Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2688 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (229 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (237 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1325 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (452 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1325 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Applied Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Research in Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 116)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Data-Centric Engineering     Open Access  
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Designed Monomers and Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Designs     Open Access  
Designs, Codes and Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Development Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Diffusion Foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Digital Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Dinamisia : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Discrete Optimization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Denizcilik Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi / Duzce University Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Dyes and Pigments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamical Systems : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
e-Phaïstos : Revue d’histoire des techniques / Journal of the history of technology     Open Access  
EAU Heritage Journal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
El-Cezeri Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi / El-Cezeri Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Electrophoresis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emerging Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emitter : International Journal of Engineering Technology     Open Access  
ENERGETIKA. Proceedings of CIS higher education institutions and power engineering associations     Open Access  
Energies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Energy and Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Energy Conversion and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Energy Conversion and Management : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Energy Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Energy Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Engenharia de Interesse Social     Open Access  
ENGEVISTA     Open Access  
Engineer : Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering Computations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Engineering Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Economist, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Failure Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Engineering Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Engineering Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Engineering Management in Production and Services     Open Access  
Engineering Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Engineering Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Engineering Reports     Open Access  
Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Engineering Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ENP Engineering Science Journal     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental & Engineering Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmetrics     Hybrid Journal  
Épités - Épitészettudomány     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EPJ Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ESAIM: Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ESAIM: Proceedings     Open Access  
eScience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
EUREKA : Physics and Engineering     Open Access  
Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Physical Journal - Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Evolutionary Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Evolving Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal  
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Experiments in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Farm Engineering and Automation Technology Journal     Open Access  
Fibers and Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Filtration & Separation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fire Science Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Flow, Turbulence and Combustion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Fluid Phase Equilibria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focus on Catalysts     Full-text available via subscription  
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Focus on Powder Coatings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Surfactants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Food Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forces in Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Formación Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
FORMakademisk - forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Formal Methods in System Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Forschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forschung im Ingenieurwesen     Hybrid Journal  
Foundations and Trends in Systems and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Foundations of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Frontiers in Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fuel and Energy Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Fuel Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fuel Cells Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Fusion Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fuzzy Information and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fuzzy Sets and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Geothermics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Glass Technology - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Engineering Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Transitions Proceedings     Open Access  
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Graphs and Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Grass and Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Heat Transfer - Asian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heat Transfer Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Open Access  
High Voltage     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Historical Records of Australian Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Human Factors in Ergonomics & Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Human-Intelligent Systems Integration     Hybrid Journal  
I+D Revista de Investigaciones     Open Access  
IBM Journal of Research and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 112)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Communications Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 140)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Engineering Management Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 117)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Latin America Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Microwave Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Open Journal of Engineering in Medicine and Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Open Journal of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Potentials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Signal Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Spectrum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 221)
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
IEEE Transactions on Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

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Journal Cover
Frontiers in Nanotechnology
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2673-3013
Published by Frontiers Media Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Diospyros malabarica Fruit Extract Derived Silver Nanoparticles: A
           Biocompatible Antibacterial Agent

    • Authors: Shakil Ahmed Polash, Amir Hamza, Md. Monir Hossain, Mehedi Hasan Tushar, Masato Takikawa, Razib Datta Shubhra, Noshin Saiara, Tanushree Saha, Shinji Takeoka, Satya Ranjan Sarker
      Abstract: Biogenic silver nanoparticles demonstrate excellent antibacterial activity against a broad range of bacteria. Herein, aqueous biogenic silver nanoparticles (Aq@bAgNPs) and ethanolic biogenic silver nanoparticles (Et@bAgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous as well as ethanolic extracts of Diospyros malabarica fruit, respectively. The as-prepared biogenic silver nanoparticles (bAgNPs) were characterized using UV-Vis, FTIR as well as energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopy, electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy (DLS), and zetasizer. The zeta potentials of Aq@bAgNPs and Et@bAgNPs were −9.8 ± 2.6, and −12.2 ± 1.9 mV, respectively. The antibacterial activity of bAgNPs was investigated against seven bacterial strains (i.e., pathogenic and nonpathogenic) and Et@bAgNPs exhibited the highest antibacterial propensity (i.e., 20 nm in diameter) against Bacillus subtillis through disk diffusion assay. The trypan blue dye exclusion assay also confirmed the antibacterial propensity of as-prepared bAgNPs. Furthermore, both Aq@bAgNPs and Et@bAgNPs oxidize bacterial membrane fatty acids and generate lipid peroxides which eventually form complexes with thiobarbituric acid (i.e., malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid adduct) to bring about bacterial death. Both the nanoparticles demonstrated good hemocompatibility against human as well as rat red blood cells (RBCs). In addition, they exhibited excellent biocompatibility in vivo in terms of rat liver (i.e., serum ALT, AST, and γ-GT) and kidneys (i.e., serum creatinine) function biomarkers.
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Third- and Second-Harmonic Generation in All-Dielectric Nanostructures: A
           Mini Review

    • Authors: Tingting Liu, Shuyuan Xiao, Baoli Li, Min Gu, Haitao Luan, Xinyuan Fang
      Abstract: Frequency conversion such as harmonic generation is a fundamental physical process in nonlinear optics. The conventional nonlinear optical systems suffer from bulky size and cumbersome phase-matching conditions due to the inherently weak nonlinear response of natural materials. Aiming at the manipulation of nonlinear frequency conversion at the nanoscale with favorable conversion efficiencies, recent research has shifted toward the integration of nonlinear functionality into nanophotonics. Compared with plasmonic nanostructures showing high dissipative losses and thermal heating, all-dielectric nanostructures have demonstrated many excellent properties, including low loss, high damage threshold, and controllable resonant electric and magnetic optical nonlinearity. In this review, we cover the recent advances in nonlinear nanophotonics, with special emphasis on third- and second-harmonic generation from all-dielectric nanoantennas and metasurfaces. We discuss the main theoretical concepts, the design principles, and the functionalities of third- and second-harmonic generation processes from dielectric nanostructures and provide an outlook on the future directions and developments of this research field.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Advancements in Bioelectricity Generation Through Nanomaterial-Modified
           Anode Electrodes in Microbial Fuel Cells

    • Authors: Yilkal Dessie, Sisay Tadesse
      Abstract: The use of nanotechnology in bioelectrochemical systems to recover bioelectricity and metals from waste appears to be a potentially appealing alternative to existing established procedures. This trend exactly characterizes the current renewable energy production technology. Hence, this review focuses on the improvement of the anode electrode by using different functional metal oxide-conducting polymer nanocomposites to enhance microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. Enhancement of interfacial bioelectrocatalysis between electroactive microorganisms and hierarchical porous nanocomposite materials could enhance cost-effective bioanode materials with superior bioelectrocatalytic activity for MFCs. In this review, improvement in efficiency of MFCs by using iron oxide- and manganese oxide-based polypyrrole hybrid composites as model anode modifiers was discussed. The review also extended to discussing and covering the principles, components, power density, current density, and removal efficiencies of biofuel cell systems. In addition, this research review demonstrates the application of MFCs for renewable energy generation, wastewater treatment, and metal recovery. This is due to having their own unique working principle under mild conditions and using renewable biodegradable organic matter as a direct fuel source.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T00:00:00Z
       
  • Environmentally Friendly and Roll-Processed Flexible Organic Solar Cells
           Based on PM6:Y6

    • Authors: Marcial Fernández-Castro, Jean Truer, Moises Espindola-Rodriguez, Jens Wenzel Andreasen
      Abstract: Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) have reached the highest efficiencies using lab-scale device manufacturing on active areas far below 0.1 cm2. The most used fabrication technique is spin-coating, which has poor potential for upscaling and substantial material waste. This tends to widen the so-called “lab-to-fab gap”, which is one of the most important challenges to make OSCs competitive. Other techniques such as blade or slot-die coating are much more suitable for roll-to-roll manufacturing, which is one of the advantages the technology presents due to the huge potential for fast and low-cost fabrication of flexible OSCs. However, only a few studies report solar cells using these fabrication techniques, especially applied on a roll-platform. Additionally, for environmentally friendly large area OSCs, inks based on non-hazardous solvent systems are needed. In this work, slot-die coating has been chosen to coat a PM6:Y6 active layer, using o-xylene, a more environmentally friendly alternative than halogenated solvents, and without additives. The optimal coating process is defined through fine-tuning of the coating parameters, such as the drying temperature and solution concentration. Moreover, ternary devices with PCBM, and fully printed devices are also fabricated. Power conversion efficiencies of 6.3% and 7.2% are achieved for binary PM6:Y6 and ternary PM6:Y6:PCBM devices measured with an aperture area of ∼0.4 cm2 (total device area ∼0.8 cm2).
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Plasmonic Nanostructures for Optically Induced Movement

    • Authors: Sergio Balestrieri, Gianluigi Zito, Giuseppe Coppola, Mario Iodice
      Abstract: Optical forces generated at the nanoscale using electric field gradients have proven to be a powerful tool for trapping and moving nano-objects in a variety of application fields ranging from aerospace engineering to biology and medicine. Typically, to achieve this optical effect plasmonic resonant cavities that combine localized surface plasmon resonances and propagative surface plasmon polaritons are used. Indeed, these structures allow to engineer the distribution of the excited field hotspots, so inducing a precise movement of the nanoparticles interacting with the plasmonic field. In this paper, starting from the theoretical analysis of the surface plasmons, the potentialities of plasmonic nanostructures are reviewed, analysing the geometric conformation designed according to the application. The configurations with the most interesting performance, among those mentioned in the literature, are described in detail, examining their main characteristics and limitations. Finally, the future development and prospects of these plasmonic nanostructures are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T00:00:00Z
       
  • Advances and Perspective on Antimicrobial Nanomaterials for Biomedical
           Applications

    • Authors: Preeti Garg, Prerna Attri, Rohit Sharma, Moondeep Chauhan, Ganga Ram Chaudhary
      Abstract: Microbial infection and antibiotic resistance is recognized as a serious problem to society from both an economical perspective and a health concern. To tackle this problem, “nanotechnology,” a multidisciplinary field of research, has provided a plethora of nanomaterials for potential applications in the antimicrobial sector. This letter discusses how antimicrobial nanomaterials are shaping this challenging field and being evaluated as therapeutic and medication delivery agents. The recently designed smart antimicrobial surfaces with switchable features that displayed synergistic antibacterial action were also highlighted. To end, we provide the current scenario and future perspectives with regards to emerging antimicrobial nano-engineered materials and nanotechnology.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Emerging Neuromorphic Electronics and Materials for Post-Moore
           Computing Era

    • Authors: Ying-Chen Chen, Amirali Amirsoleimani, Shideh Kabiri Ameri
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T00:00:00Z
       
  • Elastin-like Polypeptides in Development of Nanomaterials for Application
           in the Medical Field

    • Authors: Letícia Ferreira Lima, Mauricio Gonçalves Da Costa Sousa, Gisele Regina Rodrigues, Kamila Botelho Sampaio de Oliveira, Ana Margarida Pereira, André da Costa, Raul Machado, Octavio Luiz Franco, Simoni Campos Dias
      Abstract: Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are biopolymers formed by amino acid sequences derived from tropoelastin. These biomolecules can be soluble below critical temperatures, forming aggregates at higher temperatures, which makes them an interesting source for the design of different nanobiomaterials. These nanobiomaterials can be obtained from heterologous expression in several organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. Thanks to the many advantages of ELPs, they have been used in the biomedical field to develop nanoparticles, nanofibers, and nanocomposites. These nanostructures can be used in multiple applications such as drug delivery systems, treatments of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, tissue repair, and cancer therapy. Thus, this review aims to shed some light on the main advances in elastin-like-based nanomaterials, their possible expression forms, and importance to the medical field.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T00:00:00Z
       
  • The Flexible Electrochromic Device That Turns Blue Under Both Positive and
           Negative Application Voltages

    • Authors: Shiqi Jin, Xuejian Zhang, Xu Guo, Mimi Zhu, Ping Liu
      Abstract: Using the photocurable electrolyte solution containing viologen derivative 1,1′-bis- (4-vinylbenzyl)-4,4′-bipyridinium dihexafluorophosphate (EV2+•2PF6−) and its composite of EV2+•2PF6− and triphenylamine derivative N,N′-di(4-((3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl)imino)methyl)phenyl-N,N′-diphenyl-4,4′-biphenyldiamine (TPB-PSSO) as the electrochromic active layer, respectively, the flexible electrochromic devices (FECDs) were prepared by photocurable technology. The device structure was PET-ITO/photocurable electrolyte solution/PET-ITO. The electrochromic properties of FECDs were investigated. The results show that the FECDs can all undergo a reversible color change, especially the PET-ITO/photocurable electrolyte solution-composite/PET-ITO can undergo polychromatic transition. The FECD based on EV2+•2PF6− can reversibly change between colorless and deep blue, and the FECD based on the composite of TPB-PSSO-EV2+•2PF6− can reversibly change between black blue, light yellow, and sky blue.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T00:00:00Z
       
  • NeuroPack: An Algorithm-Level Python-Based Simulator for
           Memristor-Empowered Neuro-Inspired Computing

    • Authors: Jinqi Huang, Spyros Stathopoulos, Alexantrou Serb, Themis Prodromakis
      Abstract: Emerging two-terminal nanoscale memory devices, known as memristors, have demonstrated great potential for implementing energy-efficient neuro-inspired computing architectures over the past decade. As a result, a wide range of technologies have been developed that, in turn, are described via distinct empirical models. This diversity of technologies requires the establishment of versatile tools that can enable designers to translate memristors’ attributes in novel neuro-inspired topologies. In this study, we present NeuroPack, a modular, algorithm-level Python-based simulation platform that can support studies of memristor neuro-inspired architectures for performing online learning or offline classification. The NeuroPack environment is designed with versatility being central, allowing the user to choose from a variety of neuron models, learning rules, and memristor models. Its hierarchical structure empowers NeuroPack to predict any memristor state changes and the corresponding neural network behavior across a variety of design decisions and user parameter options. The use of NeuroPack is demonstrated herein via an application example of performing handwritten digit classification with the MNIST dataset and an existing empirical model for metal-oxide memristors.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • ENTT/ENTTR: A Family of Improved Emerging NVM-Based Trojan Triggers and
           Resets

    • Authors: Karthikeyan Nagarajan, Mohammad Nasim Imtiaz Khan, Swaroop Ghosh
      Abstract: Hardware Trojans in Integrated Circuits (ICs), that are inserted as hostile modifications in the design phase and/or the fabrication phase, are a security threat since the semiconductor manufacturing process is increasingly becoming globalized. These Trojans are devised to stay hidden during standard structural and functional testing procedures and only activate under pre-determined rare conditions (e.g., after a large number of clock cycles or the assertion of an improbable net). Once triggered, they can deliver malicious payloads (e.g., denial-of-service and information leakage attacks). Current literature identifies a collection of logic Trojans (both trigger circuits and payloads), but minimal research exists on memory Trojans despite their high feasibility. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories (NVMs), such as Resistive RAM (RRAM), have special properties such as non-volatility and gradual drift in bitcell resistance under a pulsing voltage input that make them prime targets to deploy hardware Trojans. In this paper, we present two delay-based and two voltage-based Trojan triggers using emerging NVM (ENTT) by utilizing RRAM’s resistance drift under a pulsing voltage input. Simulations show that ENTTs can be triggered by reading/writing to a specific memory address N times (N could be 2,500–3,500 or a different value for each ENTT design). Since the RRAM is non-volatile, address accesses can be intermittent and therefore stay undetected from system-level techniques that can identify continuous hammering as a possible security threat. We also present three reset techniques to de-activate the triggers. The resulting static/dynamic power overhead and maximum area overhead incurred by the proposed ENTTs are 104.24 μW/0.426 μW and 9.15 μm2, respectively in PTM 65 nm technology. ENTTs are effective against contemporary Trojan detection techniques and system level protocols. We also propose countermeasures to detect ENTT during the test phase and/or prevent fault-injection attacks during deployment.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Bio-Receptors Functionalized Nanoparticles: A Resourceful Sensing and
           Colorimetric Detection Tool for Pathogenic Bacteria and Microbial
           Biomolecules

    • Authors: Oluwafemi B. Daramola, Richard K. Omole, Ifeoluwa V. Akinwale, Frank O. Otuyelu, Bolanle A. Akinsanola, Taiwo O. Fadare, Reama C. George, Nkem Torimiro
      Abstract: Pathogenic bacteria and several biomolecules produced by cells and living organisms are common biological components posing a harmful threat to global health. Several studies have devised methods for the detection of varying pathogenic bacteria and biomolecules in different settings such as food, water, soil, among others. Some of the detection studies highlighting target pathogenic bacteria and biomolecules, mechanisms of detection, colorimetric outputs, and detection limits have been summarized in this review. In the last 2 decades, studies have harnessed various nanotechnology-based methods for the detection of pathogenic bacteria and biomolecules with much attention on functionalization techniques. This review considers the detection mechanisms, colorimetric prowess of bio-receptors and compares the reported detection efficiency for some bio-receptor functionalized nanoparticles. Some studies reported visual, rapid, and high-intensity colorimetric detection of pathogenic bacteria and biomolecules at a very low concentration of the analyte. Other studies reported slight colorimetric detection only with a large concentration of an analyte. The effectiveness of bio-receptor functionalized nanoparticles as detection component varies depending on their selectivity, specificity, and the binding interaction exhibited by nanoparticles, bio-receptor, and analytes to form a bio-sensing complex. It is however important to note that the colorimetric properties of some bio-receptor functionalized nanoparticles have shown strong and brilliant potential for real-time and visual-aided diagnostic results, not only to assess food and water quality but also for environmental monitoring of pathogenic bacteria and a wide array of biomolecules.
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanostructure-Based Sensors for
           Biomedical Applications

    • Authors: Long Que, Deqiang Wang, Jianjun Wei, Pai Yen Chen
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T00:00:00Z
       
  • Silver Chitosan Nanocomposites are Effective to Combat Sporotrichosis

    • Authors: Jhon Jhamilton Artunduaga Bonilla, Leandro Honorato, Allan J. Guimarães, Kildare Miranda, Leonardo Nimrichter
      Abstract: The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded in polymeric matrix has acquired special attention as a strategy to reduce metal toxicity without losing its antimicrobial effect. In this work, the green synthesis of AgNPs and their functionalization with chitosan (AgNPs@Chi) was performed, and their antifungal activity investigated against the foremost species responsible for causing sporotrichosis, Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii. In vitro studies revealed inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.12–1 μg/ml for both nanocomposites (NCs). Silver release in suspension displayed chitosan as a potential vehicle for continuous silver discharge, with a complete release after 52 days. No synergistic effects were observed in vitro when the NCs were combined with itraconazole or amphotericin B. Treatment of S. brasiliensis with NCs caused morphological deformities, cell membrane discontinuity and an intense cytoplasmic degeneration. Remarkably, both NCs induced the growth and migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts when compared to control conditions. In addition, functionalization of AgNPs with chitosan significantly reduced its hemolytic activity, suggesting their potential use in vivo. Finally, silver nanocomposites were used as a daily topical treatment in a murine model of subcutaneous sporotrichosis, showing the ability to reduce the Sporothrix infection and stimulate tissue repair. In combination, our results demonstrate that AgNPs@Chi can be a non-toxic and efficient alternative for sporotrichosis.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T00:00:00Z
       
  • Fabrication of Microbicidal Silver Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis and
           Implications in the Containment of Bacterial Biofilm on Orthodontal
           Appliances

    • Authors: Saba Farheen, Abdul M Oanz, Nazoora Khan, Mohd Saad Umar, Fauzia Jamal, Ishrat Altaf, Mohammad Kashif, Ansam Wadia Alshameri, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Irfan Ahmad Wani, Saba Khan, Mohammad Owais
      Abstract: Among various metal-based nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) manifest superior inhibitory effects against several microorganisms. In fact, the AgNP-based treatment has been reported to inhibit both sensitive and resistant isolates of bacteria and other disease-causing microbes with equal propensity. Keeping this fact into consideration, we executed bio-mediated synthesis of AgNPs employing extract of flower and various other parts (such as bud and leaf) of the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis plant. The physicochemical characterization of as-synthesized AgNPs was executed employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, etc. The as-synthesized AgNPs demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with equal propensity. The as-synthesized AgNPs successfully inhibited Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), one of the main causative bacteria responsible for dental caries. Considering the fact that orthodontic appliances facilitate infliction of the oral cavity with a range of microbes including S. mutans, we determined the growth inhibitory and anti-adherence activities of AgNPs on orthodontic appliances. We performed microbiological assays employing AgNPs adsorbed onto the surface of nickel–titanium (Ni-Ti) orthodontic wires. A topographic analysis of the decontaminated Ni-Ti orthodontic wires was performed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition to antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against oral S. mutans, the as-fabricated AgNPs demonstrated significant inhibitory and anti-biofilm properties against other biofilm-forming bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes.
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T00:00:00Z
       
  • Ionic Liquid Co-Catalyst Assisted Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking
           Oil Using Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst: Optimization and Characterization

    • Authors: Gurunathan Baskar, Nalathamalar T. Anita, Han Jeehoon, Rajendran Naveenkumar
      Abstract: In the present work, the biodiesel was produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) using heterogeneous zinc doped iron nanocatalyst and tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) as co-catalyst. The heterogeneous zinc doped iron nanocatalyst was synthesized and characterized. The functional group in the heterogeneous nanocatalyst was confirmed using FTIR analysis, the crystalline nature was studied by XRD analysis, and the size and structure of the nanocatalyst were analyzed by SEM. The optimization of transesterification parameters like oil to methanol molar ratio, zinc doped iron concentration, TBAI concentration, temperature, and time were carried out for the maximum conversion of biodiesel from WCO. At 50 min the maximum biodiesel conversion of 90% was achieved at 55°C with 12% catalyst, 30% co-catalyst, and 1:11 WCO to methanol ratio. The presence of functional groups and the methyl ester composition of the biodiesel from WCO were confirmed by FTIR and GC-MS analysis. The use of zinc doped iron nanocatalyst with TBAI showed good catalytic activity to produce biodiesel from WCO.
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T00:00:00Z
       
  • Inactivation of Fluorescent Lipid Bilayers by Irradiation With 300 keV
           Electrons Using Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    • Authors: Trevor Moser, James E. Evans
      Abstract: Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy allows for imaging of samples in a fully hydrated state at high resolution and has the potential for visualizing static or dynamic biological structures. However, the ionizing nature of the electron beam makes it difficult to discern real physiological dynamics from radiation induced artifacts within liquid cell samples. Electron flux thresholds for achieving high resolution structures from biological samples frozen in ice have been described extensively by the cryo-electron microscopy field, while electron flux thresholds which do not result in a functional change for biological samples within the hydrated environment of a transmission electron microscope liquid cell is less clear. Establishing these functional thresholds for biologically relevant samples is important for accurate interpretation of results from liquid cell experiments. Here we demonstrate the electron damage threshold of fluorescently tagged lipid bilayers by quantifying the change in fluorescence before and after electron exposure. We observe the reduction of fluorescent signal in bilayers by 25% after only 0.0005 e−/Å2 and a reduction of over 90% after 0.01 e−/Å2. These results indicate that the loss of function occurs at irradiation thresholds far below a typical single high resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy image and orders of magnitude below fluxes used for preserving structural features with cryo-electron microscopy.
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T00:00:00Z
       
  • Editorial: Microemulsions and Nanostructures for Efficient Tumor-Targeted
           Drug Delivery

    • Authors: René D. Peralta-Rodríguez, Esmeralda Mendoza-Mendoza, Ioannis Liakos, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
      PubDate: 2022-03-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • Nanocontainers Against Biofouling and Corrosion Degradation of Materials:
           A Short Review With Prospects

    • Authors: George Kordas
      Abstract: The current state of the art in active corrosion prevention is based on the use of macromolecular containers that can store and release corrosion inhibitors particularly to the surface when corrosion develops. These corrosion inhibitor-containing nano- or microcontainers are subsequently infused into coatings, allowing them to self-heal. Especially, nanocontainers for self-healing coatings with controlled corrosion inhibitors, energy storage, cement fracture repair, and antifouling metal protection have recently been developed. Incorporating these nanocontainers into materials in small amounts (e.g., 5–10 wt% in paints) provided anticorrosion protection that was incomparably better than the current approaches. Furthermore, the materials developed had multifunctional properties, including self-healing, antibacterial, and antimicrobial properties. The primary goal of this review was to compile the different research studies that have been published in a variety of publications so that the reader may better understand the potential of these new types of nanotechnology and the prospects for nanocontainers.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T00:00:00Z
       
  • Recent Advances in Planar Optics-Based Glasses-Free 3D Displays

    • Authors: Jianyu Hua, Wen Qiao, Linsen Chen
      Abstract: Glasses-free three-dimensional (3D) displays are one of the technologies that will redefine human-computer interfaces. However, many geometric optics-based 3D displays suffer from a limited field of view (FOV), severe resolution degradation, and visual fatigue. Recently, planar optical elements (e.g., diffraction gratings, diffractive lenses and metasurfaces) have shown superior light manipulating capability in terms of light intensity, phase, and polarization. As a result, planar optics hold great promise to tackle the critical challenges for glasses-free 3D displays, especially for portable electronics and transparent display applications. In this review, the limitations of geometric optics-based glasses-free 3D displays are analyzed. The promising solutions offered by planar optics for glasses-free 3D displays are introduced in detail. As a specific application and an appealing feature, augmented reality (AR) 3D displays enabled by planar optics are comprehensively discussed. Fabrication technologies are important challenges that hinder the development of 3D displays. Therefore, multiple micro/nanofabrication methods used in 3D displays are highlighted. Finally, the current status, future direction and potential applications for glasses-free 3D displays and glasses-free AR 3D displays are summarized.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T00:00:00Z
       
 
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