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ENGINEERING (1240 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
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Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
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Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
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Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
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Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
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Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
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Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Applied Catalysis A: General
  [SJR: 1.234]   [H-I: 159]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0926-860X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Insight into the role of metal/oxide interaction and Ni availabilities on
           NiAl mixed metal oxide catalysts for methane decomposition
    • Authors: Zhanglong Guo; Jia’E Zheng; Yan Liu; Wei Chu
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Zhanglong Guo, Jia’E Zheng, Yan Liu, Wei Chu
      Ni loaded mixed metal oxides (MMO) catalysts were systematically synthesized with different Ni/Al ratios through layered double hydroxides (LDH) decomposition, fully characterized using various techniques, and tested in catalytic methane decomposition reaction to study the properties of active nickel species on supports. H2 chemisorption indicated the Ni metallic surface areas on Ni0.5Al-MMO and Ni1Al-MMO were 17.1 and 21.1 m2/g, respectively, which were much higher than those on Ni0.5/Al2O3 and Ni1/Al2O3 impregnated catalysts (at 8.8 and 8.5 m2/g, respectively). However, the MMO catalysts gave the lower carbon nanotubes (CNTs) yield compared with the impregnated catalysts. Form the XPS, XRD and H2-TPR characterizations, it were found that there existed a strong metal and support interaction, leading to less NiO being reduced as the active sites. When Ni/Al ratios increased to 2 and 3, the CNT yields for the NixAl-MMO catalysts were much higher than those of impregnated Ni catalysts, up to 2.02 gc/gcat. and 4.55 gc/gcat., vs 1.36 gc/gcat. and 1.29 gc/gcat., respectively. From H2 chemisorption, we found that NixAl-MMO (x = 2 or 3) catalysts had much higher metallic surface areas (22.3 m2/g and 24.6 m2/g), while they were only 4.9 m2/g and 4.3 m2/g on the impregnated catalysts at the same Ni loadings. It suggests MMO catalysts have more reduced Ni active sites available for methane decomposition reaction, attributing to the proper metal-support interactions. SEM and TEM results display the uniform Ni particle sizes existing on MMO catalysts, giving a nice correlation to the inner diameter of CNTs produced.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.031
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • PdZn nanoparticle catalyst formation for ethanol dehydrogenation: Active
           metal impregnation vs incorporation
    • Authors: Jolien De Waele; Vladimir V. Galvita; Hilde Poelman; Christophe Detavernier; Joris W. Thybaut
      Pages: 12 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Jolien De Waele, Vladimir V. Galvita, Hilde Poelman, Christophe Detavernier, Joris W. Thybaut
      Two hydrotalcite-based catalysts have been prepared to investigate the effect of synthesis methods on the catalyst behavior in ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde. On the first one, PdZn/Mg(Al)Ox, Pd and Zn were impregnated on the hydrotalcite support while on the second one, PdZn/Mg(Al)(Pd)(Zn)Ox, Pd and Zn were both incorporated during the support synthesis. Extensive catalyst characterization such as EXAFS, XPS, STEM, XRD,… allowed concluding that impregnation of the active metals gives rise to larger nanoparticles compared to incorporation. Impregnation provokes incomplete reduction, yielding nanoparticles with a PdZn shell and a Pd core. More homogeneously alloyed nanoparticles were obtained after incorporation. The higher methane selectivity on the impregnated catalyst is in agreement with the less uniformly alloyed nanoparticles, which more likely exhibit adjacent Pd-sites promoting product acetaldehyde decomposition. Overall, incorporation gave rise to the most active and selective catalyst to acetaldehyde for ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Zeolite imidazolate frameworks in catalysis: Synthesis of benzimidazoles
           via cascade redox condensation using Co-ZIF-67 as an efficient
           heterogeneous catalyst
    • Authors: Viet D. Nguyen; Chung K. Nguyen; Kien N. Tran; Thach N. Tu; Tung T. Nguyen; Ha V. Dang; Thanh Truong; Nam T.S. Phan
      Pages: 20 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Viet D. Nguyen, Chung K. Nguyen, Kien N. Tran, Thach N. Tu, Tung T. Nguyen, Ha V. Dang, Thanh Truong, Nam T.S. Phan
      Zeolite imidazolate framework Co-ZIF-67 was synthesized and utilized as a recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of benzimidazoles via the cascade redox condensation of 2-nitroanilines with benzylamines without added oxidizing or reducing agents. The Co-ZIF-67 catalyst expressed better performance in the generation of benzimidazoles than many MOFs and many conventional homogeneous catalysts. The transformation progressed via genuinely heterogeneous catalysis, and the formation of benzimidazoles via homogeneous catalysis due to the leaching phenomenon, if any, was not considerable. The cobalt-based framework catalyst could be reutilized many times for the reaction without losing its efficiency. The fact that the cascade redox condensation could proceed readily with a recyclable catalyst while additional reducing or oxidizing agents were not required would outperform previous synthetic protocols. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first heterogeneous catalytic approach to achieve benzimidazoles via the cascade redox condensation of 2-nitroanilines with benzylamines.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Nanostructured Ru-Co@SiO2: Highly efficient yet durable for CO2 reforming
           of methane with a desirable H2/CO ratio
    • Authors: Yijun Pang; Yixuan Dou; Aihua Zhong; Wu Jiang; Lingli Gu; Xinzhen Feng; Weijie Ji; Chak-Tong Au
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Yijun Pang, Yixuan Dou, Aihua Zhong, Wu Jiang, Lingli Gu, Xinzhen Feng, Weijie Ji, Chak-Tong Au
      In this study, the nanostructured bimetallic Ru-Co catalysts (Ru-Co core particles of ca. 50 nm; SiO2 sell thickness of 6.1 nm, and nRu/nCo = 0.008) were fabricated through the hydrothermal (or impregnation) and modified Stöber processes. The developed catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, N2 sorption, TEM, XPS, TG-MS, and H2-TPR, and evaluated for CO2 reforming of methane to syngas, to establish a detailed structure-performance correlation. The strategy of catalyst design effectively reduced metal sintering at reaction temperatures. Uniform Ru distribution through a hydrothermal approach resulted in more direct Co-Ru interaction, which caused the Co-based cores rather coking- and oxidation-resistant, and induced a phase transformation of β-Co to α-Co under the reaction atmosphere, beneficial for the reaction. The silica shell porosity was modified by applying the CTAB and PVP surfactants in shell encapsulation. In terms of reaction temperature (700 °C), CH4 turnover frequency (84.3 s−1), H2/CO ratio (0.98), and carbon deposition rate (0.5 mgcoke gcat −1 h−1), the currently developed binary Ru-Co catalyst with uniform Ru distribution and improved SiO2 shell porosity is proved to be highly efficient yet durable with a desirable H2/CO ratio for the target reaction. In view of the unique features of catalyst material and the outstanding reaction performance on the basis of CH4 TOF, new insights into the Co-based catalyst for DRM are provided in the current work.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Influence of Zr on the performance of Mg-Al catalysts via
           hydrotalcite-like precursors for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate from
           urea and glycerol
    • Authors: Dengfeng Wang; Xuelan Zhang; Xingshun Cong; Shanfang Liu; Diangen Zhou
      Pages: 36 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Dengfeng Wang, Xuelan Zhang, Xingshun Cong, Shanfang Liu, Diangen Zhou
      A series of Zr-containing Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like (HTl) precursors were prepared using co-precipitation method with Zr4+: (Al3+ + Zr4+) from 0 to 0.7. It was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction that the yield of the HTl phase declined on increasing of Zr content. Then, Mg-Al-Zr mixed oxide (CHT-Zr) catalysts were obtained by calcining of the corresponding HTl precursors and they all exhibited mesoporous structure after heat treatment. Based on systemic characterization, it was observed that the amount of Zr additive showed a great effect on the structure and acidic-basic property of CHT-Zr samples. Meanwhile, such CHT-Zr catalysts were effective catalysts for the glycerol carbonate (GLC) synthesis from glycerol and urea. Afterwards, the function of acidic and basic sites in each reaction path identified in this research was elucidated based on the reactant conversion and product selectivity. It proved that the acidic sites were inclined to promote the reaction towards GLC synthesis, while all the paths towards the by-products were significantly catalyzed by the basic sites. However, the catalysts with extra strong acidity did not facilitate the GLC production due to poisoning of surface active sites by urea adsorption. So, a well-balanced acidic-basic property was important to obtain high GLC yield with good selectivity. Among all the catalytic samples, the catalysts with Zr4+: (Al3+ + Zr4+) = 0.3 showed the best catalytic performance with 87.8% yield of GLC. Moreover, different reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst amount and vacuum degree were investigated and optimum conditions were established. Additionally, this catalyst could be readily recycled and reused for at least four times without any activation treatment, while still possessing high activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • A review on BiVO4 photocatalyst: Activity enhancement methods for solar
           photocatalytic applications
    • Authors: Malathi A.; Madhavan J.; Muthupandian Ashokkumar; Prabhakarn Arunachalam
      Pages: 47 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Malathi A., Madhavan J., Muthupandian Ashokkumar, Prabhakarn Arunachalam
      Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a promising visible-light driven semiconductor photocatalyst with various benefits such as low production cost, low toxicity, high photostability, resistance to photo-corrosion and narrow band gap with a good response to visible-light excite. However, the fast recombination of photoinduced charge carriers restricts their photocatalytic activity. In the past decades, many attempts were adopted to enhance the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4. Significant advances in understanding the fundamental issues and the development of an efficient photocatalyst have been made in current years. In this review, we have provided a comprehensive overview of the latest progress on the morphology control and growth mechanism of BiVO4 micro/nano-structures, doping with metal and non-metal elements and semiconductor coupling along with some highlights in the photodegradation of organic pollutants under visible-light illumination. This review may benefit the researchers and engineers in the arena of material chemistry for designing new BiVO4 based photocatalysts with low production cost and high efficiency.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Effect of Lewis and Brønsted acidity on glucose conversion to 5-HMF and
           lactic acid in aqueous and organic media
    • Authors: A.A. Marianou; C.M. Michailof; A. Pineda; E.F. Iliopoulou; K.S. Triantafyllidis; A.A. Lappas
      Pages: 75 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): A.A. Marianou, C.M. Michailof, A. Pineda, E.F. Iliopoulou, K.S. Triantafyllidis, A.A. Lappas
      Among the different metal-promoted catalysts for the conversion of C6 sugars to platform chemicals, Sn-based catalysts have demonstrated high activity for different types of reactions, such as isomerization, retro-aldol conversion and dehydration of glucose or its isomers. The form of Sn species, as oxides or ions, along with the properties of the support are important factors determining the prevalent reaction pathway and product distribution. In this framework, we have studied the conversion of glucose mainly in biphasic (H2O/DMSO) media, using four types of Sn-based catalysts, i.e. Sn(II) and Sn(IV) as homogeneous catalysts (Cl- salts) or as the respective oxides in heterogeneous systems, Sn(IV) as SnO2 supported on γ-Al2O3, zeolites (ZSM-5 and Beta) or mesoporous aluminosilicates (Al-MCM-41), and Snδ+ as ion-exchange cations on the above zeolites. The solid catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR/pyridine, ICP-OES, XRF and N2 porosimetry. Under the studied conditions, the main products obtained were 5-HMF and lactic acid in both the homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the Lewis acidity offered by Sn oxides promotes the retro-aldol reaction pathway towards lactic acid, while the Lewis acidity offered by γ-Al2O3 enhances the synthesis of both 5-HMF and lactic acid. By combining these two functions, the Sn impregnated γ-Al2O3 catalysts induce further increase of both 5-HMF and lactic acid yields. In case of catalysts that possess Brønsted acidity as well (i.e. Sn ion-exchanged or impregnated zeolites and Al-MCM-41), dehydration reactions are promoted and the product selectivity is shifted towards 5-HMF synthesis. The highest 5-HMF molar yield of 27.5% (at complete glucose conversion) was achieved by Sn20/γ-Al2O3 accompanied by lactic acid at 16.5% molar yield. For this catalyst the effect of the solvent, catalyst concentration and reaction temperature and time, were further evaluated.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.029
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Selective control for the laccase-catalyzed synthesis of dimers from
           2,6-dimethoxyphenol: Optimization of
           3,3’,5,5’-tetramethoxy-biphenyl-4,4’-diol synthesis using factorial
           design, and evaluation of its antioxidant action in biodiesel
    • Authors: Jéseka G. Schirmann; Robert F.H. Dekker; Dionisio Borsato; Aneli M. Barbosa-Dekker
      Pages: 88 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Jéseka G. Schirmann, Robert F.H. Dekker, Dionisio Borsato, Aneli M. Barbosa-Dekker
      The synthesis of transformed products from 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) can be selectively obtained through controlled oxidative coupling in laccase-catalyzed reactions, and the products formed are dependent upon the enzyme source, as well as, upon the reactions conditions applied. The laccase from Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 was investigated for its ability to catalyze the oxidative transformation of 2,6-DMP. Studies conducted in aqueous medium at pH 3.0 and 6.5, for reaction times of 48, 96 and 144 h, led to the formation of three dimers (I, II, III) via carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen coupling reactions depending upon the pH and reaction time. Dimer I was identified as 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethoxydiphenylquinone by 13C NMR, while dimer II was identified by 1H NMR as 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethoxybiphenyl-4,4′-diol (TMBP). Dimer III was synthesized at pH 3.0 and was influenced by the reaction time (96h), and is predicted to be formed via carbon-oxygen coupling. The chemical structure of III (4-(2,6-dimethoxy-phenoxy)-2,6-dimethoxyphenol) was identified by ESI-Q-TOF HRMS. TMBP (II) was the only product obtained at pH 6.5 independent of the reaction times. TMBP synthesis at pH 6.5 was optimized by design-matrix using a three-factor Box-Behnken incomplete factorial-design that defined the parameters: 2,6-DMP concentration (2.6–3.4 mmol) laccase activity (1.35–3.38 U) and reaction time (120 h) to give a yield of 11.93 ± 0.49%, which agreed with the mathematical model value of 12%. TMBP was evaluated as an antioxidant to stabilize biodiesel, and showed an efficacy similar to the commercial antioxidant standard, butyl hydroxytoluene, indicating that TMBP could serve as an alternative antioxidant to stabilize biodiesel.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Atomic layer deposition of Pt nanoparticles on low surface area zirconium
           oxide for the efficient base-free oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to
           2,5-furandicarboxylic acid
    • Authors: Hao Chen; Jinshan Shen; Kequan Chen; Yong Qin; Xiuyang Lu; Pingkai Ouyang; Jie Fu
      Pages: 98 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Hao Chen, Jinshan Shen, Kequan Chen, Yong Qin, Xiuyang Lu, Pingkai Ouyang, Jie Fu
      The oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (2,5-FDCA) under base-free condition is one of the most attractive reactions. This work first reported the synthesis of highly efficient oxidation of 5-HMF to 2,5-FDCA catalyst using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) to deposit Pt nanoparticles on low surface area zirconium oxide (ZrO2). Pt/ZrO2 synthesized by ALD showed excellent activity for the oxidation of 5-HMF to 2,5-FDCA in base-free solution compared with Pt/MOx synthesized by other methods in this work or reported already. The highly dispersed and uniform particle size of Pt particles were demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature programmed desorption of CO (CO-TPD), which provided a striking improvement of the catalytic activity in the oxidation of 5-HMF. An enhanced CO adsorption property of Pt/ZrO2 obtained by ALD was also characterized by CO-TPD. The enhanced adsorption property of CO facilitated a stronger adsorption between catalyst and reactant/intermediates, which associated with the high dispersion and uniform particle size distribution of Pt particles to make the adsorbed reactant be efficiently converted to 2,5-FDCA.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Vanadium contamination of FCC catalyst: Understanding the destruction and
           passivation mechanisms
    • Authors: Ubong J. Etim; Peng Bai; Rooh Ullah; Fazle Subhan; Zifeng Yan
      Pages: 108 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Ubong J. Etim, Peng Bai, Rooh Ullah, Fazle Subhan, Zifeng Yan
      Vanadium scavenging material comprising magnesium and yttrium oxides (Mg-Y-oxide) was prepared and evaluated for vanadium capture under simulated FCC regeneration conditions for typical FCC process. Vanadium trapping ability was measured using BET, XRD, FTIR, EDX coupled SEM and MAT. The results show that physiochemical properties, vanadium trapping and catalyst protection increase with amount of the trap material. SEM-EDX results confirm migration of vanadium as indicated by its presence in the passivator particle. Vanadium migrates within the catalyst particles by both inter and intra particles mechanisms. The XRD data further reveal high vanadium selectivity towards yttrium when passivator is incorporated after impregnation of vanadium, with the formation of crystalline yttrium vanadate (YVO4). Catalytic evaluation indicates improved activities of catalysts containing passivator which correlate with physiochemical parameters. In the passivation mechanism, mobile vanadic acid preferentially reacts more with Y2O3 in mixed metal oxide due to its higher activity (active sites), forming YVO4. These results therefore reveal that the passivator protects the catalyst by formation of immobile vanadate with mobile vanadic acid, thereby reducing hydrolysis of the catalyst framework and thus preserving important properties of the catalyst.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Syngas production over La0.9NiyAl11.95-yO19-δ catalysts during C14-alkane
    • Authors: Todd H. Gardner
      Pages: 118 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Todd H. Gardner
      Partial oxidation studies were conducted over a series of Ni-substituted lanthanum hexaaluminate catalysts, La0.9NiyAl11.95-yO19-δ (y = 1.0, 0.8, 0.4 and 0.2) to evaluate the effect of higher alkane, sulfur and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using tetradecane (n-C14), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 1-methylnapthalene (1-MN) as model reaction compounds. XRD showed the Ni-substituted lanthanum hexaaluminate catalysts to have magnetoplumbite structure. Lattice parameters along the a,b-axis are shown to increase systematically with increasing Ni substitution. The unit cell is also shown to increase systematically with Ni substitution providing clear evidence of Ni2+ substitution for Al3+ in the lanthanum hexaaluminate lattice. Catalytic activity and product yields were evaluated by temperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR) using n-C14 partial oxidation as a probe reaction. Between 750 and 900 °C, H2 and CO yields are shown to increase with increasing Ni surface sites while aromatic and olefin yields are shown to decrease. Step response experiments were performed to show the effect of 0.1 wt% 1-MN addition on catalytic activity and performance. As expected, at lower Ni substitution, thermal chemistry predominates suggesting fewer available active Ni sites. At the conditions tested, the site blocking effect is shown to be reversible at all levels of Ni substitution. Similar catalytic behaviors are observed with step response experiments to 50 ppm w/w dibenzothiophene (DBT) where site blocking is shown to produce a concomitantly greater effect on catalytic performance and active site occlusion with catalysts that have less active sites. The step response to DBT is also observed to be reversible. Post analysis of the used catalysts shows that coke deposition is greater on the catalysts with lower Ni substitution.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • One-pot template-free preparation of mesoporous MgO-ZrO2 catalyst for the
           synthesis of dipropyl carbonate
    • Authors: Xuelan Zhang; Dengfeng Wang; Gongde Wu; Xiaoli Wang; Xixi Jiang; Shanfang Liu; Diangen Zhou; Dongmei Xu; Jun Gao
      Pages: 130 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Xuelan Zhang, Dengfeng Wang, Gongde Wu, Xiaoli Wang, Xixi Jiang, Shanfang Liu, Diangen Zhou, Dongmei Xu, Jun Gao
      A series of mesoporous nano-MgO-ZrO2 with various Mg:Zr atomic ratios were prepared via simple co-precipitation process without addition of a template. It was demonstrated by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption and TEM that these samples still kept well mesoporous structure even after calcination at 600 °C. During the preparation process, divalent Mg2+ ions could be incorporated into tetragonal ZrO2 lattice to form a solid solution. More important, the surface basic density of these catalysts closely depended on their Mg content. Then, the resulting MgO-ZrO2 catalysts were used as basic catalysts for the dipropyl carbonate (DPC) synthesis via transesterification of n-propanol and dimethyl carbonate. The relationship between the basic property of solid base and their catalytic performance was clarified in detail. Among all the materials, the catalyst with Mg:Zr atomic ratio = 0.5 showed the best catalytic performance. Under the suitable reaction conditions, the yield of DPC could reach 98.5% with 100% selectivity. In addition, based on the reusability test and catalyst characterization, this catalyst exhibited extraordinary structure stability and it could be reused at least four times without obvious loss of reactivity.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Fast catalytic conversion of diethylene glycol to morpholine over
           thermally stable Zn promoted Cu-NiO/Al2O3 catalyst prepared via combustion
    • Authors: Kaibin Zhou; Xiaodan Sun; Yaseen Muhammad; Peng Hu; Yaochu Li; Zhangfa Tong; Zhenxia Zhao
      Pages: 138 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Kaibin Zhou, Xiaodan Sun, Yaseen Muhammad, Peng Hu, Yaochu Li, Zhangfa Tong, Zhenxia Zhao
      Highly active and thermally stable M-Cu-NiO/Al2O3 catalysts (M represents Al/La/Mg/Zn) were prepared by combustion method and applied in diethylene glycol (DEG) conversion to morpholine (Mp). Copper species preserved relatively small crystallite size (19 nm), high dispersion (40.3%) and high surface area (272 m2/g) in M-Cu-NiO/Al2O3 catalysts. High dispersion and intimate contact of copper with Al and La/Mg/Zn synergistically enhanced DEG conversion and Mp selectivity. Addition of promoter i.e. La, Mg, or Zn facilitated the formation of surface defects and isolated species to inhibit migration and aggregation of Cu moities during calcination as well as in high temperature DEG conversion reaction. Compared to other catalysts, Zn-Cu-NiO/Al2O3 combusted catalyst exhibited the highest DEG conversion of 99% (55% higher than impregnated catlayst) and Mp selectivity (95%), even at a high DEG space velocity of 0.8 mL g−1 h−1. Moreover, Zn-Cu-NiO/Al2O3 exhibited excellent thermal stability i.e. less than 2% decrease in initial DEG conversion after 80 h of reaction. The catalysts followed an overall activity order of: Zn-Cu-NiO/Al2O3 > Mg-Cu-NiO/Al2O3  >  La-Cu-NiO/Al2O3. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET surface area, SEM and XPS techniques. The present study, credited to its cost-effective nature, simplicity of operation and high efficiency, can be effectively applied for DEG conversion to Mp on industrial level.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • New electrooxidation characteristic for Ni-based electrodes for wide
           application in methanol fuel cells
    • Authors: Nasser A.M. Barakat; Mohamed A. Yassin; Fahad S. Al-Mubaddel; Mohamed T. Amen
      Pages: 148 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Nasser A.M. Barakat, Mohamed A. Yassin, Fahad S. Al-Mubaddel, Mohamed T. Amen
      The study proved that synthesis of the Ni(OOH) active layer over nickel-based electrocatalysts before utilization in methanol electrooxidation is not an important step and the oxidation process can start over the inactivated surface. Based on XPS analysis and the electrochemical measurements, the electrooxidation process can take place over the bared nickel surface by means of the predominant Ni(OH)2 thin layer with formation of the Ni(OOH) as by product; the reactions were explained by a newly proposed mechanism. Later on, due to abundance of the conventional active layer, the oxidation process returns to the ordinary mechanism until exhaustion of the NiOOH layer then the oxidation reactions return back to be Ni(OH)2-dependent and so forth. Accordingly, it was discovered that the methanol oxidation process can be done continuously on the surface of the inactivated Ni-based materials by two successive mechanisms. Ni-decorated graphene was synthesized and exploited as an effective Ni-based electrocatalyst, the catalyst model was characterized by XRD, TEM and Raman spectroscopy analyses. Overall, the study introduces a novel characteristic for the nickel-based electrocatalysts and opens a new avenue for those cheap electrode materials to be exploited in the fuel cells.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Rhodium incorporated monometallic cobalt hydrotalcite-type materials:
           Preparation and its applications for the hydroformylation of alkenes
    • Authors: Dhanjay Sharma; V. Ganesh; Ayyamperumal Sakthivel
      Pages: 155 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Dhanjay Sharma, V. Ganesh, Ayyamperumal Sakthivel
      Unprecedented bimetallic cobalt–rhodium layered hydrotalcite-type materials (CoRh-HT) were successfully prepared and used as potential catalysts for highly selective hydroformylation of alkenes to aldehydes. This is the first report on hydroformylation studied using a Co–Rh-based heterogeneous catalyst that contains cobalt present in the Co2+ and Co3+ oxidation states and rhodium present as an Rh3+ ion in the framework. Presence of Rh3+ along with Co2+ and Co3+ in the layered framework was confirmed based on various physicochemical studies such as HRTEM, powder X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Enhancement of diethyl malonate hydrogenation to 1,3-propanediol using
           mesoporous Cu/SBA-15 as catalyst
    • Authors: Jintao Yu; Jingshun Cao; Lihui Du; Yongmei Wei; Tao Wang; Hengshui Tian
      Pages: 161 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Jintao Yu, Jingshun Cao, Lihui Du, Yongmei Wei, Tao Wang, Hengshui Tian
      SBA-15 is considered as an ideal support to ensure a copper-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity. In this work, the hydrogenation of diethyl malonate (DEM) to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) over Cu/SBA-15 catalysts was investigated. Compared to the conventional Cu/SiO2 catalyst, the Cu/SBA-15 catalysts exhibited higher DEM conversions (up to 95%), better 1,3-PDO selectivities (up to 61%), and longer lifetime (over 180 h). These improvements were ascribed to the well-ordered tubular channel structure, better copper active-site dispersion, and appropriate Cu+/Cu° ratio in the Cu/SBA-15, affording higher TOFs and copper species surface areas, which was confirmed by N2-physisorption, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, N2O titration, transmission electron microscopy, H2 temperature-programmed reduction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The Cu/SBA-15 in this work advances the prospects of DEM hydrogenation as a promising method to produce 1,3-PDO on industrial scale.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Enhancing the vanadium dispersion on V-MCM-41 by boron modification for
           efficient iso-butane dehydrogenation
    • Authors: Xiao-sheng Wang; Guang-lin Zhou; Zhi-wei Chen; Qin Li; Hong-jun Zhou; Chun-ming Xu
      Pages: 171 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 April 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 555
      Author(s): Xiao-sheng Wang, Guang-lin Zhou, Zhi-wei Chen, Qin Li, Hong-jun Zhou, Chun-ming Xu
      A series of boron modified V-MCM-41 catalysts were in situ synthesized. The modification effect of boron to the vanadium species and catalytic performances were systematically studied. The catalysts could still maintain mesoporous structure and relatively large specific surface area after boron modification. Boron species were mainly in the form of triangular [BO3]3− units on the surface and the pores of the catalysts. The introduction of boron could effectively enhance the dispersion of vanadium species and increase the amount of surface vanadium sites. The catalysts showed high activity towards iso-butane dehydrogenation. The results of catalytic tests showed that both the iso-butane conversion and iso-butene selectivity improved with the presence of boron species. The best catalytic performance was obtained on the sample with the maximum vanadium sites. The performance of the catalyst still remained stable after several cycles of tests and regenerations, which was promising for industrial application in moving bed or fluidized bed reactor in the future.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 555 (2018)
  • Ammonia synthesis over Cs- or Ba-promoted ruthenium catalyst supported on
           strontium niobate
    • Authors: Minxuan Chen; Mingwei Yuan; Jinjun Li; Zhixiong You
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Minxuan Chen, Mingwei Yuan, Jinjun Li, Zhixiong You
      Strontium niobates with different crystalline structure and morphology have been prepared via a hydrothermal method and applied as a support for ruthenium catalyst in ammonia synthesis. The sample synthesized with a nominal Sr/Nb = 2.0, having a pure Sr2Nb2O7 crystalline phase and specific surface area of 87 m2 g−1, exhibits the best performance as support for Ru catalyst. The flake-structured Sr2Nb2O7 substrate induced epitaxial growth of truncated pyramid shaped ruthenium nanoparticles with a dispersion as high as 93%, which have abundant steps and B5 sites playing a key role in ammonia synthesis catalysis. Adding Cs- or Ba-promoter enhanced the activity of Ru/Sr2Nb2O7 catalyst drastically. The highest ammonia synthesis rate over 8Cs- or 4Ba-2 wt%Ru/Sr2Nb2O7 was 4986 and 2317 (μmol g−1 cat h−1) at 0.1 MPa and 673 K, respectively. In addition, both catalysts were stable over reaction for 72 h at 673 K and 0.1 MPa. Thus, the synthesized Sr2Nb2O7 is expected to be a practically promising oxide support for ruthenium ammonia synthesis catalsyts.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Identification of carbon species on iron-based catalysts during
           Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
    • Authors: Diego Peña; Andrea Cognigni; Thomas Neumayer; Wouter van Beek; Debra S. Jones; Melesio Quijada; Magnus Rønning
      Pages: 10 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Diego Peña, Andrea Cognigni, Thomas Neumayer, Wouter van Beek, Debra S. Jones, Melesio Quijada, Magnus Rønning
      This paper focuses on the use of in situ and ex situ characterisation techniques to provide evidences of carbon species on a commercial iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst as well as other indices of potential deactivation mechanisms. In situ XANES measurements demonstrate that re-oxidation or transformation of the active iron phase, i.e. the Hägg carbide phase, was not a significant deactivation mechanism at the studied conditions. Sintering of Hägg carbide nanoparticles is significant with increasing temperatures and time on stream. The sintering mechanism is proposed to be a hydrothermally-assisted process. In situ DRIFTS indicates the presence of different carbon species on the catalyst surface such as aliphatic hydrocarbons from wax products and oxygenate compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes/ketones and carboxylate species. Carboxylate species are resistant towards hydrogenation at 280 °C. The presence of different carbon species on the surface after wax product extraction is evident from TPH-MS measurements. GC-MS analysis shows that the strongly adsorbed carbon species remaining on the catalyst surface from wax products are mainly α-olefins and branched carboxylic species. The interaction of oxygenate compounds, especially carboxylate species with iron oxide, may form stable complexes limiting further iron catalyst carburization. STEM-EDX analysis shows that carbon is preferentially located on iron particles.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Palladium-silver polyaniline composite as an efficient catalyst for
           ethanol oxidation
    • Authors: Zahra Nodehi; Amir Abbas Rafati; Ali Ghaffarinejad
      Pages: 24 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Zahra Nodehi, Amir Abbas Rafati, Ali Ghaffarinejad
      In recent years bi-metallic materials have shown promising effect as potential catalyst layer in the fuel cells. Here, for the first time, bimetallic Ag-Pd were electrodeposited on polyaniline/glassy carbon electrode (PANI/GCE) via the constant current method, which used as efficient electrode for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline media. Some important parameters including applied current, deposition time and metal ratio were optimized. The obtained bimetallic AgPd/PANI/GCE catalyst showed improved catalytic performance for ethanol conversion compared with the Pd/PANI/GCE, Pd/GCE, Ag/PANI/GCE, and PANI/GCE. The catalytic enhancement is due to the synergic effect between Ag, Pd and PANI. Moreover, the proposed AgPd composite was deposited on the carbon fiber cloth (CC) to evaluate its applicability as an anode in ethanol fuel cell. To summarize, the good electrochemical performance and easy preparation make the obtained Ag-Pd bimetallic composite as a potential candidate for alkaline ethanol fuel cell.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Understanding the photocatalytic degradation by P25 TiO2 of acetic acid
           and propionic acid in the pursuit of alkane production
    • Authors: Lynn M. Betts; Frederic Dappozze; Chantal Guillard
      Pages: 35 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Lynn M. Betts, Frederic Dappozze, Chantal Guillard
      Towards the application of harvesting valuable hydrocarbon products from wastewater and associated fermentation processes, the traditional P25 Degussa TiO2-assisted decarboxylation of simple carboxylic acid substrates - in this case acetic and propionic acids – was re-examined for its alkane production capacity. Avoiding doping or the introduction of other elements into the commercially available TiO2 lattice, we modified other parameters of the reaction not yet explored. Under nitrogen, highly concentrated (50%) and pure (100%) solutions of both acetic acid and propionic acid demonstrated good selectivity for the decarboxylation over any other side reaction or complete mineralization, nearing or exacting a 1:1 hydrocarbon/CO2 ratio in each case. This behaviour proves that the direct reaction of h+ with the acid in either case is the key parameter to favour this selectivity. In the case of acetic acid, methane’s yield was increased significantly by the periodic aeration of the catalyst when exhausted under nitrogen. The modification of solution pH to more physiological and fermentation-compatible levels (pH of 6.0) lead to improve the selectivity and the ethane’ yield in 50% propionic acid degradation and also resulted in virtually no unidentified carbon products. The Photo-Kolbe coupling and dehydration products, meanwhile, were favoured in the less concentrated solutions, suggesting that more dilute solutions may be more promising for deriving longer length hydrocarbons from substrates of smaller size. Mechanistically, these results also implicate that OH° radicals are at the origin of product generation by way of Photo-Kolbe coupling and dehydration. Finally, acetic acid and propionic acid were degraded simultaneously, in which the latter was degraded preferentially or at least initially before the former, along with the appearance of propane as a result of cross-coupling.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Highly porous monolith/TiO2 supported Cu, Cu-Ni, Ru, and Pt catalysts in
           methanol steam reforming process for H2 generation
    • Authors: Pooya Tahay; Yasin Khani; Mohammad Jabari; Farzad Bahadoran; Nasser Safari
      Pages: 44 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Pooya Tahay, Yasin Khani, Mohammad Jabari, Farzad Bahadoran, Nasser Safari
      A comprehensive investigation on the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) process using a microstructure monolith in conjunction with a synthesized nanostructure of TiO2 is presented. The surface of the designed monolith/TiO2 structure was coated with copper, copper/nickel, ruthenium, and platinum as the catalyst. The prepared catalysts were then characterized with FE-SEM, AFM, BET surface area measurement, FT-IR, far-infrared, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained results show that in this process, the designed Monolith/TiO2 structure has a remarkable impact on methanol conversion (99%) and carbon monoxide selectivity (5%). These results are interpreted by the high surface area and superb mass transfer in this micro/nano engineered structure. These results also indicated that the catalyst activity and dispersion are influenced by the metal-support interaction, which is more pronounced in the TiO2 supports. The ruthenium catalyst presented the highest conversion and selectivity for this process. However, the economically viable property of the Cu-Ni catalyst supposes it as an alternative for the noble ruthenium catalyst.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • TiO2 Supported gold–palladium catalyst for effective syngas production
           from methane partial oxidation
    • Authors: Zhu Luo; David A. Kriz; Ran Miao; Chung-Hao Kuo; Wei Zhong; Curtis Guild; Junkai He; Bill Willis; Yanliu Dang; Steven L. Suib; Partha Nandi
      Pages: 54 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Zhu Luo, David A. Kriz, Ran Miao, Chung-Hao Kuo, Wei Zhong, Curtis Guild, Junkai He, Bill Willis, Yanliu Dang, Steven L. Suib, Partha Nandi
      The CO and H2 (syngas) production from methane partial oxidation (MPO) using TiO2 supported Au-Pd bimetallic catalysts are discussed. The supported Au, Pd and Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation or co-impregnation method and were characterized. The supported Au-Pd catalyst was selective for reforming and was more active compared to bare TiO2, TiO2 supported Au only, or Pd only catalysts. The catalyst properties before and after MPO reaction were investigated, including the stability of the TiO2 support, and the stability of Au and Pd nanoparticles. The supported Au-Pd catalyst has the highest TON (TONH2 = 23 at 650 °C), compared to supported Au catalyst (TONH2 < 1) and supported Pd catalyst (TONH2 < 1). Based on the analysis of outlet gases from the MPO reaction in a flow reactor, synergetic effects between Au and Pd, where Pd activates CH bonds while gold modulates the behavior of oxygen at the catalyst surface, are shown to contribute to MPO. Additionally, the Au-Pd/TiO2 material shows long-term activity (>12 h) for the MPO reaction at 600 °C.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Hydrothermal modification of the alumina catalyst for the skeletal
           isomerization of n-butenes
    • Authors: Ildar N. Mukhambetov; Svetlana R. Egorova; Aliya N. Mukhamed’yarova; Alexander A. Lamberov
      Pages: 64 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Ildar N. Mukhambetov, Svetlana R. Egorova, Aliya N. Mukhamed’yarova, Alexander A. Lamberov
      Hydrothermal modification of the alumina catalyst of n-butenes skeletal isomerization was investigated. It is shown that during the hydrothermal treatment of γ-Al2O3 and subsequent calcination its activity in skeletal isomerization of n-butenes first increases, and then it decreases with a rise of the hydrothermal treatment duration. This behavior is due to a similar change in the content of the strong Lewis acid sites of alumina, which are the active centers of reaction and they can be identified by IR-spectroscopy of the adsorbed pyridine and EPR-spectroscopy of the adsorbed anthraquinone. We report the mechanism of new Lewis acid sites formation at the γ-Al2O3 hydrothermal treatment containing X-ray amorphous component.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.024
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • New catalysts with dual-functionality for cyclohexane selective oxidation
    • Authors: Amal A. Alshehri; Abdullah M. Alhanash; Murad Eissa; Mohamed S. Hamdy
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Amal A. Alshehri, Abdullah M. Alhanash, Murad Eissa, Mohamed S. Hamdy
      M-Co-TUD-1; a series of the new materials was prepared by applying one-step synthesis procedure based on sol-gel technique. The prepared materials contain 1wt% of cobalt ions and 5wt% of metal oxide (metal = Cr, Cu, Ti, Mn, Bi, V, or Sr) in the TUD-1 mesoporous material. The prepared materials were characterized by using XRD, DRS UV–vis, N2 sorption measurements, ICP elemental analysis, SEM, and HR-TEM. Characterization results showed that all the prepared materials contain isolated Co2+ ions and nanoparticles of Cr2O3, TiO2, MnO, V2O5 or bulky crystals of Bi2O3 and CuO incorporated in the silica matrix. The catalytic performance of the prepared materials was evaluated in liquid phase, free-solvent selective oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol by using TBHP as an oxidant at 70 °C. The prepared materials exhibited higher activity than either Co-TUD-1 or other M-TUD-1. More importantly, a very small concentration of the intermediate; cyclohexyl hydroperoxide (CHHP) was detected. In case of stability, Mn-Co-TUD-1 and Ti-Co-TUD-1 exhibited an excellent stability during the reaction. Moreover, Mn-Co-TUD-1 was successfully recycled up to 4 runs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Truxillic and truxinic acid-based, bio-derived diesters as potent internal
           donor in Ziegler-Natta catalyst for propylene polymerization
    • Authors: Akanksha Matta; Patchanee Chammingkwan; Brajendra K. Singh; Minoru Terano; Tatsuo Kaneko; Toshiaki Taniike
      Pages: 80 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Akanksha Matta, Patchanee Chammingkwan, Brajendra K. Singh, Minoru Terano, Tatsuo Kaneko, Toshiaki Taniike
      In this study, novel α-truxillic and β-truxinic acid-based, bio-derived diesters have been developed as internal donors for preparing Ziegler-Natta (ZN) catalysts. Impacts of these bio-derived diesters were investigated on the chemical composition, the morphology, the mode of adsorption, and the propylene polymerization performance of the catalysts in comparison to the most widely used fourth-generation catalyst containing dibutyl phthalate. The molecular structures of the diesters and the particle morphology of the catalysts were preserved in the catalyst preparation. The bio-derived diesters afforded ZN catalysts with a reasonable activity and stereospecificity in propylene polymerization along with similarly broad molecular weight distribution (MWD) as the phthalate-based catalyst. Another promising feature of the catalysts was an opposite hydrogen response in terms of expansion of MWD upon the addition of H2.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.030
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Reinforcement of Cr/silica catalysts by secondary deposition of silicate
    • Authors: Max P. McDaniel; Steve L. Kelly
      Pages: 88 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Max P. McDaniel, Steve L. Kelly
      Ethyl silicate oligomers were impregnated into a generic Phillips Cr/silica catalyst used commercially for ethylene polymerization. After calcination, this treatment results in a secondary deposition of silica into the original silica matrix, which changes the porosity of the catalyst somewhat and strengthens its overall structure. The process can be used as a powerful tool to manipulate polymer properties because the molecular weight of the polymer, the MW distribution, and the amount of long-chain branching (LCB) it contains, were found to be strongly influenced, and with them all aspects of molding behavior. This result provides still more evidence that the physical structure of the Cr/silica catalyst can have major consequences for the polymerization reaction, which shapes the character of the polymer. This method of controlling polymer properties is perhaps more convenient for commercial operations than those described previously.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.032
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Bimetallic Ni-Co/SBA-15 catalysts prepared by urea co-precipitation for
           dry reforming of methane
    • Authors: Jinni Xin; Hongjie Cui; Zhenmin Cheng; Zhiming Zhou
      Pages: 95 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Jinni Xin, Hongjie Cui, Zhenmin Cheng, Zhiming Zhou
      A series of NixCo(10-x)/SBA-15 catalysts with constant metal loading (10 wt%) and different Co/Ni mass ratios (0/10–10/0) were prepared by urea co-precipitation and applied to the dry reforming of methane (DRM). The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized in detail by various techniques (N2 physisorption, H2 chemisorption, XRD, TPR, ICP-OES, TGA, HRTEM and XPS), revealing that Ni and Co particles were embedded into the channel of SBA-15 and Ni was alloyed with Co. In addition, the bimetallic catalysts with a Co/Ni ratio (RCo/Ni) lower than 1 had relatively high metal dispersion (ca. 17–20%) and small metal particle sizes (ca. 4–5 nm). The DRM activity and stability of NixCo(10-x)/SBA-15 in terms of coke- and sintering- resistance were systematically examined and compared, which showed that the activity and stability of the catalysts depended strongly on the metal particle size, indicating the structure-sensitive character of the DRM reaction. Compared to monometallic Ni10/SBA-15 and Co10/SBA-15, bimetallic NixCo(10-x)/SBA-15 with RCo/Ni < 1 possessed improved activity and stability, which was mainly attributed to the small metal particle size, the synergetic effect of Co and Ni as well as the confinement effect of SBA-15 mesoporous channels. In particular, Ni9Co1/SBA-15 exhibited the highest activity, stability and H2/CO molar ratio (close to 1) during 50 h of operation at a gas hourly space velocity of 72000 mL/(gcat h) under 973 and 1073 K. Moreover, no coke deposition occurred on the catalyst, with only slight metal particle size growth to around 5 nm, indicating excellent coke- and sintering-resistance.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.033
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Cs, V, Cu Keggin-type catalysts partially oxidize 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol
           to methacrylic acid
    • Authors: Mohammad Jaber Darabi Mahboub; Jordan Wright; Daria C. Boffito; Jean-Luc Dubois; Gregory S. Patience
      Pages: 105 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Mohammad Jaber Darabi Mahboub, Jordan Wright, Daria C. Boffito, Jean-Luc Dubois, Gregory S. Patience
      Heteropoly acids are among the best catalysts to produce carboxylic acids from light hydrocarbons. The Keggin structure maintains metals at a high oxidation particularly in the presence of cesium, vanadium, and copper. They effectively catalyze the partial oxidation of 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol (2MPDO)—a co-product in the hydroformylation of allyl alcohol to 1–4 butanediol. Converting 2MPDO to methacrylic acid would improve the economics of this route to 1–4 butanediol. Here, we establish the relationship between heteropoly acid performance and calcination temperature at 300 °C and 350 °C. The molybdenum oxidation state was higher after the high temperature treatment but it reduced to a greater extent during reaction (from Mo6+ to Mo5+). The higher extent of reduction confirms the higher O2− → Mo6+ charge-transfer in the Keggin anion. Maximum MAA and MAC selectivities were 61% and 28%, respectively, at 250 °C after 480 min over cycling oxidation–reduction and 2MPDO/O2/Ar = 13/10/77 as the best reaction condition and feed composition. Though, the route of direct dehydration of 2MPDO (C–OH bond cleavage) followed by oxidation to MAC is the most direct path to the products detected, we propose a mechanism that passes through the homolytic dissociation of the tertiary C–H bond,considering that bonding energies energies are very similar.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Description of the structure-chemoselectivity relationship in the transfer
           hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones with alcohols in
           the presence of magnesium oxide
    • Authors: Marek Gliński; Urszula Ulkowska
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554
      Author(s): Marek Gliński, Urszula Ulkowska
      The vapour-phase catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) of fifteen acyclic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, i.e. ten aldehydes and five ketones, with ethanol or 2-propanol as hydrogen donors has been studied over pure MgO as the catalyst. The obtained values of the yields of unsaturated alcohols (UOLs) have been used to calculate a normalized value called the relative directional reactivity (RDR). Among substituted α,β-unsaturated aldehydes transfer hydrogenated with ethanol only two of them have shown a lower reactivity (RDRE < 1) than that noted for acrolein (for which RDRE = 1), namely 3,3-dimethyl- and 2-phenylacrolein. It has been found that the introduction of an alkyl substituent into position 2 in an acrolein molecule as well as a phenyl group into position 3 leads to a distinct increase of an RDRE value for such aldehydes. In contrast, very pronounced differences in relative directional reactivity values (RDRP) for both α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones have been observed when 2-propanol was used as the hydrogen donor. The ranges of the RDRP values are: 0.45–2.52 and 0.04–1.71 for aldehydes and ketones, respectively. The proposed normalization procedure allowed us to obtain values which could be used to make meaningful conclusions as to the influence of the structure of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds on their reactivity. Moreover, it was used to determine which of these compounds react in accordance with the thermodynamic description, and whose reactivity is kinetically controlled.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 554 (2018)
  • Catalytic oxidation of 1,2-dichloroethane over three-dimensional ordered
           meso-macroporous Co3O4/La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.5Co0.5O3: Destruction route and
    • Authors: Mingjiao Tian; Chi He; Yanke Yu; Hua Pan; Louise Smith; Zeyu Jiang; Ningbo Gao; Yanfei Jian; Zhengping Hao; Qing Zhu
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): Mingjiao Tian, Chi He, Yanke Yu, Hua Pan, Louise Smith, Zeyu Jiang, Ningbo Gao, Yanfei Jian, Zhengping Hao, Qing Zhu
      Three-dimensional ordered meso-macroporous La0.7Sr0.3Fe0.5Co0.5O3 (3DOM LSFCO)-supported Co3O4 catalysts were designed and prepared via a PMMA-templating strategy for the total oxidation of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE). The physicochemical properties of all synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, HAADF-STEM, low-temperature N2 sorption, XPS, H2-TPR, and in situ FT-IR. The introduction of Co3O4 increases the generation rate of oxygen vacancy, playing a crucial role in adsorption and activation of oxygen species. The special 3DOM structure of perovskite-type oxide promotes 1,2-DCE molecules to effectively and intimately contact with the surface adsorbed oxygen over supported catalysts and further accelerates the redox process. Compared with pure LSFCO, all the Co3O4 supported catalysts show superior catalytic performance with reaction rate increases from 5.53 × 10−12 to 2.29 × 10−11 mol g−1 s−1 and E a decreases from 74.7 to 22.6 KJ mol−1. Amongst, the 10Co3O4/3DOM LSFCO catalyst exhibits the best catalytic activity, highest resistance to chlorine poisoning and lowest by-products concentration because of the largest amount of surface adsorbed oxygen. CO2, CO, HCl, and Cl2 are the main oxidation productions, while some typical reaction intermediates such as vinyl chloride, 1,1,2-trichloroethane and trichloroethylene are also observed, especially over the 3DOM LSFCO sample. Furthermore, the reaction mechanism of 1,2-DCE oxidation over obtained catalysts was proposed based on the results of gas chromatography, in situ FT-IR, and on-line MS. It is believed that the Co3O4/3DOM LSFCO are promising catalysts for the total removal of chlorinated volatile organic compounds.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • Oligomerization of light olefins over ZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts by
           modifying textural properties
    • Authors: Sanggil Moon; Ho-Jeong Chae; Min Bum Park
      Pages: 15 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): Sanggil Moon, Ho-Jeong Chae, Min Bum Park
      The oligomerization of ethene and 1-hexene was performed under 35 bar and 200 °C over NiH- and H-forms of ZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts which had similar Si/Al and Ni content, but different textural properties. Among the H-zeolites, H-ZSM-5 and H-beta composed of nanometer scale (ca. 10 nm) sheet-like crystals, as well as intercrystalline mesoporosity (ca. 5 nm), were found to be much more efficient for the oligomerization of 1-hexene to liquid fuel range products higher than C10 (C10 + ). In the oligomerization of ethene, identically prepared ZSM-5 and beta zeolites but with further exchange with Ni ion, also showed higher activity with remarkable C10+ product selectivity (>80%) after a single stage oligomerization, as compared to the corresponding cation form of ZSM-5 and beta zeolites without nanocrystalline and mesoporous morphology (conversion < 50% and C10+ selectivity < 30%). These results demonstrate that both small crystal size and the mesoporosity of the zeolite catalyst are critical factors for improving the diffusion limitation during the oligomerization of light olefins. This improvement was accompanied by a shift in major oligomeric product selectivity toward C10+ hydrocarbons.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • Hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol as a model compound of bio-oil in methanol
           over mesoporous noble metal catalysts
    • Authors: E.A. Roldugina; E.R. Naranov; A.L. Maximov; E.A. Karakhanov
      Pages: 24 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): E.A. Roldugina, E.R. Naranov, A.L. Maximov, E.A. Karakhanov
      The liquid phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol (GUA), a model compound of bio-oil, was studied on bimetallic (PtPd) and monometallic (Ru) catalysts supported on mesoporous aluminosilicate of Al-HMS(X) type with different Si/Al (X) ratios and on mesoporous zirconia modified with silica (m-ZrO2-SiO2) in the presence of methanol as a solvent. The catalysts were characterized by NH3-TPD, TEM, XPS, 27Al and 29Si solid-state NMR and N2 adsorption–desorption methods. The influence of сatalyst loading, temperature, solvent/guaiacol ratio and contact time on the catalytic performance was investigated. It was established that, decreasing the Si/Al ratio and, correspondingly, increasing the acidity of the catalysts based on Al-HMS led to increasing conversion of guaiacol. Phenol, catechol, and their methylated derivatives were the main products of guaiacol HDO reaction in methanol at low catalyst loading (guaiacol/metal ratio, 800). It was found that the fraction of completely hydrodeoxygenated products (cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane) greatly increased as the catalyst loading grew (guaiacol/metal ratio, 160). Conversion of guaiacol on PtPd/m-ZrO2-SiO2 catalyst was higher than that on PtPd/Al-HMS(10), in accordance with the larger number of acid sites on the catalyst surface; however, the undesirable heavy fraction of methylated by-products was also higher. Ru-based catalysts exhibited the highest catalytic activity and showed unusually high selectivity toward fully hydrodeoxygenated products (cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane) in the HDO of guaiacol in the presence of methanol. Guaiacol can be efficiently converted into alkanes, with quantitative conversion and selectivity to cyclohexanes of 78% over Ru/Al-HMS(10) catalyst under relatively mild conditions (200 °C, 5 MPa H2). Methylation under the influence of methanol, deoxygenation on acid sites and aromatic ring hydrogenation on metal sites proceeded in a parallel way according to the suggested reaction pathways.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • Effect of Ce modification on the structural and catalytic property of
           Co-Mo/Mg(Al)O catalyst for water-gas shift reaction
    • Authors: Jinxing Mi; Yanning Cao; Jincheng Zhang; Yongde Ma; Chongqi Chen; Dalin Li; Xingyi Lin; Lilong Jiang
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): Jinxing Mi, Yanning Cao, Jincheng Zhang, Yongde Ma, Chongqi Chen, Dalin Li, Xingyi Lin, Lilong Jiang
      A series of Mg-Al-Ce mixed oxides with (nMg2+)/(nCe3+ + nAl3+) = 5 and nCe3+/(nCe3+ + nAl3+) = 0 ∼ 7% were synthesized by co-precipitation method based on a hydrotalcite route and used as support to prepare Co-Mo sulfur-resistant water-gas shift (WGS) catalysts. The supports and catalysts were characterized by XRD, ICP, N2-physisorption, CO2-TPD, H2-TPR, H2S-TPS, TEM, and CO-IR. It is found that the catalytic performance and physicochemical property of the Co-Mo/Mg(Al)O catalyst are significantly influenced by the Ce modification. The addition of Ce effectively enhances the WGS activity and the highest activity is obtained on the Co-Mo/Mg(Al)O-CeO2 (5%) catalyst, where the activity at 623 K increases about 2.5 times. The results of H2S-TPS investigation show that in the presence of Ce, the H2S consumption peak shifts to lower temperatures and there is decrease of Mo sulfidation activation energy. Furthermore, HRTEM analysis shows that the addition of Ce (5%) results in decrease of MoS2 slab length and stacking number, and those of CO-IR characterization indicate increased exposure of surface MoS2 sites. It is suggested that the addition of Ce promotes the formation of MoS2 slabs that are smaller in size, leading to higher exposure of surface active sites and hence higher activity.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • Direct Z-scheme heterojunction nanocomposite for the enhanced solar H2
    • Authors: N. Subha; M. Mahalakshmi; M. Myilsamy; B. Neppolian; V. Murugesan
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): N. Subha, M. Mahalakshmi, M. Myilsamy, B. Neppolian, V. Murugesan
      The low-cost and scalable Cu and Zn doped TiO2 (CuZn-TiO2) photocatalyst was synthesized by simple hydrothermal method. The heterojunction formed by ZnO, CuO, Cu0 and Cu2O with TiO2 in 0.5 wt% CuZn-TiO2 photocatalyst effectively suppressed the electron-hole (e−-h+) recombination and enhanced the charge transfer efficiency of TiO2. The heterojunctions formed between metal oxides in nanocomposite material were confirmed from the overlapped lattice fringes in TEM images. XPS confirmed the presence of Ti4+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Cu+1 and Cu0 in 0.5 wt% CuZn-TiO2. In DRS-UV–vis spectra, co-doping of Zn and Cu showed an appreciable red shift for 0.5 wt% CuZn-TiO2 due to the formation of impurity energy levels by heterojunctions between semiconductors (S-S) like TiO2, ZnO, CuO and Cu2O and also between semiconductors - metallic Cu metal (S-M). Additionally, 0.5 wt% Cu-TiO2 showed greater red shift than 0.5 wt% Zn-TiO2, this revealed the contribution of Cu doping in the effective utilization of solar light. PL spectra clearly revealed the role of ZnO, Cu2O, CuO and Cu0 on suppressing the e−-h+ recombination of TiO2. The mesoporous nature of 0.5 wt% CuZn-TiO2 was confirmed from the N2 adsorption-desorption study. For the first time, direct Z-scheme along with heterojunction double charge transfer mechanism were proposed for the better performances of CuZn-TiO2 nanocomposite. Among the synthesized materials 0.5 wt% CuZn-TiO2 showed 3.5 fold time improved H2 production than TiO2 due to effective e−-h+ separation at S-S and S-M heterojunctions and the better utilization of visible light in the solar spectrum.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • Ethanol synthesis catalyzed by single Ni atom supported on Mo6S8 support
    • Authors: Xiaoli Zheng; Sibei Guo; Ling Guo
      Pages: 52 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): Xiaoli Zheng, Sibei Guo, Ling Guo
      Conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) into ethanol has attracted significant interest due to ethanol can be used as alternative energy sources to satisfy the rising global energy demands and to solve the serious environmental problems, although it suffers from slow kinetics and low selectivity. Metal single-atom catalyst of Ni single atom supported on Mo6S8 (Ni-SA/Mo6S8) catalyst was developed for the exclusive conversion of CO into ethanol. Herein, ethanol synthesis on Ni-SA/Mo6S8 was systematically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and microkinetic modeling. The adsorption situations and the reaction routes for ethanol reactions on Ni-SA/Mo6S8 were clarified. Interestingly, the selectivity to ethanol is controlled by CH3 formation and CC bond formation between CH3 species and CHO. Our results indicated that Ni-SA/Mo6S8 increases the stability of the reaction intermediates, and CH3 is the most favorable formed by CH3OH dissociation. Then CHO insertion into CH3 to form CH3CHO* is spontaneous, which suggested that the formation of ethanol is the most favorable on the Ni-SA/Mo6S8 catalyst. The BEP relationships of five different types of bonds in ethanol synthesis identified CO bond scission does not readily occur compared to the other four types of bonds, the formation of CH, OH, and CC bonds are easy to occur. Microkinetic modeling also confirmed Ni-SA/Mo6S8 shows extremely activity and selectivity for ethanol formation. We hope our study can provide the basis to understand and develop single-atom catalysis for ethanol synthesis.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • Vanadium-doped porous silica materials with high catalytic activity and
           stability for propane dehydrogenation reaction
    • Authors: Ping Hu; Wan-Zhong Lang; Xi Yan; Xing-Fan Chen; Ya-Jun Guo
      Pages: 65 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): Ping Hu, Wan-Zhong Lang, Xi Yan, Xing-Fan Chen, Ya-Jun Guo
      Novel V-based catalysts, vanadium-doped porous silica materials (V-SiO2), have been successfully prepared by a facile one-pot synthetic method for propane dehydrogenation (PDH). The structure-activity relationships of V-SiO2 with different vanadium contents have been well elucidated through several state-of-the-art characterization techniques. The results indicate that vanadium species are highly dispersed in the channels of the porous silica materials, and that both monomeric and low-polymerized V species are the main active sites for PDH reaction. V-SiO2 catalysts with moderate vanadium doping display a mesoporous structure with high specific surface area and large pore volume, whereas excessively high vanadium doping will disrupt the mesoporous structure due to the formation of bulk V2O5 crystallites. Catalytic tests have shown that V(2)-SiO2 catalyst with a V/Si mass ratio of 1:12 exhibits optimal catalytic activity and stability for PDH reaction, achieving a superior propane conversion that decreases from 64% to 30% and stable propylene selectivity of ∼90% over 21 h at 580 °C. Its regeneration leads to an 8% decrease in propane conversion and about 94% propylene selectivity within 6 h after a second PDH cycle, demonstrating that this V(2)-SiO2 catalyst has excellent long-term catalytic stability. This work may expedite the development of vanadium-doped porous silica materials obtained by an one-pot method for use in catalysis.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • Application of Ti-doped MoO2 microspheres prepared by spray pyrolysis to
           partial oxidation of n-dodecane
    • Authors: Qusay Bkour; Kyungmin Im; Oscar G. Marin-Flores; M. Grant Norton; Su Ha; Jinsoo Kim
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): Qusay Bkour, Kyungmin Im, Oscar G. Marin-Flores, M. Grant Norton, Su Ha, Jinsoo Kim
      The present investigation is focused on improving the performance of molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) by doping with Ti for the partial oxidation (POX) of n-dodecane. Ti-doped MoO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via solvothermal cracking of polycrystalline MoO3 microparticles prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in the presence of a Ti precursor. Partial oxidation of n-dodecane was conducted at 850 °C with an O2/C ratio of 0.5. The 6 at% Ti-doped MoO2 was fully converted into orthorhombic carbide phase (β-Mo2C) during the reaction. This carbide sample showed high catalytic activity and stability with conversion and H2 yield of 94.4% and 86.3% after 24 h on stream, respectively. On the other hand, un-doped MoO2 was partially converted into the carbide phase during the reaction, which led to mixed oxide and carbide phases. This mixed phase showed poor catalytic activity and rapid deactivation after only 6 h of operation. Our ammonia temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and pyridine diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) tests suggest that the addition of Ti to MoO2 improves both the density and strength of Lewis acid sites, and hence improves hydrocarbon activation. This increased surface carbon activation would enhance the carburization process of the Ti-doped MoO2 catalyst and retain the carbide phase under the POX condition.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • Study of NO removal and resistance to SO2 and H2O of MnOx/TiO2, MnOx/ZrO2
           and MnOx/ZrO2–TiO2
    • Authors: Bohan Jia; Jiaxiu Guo; Hongdi Luo; Song Shu; Ningjie Fang; Jianjun Li
      Pages: 82 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): Bohan Jia, Jiaxiu Guo, Hongdi Luo, Song Shu, Ningjie Fang, Jianjun Li
      MnO x /TiO2, MnO x /ZrO2 and MnO x /ZrO2–TiO2 were prepared by impregnation and NO removal was evaluated in a fixed‒bed reactor under simulated reactive gas. All samples were characterized by various technologies. The results showed that MnO x /ZrO2–TiO2 had good selective catalytic reduction activity between 80–360 °C and excellent resistance to H2O at 200 °C for 30 h and achieved 80% NOx removal efficiency at 140 °C. The NO removal efficiency of MnO x /ZrO2 was only 45–80%, and that of MnOx/TiO2 was 100% at 240–360 °C. However, their tolerance to H2O was not as good as MnO x /ZrO2–TiO2. When SO2 was induced into reactive gas, the NO removal efficiency of MnO x /ZrO2 at 200 °C was maintained 70% for 34 h, but that of MnO x /TiO2 decreased rapidly. MnO x /ZrO2–TiO2 maintained 100% NO removal efficiency for 5 h and decreased gradually. After SO2 was stopped, NO removal ability wasn’t recovered, indicating that deactivation of catalyst was irreversible. TiO2 can improve the texture properties, and the surface area and total pore volume of MnO x /TiO2 reached 313 m2/g and 0.38 m3/g. The existence of zirconium oxide significantly increased the concentration of Mn4+ and Oβ on the surface of catalysts. MnO x /ZrO2–TiO2 had wide surface acidity, which improved NH3 adsorption. After SO2 resistance testing, Mn4+ content on the surface of catalysts decreased whereas Mn3+ obviously increased. SO2 could be oxidized by MnO x to SO3, and SO3 was adsorbed on ZrO2 or TiO2 to form zirconium sulfate or titanyl sulfate. (NH4)2SO4 was formed on singe ZrO2 or TiO2 carrier. These sulfates increased the surface acidity, resulting in a change of NO removal ability.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2017.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • The influence of porosity and active sites of zeolites Y and beta on the
           co-cracking of n-decane and 2-ethylphenol
    • Authors: Moritz Heuchel; Christian Dörr; Roman Boldushevskii; Swen Lang; Elias Klemm; Yvonne Traa
      Pages: 91 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): Moritz Heuchel, Christian Dörr, Roman Boldushevskii, Swen Lang, Elias Klemm, Yvonne Traa
      We investigated the cracking of n-decane and 2-ethylphenol as co-substrate in a 90/10 wt.-% mixture over zeolites Y and beta. The use of these substrates aimed to better understand the occurring chemistry in applications such as Co-FCC. We employed a number of different zeolites Y with different amounts of active sites and pore volumes. Additionally, the pore system of zeolite beta was modified by basic leaching. The materials were characterized by N2 physisorption, ICP-OES, XRD, 27Al, 1H, 13C MAS NMR, NH3-TPD, IR and TGA. It was found that the activity of the catalysts depends on the number of Brønsted acid sites as determined by NMR spectroscopy. Also most important is the mesopore volume/mesopore surface which is beneficial for the diffusion towards the micropores, especially for zeolite Y that is able to deoxygenate phenols.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2017.11.026
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • “Metal-free” electrocatalysis: Quaternary-doped graphene and the
           alkaline oxygen reduction reaction
    • Authors: Miguel A. Molina-García; Neil V. Rees
      Pages: 107 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): Miguel A. Molina-García, Neil V. Rees
      We report the first investigation into a quaternary-doped graphene catalyst material for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline conditions. The material was synthesized via direct pyrolysis of graphene oxide (GO) with boron, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur precursors. The resulting BNPS-Gr catalyst was thoroughly characterized and its composition found via XPS to be 6.4% (B), 6.1% (N), 2.6% (P) and 0.5% (S), while HR-TEM imaging shows a few-layered graphene structure. Electrochemical investigations into the catalytic activity towards the ORR show improved performance of the quaternary-doped graphene with the effective number of electrons transferred being ca. 3.7, compared to single-doped graphenes (2.9–3.2) and significantly lower peroxide production. This demonstrates BNPS-Gr to be a promising alternative to current Pt-group catalysts for the ORR, especially in methanol-fuelled fuel cells, where the presence of methanol in the cathode side from the fuel crossover is shown not to affect the performance of the quaternary-doped graphene catalyst.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • Vanadium-zirconium catalyst on different support for hydroxylation of
           benzene to phenol with O2 as the oxidant
    • Authors: Weitao Wang; Na Li; Leilei Shi; Yangmin Ma; Xiufang Yang
      Pages: 117 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553
      Author(s): Weitao Wang, Na Li, Leilei Shi, Yangmin Ma, Xiufang Yang
      Vanadium-zirconium catalyst was prepared with zirconium tetrachloride and ammonium metavanadate, which were supported on different supports, such as activated carbon, g-C3N4, MWCNTs (multiwall carbon nano tubes), acidified MWCNTs, bentonite, and γ-Al2O3. Various techniques were employed to characterize the catalysts such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and Raman spectrum. It was found that Zr4+ and V5+ in the vanadium-zirconium catalyst were dispersed on support in the form of zirconium pyrovanadate. The performance of catalysts on hydroxylation of benzene to phenol with O2 as the oxidant was investigated. The vanadium-zirconium catalyst with different supports showed different catalytic performance and the reason was studied. It was found that the catalytic performance was related to the nature of the supports including the surface area and the composition of the supports. The yield of phenol reached to 8.6% and selectivity reached to about 80% when the activated carbon acted as support. Kinetic study showed that the first step of the consecutive reaction was first order for benzene and the second step was first order for phenol.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 553 (2018)
  • Dual catalysis over ZnAl mixed oxides in the glycerolysis of urea:
           Homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction routes
    • Authors: Huy Nguyen-Phu; Chan-yi Park; Eun Woo Shin
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 February 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 552
      Author(s): Huy Nguyen-Phu, Chan-yi Park, Eun Woo Shin
      In this work, we prepared ZnO, ZnAl2O4, and ZnAl mixed oxides with different metal molar ratios and applied them for synthesizing glycerol carbonate (GC) from glycerol and urea. The reaction routes related to the Zn species over the ZnAl mixed oxides were investigated. The ZnAl mixed oxides were found to consist of two Zn crystalline phases: ZnO and ZnAl2O4. From the reaction results, the ZnAl mixed oxides showed much higher glycerol conversion and GC yield than the ZnO and ZnAl2O4. During the reaction, the dissolution of the Zn species from the ZnO phase over the ZnAl mixed oxides was observed while the ZnAl2O4 phase remained insoluble. The ZnO phase provided a homogeneous reaction route via the dissolved Zn species, resulting in the formation of a Zn complex containing the isocyanate (NCO) and zinc glycerolate. In contrast, the insoluble ZnAl2O4 phase was responsible for not only a heterogeneous reaction route, but also adsorption of the Zn NCO complex on the catalyst. We proposed that the adsorbed Zn NCO complex could play a role as an active site for an additional heterogeneous reaction route. Therefore, the ZnAl mixed oxides exhibited high GC yields through the dual catalysis routes: the homogeneous reaction route over the ZnO phase and the heterogeneous reaction route over the ZnAl2O4 phase.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:18:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2017.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 552 (2018)
  • Graphical abstract TOC
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
  • Graphical abstract TOC
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 554

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
  • Graphical abstract TOC
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
  • Graphical abstract TOC
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 March 2018
      Source:Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 553

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T19:38:05Z
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