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 Automotive and Engine TechnologyNumber of Followers: 0      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 2365-5127 - ISSN (Online) 2365-5135 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2658 journals]
• Psychoacoustic evaluation of internal combustion engine noises

Abstract: When buying a car, the acoustic impression of quality of a vehicle drive train is becoming more and more relevant. The perceived sound quality of the engine unit plays a key role here. Due to the nature of individual background noises, that sound quality is negatively influenced. These noise components, which are perceived as unpleasant, need to be further reduced in the course of vehicle development with the identification and evaluation of disruptive noise components in the overall engine noise being a prerequisite for effective acoustics optimization. In particular, the pulsed ticker noise is classified as particularly annoying in Otto DI engines, which is why this article aims to analyze and evaluate the ticking noise components from the overall noise. For this purpose, an empirical formula was developed which can classify the ticking noise components in terms of their intensity. This is purely perception-based and consists of the impulsiveness, the loudness and the sharpness of the overall engine noise. As with other psychoacoustic evaluation scales, the rating was made from 1 (very ticking) to 10 (not ticking). The ticker noise evaluation formula was then verified on the basis of hearing tests with the help of a jury of experts. According to this, it can be predicted precisely in which engine map areas the ticker noise undermines the pleasantness of the overall engine noise.
PubDate: 2021-10-13

• Cold emission optimization of a diesel- and alternative fuel-driven CI
engine

Abstract: This paper deals with the emission optimization of a compression ignition (CI) engine during cold ambient operation. Hence, in the present study, the effect of different injector nozzle geometries and pilot injection strategies, but also the influence of intake swirl, rail pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as well as EGR cooling on the emission behavior during cold run are investigated. Therefore, test bed experiments under steady-state cold conditions are conducted on a state-of-the-art CI single cylinder research engine (SCRE) with approximately 0.5 l swept volume representing the typical passenger car (PC) cylinder size. The cold charge air temperature of down to −8  $$^{\circ }\hbox { C}$$ and a low engine coolant and lube oil temperature represent a cold run close to reality. For emulating the higher friction of a typical 4-cylinder PC engine during cold run, the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is increased according to a specifically developed equation and the turbocharger main equation is solved permanently to adjust the gas exchange loss. To take account of a potential future tightening of emission legislation, in addition to limited exhaust gas emissions, non-limited emissions such as carbonyls are measured as well. Since alternative fuels are able to make a significant contribution to the defossilisation of transportation, an oxygen-containing fuel, consisting of 100 % renewable blend components (HVO, ethers and alcohols) and fulfilling the EN 590 legislation is investigated under the same cold conditions in addition to the research on conventional diesel fuel.
PubDate: 2021-09-09

• Design and evaluation of an engine-in-the-loop environment for developing
plug-in hybrid electric vehicle operating strategies at conventional test
benches

Abstract: Due to a large number of degrees of freedom and connected powertrain functionalities, the development of operating strategies for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles is an especially complex task. Besides optimizations of drivability, noise, vibrations and harshness as well as energy efficiency, the main challenge lies in ensuring emissions conformity. For this purpose, test vehicles are typically applied to achieve a realistic test and validation environment. However, operating strategy calibration using test vehicles has the drawbacks, that (i) it is very time consuming and cost intensive, (ii) it can only be conducted in late development phases and (iii) cannot be applied to reproducing driving loads for a valid comparison. To overcome these issues, this paper presents a consistent engine-in-the-loop approach combining real engine hardware and multiple software elements to represent PHEV behavior at the engine test bench. Thereby, an environment is created, which allows for realistic, flexible, cost efficient and reproducible testing. The effectiveness of the presented framework is evaluated by comparing relevant on-road measurements with their reproduction at the engine test bench. The results show that the vehicle on-road behavior can be replicated using the described testing environment. Particularly engine start/stop behavior and load levels—the core functionalities for operating strategy calibration—are matched. The proven level of realism in powertrain behavior enables further use cases beyond on-road measurement reproduction, i.e. varying individual component properties and observing real-world consequences at the test bench without the need for vehicle tests.
PubDate: 2021-09-03

• Aging investigations and consideration for automotive high power
lithium-ion batteries in a 48 V mild hybrid operating strategy

Abstract: This paper focuses on the battery aging of automotive high power lithium-ion batteries intended for 48 V mild hybrid systems. Due to a long vehicle lifetime, battery aging is of high importance, and its consideration within a hybrid system is crucial to ensure a sufficient lifetime for the battery. At the moment, only a few aging investigations and models specifically for automotive high power cells are available. Consequently, all present aging consideration methods are based on the few published aging models focusing on consumer cells. This paper describes the development of an aging model for automotive high power cells and the integration into a mild hybrid operating strategy to actively control the battery aging process during its operation. The underlying aging investigations of high-power battery cells are shown to analyze the main influences of temperature, state of charge, and C-rate. These tests are used to develop the aging model, capable of considering the main influences on the aging process. Based on this model and all gained insights, different methods for considering battery aging in a mild hybrid system are investigated. The goal is to control the aging process during operation and consequently decrease the negative influence. Two active intervention methods are developed and integrated into a 48 V mild hybrid operating strategy to validate their potential. It is possible to control the aging process and at the same time to use the insights for improving the basic hybrid powertrain design regarding reduced aging and battery costs.
PubDate: 2021-09-02

• A model-based approach for a control strategy of a charge air cooling
concept in an ejector refrigeration cycle

Abstract: An efficient thermal management in vehicles can reduce fuel consumption or improve the electrical range. Optimized control strategies adapting to various load cases can reduce the energy consumption of the cooling system and keep components in efficient operating temperature ranges. Current cooling control strategies use performance maps or rules, which are time- and cost-consuming to develop due to a high manual workload and the necessity of vehicle prototypes. In this paper, a highly automatized process is proposed to create control strategies with machine learning methods and simulation models. A new tool is introduced, which can couple Python code with Dymola to extend simulation models by calibration and optimization features. Simplified control models are created with the dataset of optimized control settings using machine learning implementations for a multivariant linear and polynomial regression as well as a decision tree and a random forest classification. The performance of the different control models is compared on a dynamic drive cycle in a co-simulation.
PubDate: 2021-08-08

• Determination of the optimal battery capacity of a PEM fuel cell vehicle
taking into account recuperation and supercapacitors

Abstract: Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles require an electrical intermediate storage system to compensate for dynamic load requirements. That storage system uses a battery and has the task to increase tolerance to dynamic operation. In addition, energy can be recuperated and stored in supercapacitors to increase the fuel cell vehicle’s efficiency. To determine the optimal battery capacity according to the recuperation potential and possible use of a supercapacitor, a reference vehicle with PEM fuel cell was transferred to the simulation environment Matlab/Simulink. The model is based on a cell model describing the electrochemical and physical interactions within the cell. It has been implemented in a complete vehicle model for the representation of a fuel cell vehicle. Various legal driving cycles, such as the WLTP (“Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure”), were used for the calculations. A further step sets the optimal battery capacity depending on the dynamic of the fuel cell system. With this simulation model, dynamic requirements—for the fuel cell and the associated system components—can be determined in the future, scalable for each vehicle depending on the battery capacity and recuperation potential.
PubDate: 2021-08-04

• A combined computational-experimental study of liquified natural gas
vaporizers based on thermo-solid coupling

Abstract: A vaporizer is a key component in a liquified natural gas (LNG) engine, whose heat dissipation capacity determines the reliability of LNG engines. In the present study, the heat dissipation performance of LNG vaporizers is investigated using numerical simulation by a thermal-solid coupling method. Simulation results were first compared with experimental data to validate the thermal-solid coupling method and a good agreement between the numerical and experimental results was achieved. The experimentally validated numerical method was then used to predict the heat dissipation performance of the LNG vaporizers. The simulation results show that the temperature of the vaporized natural gas at the outlet of the vaporizer is quite uniform, which is about 40 °C and high enough for the vaporizer to provide a stable gas supply to the LNG engine. A unique design of the vaporizer’s coolant inlet can take advantage of coolant flows to enhance heat transfer in the engine cooling process, thereby promoting the heat exchange within the engine and increasing the heat exchange capacity of the LNG vaporizer.
PubDate: 2021-07-25

• Investigation of deviations in SI-engine behaviour due to manufacturing

Abstract: Cast engine components are experiencing ever tighter tolerance requirements and at the same time a more complex cast design. The geometries, some of which are inaccessible, are tested for quality assurance on the basis of relevant component characteristics, among other things. The position check measures the actual position of a feature in a spatial dimension. Information about the alignment and geometry of the combustion chamber cannot be derived from the measurement methods applied. The use of three-dimensional measuring methods, e.g., imaging by computer tomography, can additionally record the spatial component position and the component geometry. Further measurement data can be derived from this, which serves to increase process reliability and component quality, and to increase component quality within an entire component batch. On the one hand, the cylinder head limits the working space by the roof of the combustion chamber, on the other hand, the cylinder head has a significant influence on the charge movement, especially at the beginning of the intake flow, due to the geometry of the intake ducts. On account the high demands of modern gasoline engines with tumble combustion process paired with Miller operation at partial load, variable timing, etc., mixture formation is important for efficient operation. Mixture formation in air- and wall-guided combustion processes depends on the components air duct and injection. From the point of view of cylinder head production, the mixture formation component air guiding is an elementary development approach for implementing efficient and sustainable component production while ensuring component properties. From this, the question can be derived as to what influence, for example, different dimensional tolerances in the combustion chamber size have on engine operation. To address this question, 3D simulations and physical test bench measurements were performed. With a variation of the above-mentioned intake duct and combustion chamber geometries and due to manufacturing tolerances, simulation results and measurement data were evaluated, analysed and presented in this paper. The influence of manufacturing-relevant tolerance deviations in the early process step of cylinder head production on combustion engine operation can be recognised in different ways.
PubDate: 2021-07-22

• The remaining CO2 budget: a comparison of the CO2 emissions of diesel and
BEV drivetrain technology

Abstract: This paper describes the CO2 emissions of the additional electricity generation needed in Germany for battery electric vehicles. Different scenarios drawn up by the transmission system operators in past and for future years for expansion of the energy sources of electricity generation in Germany are considered. From these expansion scenarios, hourly resolved real-time simulations of the different years are created. Based on the calculations, it can be shown that even in 2035, the carbon footprint of a battery electric vehicle at a consumption of 22.5 kWh/100 km including losses and provision will be around 100 g CO2/km. Furthermore, it is shown why the often-mentioned German energy mix is not suitable for calculating the emissions of a battery electric vehicle fleet. Since the carbon footprint of a BEV improves significantly over the years due to the progressive expansion of renewable-energy sources, a comparison is drawn at the end of this work between a BEV (29.8 tons of CO2), a conventional diesel vehicle (34.4 tons of CO2), and a diesel vehicle with R33 fuel (25.8 tons of CO2) over the entire useful life.
PubDate: 2021-07-17

• Pre-turbo-DeNOx exhaust aftertreatment: simulation and testing

Abstract: Real urban driving conditions challenge exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for diesel passenger cars. One promising approach is the transfer of the selective catalytic reduction to a pre-turbocharger position, resulting in a thermal adjustment of the boundary conditions for the system. The design and functional behaviour of two new pre-turbo concepts are discussed. Challenges arise when the dosing of a urea–water solution and thermal mass are integrated upstream of the turbocharger. The design and results of these new concepts are presented using an integrated methodology. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics are used as a tool to fundamentally analyse the flow fields and the preparation process of urea–water-based solution to the reducing agent ammonia. The preparation process includes spray injection, spray interaction phenomena, and mixing of the reducing agent. The prototypically built-up hardware is integrated into an Engine-in-the-Loop test setup. In stationary engine operation, the basic measurement of temperatures and nitrogen oxides allows for the validation of the simulations. Using a simulated vehicle approach, the experimental test setup is capable of being operated in real driving scenarios. An additional 48 V boosting system is integrated and operated in the air pass to analyse and overcome thermal delay. Realistic dynamic load test results and boosted WLTC measurements of a virtual passenger car are presented.
PubDate: 2021-07-08

• Water injection for gasoline direct injection engines: fundamental
investigations in an evaporation chamber

Abstract: Today’s combustion engine development is strongly driven by reduction of $$\hbox {CO}_2$$ and exhaust gas emissions. Modern turbocharged downsizing concepts with gasoline direct injection are well established in all major markets and contribute to current and future mobility as a cost attractive and efficient solution. Further improvement of gasoline engine efficiency and performance is mainly limited by knocking. Water injection (WI) has the potential to reduce knocking significantly. To improve the effectiveness of water injection, fundamental knowledge of the thermodynamic process has to be built up. Therefore, a zero dimensional evaporation model was developed and simulations were carried out. This model was derived and validated on the basis of measurements which were carried out on a specifically designed and assembled WI evaporation chamber. Conditions in terms of temperature and pressure were varied to determine the evaporation behaviour of water droplets influenced by temperatures of e.g. air or water. The model describes the process of droplet heating and finally the evaporation of the droplets depending on their size at relevant engine boundary conditions. The simulation results support interpretation of engine measurements and allow further optimization of water injection concepts.
PubDate: 2021-06-01

• Application of stochastic design optimization to a passenger car diesel
engine to reduce emission spread in a vehicle fleet

Abstract: This paper demonstrates the advantages of stochastic design optimization on a passenger car diesel engine: the emission distribution in the vehicle fleet can be significantly reduced by optimizing the base engine calibration taking into account component tolerances. This paper is an extension to the work presented in [25]. The conventional calibration approach of using empirical safety coefficients is replaced by explicitly taking into account the uncertainty stemming from manufacturing tolerances. The method enables us to treat low-emission spread in a fleet as an optimization target. This process enables a more robust design and helps to avoid recalibration steps that potentially generate high costs. The method consists of four steps: an initial uncertainty analysis, which accounts for engine component tolerances and determines the underlying parameter uncertainty of the engine model—with parameter uncertainty being deviations in the model parameters resulting from component tolerances. Followed by a measurement campaign according to the design of experiments principles, the training of a stochastic engine model and the solving a stochastic optimization problem. The latter two are discussed in more detail. First, the stochastic models are validated on transient testbed measurements with different setups, which are subject to uncertainty. The model error for both engine-out particulate matter and nitrogen oxides ( $${\text{NO}}_{{ x}}$$ ) is extremely low. Then, stochastic optimization is performed on a calibration task aiming to minimize engine-out PM for the entire fleet while ensuring that the $${\text{NO}}_{{ x}}$$ emission remains below a given upper threshold, again for the entire fleet. Boundary constraints and smoothness constraints are employed to ensure feasibility and smooth engine maps. The optimization results are compared to the original calibration of the test engine—both for a representative nominal engine and the expected fleet behavior. The results show a significant improvement in engine-out PM while complying with the imposed constraints, including the $${\text{NO}}_{{ x}}$$ emission limit for the entire fleet.
PubDate: 2021-06-01

• Comparison of four diesel engines with regard to blow-by aerosol
properties as a basis for reduction strategies based on engine design and
operation

Abstract: Understanding how engine design and operation affect blow-by aerosol characteristics is key to reducing the emission of particulate matter (PM) via the crankcase ventilation system. To this end, representative aerosol data from four different diesel engines are compared on the basis of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and engine speed. The data were obtained from comparable sampling positions, using the same sampling system and optical particle counter. The discussion is based on the narrow particle size range of 0.4–1.3 µm, chosen for its significance with regard to blow-by aerosol sources, as well as for the challenges it poses for separation systems. Key findings include particle size distributions (PSD) of virtually identical shape, indicating that these engines share the same aerosol sources and underlying generation mechanisms. However, absolute concentrations differed by a factor of about six, presumably due to differences in engine design, which in turn affect key parameters such as temperature, pressure and flow rates. At BMEPs ≤ 10 bar all engines exhibited similarly low aerosol concentrations. With increasing BMEP the concentration rose exponentially. The engine with the smallest rise and the lowest total concentration featured an aluminum alloy piston, the smallest displacement, the lowest peak BMEP as well as the lowest maximum oil temperature. At maximum torque the aerosol concentration scaled fairly linearly with engine displacement. Increasing the engine speed had a minor impact on aerosol concentrations but affected blow-by flows, hence leading to a rise of aerosol mass flows. Within the limits of this comparative measurement studies, three generation mechanisms are provided for blow-by aerosols.
PubDate: 2021-06-01

• Electrified powertrains for wheel-driven non-road mobile machinery

Abstract: Already enacted carbon-dioxide (CO2) limiting legislations for passenger cars and heavy duty vehicles, drive motivations to consider electrification also in the sector of non-road mobile machinery. Up to now, only the emissions of the vehicles themselves have been restricted. However, to capture the overall situation, a more global assessment approach is necessary. The study described in this article applies a tank-to-wheel and an extended well-to-wheel approach based on simulations to compare three different powertrains: a battery electric drive, a parallel electric hybrid drive, and a series electric hybrid drive. The results show that electrification is not per se the better solution in terms of keeping CO2 emissions at a minimum, as battery electric powertrains are accountable for the lowest as well as the highest possible CO2 emissions of all powertrains compared. A battery electric machine is not economically competitive if its battery has to last a whole working day. Parallel hybrid systems do not achieve much of an advantage in terms of CO2 emissions. In this global assessment approach, the most promising propulsion system for wheel-driven-mobile-machinery appears to be the series hybrid system, which shows to offer up to 20% of CO2 saving potential compared to the current machine.
PubDate: 2021-06-01

• Dynamic failure and crash simulation of carbon fiber sheet moulding
compound (CF-SMC)

Abstract: Carbon fiber sheet moulding compounds (CF-SMC) are a promising class of materials with the potential to replace aluminium and steel in many structural automotive applications. In this paper, we investigate the use of CF-SMC materials for the realization of a lightweight battery case for electric cars. A limiting factor for a wider structural adoption of CF-SMC has been a difficulty in modelling its mechanical behaviour with a computational effective methodology. In this paper, a novel simulation methodology has been developed, with the aim of enabling the use of FE methods based on shell elements. This is practical for the car industry since they can retain a good fidelity and can also represent damage phenomena. A hybrid material modelling approach has been implemented using phenomenological and simulation-based principles. Data from computer tomography scans were used for micro mechanical simulations to determine stiffness and failure behaviour of the material. Data from static three-point bending tests were then used to determine crack energy values needed for the application of hashing damage criteria. The whole simulation methodology was then evaluated against data coming from both static and dynamic (crash) tests. The simulation results were in good accordance with the experimental data. Graphic abstract
PubDate: 2021-06-01

• NO2-immission assessment for an urban hot-spot by modelling the
emission–immission interaction

Abstract: Urban air quality and climate protection are two major challenges for future mobility systems. Despite the steady reduction of pollutant emissions from vehicles over past decades, local immission load within cities partially still reaches heights, which are considered potentially hazardous to human health. Although traffic-related emissions account for a major part of the overall urban pollution, modelling the exact interaction remains challenging. At the same time, even lower vehicle emissions can be achieved by using synthetic fuels and the latest exhaust gas cleaning technologies. In the paper at hand, a neural network modelling approach for traffic-induced immission load is presented. On this basis, a categorization of vehicle concepts regarding their immission contribution within an impact scale is proposed. Furthermore, changes in the immission load as a result of different fleet compositions and emission factors are analysed within different scenarios. A final comparison is made as to which modification measures in the vehicle fleet offer the greatest potential for overall cleaner air.
PubDate: 2021-06-01

• Analysis of $$\hbox {CO}_2$$ CO 2 reduction potentials and component load
collectives of 48 V-hybrids under real-driving conditions

Abstract: The development of innovative powertrain technologies is crucial for car manufacturers to comply with decreasing $$\hbox {CO}_2$$ emission limits. They face the challenge to develop products which fulfill customer requirements in terms of functionality, comfort and cost but also provide a significant $$\hbox {CO}_2$$ efficiency improvement. $${48}\hbox { V}$$ -hybrids can achieve these conflicting goals due to their low vehicle-integration effort and system costs while substantially increasing powertrain efficiency. The variance of real-driving scenarios has to be considered in system development to achieve the maximum customer benefit with the chosen system design, such as installed electrical power or topology. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of different $${48}\hbox { V}$$ -system designs under real-driving conditions. The influence of varying real-driving scenarios on component load collectives is analyzed for P1 and P2 topologies. Furthermore, the $$\hbox {CO}_2$$ reduction potential and the influence of different hybrid functions such as electric driving is identified. The contribution of this paper is the identification of $${48}\hbox { V}$$ -system potentials under real-driving conditions and the corresponding component requirements, in order to support the development of customer-oriented $${48}\hbox { V}$$ -systems.
PubDate: 2021-06-01

• A stochastic design optimization methodology to reduce emission spread in
combustion engines

Abstract: This paper introduces a method for efficiently solving stochastic optimization problems in the field of engine calibration. The main objective is to make more conscious decisions during the base engine calibration process by considering the system uncertainty due to component tolerances and thus enabling more robust design, low emissions, and avoiding expensive recalibration steps that generate costs and possibly postpone the start of production. The main idea behind the approach is to optimize the design parameters of the engine control unit (ECU) that are subject to uncertainty by considering the resulting output uncertainty. The premise is that a model of the system under study exists, which can be evaluated cheaply, and the system tolerance is known. Furthermore, it is essential that the stochastic optimization problem can be formulated such that the objective function and the constraint functions can be expressed using proper metrics such as the value at risk (VaR). The main idea is to derive analytically closed formulations for the VaR, which are cheap to evaluate and thus reduce the computational effort of evaluating the objective and constraints. The VaR is therefore learned as a function of the input parameters of the initial model using a supervised learning algorithm. For this work, we employ Gaussian process regression models. To illustrate the benefits of the approach, it is applied to a representative engine calibration problem. The results show a significant improvement in emissions compared to the deterministic setting, where the optimization problem is constructed using safety coefficients. We also show that the computation time is comparable to the deterministic setting and is orders of magnitude less than solving the problem using the Monte-Carlo or quasi-Monte-Carlo method.
PubDate: 2021-06-01

• Vehicle handling improvements through Steer-by-Wire

Abstract: This paper focuses on handling improvements enabled through Steer-by-Wire systems, which have increasingly become subject of R&D, as they not only offer the potential for improving vehicle handling but also have many advantages in combination with automated driving. Handling improvements through a steering ratio depending on vehicle speed, as well as steering-wheel angle, are known from Active Front Steering systems. A new overall concept is proposed, that also takes into account lateral and longitudinal acceleration as well as steering rate, which are all available signals in a production car. The overall concept is designed in an optimization process to modify a range of established characteristic parameters known from open-loop maneuvers and the objective evaluation of vehicle handling. In this context, validated models for a vehicle and a Steer-by-Wire system are used to obtain reliable results in simulation. Possibilities for tuning the non-linear steering behavior as well as improvements in the dynamic behavior, especially in yaw damping and response time, are demonstrated.
PubDate: 2021-06-01

• Determination of optimal rim and tire dimensions regarding load capacity,
driving dynamics, and efficiency

Abstract: Tire development based on functional tire characteristics (FTC) makes it possible to objectify target values across all topics and thus contributes to a clear target agreement between tire and vehicle manufacturers. Developmental tires can be evaluated on the basis of test bench measurements, thereby decreasing development duration and financial costs. A major challenge is the ongoing tightening of conflicting targets as a result of legal and customer-related requirements. Depending on the rim and tire dimensions the characterization of these conflicting targets can be different. Therefore, when defining a tire portfolio in the early development phase, methods are required to allow an evaluation of the feasibility based on objective correlations. In this paper a method for determining the optimal rim and tire dimensions by considering the respective requirements is presented. First of all, the effects of the tire dimension on individual FTC concerning load capacity, driving dynamics and efficiency are quantified using regression models. Next, the FTC of different dimension configurations are estimated on the basis of a Monte Carlo sampling. Finally solution spaces of optimal dimension ranges are shown graphically.
PubDate: 2020-12-01

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