Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2791 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (248 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (242 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1402 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (452 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (100 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1402 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Nova     Open Access  
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Engineering Research     Open Access  
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Natural Sciences : Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aerospace Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Al-Qadisiya Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Journal of Technical University of Varna     Open Access  
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applications in Energy and Combustion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applications in Engineering Science     Open Access  
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Applied Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 25)
Applied Engineering Letters     Open Access  
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Arctic     Open Access  
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access  
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive and Engine Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Automotive Innovation     Hybrid Journal  
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Avances: Investigación en Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access  
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Reports Physical Science     Open Access  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access  
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cleaner Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cleaner Environmental Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Coastal Engineering Proceedings : Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 244)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221)
Composites Part C : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
Comptes Rendus : Mécanique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

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Automotive Innovation
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2096-4250 - ISSN (Online) 2522-8765
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Magnetic Coupler Robust Optimization Design for Electric Vehicle Wireless
           Charger Based on Improved Simulated Annealing Algorithm

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      Abstract: Fleets of autonomous vehicles including shuttle buses, freight trucks, and road sweepers will be deployed in the Olympic Village during Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics. This requires intelligent charging infrastructure based on wireless power transfer technology to be equipped. To increase the misalignment tolerance of a high-power wireless charger, the robustness of the magnetic coupler should be optimized. This paper presents a new type of unipolar coupler, which is composed of three connected coils in series. The dimensional configuration of the coils is analyzed by the finite element method. The characteristic parameters of the coil are identified with their influence on the self-inductance and coupling coefficient. An expert model is built, whose feasibility can be verified in the aimed design domain. Combined with the expert model, an improved simulated annealing algorithm with a backtracking mechanism is proposed. The primary coil can reach the expected characteristics from any starting parameter combination through the proposed optimization algorithm. Under the same conditions in terms of external circuit parameters, ferrite usage, and aluminum shielding, the offset sensitivity of the magnetic coupler can be reduced from 58.79% to 18.89%. A prototype is established, validating the feasibility of the proposed coil structure with the optimized parameter algorithm.
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
       
  • Performance Limit Evaluation Strategy for Automated Driving Systems

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      Abstract: Efficient detection of performance limits is critical to autonomous driving. As autonomous driving is difficult to be realized under complicated scenarios, an improved genetic algorithm-based evolution test is proposed to accelerate the evaluation of performance limits. It conducts crossover operation at all positions and mutation several times to make the high-quality chromosome exist in candidate offspring easily. Then the normal offspring is selected statistically based on the scenario complexity, which is designed to measure the difficulty of realizing autonomous driving through the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The benefits of modified cross/mutation operators on the improvement of scenario complexity are analyzed theoretically. Finally, the effectiveness of improved genetic algorithm-based evolution test is validated after being applied to evaluate the collision avoidance performance of an automatic parallel parking system.
      PubDate: 2022-01-15
       
  • Pyramid Bayesian Method for Model Uncertainty Evaluation of Semantic
           Segmentation in Autonomous Driving

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      Abstract: With the fast-developing deep learning models in the field of autonomous driving, the research on the uncertainty estimation of deep learning models has also prevailed. Herein, a pyramid Bayesian deep learning method is proposed for the model uncertainty evaluation of semantic segmentation. Semantic segmentation is one of the most important perception problems in understanding visual scene, which is critical for autonomous driving. This study to optimize Bayesian SegNet for uncertainty evaluation. This paper first simplifies the network structure of Bayesian SegNet by reducing the number of MC-Dropout layer and then introduces the pyramid pooling module to improve the performance of Bayesian SegNet. mIoU and mPAvPU are used as evaluation matrics to test the proposed method on the public Cityscapes dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed method improves the sampling effect of the Bayesian SegNet, shortens the sampling time, and improves the network performance.
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
       
  • Heating Lithium-Ion Batteries at Low Temperatures for Onboard
           Applications: Recent Progress, Challenges and Prospects

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      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are commonly used in electric vehicles (EVs) due to their good performance, long lifecycle, and environmentally friendly merits. Heating LIBs at low temperatures before operation is vitally important to protect the battery from serious capacity degradation and safety hazards. This paper reviews recent progress on heating methods that can be used onboard. The existing methods are divided into two categories, namely external heating methods and internal heating methods, mechanisms, advantages and limitations of each method are systematically reviewed. Then, the rates of temperature rise, energy consumptions, and maximum temperature gradient of different methods are quantitatively summarized to compare the heating performances of each method. In addition, features related to the onboard application of each method are qualitatively compared, which is essential for the rapid cold start of EVs in frigid weather. Finally, prospects of external and internal heating methods are given. This paper aims to provide researchers and engineers with guidelines about how to select a method based on their requirements and application environments.
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
       
  • Collaborative Control of Novel Uninterrupted Propulsion System for
           All-Climate Electric Vehicles

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      Abstract: Over the past decade, the electric vehicle industry of China has developed rapidly, reaching one of the highest technological levels in the world. Nevertheless, most electric buses currently serve urban areas, being unsuitable for all-climate operations. In response to the objective of massively adopting electric vehicles for transportation during all the events of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics, a dual-motor coaxial propulsion system for all-climate electric vehicles is proposed. The system aims to meet operating requirements such as high speed and adaptability to mountainous roads under severely cold environments. The system provides three operating modes, whose characteristics are analyzed under different conditions. In addition, dual-motor collaborative control strategy with collaborative gearshift and collaborative power distribution is proposed to eliminate power interruption during gearshift process and achieve intelligent power distribution, thus improving the gearshift quality and reducing energy consumption. Finally, gear position calibration for all-climate operation and proper gearshift is introduced. Experimental results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed dual-motor coaxial propulsion system regarding gearshift compared with the conventional single-motor automatic transmission.
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
       
  • Dual-pump Control Algorithm of Two-speed Powershift Transmissions in
           Electric Vehicles

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      Abstract: A high-speed motor in a drive system causes several challenges to the reliability of the mechanical parts of electric vehicles and leads to issues with noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Thus, a two-speed powershift transmission is considered an effective way to improve the dynamic, economic and comfort performance of electric vehicles. A newly designed dual-pump hydraulic control system for a two-speed powershift transmission with two wet clutches is presented, in which the mechanical oil pump is linearly affected by the vehicle speed and the electric oil pump is controllable. By integrating the dynamic model of the hydraulic system into one of the powertrains with a two-speed transmission, a co-simulation dynamic model is proposed. To satisfy the flow and pressure demand of the hydraulic system, a dual-pump control strategy is presented, in which the electric oil pump is controlled by the mechanical oil pump following the minimum energy consumption principle. The World Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) cycle simulation results show that the energy consumption of the proposed hydraulic system can be reduced by 58.2% compared to the previous single-pump system developed by the authors with a constant main-line pressure control strategy. On the basis, the best configuration of the two pumps can further reduce the energy consumption of the hydraulic system by 23.2% compared to that of two-oil pumps with preset displacement.
      PubDate: 2021-11-12
       
  • Kalman Filter-Based Fusion Estimation Method of Steering Feedback Torque
           for Steer-by-Wire Systems

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      Abstract: Universal challenge lies in torque feedback accuracy for steer-by-wire systems, especially on uneven and low-friction road. Therefore, this paper proposes a fusion method based on Kalman filter that combines a dynamics-reconstruction method and disturbance observer-based method. The dynamics- reconstruction method is designed according to the vehicle dynamics and used as the prediction model of the Kalman filter. While the disturbance observer-based method is performed as an observer model of the Kalman filter. The performance of all three methods is comprehensively evaluated in a hardware-in-the-loop system. Experimental results show that the proposed fusion method outperforms dynamics reconstruction method and disturbance observer-based method. Specifically, compared with the dynamics-reconstruction method, the root mean square error is reduced by 36.58% at the maximum on the flat road. Compared with the disturbance observer-based method, the root mean square error is reduced by 39.11% at the maximum on different-friction and uneven road.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • Hierarchical Sizing and Power Distribution Strategy for Hybrid Energy
           Storage System

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      Abstract: This paper proposes a hierarchical sizing method and a power distribution strategy of a hybrid energy storage system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), aiming to reduce both the energy consumption and battery degradation cost. As the optimal size matching is significant to multi-energy systems like PHEV with both battery and supercapacitor (SC), this hybrid system is adopted herein. First, the hierarchical optimization is conducted, when the optimal power of the internal combustion engine is calculated based on dynamic programming, and a wavelet transformer is introduced to distribute the power between the battery and the SC. Then, the fuel economy and battery degradation are evaluated to return feedback value to each sizing point within the hybrid energy storage system sizing space, obtaining the optimal sizes for the battery and the SC by comparing all the values in the whole sizing space. Finally, an all-hardware test platform is established with a fully active power conversion topology, on which the real-time control capability of the wavelet transformer method and the size matching between the battery and the SC are verified in both short and long time spans.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • An Innovative State-of-charge Estimation Method of Lithium-ion Battery
           Based on 5th-order Cubature Kalman Filter

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      Abstract: The lithium-ion batteries have drawn much attention as the major energy storage system. However, the battery state estimation still suffers from inaccuracy under dynamic operational conditions, with the unstable environmental noise influencing the robustness of estimation. This paper presents a 5th-order cubature Kalman filter with improvements on adaptivity for real-time state-of-charge estimation. The second-order equivalent circuit model is developed for describing the characteristics of battery, and parameter identification is carried out according to particle swarm optimization. The developed method is validated in stable and dynamic conditions, and simulation results show a satisfactory consistency with the experimental results. The maximum estimation error under static conditions is less than 3% and the maximum error under dynamic conditions is 5%. Numerical analysis indicates that the method has better convergence and robustness than the traditional method under the disturbances of initial error, which demonstrates the potential for EV applications in harsh environments. The proposed method shows application potential for both online estimations and cloud-computing system, indicating its diverse application prospect in electric vehicles.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • Review of DC-DC Converter Topologies Based on Impedance Network with Wide
           Input Voltage Range and High Gain for Fuel Cell Vehicles

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      Abstract: The development of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) has a major impact on improving air quality and reducing other fossil-fuel-related problems. DC-DC boost converters with wide input voltage ranges and high gains are essential to fuel cells and DC buses in the powertrains of FCVs, helping to improve the low voltage of fuel cells and “soft” output characteristics. To build DC-DC converters with the desired performance, their topologies have been widely investigated and optimized. Aiming to obtain the optimal design of wide input range and high-gain DC-DC boost converter topologies for FCVs, a review of the research status of DC-DC boost converters based on an impedance network is presented. Additionally, an evaluation system for DC-DC topologies for FCVs is constructed, providing a reference for designing wide input range and high-gain boost converters. The evaluation system uses eight indexes to comprehensively evaluate the performance of DC-DC boost converters for FCVs. On this basis, issues about DC-DC converters for FCVs are discussed, and future research directions are proposed. The main future research directions of DC-DC converter for FCVs include utilizing a DC-DC converter to realize online monitoring of the water content in FCs and designing buck-boost DC-DC converters suitable for high-power commercial FCVs.
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
       
  • Simulator Coupled with Distributed Co-Simulation Protocol for Automated
           Driving Tests

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      Abstract: To meet the challenges in software testing for automated vehicles, such as increasing system complexity and an infinite number of operating scenarios, new simulation methods must be developed. Closed-loop simulations for automated driving (AD) require highly complex simulation models for multiple controlled vehicles with their perception systems as well as their surrounding context. For the realization of such models, different simulation domains must be coupled with co-simulation. However, widely supported model integration standards such as functional mock-up interface (FMI) lack native support for distributed platforms, which is a key feature for AD due to the computational intensity and platform exclusivity of certain models. The newer FMI companion standard distributed co-simulation protocol (DCP) introduces platform coupling but must still be used in conjunction with AD co-simulations. As part of an assessment framework for AD, this paper presents a DCP compliant implementation of an interoperable interface between a 3D environment and vehicle simulator and a co-simulation platform. A universal Python wrapper is implemented and connected to the simulator to allow its control as a DCP slave. A C-code-based interface enables the co-simulation platform to act as a DCP master and to realize cross-platform data exchange and time synchronization of the environment simulation with other integrated models. A model-in-the-loop use case is performed with the traffic simulator CARLA running on a Linux machine connected to the co-simulation master xMOD on a Windows computer via DCP. Several virtual vehicles are successfully controlled by cooperative adaptive cruise controllers executed outside of CARLA. The standard compliance of the implementation is verified by exemplary connection to prototypic DCP solutions from 3rd party vendors. This exemplary application demonstrates the benefits of DCP compliant tool coupling for AD simulation with increased tool interoperability, reuse potential, and performance.
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-021-00161-1
       
  • Design, Modeling, and Characterization of a Tubular Linear Vibration
           Energy Harvester for Integrated Active Wheel System

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      Abstract: A major source of electric vehicle energy loss is the vibration energy dissipated by the shock absorbers under irregular road excitation, which is particularly severe when active wheel systems are employed because their greater unsprung mass leads to greater shocks and vibrations. Therefore, a tubular linear energy harvester (TLEH) with a large stroke and low electromagnetic force ripple is designed to convert this vibration energy into electricity. The proposed TLEH employs a slotted external mover with three-phase winding coils and an internal stator with PMs to increase the stroke, adopts a fractional slot-per-pole configuration to reduce its size and improve the winding factor, and realizes significantly reduced cogging force by optimizing the incremental length of the armature core. A finite element model of the TLEH is first verified against a theoretical model and then used to investigate the influences of various road excitation frequencies and amplitudes on the electromotive force (EMF) waveforms and generated power, the efficiency and damping force according to load condition, and the energy recovery and nonlinear electromagnetic force characteristics of the TLEH. A resistance controller is then designed to realize a self-damping electromagnetic suspension. The results indicate that the EMF and the generated power waveforms depend on the excitation frequency and amplitude, the efficiency increases and the damping coefficient decreases with the increasing load resistance.
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-021-00144-2
       
  • VCANet: Vanishing-Point-Guided Context-Aware Network for Small Road Object
           Detection

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      Abstract: Advanced deep learning technology has made great progress in generic object detection of autonomous driving, yet it is still challenging to detect small road hazards in a long distance owing to lack of large-scale small-object datasets and dedicated methods. This work addresses the challenge from two aspects. Firstly, a self-collected long-distance road object dataset (TJ-LDRO) is introduced, which consists of 109,337 images and is the largest dataset so far for the small road object detection research. Secondly, a vanishing-point-guided context-aware network (VCANet) is proposed, which utilizes the vanishing point prediction block and the context-aware center detection block to obtain semantic information. The multi-scale feature fusion pipeline and the upsampling block in VCANet are introduced to enhance the region of interest (ROI) feature. The experimental results with TJ-LDRO dataset show that the proposed method achieves better performance than the representative generic object detection methods. This work fills a critical capability gap in small road hazards detection for high-speed autonomous vehicles.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-021-00157-x
       
  • Design of the Airbag Inflation System Applicable to Conventional and
           Autonomous Vehicles

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      Abstract: The emergency transformation of various aspects of life and business these days requires prompt evaluation of autonomous vehicles. One of the primary reassessments deals with the applicability of the vehicle passive safety system to the protection of arbitrarily positioned passengers. To mitigate possible risks caused by the simultaneous deployment of several big airbags, a new principle of their operation is required. Herein, the aspirated inflator for a driver airbag is developed that can provide 50L-airbag inflation within 30–40 ms. As a result, about 3/4 of the air is to be entrained into an airbag from the vehicle compartment. The process is initiated by a supersonic pulse jet (1/3 air volume) generated pyrotechnically. Then the Prandtl–Meyer problem formulation enables guiding linear and angular dimensions of the essential parts of the device. Accordingly, a family of experimental models of varied geometry is fabricated and tested to determine their operational effectiveness in a range of motive pressure within ~ 3–7 MPa. Experiments are performed on a specially designed facility equipped with compressed-air tanks and a high-speed valve to mimic the inflator operation with the pyrotechnic gas generator. The aspirated inflator operability is characterized using multivariate measurements of pressure fields, high-speed video-recording of the airbag inflation process, and evaluation of aspiration (entrainment) ratio. The average volume aspiration ratio measured at 300 K is found to reach 2.8 and it’s expected to almost double at 1200 K.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-021-00156-y
       
  • Preface for Feature Topic on Intelligent Safety for CAVs

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      PubDate: 2021-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-021-00158-w
       
  • Human Performance in Critical Scenarios as a Benchmark for Highly
           Automated Vehicles

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      Abstract: Before highly automated vehicles (HAVs) become part of everyday traffic, their safety has to be proven. The use of human performance as a benchmark represents a promising approach, but appropriate methods to quantify and compare human and HAV performance are rare. By adapting the method of constant stimuli, a scenario-based approach to quantify the limit of (human) performance is developed. The method is applied to a driving simulator study, in which participants are repeatedly confronted with a cut-in manoeuvre on a highway. By systematically manipulating the criticality of the manoeuvre in terms of time to collision, humans’ collision avoidance performance is measured. The limit of human performance is then identified by means of logistic regression. The calculated regression curve and its inflection point can be used for direct comparison of human and HAV performance. Accordingly, the presented approach represents one means by which HAVs’ safety performance could be proven.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-021-00152-2
       
  • A Systematic Risk Assessment Framework of Automotive Cybersecurity

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      Abstract: The increasingly intelligent and connected vehicles have brought many unprecedented automotive cybersecurity threats, which may cause privacy breaches, personal injuries, and even national security issues. Before providing effective security solutions, a comprehensive risk assessment of the automotive cybersecurity must be carried out. A systematic cybersecurity risk assessment framework for automobiles is proposed in this study. It consists of an assessment process and systematic assessment methods considering the changes of threat environment, evaluation target, and available information in vehicle lifecycle. In the process of risk identification and risk analysis, the impact level and attack feasibility level are assessed based on the STRIDE model and attack tree method. An automotive cybersecurity risk matrix using a global rating algorithm is then constructed to create a quantitative risk metric. Finally, the applicability and feasibility of the proposed risk assessment framework are demonstrated through a use case, and the results prove that the proposed framework is effective. The proposed assessment framework helps to systematically derive automotive cybersecurity requirements.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-021-00140-6
       
  • Vehicle Travel Destination Prediction Method Based on Multi-source Data

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      Abstract: Research on vehicle travel destinations mostly only consider vehicle trajectory data and ignore the influence of other multi-source data, such as weather, time, and points of interest (POI). This study proposes a destination prediction method based on multi-source data, and a multi-input neural network model is established. In terms of the coding of vehicle trajectory data, a GeoHash to vector (Geo2vec) model is proposed to realize the characterization of the trajectory. As for the coding of temporal features, a cyclic coding model is proposed based on trigonometric functions. For the coding of POI, an origin–destination POI matrix (OD-POI) model is proposed based on the state transition probability. Experimental results show that in terms of the average distance and root-mean-square distance deviations, Geo2vec reveals reductions of 4.51% and 5.63% compared to word to vector (Word2vec), and cyclic encoding shows reductions of 6.35% and 6.67% compared to label encoding; further, the method of OD-POI state transition probability is reduced by 5.85% and 6.4%, and the model based on multi-source data is 17.29% and 17.65% lower than the model based on trajectory data only. Finally, the cyclic encoding is reduced by 48.60% in the data dimension compared to one-hot encoding. Accurate destination prediction will help improve the efficiency of automotive human–computer interaction
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-021-00136-2
       
  • Path-Following Control of Autonomous Vehicles Considering Coupling Effects
           and Multi-source System Uncertainties

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      Abstract: Path-following control is one of the key technologies of autonomous vehicles, but the complex coupling effects and system uncertainties of vehicles can degrade their control performance. Accordingly, this study proposes targeted methods to solve different types of coupling in vehicle dynamics. First, the types of coupling are figured out and different handling strategies are proposed for each type, among which the coupling caused by steering angle, unsaturated tire forces, and load transfer can be treated as uncertainties in a unified form, such that the coupling effects can be treated in a decoupling way. Then, robust control methods for both lateral and longitudinal dynamics are proposed to deal with the uncertainties in dynamic and physical parameters. In lateral control, a robust feedback–feedforward scheme is utilized in lateral control to deal with such uncertainties. In longitudinal control, a radial basis function neural network-based adaptive sliding mode controller is introduced to deal with uncertainties and disturbances. In addition, the tire saturation coupling that cannot be handled by controllers is treated by a proposed speed profile. Simulation results based on the CarSim–Simulink joint platform evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control method. The results show that compared with a well-designed robust controller, the velocity tracking performance, lateral tracking performance, and heading tracking performance improve by 55.68%, 34.26%, and 52.41%, respectively, in the double-lane change maneuver, and increase by 87.79%, 30.18%, and 9.68%, respectively, in the ramp maneuver.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-021-00155-z
       
  • Cyber-Attack Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Vehicle Dynamic State
           Estimation

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      Abstract: As intelligent vehicles become increasingly computerized and networked, they gain more autonomous capabilities. However, they are also becoming more exposed to cyber-threats which are likely to be a more prominent concern. This paper proposes a cyber-attack detection method for autonomous vehicles based on secure estimation of vehicle states, with an example application under attacks in the vehicle localization system. To investigate the effects of vehicle model and estimator on the attack detection performance, different nonlinear vehicle dynamic models and estimation approaches are employed. The deviation between the measurement from the onboard sensors and the state estimation is monitored in real time. With the designed vehicle state estimator and preset threshold, the cyber-attack detection algorithm is further developed for autonomous vehicles, whose performance is tested in simulations where the vehicle localization system is assumed to be compromised during a double lane change maneuver. The test results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed cyber-attack algorithm. In addition, the results illustrate the impacts of vehicle nonlinear characteristics on the cyber-attack detection performance. Beyond this, the effects of different vehicle models on the attack detection performance, as well as the selection of suitable filtering approaches for the attack detection, are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42154-021-00153-1
       
 
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