Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2918 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (259 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (255 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (182 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1464 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (476 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (60 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (121 journals)

ENGINEERING (1464 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advanced Engineering Research     Open Access  
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Al-Qadisiya Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Journal of Technical University of Varna     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Energy and Combustion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Engineering Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Applied Engineering Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive and Engine Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Automotive Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Avances: Investigación en Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coastal Engineering Proceedings : Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 334)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Composites Part C : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Comptes Rendus : Mécanique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Automotive Innovation
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2096-4250 - ISSN (Online) 2522-8765
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • Ion Current Features of HCCI Combustion in a GDI Engine

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      Abstract: Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) gasoline engines have the merit of good fuel economy and very low NOx emissions. The ion current signal in a gasoline direct injection-HCCI engine is the main focus of this paper. Experiments showed that the ion signal is significant correlated with the combustion status. Fuel spray and air–fuel mixture motions significant decrease the signal-to-noise ratio of the ion current signal. However, the current waveforms still vary regularly as the boundary conditions change, and their phases have significant linear relationships with the combustion phases. By combining the analysis with cylinder pressure data, the current can be used to effectively detect the combustion phase when the air fuel mixture is not lean. When the mixture gets leaner, the signal amplitude diminishes dramatically, and the linear correlation decreases substantially. The ratio of two-stage fuel injection has a strong effect on signal amplitude and combustion stability, and the linear relationship between the signal and combustion characteristics becomes insignificant as the pre-injection fuel amount decreases. A reaction kinetics analysis of the mechanism for the ion current signal in the HCCI engine explains the experimental observations.
      PubDate: 2019-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00074-0
       
  • Systematic Synthesis of Dedicated Hybrid Transmission

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      Abstract: The great diversity of dedicated hybrid transmissions (DHTs) requires a method to identify solutions among all potential concepts involved in each structure. Therefore, a DHT synthesis tool is developed on the basis of general transmission synthesis. In the first synthesis step, transmission structures are generated with only conventional functions such as driving with only the internal combustion engine. Electric machines are then installed in the transmissions to achieve further hybrid functions, including boosting, eCVT and electric driving modes. The number of generated transmission concepts increases exponentially with each synthesis step. Various evaluations are carried out successively to identify the most suitable DHT concepts among the many possible solutions. The generated DHT concepts are evaluated in terms of structural feasibility, driving modes, drivability and load factors on transmission components. An example of DHT synthesis involving planetary gear sets is explained in detail. The best five DHT structures are identified out of more than 120 billion solutions.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00071-3
       
  • Multiphysics Field Co-simulation Research Based on Electric Drive System
           for a Specific Type of Car

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      Abstract: Electric drive systems for new energy cars are complex systems that should have multivariate, strong coupling, and nonlinear characteristics and should also involve the multiphysics field. The singular simulation software used at present in the modeling of electric drive systems cannot simulate the influences of all the physics fields on the operating system. The co-simulation model used in this paper was based on a specific type of car. The motor control algorithm model was built in MATLAB/Simulink, the electromagnetic finite element model of the motor was built in ANSYS EM-Maxwell, and the motor controller hardware circuit was built in ANSYS EM-Simplorer. To make real-time connections among these software platforms, a multi-software co-simulation platform was built, and the co-simulation platform’s simulation results were input into STAR CCM+ software to enable finite element modeling of the motor and running of thermal analysis. When compared with the electric drive system model built using single Simulink software, the simulation results from this co-simulation platform were more realistic and were shown to be closer to reality when the dynamic characteristics of the electric drive system’s power semiconductor switching devices and the motor’s electromagnetic characteristics were considered. Finally, by benchmarking the multiphysics field co-simulation platform simulation results using dyno bench test results, the validity of the co-simulation platform was verified and the development of the multiphysics field co-simulation of the basic electric drive system was complete.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00067-z
       
  • Numerical Implementation of High-Order Vold–Kalman Filter Using Python
           Arbitrary-Precision Arithmetic Library

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      Abstract: The Vold–Kalman (VK) order tracking filter plays a vital role in the order analysis of noise in various fields. However, owing to the limited accuracy of double-precision floating-point data type, the order of the filter cannot be too high. This problem of accuracy makes it impossible for the filter to use a smaller bandwidth, meaning that the extracted order signal has greater noise. In this paper, the Python mpmath arbitrary-precision floating-point arithmetic library is used to implement a high-order VK filter. Based on this library, a filter with arbitrary bandwidth and arbitrary difference order can be implemented whenever necessary. Using the proposed algorithm, a narrower transition band and a flatter passband can be obtained, a good filtering effect can still be obtained when the sampling rate of the speed signal is far lower than that of the measured signal, and it is possible to extract narrowband signals from signals with large bandwidth. Test cases adopted in this paper show that the proposed algorithm has better filtering effect, better frequency selectivity, and stronger anti-interference ability compared with double-precision data type algorithm.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00065-1
       
  • Hardware Design and Test of a Gear-Shifting Control System of a Multi-gear
           Transmission for Electric Vehicles

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      Abstract: The performance of electric vehicles is affected by the shift quality of multi-gear transmission. The realization of dual-target tracking control requires the transmission control unit (TCU) to accurately measure and process the input signals of the gear-shifting control system and precisely control the drive motor torque and the position of shift motors. An electric-vehicle-dedicated TCU was designed to meet the above design requirements. Its function modules included a single-chip control circuit, shift position signal sampling circuit, signal conditioning circuit of the rotational speed and angle, controller area network communication circuit, and shift motor drive circuit. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation test system showed that the TCU design scheme met measurement accuracy requirements and coordinated the actions of the shift actuator and motor control unit to achieve fast and smooth shifting before the road test. The power interruption time of the shifting process was within 350 ms. The reliability of the TCU design was further verified in a 150,000-km vehicle road test.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00072-2
       
  • Characterization of Automotive Brake Discs with Laser-Machined Surfaces

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      Abstract: In the automotive and transport industry, braking noise and vibrations are persisting issues and difficult to control. Automotive engineers and researchers are putting considerable effort into overcoming these problems, and significant breakthroughs have been made in this area. In this study, M-shaped grooves were bionically designed and manufactured on the frictional surfaces of four automotive brake discs using a laser machine. Various tests were conducted to characterize the physical and mechanical performance of the modified discs along with their noise and vibration responses. The experimental results demonstrate that discs with laser-machined grooved surfaces have better surface hardness and residual stress reduction than discs with un-grooved surfaces. Significant improvement in the braking performance was observed in terms of disc thickness variation, friction and wear, noise, and vibration reduction. It is concluded that the reduction in braking noise and vibrations is mainly caused by the reduction in the coefficient of friction and wear, increase in damping ratio, and improvement of disc thickness variation of the brake disc by laser surface grooving.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00068-y
       
  • Innovative Electric Vehicle Body Design Based on Insurance Institute for
           Highway Safety Side Impact Conditions

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      Abstract: A version of an electric vehicle was developed and designed for the US market on the basis of the required domestic body structure. When compared with the original car, the new car body design leads to two major technical difficulties. First, the installation of high-voltage components such as the battery pack and other new energy sources increases the vehicle weight and occupies a great deal of its structural space; this limits the impact paths and the use of traditional structural designs, which greatly increases the design difficulty. Second, the USA, as an advanced automobile-using country, has well-developed laws and regulations for collision standards, vehicle operating conditions and evaluation standards. Using a combination of butterfly diagram analysis, bending moment management, section forces and other computer-aided simulation and analysis techniques, this paper presents a body structure design that can achieve a “GOOD” evaluation under the US Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side impact body structure conditions by optimizing the force transfer path, the B-pillar deformation mode and the threshold support structure. The threshold support structure supports realization of the “GOOD” rating for IIHS side impact and helps the body to meet the crash requirements of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard FMVSS214 and the US New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) requirements for side impact at 32 km/h and 75° angular pole impact.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00070-4
       
  • Modeling and Simulating a Battery for an Electric Vehicle Based on
           Modelica

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      Abstract: Battery is the key technology to the development of electric vehicles, and most battery models are based on the electric vehicle simulation. In order to accurately study the performance of LiFePO4 batteries, an improved equivalent circuit model was established by analyzing the dynamic characteristics and contrasting different-order models of the battery. Compared to the traditional model, the impact of hysteresis voltage was considered, and the third-order resistance–capacitance (RC) network was introduced to better simulate internal battery polarization. The electromotive force, resistance, capacitance and other parameters were calibrated through battery charge and discharge experiments. This model was built by using Modelica, a modeling language for object-oriented multi-domain physical systems. MWorks was used to implement the cycle conditions and vehicle simulation. The results show that the third-order RC battery model with hysteretic voltage well reflects the dynamics of a LiFePO4 battery. The difference between the simulated and measured voltages is small, with a maximum error of 1.78%, average error of 0.23%. The validity and feasibility of the model are verified. It can be used in unified modeling and simulation of subsequent multi-domain systems of electric vehicles.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00066-0
       
  • Cooperative Lane-Change Maneuver for Multiple Automated Vehicles on a
           Highway

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      Abstract: With the development of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, it is possible to share information among multiple vehicles. However, the existing research on automated lane changes concentrates only on the single-vehicle lane change with self-detective information. Cooperative lane changes are still a new area with more complicated scenarios and can improve safety and lane-change efficiency. Therefore, a multi-vehicle cooperative automated lane-change maneuver based on V2V communication for scenarios of eight vehicles on three lanes was proposed. In these scenarios, same-direction and intersectant-direction cooperative lane changes were defined. The vehicle that made the cooperative decision obtained the information of surrounding vehicles that were used to cooperatively plan the trajectories, which was called cooperative trajectory planning. The cooperative safety spacing model was proposed to guarantee and improve the safety of all vehicles, and it essentially developed constraints for the trajectory-planning task. Trajectory planning was treated as an optimization problem with the objective of maximizing safety, comfort, and lane-change efficiency under the constraints of vehicle dynamics and the aforementioned safety spacing model. Trajectory tracking based on a model predictive control method was designed to minimize tracking errors and control increments. Finally, to verify the validity of the proposed maneuver, an integrated simulation platform combining MATLAB/Simulink with CarSim was established. Moreover, a hardware-in-the-loop test bench was performed for further verification. The results indicated that the proposed multi-vehicle cooperative automated lane-change maneuver can achieve lane changes of multiple vehicles and increase lane-change efficiency while guaranteeing safety and comfort.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00073-1
       
  • Integrated Spacing Policy Considering Micro- and Macroscopic
           Characteristics

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      Abstract: An appropriate spacing policy improves traffic flow and traffic efficiency while reducing commuting time and energy consumption. In this paper, the integrated spacing policy that combines the benefits of the constant time headway (CTH) and safety distance (SD) spacing policies is proposed in an attempt to improve traffic flow and efficiency. Firstly, the performance of the CTH and SD spacing policies is analyzed from the perspective of the microscopic characteristics of human-vehicle and the macroscopic characteristics of traffic flow. The switching law between CTH and SD spacing policies and the integrated spacing policy are then proposed to increase traffic efficiency according to the traffic conditions, and the critical speed for the proposed integrated spacing policy is derived. Using the proposed switching law, the integrated spacing policy utilizes the safety redundancy difference between the CTH and SD spacing policies in a flexible manner. Simulation tests demonstrate that the proposed integrated spacing policy increases traffic flow and that the traffic flow maintains string stability in a wider range of traffic flow density.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00064-2
       
  • Scale Consistency Quantification for Subjective Evaluation of Vehicle
           Dynamics

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      Abstract: The subjective evaluation of vehicle dynamics performance is widely applied in different stages of vehicle development. However, the rating result has frequently been challenged because it is easily affected by various subjective and objective factors. Currently, there is no suitable index for determining evaluator’s consistency when performing a subjective evaluation of vehicle dynamics. This evaluation is quite unique, with limited samples, multiple indices, and poor repeatability, in addition to being stratified and two dimensional. The cross-grouped factor analysis (CFA) method is proposed to identify the scale for a subjective evaluation and to quantify its consistency. An application case study revealed that the proposed method is effective.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00062-4
       
  • Impact Resistance of Spark Plug’s Ceramic Insulator During
           Ultra-high-Pressure Combustion Under Deto-Knock Conditions

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      Abstract: The ceramic insulators of spark plugs in gasoline engines are especially prone to damage when deto-knock occurs. To understand the damage process and mechanism, the present work investigated the impact resistance of ceramic insulators using detonation waves as impact sources. A test device that generates detonation waves was developed, representing a novel means of evaluating the knock resistance of ceramic insulators. Various impact types and detonation intensities were employed, and detonation initiation and propagation at peak pressures greater than 100 MPa were assessed using synchronous high-speed direct photography and pressure measurements. The test results demonstrate that ceramic insulators tend to break at the base of the breathing chamber when damaged by a single high peak pressure detonation wave impact. In contrast, multiple low pressure impacts eventually break the insulator into multiple fragments. The data also show that the positioning of a ground electrode upstream of the ceramic insulator greatly increases the resistance of the ceramic to the detonation impact. A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation coupled with a chemical kinetics analysis demonstrated that this improved resistance can be ascribed to a reduced peak pressure that appears after the detonation wave diffracts from the electrode prior to contacting the ceramic insulator.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00058-0
       
  • Experimental and Numerical Study of Cervical Muscle Contraction in Frontal
           Impact

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      Abstract: In a crash situation, drivers typically make evasive maneuvers before an upcoming impact, which can affect the kinematics and injury during impact. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the response and effect of drivers’ cervical muscles in a frontal impact. A crash scenario was developed using a vehicle driving simulator, and 10 volunteers were employed to drive the simulator at 20 km/h, 50 km/h, 80 km/h and 100 km/h. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the sternocleidomastoideus (SCM), splenius cervicis (SPL) and trapezium (TRP) muscles using a data acquisition system, and the level of muscle activation was calculated. A numerical study was conducted using data collected in the experiment. The results revealed that the cervical muscles were activated during drivers’ protective action. EMG activity of cervical muscles before impact was greater than that during normal driving. EMG activity increased with driving speed, with the SCM and TRP exhibiting larger increases than the SPL. The kinematics and load of the driver were influenced by muscle activation. Before the collision, the head of an active model stretched backward, while the passive model kept the head upright. In low-speed impact, the torque and shear of the cervical muscle in the active model were much lower than those in the passive model, while the tension of the cervical muscle was higher in the active model compared with the passive model. The results indicated that the incidence of cervical injury in high-speed impact is complex.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00060-6
       
  • A Review of Engine Fuel Injection Studies Using Synchrotron Radiation
           X-ray Imaging

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      Abstract: Fuel spray characteristics directly determine the formation pattern and quality of the fuel/air mixture in an engine, and thus affect the combustion process. For this reason, the improvement and optimization of fuel injection systems is crucial to the development of engine technologies. The fuel jet breakup and atomization process is a complex liquid–gas two-phase turbulent flow system that has not yet been fully elucidated. Owing to the limitations of standard optical measurement techniques, the spray breakup mechanism and its interaction with the nozzle internal flow are still unclear. However, in recent years synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray imaging technologies have been widely applied in engine fuel injection studies because of the higher energy and brilliance of third-generation SR light sources. This review provides a brief introduction to the development of SR technology and compares the critical parameters of the primary third-generation SR light sources available worldwide. The basic principles and applications of various X-ray imaging technologies with regard to nozzle internal structure measurements, visualization of in-nozzle flow characteristics and quantitative analyses of near-field spray transient dynamics are examined in detail.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00056-2
       
  • Driving-Cycle-Aware Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using a
           Three-Dimensional Markov Chain Model

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      Abstract: This study developed a new online driving cycle prediction method for hybrid electric vehicles based on a three-dimensional stochastic Markov chain model and applied the method to a driving-cycle-aware energy management strategy. The impacts of different prediction time lengths on driving cycle generation were explored. The results indicate that the original driving cycle is compressed by 50%, which significantly reduces the computational burden while having only a slight effect on the prediction performance. The developed driving cycle prediction method was implemented in a real-time energy management algorithm with a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain model, and the model was verified by simulation using two different testing scenarios. The testing results demonstrate that the developed driving cycle prediction method is able to efficiently predict future driving tasks, and it can be successfully used for the energy management of hybrid electric vehicles.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00059-z
       
  • Concept Study of a Self-localization System for Snow-covered Roads Using a
           Four-layer Laser Scanner

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      Abstract: Many advanced driver assistance systems have entered the market, and automated driving technologies have been developed. Many of them may not work in adverse weather conditions. A forward-looking camera, for example, is the most popular system used for lane detection but does not work for a snow-covered road. The present paper proposes a self-localization system for snowy roads when the roadsides are covered with snow. The system employs a four-layer laser scanner and onboard sensors and uses only pre-existing roadside snow poles provided for drivers in a snowy region without any other road infrastructure. Because the landscape greatly changes in a short time during a snowstorm and snow removal works, it is necessary to restrict the landmarks used for self-localization to tall objects, like snow poles. A system incorporating this technology will support a driver’s efforts to keep to a lane even in a heavy snowstorm.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00061-5
       
  • End-to-End Self-Driving Using Deep Neural Networks with Multi-auxiliary
           Tasks

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      Abstract: End-to-end self-driving is a method that directly maps raw visual images to vehicle control signals using deep convolutional neural network (CNN). Although prediction of steering angle has achieved good result in single task, the current approach does not effectively simultaneously predict the steering angle and the speed. In this paper, various end-to-end multi-task deep learning networks using deep convolutional neural network combined with long short-term memory recurrent neural network (CNN-LSTM) are designed and compared, which could obtain not only the visual spatial information but also the dynamic temporal information in the driving scenarios, and improve steering angle and speed predictions. Furthermore, two auxiliary tasks based on semantic segmentation and object detection are proposed to improve the understanding of driving scenarios. Experiments are conducted on the public Udacity dataset and a newly collected Guangzhou Automotive Cooperate dataset. The results show that the proposed network architecture could predict steering angles and vehicle speed accurately. In addition, the impact of multi-auxiliary tasks on the network performance is analyzed by visualization method, which shows the salient map of network. Finally, the proposed network architecture has been well verified on the autonomous driving simulation platform Grand Theft Auto V (GTAV) and experimental road with an average takeover rate of two times per 10 km.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00057-1
       
  • Novel Mechanical Interface Design for Automotive Starting Systems

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      Abstract: Stop–start vehicles (SSVs) represent a potential alternative for improving internal combustion engine (ICE) efficiency. SSVs provide ICEs with the functionality of turning the engine off during traffic halts and restarting it without intervention by the driver. This strategy reduces fuel consumption, especially in dense urban traffic areas, and contributes to emissions reduction to meet green emissions targets. The most widely adopted SSV system has a mechanical interface to connect the electric starter motor to the ICE, which requires increased robustness compared with standard starting motors. This requirement allows the motor to withstand a higher number of engine start cycles compared with a standard starting motor. Nevertheless, it is a critical problem for wider adoption of SSVs. As SSV systems usually are based on the conventional starting system, its durability and noise remains a critical issue to be addressed by automakers. The typical pinion–ring gear interface uses intermittent gear meshing to form a transient coupling interface. The research reported here presents the development of an innovative mechanical interface for starting systems, called the permanent coupling (PC)-type interface, which reduces noise and increases durability compared with the existing design. The results obtained by a functional prototype of the PC-type mechanical interface confirm the feasibility of the proposed concept. The methodology is based on a product development process integrated with lumped-parameter modeling and virtual simulation aimed at reducing failures during prototype testing. The new mechanical interface was proven to be a good candidate for increasing the use of SSVs in the automotive market.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00052-6
       
  • Estimation of Residual Exhaust Gas of Homogeneous Charge Compression
           Ignition Gasoline Engine Operating Under Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

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      Abstract: To meet the requirements of the homogeneous charge compression ignition gasoline engine’s rapid cylinder exhaust gas rate and accurate control of combustion phasing, a residual exhaust gas rate model was proposed. A heat dissipation model for gas flow in the exhaust passage and exhaust pipe was established, and the exhaust gas was established. Flow through the exhaust valve was considered as an adiabatic expansion process, the exhaust temperature was used to estimate the temperature in the cylinder at the time that the valve was closed, and the cylinder exhaust gas rate was calculated. To meet the requirements of transient operating conditions, a first-order inertial link was used to correct the thermocouple temperature measurement. Addressing this delay problem and modification of the exhaust wall temperature according to different conditions effectively improved the accuracy of the model. The relative error between the calculated results of this model and the simulation results determined using GT-POWER software was within 3.5%.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00048-2
       
  • MPC-Based Downshift Control of Automated Manual Transmissions

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      Abstract: Automated manual transmissions, which usually adopt synchronizers to complete the gear shift process, have many advantageous features. However, the torque interruption and the challenging control objectives during the gear shift process limit its industrial application, especially for the power-on gear downshift. This paper proposes a model predictive control (MPC) method to control the clutch engagement process and effectively shorten the torque interruption, consequently enhancing the gear downshift quality. During the control law deduction, the proposed MPC also accounts for time-domain constraints explicitly. After the control law was deduced, it was validated through simulations under two typical power-on gear downshift working scenarios. Both of the simulation results demonstrate that the controller proposed in this paper can shorten the torque interruption time during power-on gear downshifts while minimizing vehicle jerk for overall satisfactory drivability.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-019-00050-8
       
 
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