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 Automotive and Engine TechnologyNumber of Followers: 0      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 2365-5127 - ISSN (Online) 2365-5135 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2484 journals]
• Dimensioning of a permanent magnet synchronous machine for electric
vehicles according to performance and integration requirements

Abstract: Finding the optimum design of electrical machines for a certain purpose is a time-consuming task. First results can be achieved, however, with scaling known machine designs in length and turns per coil by means of analytical equations, while scaling in diameter requires finite element analysis (FEA), since electromagnetic properties change significantly. In this paper, the influence of diameter, length and turns per coil on the torque, power and efficiency of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) are investigated in a sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, their impact on energy consumption in different drive cycles and different vehicle types is outlined. A highway car and a city car are compared in a highway cycle, a city cycle and the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle test Cycle. The results describe significant differences in energy consumption for different machine designs in one application but also between different applications. This highlights the necessity to decide whether or not the powertrain should be optimized for a single purpose or for universal use.
PubDate: 2022-01-05

• Analysis of the NOx storage behaviour during cold start of modern SCR
flow-through substrates and SCR on-filter substrates

Abstract: Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are the state-of-the-art technology to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) of modern diesel engines. The system behaviour is well understood in the common temperature working area. However, the system properties below light-off temperature are less well known and offer a wide scope for further investigations. Vehicle measurements show that under specific conditions during cold start, NOx can be partially stored and converted on on-filter and flow-through SCR catalysts. The purpose of this work was in a first step to analyse the main influence parameters on the NOx storage behaviour. Therefore, synthetic gas test bench measurements have been carried out, varying the gas concentrations, temperature, and gas hourly space velocity (GHSV). These investigations showed that the NOx storage effect strongly depends on the NH3 level stored in the catalyst, GHSV, the adsorbed water (H2O) on the catalyst, and the temperature of the catalyst. Further influence parameters such as the gas composition with focus on carbon monoxide (CO), short-chain hydrocarbons and long-chain hydrocarbons have been analysed on a synthetic gas test bench. Depending on operating conditions, a significant amount of NOx can be stored on a dry catalyst during the cold start phase. The water vapor from the combustion condenses on the cold exhaust pipe during the first seconds, or up to a few minutes after a cold start. As the water vapor reaches the surface of the catalyst, it condenses and adsorbs onto it, leading to a sudden temperature rise. This exothermal reaction causes the stored NOx to be desorbed, and furthermore it is partially reduced by the NH3 stored in the catalyst.
PubDate: 2021-12-23

• Systematic synthesis and multi-criteria evaluation of transmission
topologies for electric vehicles

Abstract: The focus on the expansion of the electrification of vehicles becomes stronger. Thus, the development process of powertrains of those cars needs to be more dynamic to react to the new challenges. One way to accelerate the development is to automate predevelopment and evaluation at an early stage. An automated method to synthesize transmission topologies and pre-design gears for the generated topologies for electric vehicles is presented within this paper. The method contains two internal evaluations—one after the topology synthesis and the second after the initial design of the gears. The results of the method are gear ratios and gear data for the single transmission steps of each topology. The inputs and boundary conditions can be easily changed and fitted to specific requirements for all use-cases. Here, the process is explained, and the methods' results are validated using state-of-the-art passenger vehicle transmission. As for electric trucks, no state-of-the-art electric powertrains exist; the method is subsequently applied to find topologies for a heavy-duty truck. Extracts of the results are presented. The application for trucks is carried out within the publicly funded research project “Concept ELV2”. In general, the method is capable of synthesizing transmissions for any given vehicle and motor combination.
PubDate: 2021-12-20

• Methods for modeling the steering wheel torque of a steer-by-wire vehicle

Abstract: Unlike electromechanical steering systems, steer-by-wire systems do not have a mechanical coupling between the wheels and the steering wheel. Therefore, a synthetic steering feel has to be generated to supply the driver with the necessary haptic information. In this paper, the authors analyze two approaches of creating a realistic steering feel. One is a modular approach that uses several measured and estimated input signals to model a steering wheel torque via mathematical functions. The other approach is based on an artificial neural network. It depends on steering and vehicle measurements. Both concepts are optimized and trained, respectively, to best fit a reference steering feel obtained from vehicle measurements. To carry out the analysis, the two approaches are evaluated using a simulation model consisting of a vehicle, a rack actuator, and a steering wheel actuator. The research shows that both concepts are able to adequately model a desired steering feel.
PubDate: 2021-12-09

• Investigations to characterize the interactions of light radiation, engine
operating media and fluorescence tracers for the use of qualitative
light-induced fluorescence in engine systems

Abstract: The light-induced fluorescence (LIF) represents an important tool for the continuous improvement and further development of combustion engine systems regarding efficiency increase. In this work, the interactions between light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode light radiation, engine oil/fuel and three fluorescence tracers are investigated on an application-related investigation system for the design of qualitative LIF experiments. Thereby two efficient light sources for engine combustion chamber lighting are presented. For different engine oil/fuel tracer combinations, the fluorescence is examined in its intensity and its spectrum depending on the temperature, concentration and temperature history. With oil temperature variations of up to 150 °C, changes in the fluorescence spectrum and fluorescence intensities that decrease by up to 80% are evident. For specific tracer oil/fuel mixtures, concentration-dependent maximum intensities and different temperature history behaviors can be revealed. The results shown support the design of spectral engine examination setups and give tracer dosage recommendations. Additionally, an engine LIF setup for in-cylinder tracking of engine operating media is presented.
PubDate: 2021-12-01

• A combined experimental (PIV) and numerical (LES) study of the tumble
formation during the intake stroke of an experimental single-cylinder
optical engine

Abstract: The focus of this paper is on the verification and validation of computational approaches commonly used for the simulation of in-cylinder processes involving intense turbulent flow and combustion. Furthermore, the tumble behavior during the intake stroke at different engine operating points is investigated since the cycle-to-cycle variability of the subsequent tumble breakdown at the end of compression stroke is reported to negatively affect the engine efficiency. In this respect, measurements with advanced laser diagnostics-based experimental techniques (TR-PIV) in an optically accessible engine have been performed and compared with LES for flow in the same engine, under identical operating conditions. The study focused on the intake stroke under wide open throttle conditions and engine speed of 1000 RPM and 1500 RPM. The ensemble averaged velocity fields of the two methods were analyzed and compared. A counter-clockwise motion and some secondary recirculation zones were identified and quantified in both methods. The same trend for tumble ratio was observed between experiments and simulations and a good agreement was found for most CAD especially at 1500 RPM. At 1000 RPM comparison showed significant variations, which after a detailed analysis of the instantaneous fields, are attributed to the strong cycle-to-cycle variability of the instantaneous tumble center. It is observed, that for relevance index values below 0.75 the ensemble averaged flow fields that the two methods predict significantly differ.
PubDate: 2021-11-30

• The design and experimental measurements of the novel low-pressure thermal
energy storage for the heating of electric vehicles

Abstract: This paper deals with the impact of heating on the driving range of battery electric vehicles (BEVs), as the energy from a car battery is used on both driving and heating of the car. The possible solution is the novel heating device with its own energy source—a low-pressure thermal energy storage. The use of an inner heat exchanger in this thermal energy storage makes the design of the whole heating device very simple and with the division of a high-pressure from a low-pressure part increases its safety. By adding some salts into water, it is possible to decrease the value of inner pressure (vapour pressure) in the thermal storage and to increase its storage capacity along with the conservation of good thermodynamic properties of the storage medium. In the conclusion, the measurement results of the heating device tested under real conditions are presented.
PubDate: 2021-11-26

• Roller dynamometer particle immission* measurement

Abstract: Urban traffic is a significant contributor of particulate matter to the environment (Kessinger et al. in https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/5750/publikationen/hgp_luftqualitaet_2020_bf.pdf, 2021). Hence, there is a high interest in the measured data of roadside immission measurement station. In the federal state Saxony (Germany), the State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology (LfULG) is responsible for supervision of the air pollution. In a joint project, the LfULG, the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) and the Chair of Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems of the Technical University of Dresden (Lehrstuhl für Verbrennungsmotoren und Antriebssysteme, LVAS) measured the particulate immission* from a selection of passenger cars in an “environment simulation” Weinhold et al. (https://publikationen.sachsen.de/bdb/artikel/36768q, 2020). Especially direct injection spark ignition engines, DISI, without particle filter have a high particulate matter emission, depending on the operating condition. However, an increase of the particulate matter immission due to the rising market penetration of DISI engines was not measurable at the immission measurement stations of LfULG. To investigate the effect of vehicle exhaust emission and immission, an experiment was developed to measure particulate matter immission similar to road conditions on a chassis dynamometer. Five used cars with different engines, exhaust after treatment systems and mileage were evaluated regarding their emissions and particulate immissions. Unexpectedly, a high amount of ultrafine particulate matter smaller 100 nm was found during the emission measurements, although the exhaust emissions were completely extracted to the CVS measurement system. It was concluded that these particles were assignable to break and tire wear. This paper summarizes the most important findings, the complete report is available in Weinhold et al. (https://publikationen.sachsen.de/bdb/artikel/36768q, 2020).
PubDate: 2021-11-10

• Current experimental developments in 48 V-based CI-driven SUVs in response
to expected future EU7 legislation

Abstract: In this paper, we describe experimental developments in an Exhaust Aftertreatment System (EAS) used in a four-cylinder Compression Ignition (CI) engine. To meet the carbon dioxide (CO $$_\mathrm {2}$$ ) fleet limit values and to demonstrate a clean emission concept, the CI engine needs to be further developed in a hybridized, modern form before it can be included in the future fleet. In this work, the existing EAS was replaced by an Electrically Heated Catalyst (EHC) and a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) double-dosing system. We focused specifically on calibrating the heating modes in tandem with the electric exhaust heating, which enabled us to develop an ultra-fast light-off concept. The paper first outlines the development steps, which were subsequently validated using the Worldwide harmonized Light-duty vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). Then, based on the defined calibration, a sensitivity analysis was conducted by performing various dynamic driving cycles. In particular, we identified emission species that may be limited in the future, such as laughing gas (N $$_\mathrm {2}$$ O), ammonia (NH $$_\mathrm {3}$$ ), or formaldehyde (HCHO), and examined the effects of a general, additional decrease in the limit values, which may occur in the near future. This advanced emission concept can be applied when considering overall internal engine and external exhaust system measures. In our study, we demonstrate impressively low tailpipe (TP) emissions, but also clarify the system limits and the necessary framework conditions that ensure the applicability of this drivetrain concept in this sector.
PubDate: 2021-11-10

• Psychoacoustic evaluation of internal combustion engine noises

Abstract: When buying a car, the acoustic impression of quality of a vehicle drive train is becoming more and more relevant. The perceived sound quality of the engine unit plays a key role here. Due to the nature of individual background noises, that sound quality is negatively influenced. These noise components, which are perceived as unpleasant, need to be further reduced in the course of vehicle development with the identification and evaluation of disruptive noise components in the overall engine noise being a prerequisite for effective acoustics optimization. In particular, the pulsed ticker noise is classified as particularly annoying in Otto DI engines, which is why this article aims to analyze and evaluate the ticking noise components from the overall noise. For this purpose, an empirical formula was developed which can classify the ticking noise components in terms of their intensity. This is purely perception-based and consists of the impulsiveness, the loudness and the sharpness of the overall engine noise. As with other psychoacoustic evaluation scales, the rating was made from 1 (very ticking) to 10 (not ticking). The ticker noise evaluation formula was then verified on the basis of hearing tests with the help of a jury of experts. According to this, it can be predicted precisely in which engine map areas the ticker noise undermines the pleasantness of the overall engine noise.
PubDate: 2021-10-13
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00091-4

• Cold emission optimization of a diesel- and alternative fuel-driven CI
engine

Abstract: This paper deals with the emission optimization of a compression ignition (CI) engine during cold ambient operation. Hence, in the present study, the effect of different injector nozzle geometries and pilot injection strategies, but also the influence of intake swirl, rail pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as well as EGR cooling on the emission behavior during cold run are investigated. Therefore, test bed experiments under steady-state cold conditions are conducted on a state-of-the-art CI single cylinder research engine (SCRE) with approximately 0.5 l swept volume representing the typical passenger car (PC) cylinder size. The cold charge air temperature of down to −8  $$^{\circ }\hbox { C}$$ and a low engine coolant and lube oil temperature represent a cold run close to reality. For emulating the higher friction of a typical 4-cylinder PC engine during cold run, the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is increased according to a specifically developed equation and the turbocharger main equation is solved permanently to adjust the gas exchange loss. To take account of a potential future tightening of emission legislation, in addition to limited exhaust gas emissions, non-limited emissions such as carbonyls are measured as well. Since alternative fuels are able to make a significant contribution to the defossilisation of transportation, an oxygen-containing fuel, consisting of 100 % renewable blend components (HVO, ethers and alcohols) and fulfilling the EN 590 legislation is investigated under the same cold conditions in addition to the research on conventional diesel fuel.
PubDate: 2021-09-09
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00089-y

• Design and evaluation of an engine-in-the-loop environment for developing
plug-in hybrid electric vehicle operating strategies at conventional test
benches

Abstract: Due to a large number of degrees of freedom and connected powertrain functionalities, the development of operating strategies for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles is an especially complex task. Besides optimizations of drivability, noise, vibrations and harshness as well as energy efficiency, the main challenge lies in ensuring emissions conformity. For this purpose, test vehicles are typically applied to achieve a realistic test and validation environment. However, operating strategy calibration using test vehicles has the drawbacks, that (i) it is very time consuming and cost intensive, (ii) it can only be conducted in late development phases and (iii) cannot be applied to reproducing driving loads for a valid comparison. To overcome these issues, this paper presents a consistent engine-in-the-loop approach combining real engine hardware and multiple software elements to represent PHEV behavior at the engine test bench. Thereby, an environment is created, which allows for realistic, flexible, cost efficient and reproducible testing. The effectiveness of the presented framework is evaluated by comparing relevant on-road measurements with their reproduction at the engine test bench. The results show that the vehicle on-road behavior can be replicated using the described testing environment. Particularly engine start/stop behavior and load levels—the core functionalities for operating strategy calibration—are matched. The proven level of realism in powertrain behavior enables further use cases beyond on-road measurement reproduction, i.e. varying individual component properties and observing real-world consequences at the test bench without the need for vehicle tests.
PubDate: 2021-09-03
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00090-5

• Aging investigations and consideration for automotive high power
lithium-ion batteries in a 48 V mild hybrid operating strategy

Abstract: This paper focuses on the battery aging of automotive high power lithium-ion batteries intended for 48 V mild hybrid systems. Due to a long vehicle lifetime, battery aging is of high importance, and its consideration within a hybrid system is crucial to ensure a sufficient lifetime for the battery. At the moment, only a few aging investigations and models specifically for automotive high power cells are available. Consequently, all present aging consideration methods are based on the few published aging models focusing on consumer cells. This paper describes the development of an aging model for automotive high power cells and the integration into a mild hybrid operating strategy to actively control the battery aging process during its operation. The underlying aging investigations of high-power battery cells are shown to analyze the main influences of temperature, state of charge, and C-rate. These tests are used to develop the aging model, capable of considering the main influences on the aging process. Based on this model and all gained insights, different methods for considering battery aging in a mild hybrid system are investigated. The goal is to control the aging process during operation and consequently decrease the negative influence. Two active intervention methods are developed and integrated into a 48 V mild hybrid operating strategy to validate their potential. It is possible to control the aging process and at the same time to use the insights for improving the basic hybrid powertrain design regarding reduced aging and battery costs.
PubDate: 2021-09-02
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00088-z

• A model-based approach for a control strategy of a charge air cooling
concept in an ejector refrigeration cycle

Abstract: An efficient thermal management in vehicles can reduce fuel consumption or improve the electrical range. Optimized control strategies adapting to various load cases can reduce the energy consumption of the cooling system and keep components in efficient operating temperature ranges. Current cooling control strategies use performance maps or rules, which are time- and cost-consuming to develop due to a high manual workload and the necessity of vehicle prototypes. In this paper, a highly automatized process is proposed to create control strategies with machine learning methods and simulation models. A new tool is introduced, which can couple Python code with Dymola to extend simulation models by calibration and optimization features. Simplified control models are created with the dataset of optimized control settings using machine learning implementations for a multivariant linear and polynomial regression as well as a decision tree and a random forest classification. The performance of the different control models is compared on a dynamic drive cycle in a co-simulation.
PubDate: 2021-08-08
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00087-0

• Determination of the optimal battery capacity of a PEM fuel cell vehicle
taking into account recuperation and supercapacitors

Abstract: Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles require an electrical intermediate storage system to compensate for dynamic load requirements. That storage system uses a battery and has the task to increase tolerance to dynamic operation. In addition, energy can be recuperated and stored in supercapacitors to increase the fuel cell vehicle’s efficiency. To determine the optimal battery capacity according to the recuperation potential and possible use of a supercapacitor, a reference vehicle with PEM fuel cell was transferred to the simulation environment Matlab/Simulink. The model is based on a cell model describing the electrochemical and physical interactions within the cell. It has been implemented in a complete vehicle model for the representation of a fuel cell vehicle. Various legal driving cycles, such as the WLTP (“Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure”), were used for the calculations. A further step sets the optimal battery capacity depending on the dynamic of the fuel cell system. With this simulation model, dynamic requirements—for the fuel cell and the associated system components—can be determined in the future, scalable for each vehicle depending on the battery capacity and recuperation potential.
PubDate: 2021-08-04
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00086-1

• A combined computational-experimental study of liquified natural gas
vaporizers based on thermo-solid coupling

Abstract: A vaporizer is a key component in a liquified natural gas (LNG) engine, whose heat dissipation capacity determines the reliability of LNG engines. In the present study, the heat dissipation performance of LNG vaporizers is investigated using numerical simulation by a thermal-solid coupling method. Simulation results were first compared with experimental data to validate the thermal-solid coupling method and a good agreement between the numerical and experimental results was achieved. The experimentally validated numerical method was then used to predict the heat dissipation performance of the LNG vaporizers. The simulation results show that the temperature of the vaporized natural gas at the outlet of the vaporizer is quite uniform, which is about 40 °C and high enough for the vaporizer to provide a stable gas supply to the LNG engine. A unique design of the vaporizer’s coolant inlet can take advantage of coolant flows to enhance heat transfer in the engine cooling process, thereby promoting the heat exchange within the engine and increasing the heat exchange capacity of the LNG vaporizer.
PubDate: 2021-07-25
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00084-3

• Investigation of deviations in SI-engine behaviour due to manufacturing

Abstract: Cast engine components are experiencing ever tighter tolerance requirements and at the same time a more complex cast design. The geometries, some of which are inaccessible, are tested for quality assurance on the basis of relevant component characteristics, among other things. The position check measures the actual position of a feature in a spatial dimension. Information about the alignment and geometry of the combustion chamber cannot be derived from the measurement methods applied. The use of three-dimensional measuring methods, e.g., imaging by computer tomography, can additionally record the spatial component position and the component geometry. Further measurement data can be derived from this, which serves to increase process reliability and component quality, and to increase component quality within an entire component batch. On the one hand, the cylinder head limits the working space by the roof of the combustion chamber, on the other hand, the cylinder head has a significant influence on the charge movement, especially at the beginning of the intake flow, due to the geometry of the intake ducts. On account the high demands of modern gasoline engines with tumble combustion process paired with Miller operation at partial load, variable timing, etc., mixture formation is important for efficient operation. Mixture formation in air- and wall-guided combustion processes depends on the components air duct and injection. From the point of view of cylinder head production, the mixture formation component air guiding is an elementary development approach for implementing efficient and sustainable component production while ensuring component properties. From this, the question can be derived as to what influence, for example, different dimensional tolerances in the combustion chamber size have on engine operation. To address this question, 3D simulations and physical test bench measurements were performed. With a variation of the above-mentioned intake duct and combustion chamber geometries and due to manufacturing tolerances, simulation results and measurement data were evaluated, analysed and presented in this paper. The influence of manufacturing-relevant tolerance deviations in the early process step of cylinder head production on combustion engine operation can be recognised in different ways.
PubDate: 2021-07-22
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00082-5

• The remaining CO2 budget: a comparison of the CO2 emissions of diesel and
BEV drivetrain technology

Abstract: This paper describes the CO2 emissions of the additional electricity generation needed in Germany for battery electric vehicles. Different scenarios drawn up by the transmission system operators in past and for future years for expansion of the energy sources of electricity generation in Germany are considered. From these expansion scenarios, hourly resolved real-time simulations of the different years are created. Based on the calculations, it can be shown that even in 2035, the carbon footprint of a battery electric vehicle at a consumption of 22.5 kWh/100 km including losses and provision will be around 100 g CO2/km. Furthermore, it is shown why the often-mentioned German energy mix is not suitable for calculating the emissions of a battery electric vehicle fleet. Since the carbon footprint of a BEV improves significantly over the years due to the progressive expansion of renewable-energy sources, a comparison is drawn at the end of this work between a BEV (29.8 tons of CO2), a conventional diesel vehicle (34.4 tons of CO2), and a diesel vehicle with R33 fuel (25.8 tons of CO2) over the entire useful life.
PubDate: 2021-07-17
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00081-6

• Pre-turbo-DeNOx exhaust aftertreatment: simulation and testing

Abstract: Real urban driving conditions challenge exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for diesel passenger cars. One promising approach is the transfer of the selective catalytic reduction to a pre-turbocharger position, resulting in a thermal adjustment of the boundary conditions for the system. The design and functional behaviour of two new pre-turbo concepts are discussed. Challenges arise when the dosing of a urea–water solution and thermal mass are integrated upstream of the turbocharger. The design and results of these new concepts are presented using an integrated methodology. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics are used as a tool to fundamentally analyse the flow fields and the preparation process of urea–water-based solution to the reducing agent ammonia. The preparation process includes spray injection, spray interaction phenomena, and mixing of the reducing agent. The prototypically built-up hardware is integrated into an Engine-in-the-Loop test setup. In stationary engine operation, the basic measurement of temperatures and nitrogen oxides allows for the validation of the simulations. Using a simulated vehicle approach, the experimental test setup is capable of being operated in real driving scenarios. An additional 48 V boosting system is integrated and operated in the air pass to analyse and overcome thermal delay. Realistic dynamic load test results and boosted WLTC measurements of a virtual passenger car are presented.
PubDate: 2021-07-08
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00083-4

• NO2-immission assessment for an urban hot-spot by modelling the
emission–immission interaction

Abstract: Urban air quality and climate protection are two major challenges for future mobility systems. Despite the steady reduction of pollutant emissions from vehicles over past decades, local immission load within cities partially still reaches heights, which are considered potentially hazardous to human health. Although traffic-related emissions account for a major part of the overall urban pollution, modelling the exact interaction remains challenging. At the same time, even lower vehicle emissions can be achieved by using synthetic fuels and the latest exhaust gas cleaning technologies. In the paper at hand, a neural network modelling approach for traffic-induced immission load is presented. On this basis, a categorization of vehicle concepts regarding their immission contribution within an impact scale is proposed. Furthermore, changes in the immission load as a result of different fleet compositions and emission factors are analysed within different scenarios. A final comparison is made as to which modification measures in the vehicle fleet offer the greatest potential for overall cleaner air.
PubDate: 2021-06-01
DOI: 10.1007/s41104-021-00080-7

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