Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2688 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1325 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (452 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1325 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted by number of followers
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223)
IEEE Spectrum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 221)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
IEEE Communications Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 140)
IEEE Engineering Management Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 117)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 112)
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Engineering Failure Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
IEEE Microwave Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
IEEE Signal Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Transactions on Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Potentials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Heat Transfer Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Digital Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Flow, Turbulence and Combustion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
IET Image Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IET Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Engineering Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Electrophoresis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IET Circuits, Devices & Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Experiments in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Integration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Engineering Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Energy Conversion and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Human Factors in Ergonomics & Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heat Transfer - Asian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Fuel Cells Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Fuel Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Discrete Optimization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Designs, Codes and Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geothermics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Fuel and Energy Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fusion Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Formal Methods in System Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Powder Coatings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fluid Phase Equilibria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Graphs and Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Filtration & Separation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Grass and Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Engineering Computations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fuzzy Sets and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Historical Records of Australian Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Optoelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus : Mécanique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Latin America Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Focus on Surfactants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Foundations of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Épités - Épitészettudomány     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dyes and Pigments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Designed Monomers and Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Catalysts     Full-text available via subscription  
ESAIM: Proceedings     Open Access  
Environmetrics     Hybrid Journal  
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

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Journal Cover
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.522
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0093-3813
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Particle Accelerator Science and Technology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science information for authors

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      Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Blank Page

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      Abstract: This page or pages intentionally left blank.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Simulation of Air Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Low Temperature
           and Subatmospheric Pressure

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      Authors: Zhihang Zhao;Xinlao Wei;Ruiyang Guan;Hongyan Nie;Bo Zhu;Yuanhang Yao;
      Pages: 1160 - 1171
      Abstract: Based on the plasma-modified model and photoionization optimization model, this article constructs a low temperature and subatmospheric pressure air surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) model with 37 plasma chemical reactions composed of 18 particles. Through the model, the characteristics of air SDBD at low temperature and subatmospheric pressure are studied. Under a dc voltage of 12 kV, with the propagation of the streamer, the parameters, such as electron density, $text{N}_{2}^{+}$ density, N2(C) density, $text{O}_{2}^{-}$ density, electron temperature, space charge density, electric field, and photoionization rate, show a downward trend at an altitude of 11 000 m but always maintain N2(C) density > electron density > $text{N}_{2}^{+}$ density > $text{O}_{2}^{-}$ density. In addition, the propagation velocity of streamer along the surface is positively correlated with altitude. Electron, $text{N}_{2}^{+}$ , N2(C), and $text{O}_{2}^{-}$ density are negatively correlated with altitude. Photoionization rate is positively correlated with the altitude in the streamer development stage. In the streamer propagation stage, except for the sudden drop at the altitude of 11 000 m, it is basically consistent at other altitudes.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Simulation Study of an Inductively Coupled Plasma Discharge in the Radome
           Conformal Cavity

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      Authors: Xu Guo;Yinghui Li;Yipeng Chang;Xinmin Han;Mao Lin;
      Pages: 1172 - 1178
      Abstract: In this article, we investigate the influence of external discharge conditions on plasma parameters in the plasma discharge chamber of the radome configuration. We designed a conformal cavity and then used the multiphysics simulation software COMSOL to establish a 2-D axisymmetric model for discharge simulation research. In the study, we found that the changes in coil power and pressure have a noticeable effect on the distribution of plasma parameters. First, the maximum electron density, electric potential, and electron temperature are obtained by changing the power of the coil in a certain pressure argon environment. Then, under the condition of constant coil power, the discharge characteristics of plasma are studied by changing the gas pressure in the cavity. The results show that the change of coil power has a significant impact on the parameter distribution of plasma discharge. The greater the coil power, the greater the electron density, and the more concentrated the distribution. At the same time, the potential induced in the heating zone and the corresponding electron temperature decreased after the reaction stabilized. The increase of gas pressure significantly increases the peak value of electron density and changes the parameter distribution of discharge. However, when the argon pressure exceeds a certain threshold, it will no longer have a significant effect on the distribution of discharge parameters. The general conclusion is that the increase of power and argon pressure plays an essential role in improving the electron density distribution. This conclusion has guiding significance for exploring the law of plasma parameter distribution on electromagnetic scattering characteristics.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Partly Semiconductor Covered Vane Fast Magnetron

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      Authors: Seyed Morad-Ali Hashemi;Seyed Mohammad Amin Hashemi;
      Pages: 1179 - 1187
      Abstract: Alterations in the structure of a magnetron, e.g., the A6 relativistic magnetron, are proposed, which considerably increase the device’s build-up speed. We cover the magnetron vane surfaces with semiconductor layers of nonzero electric conductivity, with an exact geometrical design. Semiconductor layers with considerable mechanical strength also provide excellent shielding for the vanes against the high-energy relativistic electrons’ bombardment. The novel structure introduces several new free parameters to the magnetron design procedure and considerably increases the design flexibility. A multistage exact optimization procedure, performed by extensive computer simulations, shows that applying silicon carbide layers with proper geometrical design doubles the build-up speed. In a general trend, we also indicate that adding semiconductor layers with nonzero electric conductivity to the magnetron vanes’ surfaces typically fastens the system by reducing the build-up transient time. It is verified that the insertion of conductivity to the vanes’ bodies with the proper design of shape and depth can increase the mode frequencies, build-up speed, and strength against electrons bombardment, saving the output amplitude. Finally, as shown by the simulation results data, the system behavior is analyzed theoretically.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Numerical Analysis on the RF Characteristics of the Gyromagnetic Nonlinear
           Transmission Lines

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      Authors: Yancheng Cui;Jin Meng;Yuzhang Yuan;Haitao Wang;Danni Zhu;
      Pages: 1188 - 1197
      Abstract: The gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (GNLTL) is a special transmission line loaded with ferrite cores, which can be used as a kind of wideband high-power microwave (HPM) source due to the pulse modulation mechanism. This article carried out a series of simulations and analyses focused on the RF characteristics of GNLTL. Based on the classic transmission line model (TLM) method, a numerical model linking the transmission line equations and the microscopic magnetization dynamics equations was established. The simulations systematically studied the effects of key parameters on the output characteristics especially the RF characteristics, including the effects of transmission line geometry, excitation pulse, magnetic material, and the biasing magnetic field. The simulation results and analyses revealed that almost each parameter has effects on the output, and the effects of different parameters are different. The research introduced in this article preliminarily reveals how the output microwave varies with the parameters and provides a method to find the appropriate parameter values of a GNLTL.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Axially Partitioned Dual Band Magnetically Insulated Line Oscillator

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      Authors: Mohit Kumar Singh;V. Sivavenkateswara Rao;Manpuran Mahto;Pradip Kumar Jain;
      Pages: 1198 - 1205
      Abstract: In this article, an axially partitioned magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) to generate high-power microwave (HPM) with two frequencies in different bands is presented. The electromagnetic characteristics of the dual band MILO (DBMILO) in the absence of an electron beam are investigated to ensure the resonance condition. The RF performance of the device is analyzed through particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The proposed DBMILO is designed to operate in $S$ - and $X$ -bands for the input dc voltage and current of 500 kV and 56 kA, respectively. A peak RF power of ~3.6 GW with peak power conversion efficiency of ~12.8% at 3.4 and 10.1 GHz is detected through PIC simulation. Practical concerns with the HPM source, such as RF breakdown and anode plasma generation at the beam collector in the proposed design, are also explored, along with possible solutions.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Langmuir Probe Characterization of Spatially Confined Laser-Ablated Iron
           Plasma Along With Surface Modifications

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      Authors: Shazia Bashir;Mahreen Akram;Asma Hayat;Waris Ghani;Shariqa Hassan Butt;Khaliq Mahmood;Muhammad Shahid Rafique;Uzma Khalique;Faizan-ul-Haq;
      Pages: 1206 - 1217
      Abstract: The spatial confinement effect on the laser-induced plasma parameters and surface modifications of iron (Fe) has been investigated. The Fe plasma has been generated under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) condition by employing Nd: YAG (532 nm, 6 ns) laser at different laser irradiances ranging from 3.3 to 10 GWcm $^{-2}$ . Two important Fe plasma parameters, i.e., electron temperature ranging from 13 to 27 eV and electron number density ranging from $1.92times 10^{15}$ cm $^{-3}$ to $4.60times 10^{15}$ cm $^{-3}$ , are evaluated by employing Langmuir probe (LP) as diagnostic technique. The probe was placed at a distance of 1 cm from target. Both plasma parameters are found to be influenced by laser irradiances and spatial confinement. They increase with the increase in laser irradiances both in the presence and absence of metallic blockers. However, it is revealed that the values of both plasma parameters are slightly higher in the presence of blocker as compared to blocker-free case. The percentage increase in electron temperature varies from 10% to 15%, whereas percentage increase in electron density varies from 11% to 25%. These percentage increase in the values of Fe plasma parameters exceeds the limits of experimental errors (±2). Therefore, the role of spatial confinement via metallic blocker for the enhancement of plasma parameters is confirmed and is attributed to the reflection of shockwaves from the blocker. The surface modifications of laser irradiated Fe have been explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Var-ous features, such as ripples, ridges, and cones, have been observed on the surfaces of ablated Fe. More pronounced, organized, and fine structures are grown on the Fe surface in the presence of blocker at lower irradiances than the blocker-free case due to spatial confinement effect. The growth of ripples is attributed to Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. PACS: 61.80.Ba, 52.50. −b, 52.50.Jm, 52.50.Lp, 52.35.Tc, 35 52.38., 52.38.Dx.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • On the Stability and Turbulences of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet
           Extracted From the Exit of a Long Flexible PVC Tube

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      Authors: Houssem Eddine Bousba;Salah Sahli;Wail Seif Eddine Namous;Lyes Benterrouche;
      Pages: 1218 - 1226
      Abstract: Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) created in helium was extracted far from its electrical discharge ignition using a conductor wire inside a flexible plastic tube. The effects of the geometrical parameters of the setup, helium flow, and the applied discharge voltage on the extracted plasma jet characteristics were investigated. It appears that increasing voltage and/or gas flow leads to the augmentation of the jet length. However, in certain combinations, turbulences of the plasma plume may occur. The turbulences threshold may be shifted by changing voltage or tube diameter. Moreover, increasing the tube and wire length induces more dielectric losses along the tube and adds extra impedance to the reactor leading to jet length retraction.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Model for Estimating Time-Varying Properties of an Inductively Coupled
           Plasma

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      Authors: Robin Georg;Ashley R. Chadwick;Bassam B. Dally;Georg Herdrich;
      Pages: 1227 - 1236
      Abstract: A developing application of inductively coupled plasmas is in the field of electrodeless (propellant-flexible) electric propulsion. A significant issue facing this application is the need for diagnostic techniques that do not disturb the plasma (are nonintrusive), are propellant-agnostic, can resolve time variance, and are suitable for use in-flight. A new technique meeting these criteria is presented in this work. The technique makes use of the transformer model of inductive coupling to estimate the plasma impedance from the antenna current and resonant frequency, both of which can be measured nonintrusively. Having an estimate of the plasma impedance, it is possible to estimate a variety of plasma properties under the assumption of a uniform tubular plasma volume. Starting with a circuit representation of a high-power inductive plasma source, governing equations are derived and a solution method is described. Experimental data from the plasma source showing transient behavior (fluctuations within 300-Hz cycle) in oxygen plasmas with various input powers and flow rates are analyzed to demonstrate the technique and investigate trends. The technique produces results that are self-consistent and align well with previous theoretical work.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Numerical Study of Non-Linear Effects for a Swept Bias Langmuir Probe

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      Authors: Kai Morgan Kjølerbakken;Wojciech J. Miloch;Ørjan Grøttem Martinsen;Oliver Pabst;Ketil Røed;
      Pages: 1237 - 1245
      Abstract: We present a numerical study disclosing non-linear effects and hysteresis loops for a swept bias Langmuir probe. A full kinetic particle in cell (PIC) model has been used to study the temporal sheath effects and the probe current. Langmuir probes are normally operated at low frequencies, since a “close to steady state” condition is required to characterize the plasma. However, during operations above frequencies normally used, capacitive and non-linear resistive effects are being unveiled. We demonstrate how ion and electron density and temperature change properties of the probe-plasma system. We also show that a swept Langmuir probe exhibits essential properties described as the “fingerprint of memristors” and how a Langmuir probe can be identified as a transversal memristor. Understanding non-linear processes might enable new ways to operate Langmuir probes with higher sampling rates and better accuracy.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Dimensional
           Parameters on Carbon-Nanotube-Coated Copper Plasma Limiter

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      Authors: Hosein Fayazi;Aref Bali Lashak;Mohammad Reza Alizadeh Pahlavani;
      Pages: 1246 - 1254
      Abstract: The plasma limiter (PL) is a suitable method to protect electronic devices from high-power electromagnetic pulses. The $S$ -band PL has target specifications of 100 kW of power handling capability, < 100 ns of response time, and < 0.5 dB of insertion loss. Carbon nanotube (CNT) can be used to reduce power losses and instrument corrosion under frequent electromagnetic attacks. This article used CNT-coated copper needles in a PL to increase the electric field for the rapid breakdown process. Furthermore, the impact of dimensional parameters (needle’s length, needle’s radius, and axial displacement of the needles) were investigated. The experiment was conducted at 1800 W of peak power and 25 ns of the $S$ -band (2.45 GHz) microwave duration. In this case, the height of 19 mm and diameter of 1 mm were found to be the optimal needle parameters, in which the fastest breakdown of the electric field is available. The finite-element method was used by CST software to verify the experiment results. The transmission losses were < 5% in the normal state. The breakdown electric field threshold was ~431 kV/m near the atmospheric pressures. There was an error of < 1.28 in the case with the lowest compatibility.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Research on Discharge Characteristics of Three-Electrode Load Under the
           Pulsed Power Supply

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      Authors: Song Jiang;Kai Guo;Yonggang Wang;Zi Li;Junfeng Rao;
      Pages: 1255 - 1261
      Abstract: Low-temperature plasma water treatment technology has attracted more and more attention due to its nonselectivity and no secondary pollution. However, high energy consumption limits its further development. In this experiment, a three-electrode structure combining a needle-plate structure and a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) structure is proposed. The discharge characteristics of the three-electrode structure are studied under the matched all-solid-state pulsed power supply. The results show that three discharges are generated at this three-electrode load within one pulse period. It greatly increases the number of discharges per pulse. Under the same pulse voltage condition, the injected power of the three-electrode load is much higher than the power of the single DBD load. When the voltage is 13 kV, the input power of three-electrode load is increased by 70% compared to single DBD load. When the needle-plate gap is constant, with the increase of DBD air gap, the injected power of the three-electrode load has a maximum value. When the DBD air gap remains unchanged, the injected power of the three-electrode load decreases with the increase of the needle-plate gap.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Simulation of Electrooptical Measurements of Prebreakdown Electric Fields
           in Water—Part I: Electric Field Near Anode Streamer

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      Authors: V. B. Yassinskiy;Yu. A. Kuznetsova;S. M. Korobeynikov;D. V. Vagin;
      Pages: 1262 - 1268
      Abstract: The analysis of the results of electrooptical measurements using the Kerr effect at the prebreakdown stage of an electric discharge in water made it possible to estimate the intensity of the inception field of the anode streamer. The electric field strength and phase difference distribution were constructed using computer simulation in the point-to-plane system near the anode tip. The conditions of an actual experiment are simulated. It turned out that taking into account the nonlinearity of the relative permittivity and saturation of polarization leads to a sharp increase in the field strength in a narrow region near the needle tip and compression of both the strong field region and compression of Kerr fringes. Taking these factors into account made it possible to explain the unusual shape of the chronogram and to estimate the field strength of the appearance of the anode streamer as $E$ ~ 40–50 MV/cm.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Solid-State Linear Transformer Driver Based on Full-Bridge Bricks

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      Authors: Yonggang Wang;Lihao Xu;Song Jiang;Zi Li;Junfeng Rao;
      Pages: 1269 - 1275
      Abstract: This article proposes a solid-state linear transformer driver (LTD) structure based on full-bridge bricks, which can not only generate bipolar pulses but also avoid the use of additional core reset circuits. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that a reverse voltage overshoot will occur after each pulse ends if simultaneous conduction strategy is adopted. The phase shift strategy can provide a low-impedance circuit for the primary current to suppress reverse voltage overshoot. An experimental prototype with six modules is implemented. Each module consists of two full-bridge bricks. The prototype can generate bipolar high-voltage pulses with an amplitude of 0–4.2 kV, a pulsewidth of 100–500 ns, and a frequency of 0–10 kHz. The full-bridge LTD can drive the ozone generator with surface dielectric barrier discharge structure.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dynamic Electrical Characteristics of 4H-SiC Drift Step Recovery Diodes of
           High Voltage

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      Authors: Zewei Yang;Lin Liang;Xiaoxue Yan;
      Pages: 1276 - 1281
      Abstract: In order to evaluate the prospects of high-voltage (HV) silicon carbide (SiC) drift step recovery diode (DSRD) on pulsed power field and feasibility of outputting pulse with fast rise rate, a parallel trigger circuit is adopted and the circuit parameters affecting pulse characteristics are discussed. The simulation model of the circuit based on Sentaurus TCAD is established, in which the effects of various circuit parameters on the peak voltage and the prepulse voltage of output pulse are discussed, including the forward pumping time, the input voltage, and the inductance of reverse loop. The suitable forward pumping time and reverse loop inductance value are determined as 80 ns and 200 nH in this circuit, respectively. Experiments show that the 2.302-kV output pulse with the rise time of 1.236 ns can be obtained by HV SiC DSRD developed in our laboratory. Excluding the influence of HV probe, the actual rise time is 1.011 ns. To reduce prepulse voltage, it is effective to increase the input voltage or the inductance value of reverse loop, while the forward pumping time has little influence on it. Along with the increase of input voltage, the peak value and the rise rate of output pulse increase. Consequently, in order to improve the quality of output pulse, the input voltage should not be too low (≥200 V), while the forward pumping time and the inductance value of reverse loop should be moderate.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Thermal Diffusion and Diffusion Thermo Effects on Magnetohydrodynamics
           Transport of Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Through a Porous Media Between Two
           Wavy Co-Axial Tubes

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      Authors: N. T. Eldabe;M. Y. Abou-zeid;A. S. Abo Seliem;A. A. Elenna;N. Hegazy;
      Pages: 1282 - 1290
      Abstract: Magnetohydrodynamics peristaltic flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid with heat and mass transfer is investigated. The fluid obeys third-grade model and flows through a porous medium inside a gap between two co- axial tubes, where the inner is rigid and the outer has a sinusoidal wave traveling down its wall. The effects of heat source and chemical reaction on the fluid are taken into account. The governing equations that describe the velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration of the fluid are simplified under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is used to solve these equations, and the solutions are obtained as functions of the physical parameters entering the problem. The behavior of the obtained solutions for different values of these parameters is discussed in detail and illustrated graphically through a set of figures. It is shown that the velocity increases with the increase in the third-grade parameter, while it decreases with increasing the magnetic field parameter. Also, the temperature increases by increasing the Brownian motion parameter. Furthermore, the nanoparticles’ concentration decreases with the increase in the chemical reaction rate parameter.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Extinction Accelerating Device of Secondary Arc Design Based on Wind Load

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      Authors: Haoxi Cong;Shengyao Wang;Weijia Zhao;Dong Han;Qingmin Li;
      Pages: 1291 - 1300
      Abstract: The rapid extinction of secondary arc on the transmission line is essential to the stable operation of power system. Recently, there are a few specific designs of secondary arc prevention device applied into operation condition. In this article, a low-voltage secondary arc model was carried out and the wind load was found to have a significant influence on the extinction characteristics of secondary arc. For further analysis, a dynamic model was established and found that the wind load perpendicular to the electrode direction could significantly accelerate the arc extinction. Consequently, a device for accelerating secondary arc extinction close to the insulator was designed. Wind directions and velocities were chosen as variables in the measurement for verification. The device could ensure that the upper electrode on the insulator string is in the direction perpendicular to the wind direction at any time, and it could promote the extinction of secondary arc. The proposal of the device could provide some practical reference for the protection of secondary arc on the transmission lines.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • 3-D Dynamic Simulation of the Initial Expansion Process of Vacuum Arc
           Plasma in DC Interruption

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      Authors: Lijun Wang;Zhefeng Zhang;Ze Yang;Jieli Chen;Jing Jiang;Ming Luo;Shenli Jia;Zongqian Shi;
      Pages: 1301 - 1312
      Abstract: This work investigates the dynamic characteristics of vacuum arc in the initial expansion process of a direct current (dc) circuit breaker. Based on the commercial cup-type axial magnetic field (AMF) contact, a 3-D transient magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model is established. In the model, transient equations are used to study the transient characteristics of the vacuum arc. The effect of magnetic field hysteresis is also considered in the method. The dynamic mesh technique is adopted to simulate the electrode separation, which can make the simulation results more accurate. The simulation results show that, during the initial expansion process, with the increase in the current, the arc gradually expands in the electrode gap. The ion pressure, ion number density, axial current density, and energy flux density to the anode gradually decrease. Ion rotation can be observed under the influence of the magnetic field, and the rotation speed will increase with the increase in the current. Two different arc ignition positions are also compared. The result shows that igniting the arc at the contact center is more helpful to the success of the interruption of the dc circuit breaker. The appearance of the arc predicted by the model is consistent with the experimental results.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dust Acoustic Dromions in a Magnetized, Five-Component Cometary Plasma

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      Authors: Neethu Theresa Willington;S. Shilpa;A. C. Saritha;Ninan Sajeeth Philip;Chandu Venugopal;
      Pages: 1313 - 1322
      Abstract: A study of the characteristics of dust acoustic dromions (DADs), described by the Davey–Stewartson-I (DS-I) equations, in a five-component cometary plasma has been carried out, the five components being negatively charged dust particles, superthermal electrons (hotter solar and colder cometary electrons), and positively charged hydrogen and oxygen ions. It is found that the parametric region for the existence of dromions is influenced by the superthermality of both ions and electrons. The effects of various physical parameters, such as the superthermality, strength of the magnetic field, and concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen ions and cometary electrons on the propagation of the DADs, have been studied. The results of the present investigation could be useful for understanding some of the nonlinear features of localized electrostatic disturbances in a cometary environment. The study also proves that dromions can propagate in these plasmas.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Parametric Excitation of Dust Acoustic Waves by Stimulated Scattering of
           an Electromagnetic Wave in Magnetized Dusty Plasmas

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      Authors: Alireza Paknezhad;Mahsa Najafi;
      Pages: 1323 - 1330
      Abstract: The nonlinear propagation of a high-amplitude electromagnetic (EM) wave is studied in a magnetized dusty plasma to investigate the three-decay instability in the stimulated scattering of the EM wave due to the density perturbations. The plasma involves the electrons, ions, and negatively charged dust grains, which are immersed in a uniform transverse magnetic field. Using the hydrodynamics plasma model and assuming the plasma ions to be stationary, a set of coupled equations is derived to find a new expression of the plasma frequency in magnetized dusty plasma as well as the instability growth rate of backward scattering. The effects of the external transverse magnetic field on the plasma frequency and the growth rate are reported.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Particle Aggregation Effect on Electron Density Distribution and
           Propagation of Electron Avalanche

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      Authors: Zelin Zhang;Junmei Tian;Xuejun Zhang;
      Pages: 1331 - 1336
      Abstract: Particles will aggregate in the presence of dense mist in the wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and larger size particles with changed distribution make discharge more significant. This article puts forward the simulation of corona discharge with the existence of particle aggregation effect, which shows the characteristics of electron density distribution during the propagation. Besides, we also provide propagation patterns of branching and quenching phenomenon of plasma channels in the presence of particle aggregation. The results indicate that particle aggregation will considerably influence the plasma patterns. When the electron avalanche reaches the particle distributing areas, there will be several plasma channels formed and a narrow diffusion radius around the aggregated particles. When particles gather around the electrode, which means dense particle distribution, corona quenching happens with dense particle distribution.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Analysis and Research on Muzzle Arc Suppression Device of Arc Striking
           Railgun

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      Authors: Xia Ge;Bin Cao;Zhao Wang;Pengchao Pei;Zizhou Su;Yanhui Chen;Wei Guo;Juxiang Li;
      Pages: 1337 - 1344
      Abstract: Aiming at the problem of muzzle arc in the process of electromagnetic railgun launching, a muzzle arc suppression device based on gap arc discharge is designed. The working process and principle of arc suppression device for gap arc striking discharge are analyzed. The key of the design is to ensure that the discharge gap of the arc suppression device can conduct the arc quickly and reliably after the armature is out of the bore. The arc suppression circuit based on the principle of discharge and energy consumption can effectively absorb the residual energy of the muzzle and reduce the arc erosion between the muzzle rail end face and the armature tail. Using Simulink software the simulation model of electromagnetic rail launch system with arc suppression device is built, and the arc suppression current of the arc-starting circuit after the armature exits the muzzle was simulated. Through the simulation calculation of several groups of $R_{s}$ and $L_{s}$ parameters, The influence of the impedance of arc suppression device on the starting time of arc striking, the rising time of arc suppression current, the peak value of arc suppression circuit current, and the current of armature branch is analyzed. The correctness of the simulation model and theoretical analysis calculation is verified by experiments. The waveform analysis of test data shows that the arc striking principle arc suppression device has no effect on the launching performance of the armature when it runs in the bore, and almost all the current flows through the arc suppression circuit after the armature goes out of the muzzle, which can effectively suppress the muzzle arc and improve the launching performance of the rail gun.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Shell Structure on Exit Velocity During Asynchronous
           Electromagnetic Propulsion

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      Authors: Yichen Wang;Junsheng Cheng;Qiuliang Wang;Ling Xiong;Yuantao Cong;Jian Sun;
      Pages: 1345 - 1350
      Abstract: The shell of the asynchronous induction coil launcher has the functions of consolidating the multistage launcher and shielding the internal magnetic field. In this article, stainless steel is selected as the shell material, which has the characteristics of high mechanical strength, high magnetic permeability, and low electrical conductivity. From the perspective of shell structure, the following factors are researched: the distance between shell and driving coils, the thickness of the shell, and the different slicing methods of the shell. Based on the characteristics of eddy current attenuated by the vertical slicing, an optimized hollow structure model is proposed. Finite element simulations show that the hollow structure can effectively reduce the eddy current in the shell and improve the exit velocity. The propulsion experiment results show that the actual effect is close to the simulation results.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Thermal Measurement Experiments and Transient Temperature Distribution of
           Rapid-Fire Augmented Electromagnetic Railgun

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      Authors: Fan Wei;Jiang Yi;Wang Yan;Liu Wenyi;Su Zizhou;Zhang Tao;Liu Yong;Luoshuai;
      Pages: 1351 - 1359
      Abstract: The large pulse current and high-speed sliding can raise the bulk heat in the electromagnetic rail launcher (EMRL) during each shot. It is very important to quantitatively analyze and measure the transient temperature distribution for the engineering application. In this article, the temporal–spatial distribution of the rail transient temperature rise is measured at different velocities by establishing the transient temperature measurement system. The distribution characteristics of Joule heat, resistance Joule heat, and friction heat in rail are analyzed that based on the transient characteristic of contact resistance and contact motion by using the experimental data of muzzle voltage, rail current, and armature movement displacement. Second, the temporal–spatial temperature rise is analyzed under the loads of Joule heat, resistance Joule heat, and friction heat where the armature arrives near the rising edge of pulse current under single-shot and rapid-fire. The results show that the peak of temperature rise at the breech of the railgun. Finally, the experimental data measured by the platinum resistor temperature sensor in the tests of single shots under different velocity. The experimental results agree well with the simulation results, except for experimental temperature rise at the muzzle of rail is higher. The most probable cause of the sudden temperature rise is the effect of muzzle transient arc. These conclusions show that the breech of rail is the key part of thermal management, and the influence of the heat generated by muzzle arc on the distribution of rail temperature rise cannot be ignored. This article provides a theoretical basis for the thermal design management and having guiding signification to the engineering application of the EMGL.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Terahertz Band TE20 □ Mode Input/Output Coupling Structure for
           Dual-Sheet-Beam Traveling-Wave Tubes

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      Authors: Jiacai Liao;Guoxiang Shu;Jingcong He;Junchen Ren;Jujian Lin;Junzhe Deng;Zhiwei Chang;Biaogang Xu;Cunjun Ruan;Wenlong He;
      Pages: 1360 - 1368
      Abstract: This article presents the design, microfab- rication, and measurement of a terahertz band ${mathrm {TE}}^{Box }_{20}$ mode input–output coupling structure for dual-sheet-beam traveling-wave tubes (TWTs). The proposed coupling structure is based on an $E$ -plane Riblet slot coupler with one shorted port and a ${mathrm {TE}}^{Box }_{10}$ – ${mathrm {TE}}^{Box }_{20}$ mode converter. Compared to the previously reported high-order mode (HOM) coupling structures, the proposed structure possesses superior electrical and mechanical performance, including better reflection/transmission properties and relatively easy-to-fabricate configuration with features insensitive to fabrication tolerances. For verification, two $H$ -band (220–325 GHz) identical ${mathrm {TE}}^{Box }_{20}$ mode coupling structures joined back-to-back were manufactured and measured. Good agreement between the experimental results and the simulated responses is observed. The fabricated prototype of the coupling structure exhibits good electromagnetic (EM) performance over a bandwidth of 52.1 GHz (243.2–295.3 GHz) with a transmission coefficient better than −1.5 dB and a port reflection lower than −15.0 dB.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Modeling Graphene-Based THz Devices With an Improved Surface Boundary
           Condition in Leapfrog FDTD Scheme

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      Authors: Guo-Qiang He;Feng-Xiang Li;Zi-Xuan Yi;Mei-Ling Li;Xue-Xia Yang;Johan H. Stiens;
      Pages: 1369 - 1377
      Abstract: Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is an efficient full-wave numerical method for simulating graphene-based optoelectronic devices. The previous investigation on modeling graphene in leapfrog FDTD methods shows that dispersive errors increase with tuning up the chemical potential of graphene. In this article, a new implementation of graphene’s surface boundary condition (SBC) is proposed to reduce the dispersive errors in the leapfrog FDTD update scheme. To achieve lower dispersive errors, the graphene layer is positioned exactly on the grid lattice of transverse magnetic fields, and each of the transverse magnetic fields is split into two fields on the two sides of graphene. The split magnetic fields are updated using forward and backward differences in the electric fields on the normal direction of graphene plane. Numerical analysis shows that the maximum dispersive error of the proposed graphene model is reduced to only 37.5% of the other publicly reported graphene models in the leapfrog FDTD update scheme. However, the CPU time cost keeps almost the same as the other graphene models. The proposed implementation of the graphene SBC model also shows less CPU time consumption compared with the graphene SBC model which requires to solve a linear system and breaks the leapfrog FDTD update scheme, while the maximum numerical error is the same. The proposed graphene model is applied to simulate graphene terahertz (THz) surface plasmon resonances and modulators to demonstrate the applications in accurately modeling and analyzing graphene-based THz devices.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • ANNOUNCEMENT The Nineteenth Special Issue on High-Power Microwave and
           Millimeter-Wave Generation

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      Authors: Jim Browning;Nicholas M. Jordan;Jacob Stephens;Peng Zhang;
      Pages: 1378 - 1378
      Abstract: Modern high-power microwave and millimeter-wave technologies continue to be an active focus of study with considerable interest in the scientific, industrial, defense, and academic communities. Today, these technologies find application in precision radar systems, next-generation particle accelerators, fusion devices, deep-space communications networks, electromagnetic warfare, high-bandwidth communications, microwave-assisted catalysis, and extreme depth drilling, to name a few. The ever-growing needs of these applications call for the production and utilization of electromagnetic radiation with tens of cm to sub-mm wavelength and time-averaged power on the order of tens of megawatts and peak power exceeding 1 GW. Such demands have motivated interdisciplinary innovations for both the production and delivery of high-power microwaves. Advances in modern vacuum electronic microwave and millimeter-wave sources include metamaterial and photonic bandgap interaction circuits, advances in cathode materials, geometries, and modeling capability, improved materials, treatments, and surface coatings for high-power components, and novel manufacturing techniques, such as additive manufacturing. These innovations have preceded unprecedented gains in peak and average microwave power, frequency capability and agility, and efficiency of high-power microwave systems. Complementary to microwave source development, considerable gains have been made in understanding and improving the high power capacity of microwave components, especially with regard to multipactor formation.
      PubDate: May 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2022)
       
 
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