an alternative to less stable supported vanadia-based catalysts. Indeed, higher TOF values were measured in standard-SCR conditions at 200°C on aged samples at 600°C whereas an aging at 500°C leads to selectivity enhancement at high temperature. All these changes can be rationalized based on the surface modifications of redox and acidic properties of vanadium species due to a slight extraction and stabilization of VOx species.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.049
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • New insight of the photocatalytic behaviors of graphitic carbon nitrides
           for hydrogen evolution and their associations with grain size, porosity,
           and photophysical properties
    • Authors: Junghoon Oh; Jang Mee Lee; Youngjun Yoo; Jeongho Kim; Seong-Ju Hwang; Sungjin Park
      Pages: 349 - 358
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Junghoon Oh, Jang Mee Lee, Youngjun Yoo, Jeongho Kim, Seong-Ju Hwang, Sungjin Park
      The development of efficient catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) presents a huge technical challenge. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a promising metal-free, low cost, environment-friendly photocatalyst for HER that is driven by visible light. In this work, the authors provide new insight into the photocatalytic natures of g-C3N4 materials and their dependences on grain size, porosity, chemical structure, and photophysical properties. Three different precursors (urea, melamine, and dicyandiamide) and two gas atmospheres (air or N2) are used to produce various g-C3N4 materials. The use of urea and air leads to the formation of small grain C3N4 networks and porous structures with large surface areas. HER catalytic activity is promoted by large surface areas and the presence of terminal amine groups, and generation of small-sized Pt nanoparticle co-catalysts with narrow size distribution on the surface of g-C3N4. For samples with similar surface areas, band gaps and lifetimes of photogenerated charge carriers critically determine photocatalytic activities. By examining combinations of the above-mentioned factors, urea driven g-C3N4 produced in a N2 atmosphere is found to exhibit the best photocatalytic activity (up to 130μmolh−1 g−1).
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.067
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • VOC ternary mixture effect on ppb level photocatalytic oxidation: Removal
           kinetic, reaction intermediates and mineralization
    • Authors: O. Debono; V. Hequet; L. Le Coq; N. Locoge; F. Thevenet
      Pages: 359 - 369
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): O. Debono, V. Hequet, L. Le Coq, N. Locoge, F. Thevenet
      This work addresses photocatalytic oxidation for indoor air purification and more especially the key and realistic issue of VOC mixture treatment. The VOC mixture effect needs to be investigated since indoor air contains several tens of VOCs which may impact photocatalytic oxidation performances. In order to be closer to realistic conditions, concentrations in the ppb range were used and toluene, decane and trichloroethylene (TCE) were treated first as single compounds, then as an equimolar ternary mixture under the same experimental conditions. In a 120L batch reactor, VOC removal kinetics, reaction intermediates and CO2 mineralization are addressed using dedicated analytical devices compliant with typical ppb level monitoring. Regarding removal kinetics, the mixture effect affects the three VOCs. Regarding toluene and decane removal kinetic, the mixture effect is evidenced as mostly equivalent to a concentration effect, however TCE kinetic is further impacted. From the reaction intermediate point of view, the accurate monitoring of transiently produced intermediates evidences for the first time cross-reactivity between reaction intermediates originating from different primary VOCs. This phenomenon leading to novel reaction intermediate is mostly induced by chlorinated species produced by TCE degradation but remains moderate. An increase in VOC initial concentration to upper ppb levels emphasized a sequential degradation of primary VOC which may be related to competitive adsorption even on such a low concentration range. Finally, even if the mixture effect delays the removal of the primary VOCs, mineralization is slightly modified and, unlike formerly reported experiments on ppm range, final mineralization rates are equivalent under single or mixture condition at ppb levels. This work highlights the fact that photocatalytic treatment of VOC mixtures cannot be directly extrapolated from single VOC behaviour even at ppb level.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.070
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Modification of anatase using noble-metals (Au, Pt, Ag): Toward a
           nanoheterojunction exhibiting simultaneously photocatalytic activity and
           plasmonic gas sensing
    • Authors: Mohamed Karmaoui; Luc Lajaunie; David Maria Tobaldi; Gianluca Leonardi; Chahinez Benbayer; Raul Arenal; João A. Labrincha; Giovanni Neri
      Pages: 370 - 384
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Mohamed Karmaoui, Luc Lajaunie, David Maria Tobaldi, Gianluca Leonardi, Chahinez Benbayer, Raul Arenal, João A. Labrincha, Giovanni Neri
      A new and original method, based on a non-aqueous sol–gel process, has been successfully established to produce quasi-spherical monodispersed TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and also noble metals (NM) @TiO2 heterostructures (NM=Au, Pt, Ag, 2wt%), in one-pot and at low temperature. This has been achieved by using titanium oxyacetylacetonate as new single source precursors. This system has been deeply investigated by advanced characterization techniques. By using NMR, we have demonstrated the relatively complex mechanism behind this apparently simple synthesis, mediated by the reaction of the solvent and generated species, with many separate organic and organometallic molecules identified as being involved in the mechanism. The morphology and structure of the NM@TiO2 heterostructures were investigated by advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy while the chemical state of the noble metal nanoparticles was check by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Undoped and noble metal (Au, Pt, Ag) decorated quasi/spherical TiO2 nanoparticles worked also as sensing interfaces, leading to the development of a highly sensitive conductometric NO gas sensor under both dark and UV–vis light irradiation, in the first result of its kind. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity (PCA) was also evaluated, in the gas–solid phase, by monitoring the degradation of NO x under solar-light irradiation. Au-modified TiO2 showed improved photocatalytic efficiencies, compared to unmodified TiO2.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Effect of the annealing atmosphere on the electrochemical properties of
           RuO2 nano-oxides synthesized by the Instant Method
    • Authors: T. Audichon; B. Guenot; S. Baranton; M. Cretin; C. Lamy; C. Coutanceau
      Pages: 385 - 397
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): T. Audichon, B. Guenot, S. Baranton, M. Cretin, C. Lamy, C. Coutanceau
      Ruthenium oxide materials have been synthesized by an “Instant method” assisted by microwave irradiation. The “as-synthesized” material has been annealed at different temperatures from 200°C to 450°C, under different atmospheres, air and nitrogen. The different samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry (capacitance, charges involved, etc.). The physicochemical and electrochemical characterizations have evidenced that the main effect of the annealing atmosphere is the modification of the transition temperature from an amorphous hydrated phase to a crystalline phase of ruthenium oxide (ca. 300°C under air and ca. 350°C under inert atmosphere according to XRD measurement). The activity of the different catalysts towards the oxygen evolution reaction was evaluated by linear scan voltammetry. In the high overpotential region (E>1.6V vs. RHE), higher catalytic activities were obtained after annealing at high temperatures, i.e. 400–450°C, independently on the annealing atmosphere. In the low overpotential region (E<1.5V vs. RHE), higher activity in terms of exchange current density j0 was obtained for hydrated ruthenium oxide compounds, which was explained by the ability of materials to oxidize water molecules trapped in the ruthenium oxide lattice.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.081
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Rapid microwave synthesis of I-doped Bi4O5Br2 with significantly enhanced
           visible-light photocatalysis for degradation of multiple parabens
    • Authors: Xin Xiao; Mingli Lu; Junmin Nan; Xiaoxi Zuo; Weide Zhang; Shaomin Liu; Shaobin Wang
      Pages: 398 - 408
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Xin Xiao, Mingli Lu, Junmin Nan, Xiaoxi Zuo, Weide Zhang, Shaomin Liu, Shaobin Wang
      Parabens, a class of preservatives widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, are currently considered as potential emerging contaminants in the environment. Photocatalytic degradations of different parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben) and their mixture were performed for the first time under visible-light irradiation using I-doped Bi4O5Br2 photocatalysts, synthesized by a facile, fast, and energy-saving microwave route. Compared with pure Bi4O5Br2, I-doped samples exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activities in the degradation of the parabens. I0.7-Bi4O5Br2 achieved the best performance, showing approximately 9.5, 10.4, 15.7, 24.2, and 27 times higher activities than those of Bi4O5Br2 in the degradation of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and a mixture of parabens, respectively. The structures of the as-synthesized photocatalysts were carefully characterized, and the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the photocatalytic process were identified. Photogenerated holes and superoxide radicals were found to be the key reactive species. Through doping with iodine, the valence-band potentials of the Bi4O5Br2 photocatalysts were reduced, leading to decreases in their band-gap energies, while the separation efficiencies of the photogenerated carriers were significantly enhanced. Thus, I-doped Bi4O5Br2 could absorb more visible-light and yield more superoxide radicals, resulting in excellent visible-light photodegradations of the parabens. In addition, the as-prepared I0.7-Bi4O5Br2 catalyst maintained a strong stability of photocatalytic performance, indicating its potential for practical applications.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.074
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Deactivation of Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 diesel oxidation catalysts by sulphur,
           phosphorus and their combinations
    • Authors: Ari Väliheikki; Marja Kärkkäinen; Mari Honkanen; Olli Heikkinen; Tanja Kolli; Kauko Kallinen; Mika Huuhtanen; Minnamari Vippola; Jouko Lahtinen; Riitta L. Keiski
      Pages: 409 - 419
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Ari Väliheikki, Marja Kärkkäinen, Mari Honkanen, Olli Heikkinen, Tanja Kolli, Kauko Kallinen, Mika Huuhtanen, Minnamari Vippola, Jouko Lahtinen, Riitta L. Keiski
      The impact of sulphur, phosphorus and water and their co-exposure on a monolith-type Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 diesel oxidation catalyst was investigated. The accelerated laboratory-scale sulphur treatments for Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 were done with and without water (S- and SW-treatments, respectively) at 400°C. Similarly, the phosphorus treatment with water (PW-treatment) as well as the co-exposure of phosphorus, sulphur and water (PSW-treatment) were also done to find out the interactions between the impurities. The studied catalysts were characterized by using several techniques and the activity of the catalyst was tested in lean diesel exhaust gas conditions. Based on the XPS and the elemental analysis, more phosphorus was adsorbed on the Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst than sulphur. Sulphur, in the presence and absence of water, was found to have a negligible effect on the CO and C3H6 light-off temperatures (T90) over the fresh Pt/SiO2-ZrO2, whereas the T90 values of CO and C3H6 increased by 30–45°C as a result of the PW-treatment and by 15–35°C after the PSW-treatment. Based on the Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, no morphological changes on the Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 surfaces were observed due to the phosphorus treatment. Therefore, the reason for the lower activity after the PW-treatment could be the formation of phosphates that are decreasing the specific surface area of the catalyst, blocking the accessibility of the reactants to the catalyst pores and active sites. However, it is worth noting that sulphur decreased the amount of adsorbed phosphorus and thus, inhibited the poisoning effect of phosphorus.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.068
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Synergistic effect of photocatalysis and thermocatalysis for selective
           oxidation of aromatic alcohols to aromatic aldehydes using Zn3In2S6@ZnO
    • Authors: Jinghu Zhang; Sugang Meng; Xiangju Ye; Cancan Ling; Sujuan Zhang; Xianliang Fu; Shifu Chen
      Pages: 420 - 429
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Jinghu Zhang, Sugang Meng, Xiangju Ye, Cancan Ling, Sujuan Zhang, Xianliang Fu, Shifu Chen
      Selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds under mild conditions has a promising prospect in industry. In the paper, we successfully prepared a new mode of photothermocatalyst, Zn3In2S6@ZnO composite, which shows dramatically enhanced activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde compared with single Zn3In2S6 and ZnO under visible light illumination. The enhancement is due to a synergistic effect of low-temperature thermocatalysis on ZnO and photocatalysis on Zn3In2S6. ZnO could weaken bonds of the CHα and the OH. Then the reactive species (O2 − and h+) generated on Zn3In2S6 could be easy for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to produce benzaldehyde. The photoelectrochemical and photoluminescence (PL) results and a series of control experiments (e.g. reaction temperature and radical scavenger) prove this synergistic effect and proposed mechanism. Moreover, the stable performance and high activity of Zn3In2S6@ZnO for other aromatic alcohols indicate its applicable potential. This study provides a promising way to combine photocatalysis and thermocatalysis for the design of novel and efficient visible-light-driven catalyst for selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols or other organics under mild reaction conditions.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.078
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Co-oxidation of CO and propylene on Pd/CeO2-ZrO2 and Pd/Al2O3 monolith
           catalysts: A light-off, kinetics, and mechanistic study
    • Authors: Wendy Lang; Paul Laing; Yisun Cheng; Carolyn Hubbard; Michael P. Harold
      Pages: 430 - 442
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Wendy Lang, Paul Laing, Yisun Cheng, Carolyn Hubbard, Michael P. Harold
      The light-off (ignition) and steady-state behavior for individual oxidation and co-oxidation of CO and propylene under near-stoichiometric conditions was studied using Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/CeO2-ZrO2 monolith catalysts. CO and propylene are shown to be self- and mutually-inhibiting, with inhibition mitigated by the promotional effect of CeO2-ZrO2. Oxidation is enhanced at low temperatures for CO, and at intermediate and high temperatures for propylene. Light-off behavior during CO and propylene co-oxidation is similarly improved at low and high temperatures. Steady-state differential kinetics measurements using Pd/Al2O3 show reaction orders of ∼−1 with respect to CO and propylene. Using Pd/CeO2-ZrO2, the reaction order with respect to CO shifts towards zero and the activation energy decreases, suggesting an alternate reaction mechanism for CO oxidation when enough ceria is present. Mechanisms for CO and propylene oxidation that are consistent with the kinetics and inhibition trends are presented.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.064
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Chemical-bond conjugated BiO(OH)xI1-x-AgI heterojunction with high visible
           light activity and stability in degradation of pollutants
    • Authors: Huanhuan Ji; Lili Zhang; Chun Hu
      Pages: 443 - 451
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Huanhuan Ji, Lili Zhang, Chun Hu
      A layered BiO(OH)xI1-x solid solution was grown in situ on the surface of AgI particles by a one-pot co-crystallization method. Based on the results of XPS, EPR, XRD and other techniques, it was verified that a p-n heterojunction was formed through Ag-I-Bi cross-linking bonds in the interface of BiO(OH)xI1-x and AgI due to the common species of I− ions. The resulting BiO(OH)xI1-x-AgI exhibited high efficiency and stability for photodegradation of phenolic compounds with visible light irradiation. No significant AgI decomposition or release of Ag+ or Bi3+ was observed in the photoreaction, and the photoactivity of AgI was enhanced almost 9-fold. These enhanced photocatalytic properties were attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between BiO(OH)xI1-x and AgI by the Ag-I-Bi bond junction. Due to the chemical-bond junction, the photogenerated electrons in the CB of AgI quickly transferred to the CB of BiO(OH)xI1-x to produce O2 -, while the holes in the VB of BiO(OH)xI1-x migrated to the VB of AgI to oxidize pollutants in water. The accelerated interfacial charge transfers were responsible for the high photostability and photoactivity of BiO(OH)xI1-x-AgI.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.077
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Synthesis of CdS-decorated MIL-68(Fe) nanocomposites: Efficient and stable
           visible light photocatalysts for the selective reduction of 4-nitroaniline
           to p-phenylenediamine in water
    • Authors: Ruowen Liang; Fenfen Jing; Guiyang Yan; Ling Wu
      Pages: 452 - 459
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Ruowen Liang, Fenfen Jing, Guiyang Yan, Ling Wu
      Visible-light-initiated organic transformations have received much attention because of low cost, relative safety, and environmental friendliness. In this work, a series of CdS-decorated MIL-68(Fe) nanocomposites (CdS-M68 NCs) have been prepared via a facile room-temperature photodeposition technique in a controlled manner. Importantly, the CdS-M68 NCs exhibit remarkably enhanced photoactivity toward selective reduction of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in water under visible light irradiation (λ≥420nm) as compared to bare CdS and MIL-68(Fe), giving a 4-NA conversion of ∼100% after irradiation for 8min. The significantly enhanced photoactivity is attributed to the integrated factors of the effective transportation of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs and the enhanced visible light absorption intensity. Combining with trapping experiments and ESR analysis, it could be revealed that the photoexcited electrons and CO2− radicals should be the main active species in the present system. In addition, a possible photocatalytic reduction mechanism has been investigated.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.075
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Achieving efficient room-temperature catalytic H2 evolution from formic
           acid through atomically controlling the chemical environment of bimetallic
           nanoparticles immobilized by isoreticular amine-functionalized
           metal-organic frameworks
    • Authors: Jia Cheng; Xiaojun Gu; Penglong Liu; Hao Zhang; Lunliang Ma; Haiquan Su
      Pages: 460 - 469
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Jia Cheng, Xiaojun Gu, Penglong Liu, Hao Zhang, Lunliang Ma, Haiquan Su
      From the viewpoint of controlling the catalytic performance of supported metal nanoparticles (NPs) through tuning their chemical environment in the atom level, we have used electron-donating amino groups and three organic amine molecules to modify the organic linkers and unsaturated coordination Cr3+ sites in one porous metal-organic framework MIL-101 with atomically precise structures, respectively, and then we have prepared a series of AuPd NPs immobilized by the two types of functional MIL-101 supports. The as-synthesized AuPd NPs were used for the catalytic dehydrogenation of formic acid (HCOOH) and the results showed that these catalysts exhibited remarkably different activities and H2 selectivities at 298K. Particularly, the AuPd NPs immobilized by MIL-101-NH2 presented 100% of H2 selectivity and the highest activity because of the synergistic steric and electronic effects, which were related to the activation of HCOOH and enrichment of electron density of active Pd species. The investigation of UV–vis spectroscopy showed that the reaction between the mixed metal ions (AuCl4 − and PdCl4 2−) and the four functional MIL-101 supports generated four different coordination complex intermediates, which played an important role in yielding AuPd NPs with different chemical environment and inducing different catalytic performance.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-12T11:01:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.06.084
      Issue No: Vol. 218 (2017)
  • Rational synthesis of silylated Beta zeolites and selective ring opening
           of 1-methylnaphthalene over the NiW-supported catalysts
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 219
      Author(s): Su-Un Lee, You-Jin Lee, Jeong-Rang Kim, Soon-Yong Jeong
      Heavy oil has been by-produced from refinery and petrochemical processes, and its use as low-value fuels has been restricted by stricter environmental regulations due to heavy molecules, multi-ring aromatics, and high sulfur content. In a bi-functional catalyst system of metal and zeolitic acid, balancing metallic (from metal element) and acidic function (from zeolite elements) is essential for harnessing the selective ring opening (SRO) reaction with the aim of upgrading the heavy oil. Here, we report a synthetic strategy to control the acid site distribution of Beta zeolite through the silylation reaction with tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), and tetrabutyl orthosilicate (TBOS) as silylation agents. As the size of alkyl chain group in the silylation agents gets larger, the silylation agents were suppressed to spread into the channels and thus the formation of SiO2 layer was intentionally occurred on the external surface of the zeolite. Resulting from the selectively deposited SiO2 layer, NiW metals supported on each silylated Beta zeolite altered the metal distribution and further the balance of metallic and acidic function. NiW catalyst supported on TBOS-silylated Beta zeolite exhibited the best catalytic performance toward the SRO reaction of 1-methylnaphthalene in a fix-bed reaction system, proving the optimal balance of metallic and acidic functions. We expect that this study will benefit the control over the selective silylation reaction in order to optimize the balance of metallic and acidic functions in the bi-functional catalysts, and, hence, to promote properly aromatic saturation (hydrogenation) and ring opening (hydrocracking) for selective ring opening products.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:09:22Z
  • Improved charge separation and surface activation via boron-doped layered
           polyhedron SrTiO3 for co-catalyst free photocatalytic CO2 conversion
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 219
      Author(s): Jingjing Shan, Fazal Raziq, Muhammad Humayun, Wei Zhou, Yang Qu, Guofeng Wang, Yadong Li
      For efficient photocatalytic CO2 conversion to solar fuel, it is highly desired to enhance the solar-light absorption, photogenerated charge separation and surface active/catalytic performance of semiconductor photocatalysts. Herein, we have successfully prepared boron-doped layered polyhedron SrTiO3 (STO) by solid-state method using specific TiB2 precursor as boron and titanium resource. The prepared polyhedron STO is single-crystal structure with average diameter of ∼500nm and boron-doped STO exhibits overlapped-layer structure. The boron doping amount could be controlled using TiB2. It is shown that the amount optimized boron-doped layered polyhedron STO sample Exhibit 3-times enhanced co-catalyst free photocatalytic activity for CO2 conversion, compared to the bare STO nanoparticles. Notably, the improved photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the enhanced charge separation as confirmed by means of fluorescence emission spectra related to produced OH radicals, surface photovoltage responses and photoelectrochemical measurements; and the enhanced CO2 surface adsorption and catalytic performance of boron-doped SrTiO3 as verified by CO2-TPD and electrochemical CO2 reduction experiments. This work implies that boron-doped layered polyhedron SrTiO3 would display promising applications in the photocatalytic field of CO2 conversion to solar fuels.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:09:22Z
  • Tungsten diselenide/porous carbon with sufficient active edge-sites as a
           co-catalyst/Pt-support favoring excellent tolerance to methanol-crossover
           for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic medium
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 219
      Author(s): Siyu Pan, Zhuang Cai, Yaqiang Duan, Liu Yang, Bo Tang, Baojian Jing, Ying Dai, Xin Xu, Jinlong Zou
      Developing an acid-stable, highly active and methanol-tolerant electrocatalyst towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is crucial for commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In this study, via a simultaneous synthesis method, tungsten diselenide/porous carbon (WSe2/C) composites are prepared as the supports/ORR co-catalysts to support Pt with a low loading of 5wt.%. Varied WSe2/C supports are obtained by tuning the carbonization temperature (600–1000°C) to investigate the relationships between structural characteristics and ORR performance. Pt-WSe2/C (800°C) exhibits a considerably higher specific activity (4.57mAcm−2) for ORR than those of WSe2/C (2.45mAcm−2) and commercial Pt/C (10wt.%, 2.69mAcm−2), owing to the high ORR co-catalytic activity of WSe2/C for Pt. The robust contacts among Pt, WSe2 and porous carbon with high surface area can significantly improve the exposure of Pt active sites, which correspondingly promote the charge transfer efficiency and the fast adsorption, activation and reduction of oxygen molecules. Moreover, Pt-WSe2/C (800°C) catalyst exclusively exhibits a four-electron pathway for ORR. With the intimate cooperation among Pt, WSe2 and porous carbon skeleton, more available Pt active sites are exposed to improve the ORR kinetics and durability. The tolerance to methanol-crossover on Pt-WSe2/C are remarkably enhanced, which should be attributed to the synergistic effects between the exposed edge sites of embedded WSe2 and the porous carbon skeleton with abundant oxygen-containing functional groups. The use of WSe2/C supports with low-cost, high co-catalytic/catalytic activity and strong methanol-tolerance provides a promising way to enhance ORR activity in DMFCs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:09:22Z
  • Designing of a spatially separated hetero-junction pseudobrookite
           (Fe2TiO5-TiO2) yolk-shell hollow spheres as efficient photocatalyst for
           water oxidation reaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 219
      Author(s): Muhammad Waqas, Shahid Iqbal, Ali Bahadur, Aamer Saeed, Muhammad Raheel, Mohsin Javed
      For the first time, controlled pseudobrookite phase as the yolk and titanium oxide as the shell of hollow spheres were synthesized for the photocatalytic water oxidation. Simple and facile sacrificial hard template strategy was utilized. Firstly, the distribution of TiO2 in the hollow spheres was controlled by loading aqueous solution of 2, 3, and 5mol/L TiCl4 precursor respectively onto carbonaceous template followed by annealing. To prove the Fe3+ ions radial penetration into the hydrophobic core of carbonaceous template, we optimized the ethanol to water ratio. The Fe2TiO5-TiO2 yolk-shell hollow spheres exhibited high oxygen evolution reaction (OER) rate up to 148μmolg−1 h−1 under UV–vis light. This was attributed to the better light harvesting due to the geometry of hollow sphere; charge separation by a thin shell-yolk hetero-junction, a void cavity to access reaction solvent to reactive sites and the hetero-junction of Fe-O-Ti in the hollow structure. These findings suggest that our designed Fe2TiO5-TiO2 yolk-shell hollow spheres are beneficial for the photocatalytic water oxidation.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:09:22Z
  • Enhanced carbon dioxide conversion to formate on a multi-functional
           synergistic photoelectrocatalytic interface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 219
      Author(s): Qi Shen, Jun Ma, Xiaofeng Huang, Nianjun Yang, Guohua Zhao
      As one of the main greenhouse gases, the conversion of CO2 into useful chemicals is of great significance to global warming, climate change and energy supply. Herein, a multi-functional synergistic photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) interface is employed to realize enhanced PEC CO2 reduction by using intrinsic Au doped TiO2 as the light harvester, nanotube photonic crystal (NTPC) as optical channels and Cu nanoparticles (NPs) as CO2 electrocatalyst. Formic acid is produced as the main product with a selectivity of 98% and a Faraday efficiency of 82.6% under simulated sunlight illumination and an applied potential of −1.0V vs. Ag/AgCl. Its yield ratio is up to 1019.3μmolL−1 cm−2 after an 8h reduction, nearly 6.3 times higher than that on the traditional TiO2 NTs. Such enhanced PEC CO2 conversion performance is due to a synergistic catalytic effect on this multi-functional interface. The extraordinary localized surface plasmon resonance sensitized by the intrinsic Au NPs expands the light absorption region to the visible region. The photonic crystal layer structure raises the multi-reflection of incident light. The electrocatalyst of Cu NPs synergistically promotes PEC activity toward CO2 reduction. The calculated enhancement factors of photonic crystal layer, intrinsic Au NPs, and Cu NPs are 813%, 91%, and 2028%, respectively. This work provides an effective approach for photocathode design to promote the efficiency of PEC CO2 conversion.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:09:22Z
  • One-pot synthesis of C/Bi/Bi2O3 composite with enhanced photocatalytic
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 219
      Author(s): Qiang Hao, Ruiting Wang, Haojie Lu, Ci’an Xie, Weihua Ao, Daimei Chen, Chao Ma, Wenqing Yao, Yongfa Zhu
      In this work, a novel C/Bi/Bi2O3 composite photocatalyst was prepared by a facile one-pot method, using EDTA-Bi as a precursor. The C/Bi/Bi2O3 composite photocatalyst exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than Bi2O3 on the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) under both simulated sunlight and visible light irradiation. Metallic Bi and the remaining organic carbon cannot only enhance the absorption of lights, but also accelerate the seperation of photogenerated charge carriers. As a result, the photocatalytic activity is enhanced. More importantly, this paper provides a facile method for the preparation of C/Bi/Bi2O3 composite materials, which is suitable for mass production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:09:22Z
  • Pd or PdO: Catalytic active site of methane oxidation operated close to
           stoichiometric air-to-fuel for natural gas vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 219
      Author(s): Fujin Huang, Jianjun Chen, Wei Hu, Guangxia Li, Yang Wu, Shandong Yuan, Lin Zhong, Yaoqiang Chen
      A Pd catalyst supported on La-modified Al2O3 (La-Al) with and without doping CeO2-ZrO2 (CZ) is prepared via incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts are used as model catalyst for natural gas vehicles (NGVs) to investigate the active sites of methane oxidation within the range of air/fuel ratios (λ values) close to stoichiometric value (λ=1). Both the two catalysts show high activity for methane oxidation under rich conditions. Under lean conditions, the methane oxidation activity over the dopant-free catalyst depend on the direction of λ change, and this catalyst displays relatively lower activity when the λ changes from richer values to lean ones. By contrast, the catalyst with dopant under the same lean conditions can nearly maintain its high activity regardless of the change direction. The results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and temperature programmed reduction under H2 (H2-TPR) indicate the existence of the interactions between the dopant and Pd species, and these interactions are beneficial to retain Pd in oxidized state. Ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) experiments are explored to correlate the catalytic activity of the methane oxidation with the oxidized valent state of Pd. The results confirm that the dopant can preserve most of the Pd species in PdO even under the rich conditions. The results also suggest that both metallic Pd and PdO can act as the active sites for methane oxidation under much richer conditions, and that under lean conditions, PdO instead of metallic Pd plays a role in methane oxidation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:09:22Z
  • New routes for complete regeneration of coked zeolite
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 219
      Author(s): L.Y. Jia, Al Farouha, L. Pinard, S. Hedan, J.-D. Comparot, A. Dufour, K. Ben Tayeb, H. Vezin, C. Batiot-Dupeyrat
      Among alternative techniques to overcome the difficulties associated with thermal regeneration of coked zeolite, non-thermal plasma can be considered as one of the most promising technology. A complete regeneration of zeolite can be achieved at room temperature with a low energy consumption. The active species responsible for catalyst regeneration are the short-lived oxygenated species and not ozone. Based on EPR analysis, which allows the mapping of radicals, the active species generated by NTP are able to diffuse within zeolite eliminating coke molecules. The efficiency of regeneration is directly related to the number of active species present in gas phase. A simple way to increase their concentration consists to substitute N2 by a noble gas as He. In this case, coke is totally oxidized into CO2, 6 times faster than under air.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:09:22Z
  • Boron doped graphitic carbon nitride with acid-base duality for
           cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxide under solvent-free condition
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 219
      Author(s): Junjiang Zhu, Tingting Diao, Wenyao Wang, Xuelian Xu, Xiaoying Sun, Sónia A.C. Carabineiro, Zhen Zhao
      The cycloaddition of CO2 and epoxides to yield cyclic carbonate under solvent-free conditions is an eco-friendly way to utilize CO2 in environmental science and green chemistry. In this paper, we report that boron doped carbon nitride (BCN) is highly active and selective for such reactions. BCN, especially if supported on mesoporous silica SBA-15 (i.e., B0.1CN/SBA-15), shows above 95% conversion and selectivity for cycloaddition of CO2 and styrene oxide (SO) to yield styrene carbonate (SC), even under solvent-free conditions. That is mainly due to the acid-base duality induced by B doping, which enables the co-activation of CO2 and epoxide. A mechanism based on acid-base duality is proposed, where CO2 is activated on the basic >NH sites and SO is on the acidic −B(OH)2 sites through a hydrogen bonding. The co-activated CO2 and SO react with each other to yield the SC. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted to support the mechanism, which show that the co-adsorption of CO2 and SO on BCN is energetically favorable and the reaction follows the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The BCN with acid-base duality provides an option for cheap, green and efficient catalysts for CO2 utilization.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:09:22Z
  • NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/graphitic carbon nitride heterostructure decorated with
           NiPd co-catalysts for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 219
      Author(s): Jixiang Xu, Jianyang Gao, Chao Wang, Yu Yang, Lei Wang
      In this study, a highly efficient photocatalyst, NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/g-C3N4/NiPd (NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/CN/NiPd), was successfully synthesized for photocatalytic water reduction to produce H2. Under visible-light irradiation, the prepared NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/CN/NiPd composite clearly showed enhanced photocatalytic performance for H2 evolution compared to NH2-MIL-125(Ti), NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/CN, and NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/NiPd. The as-synthesized NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/0.75CN/Ni15.8Pd2.1 photocatalyst exhibited a high H2 production rate of 8.7mmolg−1 h−1, 322 and 1.3 times higher than those of NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/0.75CN and NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/Ni15.8Pd4.1, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the intimate interfacial contact between NH2-MIL-125(Ti) and CN, accelerating the charge transfer, as well as loaded NiPd nanoparticles, increasing the light-absorbing capacity and accelerating the charge transfer of NH2-MIL-125(Ti)/CN. This work demonstrates that the addition of appropriate co-catalysts onto MOF/CN hybrid with intimate contact interface provides a new approach to design highly efficient and solar-energy-harvesting photocatalysts.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:09:22Z
  • Highly effective oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysis:
           Nitrogen-doped hierarchically mesoporous carbon derived from
           interpenetrated nonporous metal-organic frameworks
    • Authors: Ai-dong Tan; Yi-fang Wang Zhi-yong Panagiotis Tsiakaras Zhen-xing Liang
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2017
      Source:Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Volume 218
      Author(s): Ai-dong Tan, Yi-fang Wang, Zhi-yong Fu, Panagiotis Tsiakaras, Zhen-xing Liang
      Nitrogen-doped carbon materials with hierarchically mesoporous structure are synthesized in the present work via the pyrolysis of an interpenetrated non-porous metal-organic framework (MOF), viz. [Zn2(TPT)(BDC)2]·H2O (SCUT-11, TPT=tris(4-pyridyl)triazine, BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), as the precursor. X-ray diffraction reveals that the synthesized metal-organic framework (MOF) is of high purity of the crystalline phase, and its structure follows our previously reported SCUT-11. This triply-interpenetrated MOF features high density of Zn cations in their interwoven packing structure, which act as effective pore-forming agent to generate mesopores in final carbon. Physicochemical characterizations reveal that the resultant carbon has high specific surface area and bimodal mesopore size distribution, which originate from the removal of metal oxide and/or metal zinc. These textual features favour both oxygen mass transfer and accessibility of catalytically active sites. Electrochemical results confirm that the resultant carbon, synthesized by pyrolysis at 900°C, shows a superior oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, which is associated with high onset and half-wave potential up to 1.0 and 0.88V, respectively. Further investigation suggests that the as-synthesized carbon catalyst exhibits a remarkable insensitivity towards anions, like sulphate and phosphate, compared with the Pt counterpart. The above features make this carbon catalyst promising to be widely used in different fuel cell types.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:53:23Z
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