Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2677 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (235 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (237 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1308 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1308 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Applied Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Open Access  
Current Research in Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 117)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Data-Centric Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Decision Making : Applications in Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Design Journal : An International Journal for All Aspects of Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Designed Monomers and Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Designs     Open Access  
Designs, Codes and Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Development Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Diffusion Foundations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Digital Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Dinamisia : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Discrete Optimization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Denizcilik Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi / Duzce University Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Dyes and Pigments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dynamical Systems : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal  
E&S Engineering and Science     Open Access  
e-Phaïstos : Revue d’histoire des techniques / Journal of the history of technology     Open Access  
EAU Heritage Journal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
El-Cezeri Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi / El-Cezeri Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Electrophoresis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emerging Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emitter : International Journal of Engineering Technology     Open Access  
ENERGETIKA. Proceedings of CIS higher education institutions and power engineering associations     Open Access  
Energies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Energy and Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Energy Conversion and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Energy Conversion and Management : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Energy for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Energy Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Energy Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Energy Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EnergyChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Engenharia de Interesse Social     Open Access  
ENGEVISTA     Open Access  
Engineer : Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Engineering Computations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Engineering Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Economist, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Engineering Failure Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Engineering Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Engineering Journal of Research and Development     Open Access  
Engineering Management in Production and Services     Open Access  
Engineering Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Engineering Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Engineering Reports     Open Access  
Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Engineering Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ENP Engineering Science Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Entropy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Environmental & Engineering Geoscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmetrics     Hybrid Journal  
Épités - Épitészettudomány     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
EPJ Photovoltaics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ESAIM: Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ESAIM: Proceedings     Open Access  
eScience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Estuaries and Coasts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
EUREKA : Physics and Engineering     Open Access  
Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
European Physical Journal - Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
European Transport Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Evolutionary Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Evolving Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal  
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Experiments in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Farm Engineering and Automation Technology Journal     Open Access  
Fibers and Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
FIGEMPA : Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Filtration & Separation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fire Science Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Flow, Turbulence and Combustion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Fluid Phase Equilibria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Focus on Catalysts     Full-text available via subscription  
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Focus on Powder Coatings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Surfactants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Food Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forces in Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Formación Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
FORMakademisk - forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Formal Methods in System Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Forschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forschung im Ingenieurwesen     Hybrid Journal  
Foundations and Trends in Systems and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Electronic Design Automation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Foundations of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Frontiers in Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fuel and Energy Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Fuel Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fuel Cells Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Fusion Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fuzzy Information and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fuzzy Sets and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Georisk: Assessment and Management of Risk for Engineered Systems and Geohazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Geothermics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Glass Technology - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Journal of Engineering Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Transitions Proceedings     Open Access  
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Graphs and Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Grass and Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Groundwater for Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Heat Transfer - Asian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heat Transfer Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Open Access  
High Voltage     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Historical Records of Australian Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Human Factors in Ergonomics & Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Human-Intelligent Systems Integration     Hybrid Journal  
I+D Revista de Investigaciones     Open Access  
IBM Journal of Research and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 112)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Communications Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 140)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Engineering Management Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 117)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149)
IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
IEEE Latin America Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Microwave Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Open Journal of Engineering in Medicine and Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Open Journal of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Potentials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Signal Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Spectrum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
IEEE Transactions on Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)

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Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2411-9660
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 60: A Numerical Thermal Analysis of a Battery Pack
           in an Electric Motorbike Application

    • Authors: Mohammad Shahjalal, Tamanna Shams, Sadat Bin Hossain, Probir Kumar Roy, Arafat Alam Jion, Mominul Ahsan, Jahedul Islam Chowdhury, Md Rishad Ahmed, Syed Bahauddin Alam, Julfikar Haider
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Today, electric driven motorbikes (e-motorbikes) are facing multiple safety, functionality and operating challenges, particularly in hot climatic conditions. One of them is the increasing demand for efficient battery cooling to avoid the potential thermal stability concerns due to extreme temperatures and the conventional plastic enclosure of the battery pack. A reliable and efficient thermal design can be formulated by accommodating the battery within an appropriate battery housing supported by a cooling configuration. The proposed design includes a battery pack housing made of high conductive materials, such as copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al), with an adequate liquid cooling system. This study first proposes a potted cooling structure for the e-motorbike battery and numerical studies are carried out for a 72 V, 42 Ah battery pack for different ambient temperatures, casing materials, discharge rates, coolant types, and coolant temperatures. Results reveal that up to 53 °C is achievable with only the Cu battery housing material. Further temperature reduction is possible with the help of a liquid cooling system, and in this case, with the use of coolant temperature of 20 °C, the battery temperature can be maintained within 28 °C. The analysis also suggests that the proposed cooling system can keep a safe battery temperature up to a 5C rate. The design was also validated for different accelerated driving scenarios. The proposed conceptual design could be exploited in future e-motorbike battery cooling for optimum thermal stability.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6040060
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 40: Engineering and Economic Evaluation of a
           Prototype Fabricated for Harvesting Sugarcane

    • Authors: Ahmed Mohamed El Shal, Yasser Sayed Mazrou, Mohamed Ibrahim El Didamony
      First page: 40
      Abstract: A sugarcane harvester prototype was fabricated and evaluated to save time, labor, and harvesting expenses, which are included in production costs. The single-row harvester prototype fits the functional needs of the physical qualities of sugarcane and was designed to be installed on a tractor. One serrated edge cutter disc, three forward speeds, and three cutter disc speeds were used to evaluate the performance of the fabricated sugarcane harvester. The results of the technical evaluation showed that the average forward speed was 5 km h−1, and the average cutter disc speed was 2000 rpm by a cutter disc with a serrated edge produced the ideal sugarcane harvesting parameters. The actual field capacity, the power required and the specific energy requirements, were determined. Despite that economic evaluation empathies that the combination of 3.5 km h−1 forward speed and a 1000 rpm cutting speed also achieved the highest benefits ($115.12/ha).
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030040
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 41: Impacts of Location on Designs and Economics of
           DIY Low-Cost Fixed-Tilt Open Source Wood Solar Photovoltaic Racking

    • Authors: Nicholas Vandewetering, Koami Soulemane Hayibo, Joshua M. Pearce
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Although small solar photovoltaic (PV) systems avoid most soft costs, they still have a relatively high $/W value due to racking costs. In order to fulfill the promise of small-scale plug-and-play solar, a do-it-yourself PV rack design is provided and analyzed here for six criteria: (1) made from locally-accessible renewable materials, (2) 25-year lifetime to match PV warranties, (3) able to be fabricated by average consumers, (4) able to meet Canadian structural building codes, (5) low cost and (6) that it is shared using an open-source license. The open-source wood-based fixed-tilt ground-mounted bifacial photovoltaic rack design evaluated here was found to be appropriate throughout North America. Economic analysis of the bill of materials showed the racking system ranges from 49% to 77% less expensive compared to commercial proprietary racking in Canada. The racking design, however, is highly dependent on the cost of lumber that varies widely throughout the world. Even for an absolute lower-cost design in Togo due to a lower fixed tilt angle and lower loads from lack of snow, it was not found to be economic because of the relatively high cost of wood. The recent volatile lumber market warrants local evaluation from those considering the use of the open-source design. This design, however, provides for a PV rack that can be manufactured with distributed means throughout most of the world enabling more equitable access to solar energy to support a circular bioeconomy.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030041
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 42: Electric Bike Product Conception and Styling
           According to Design Trends

    • Authors: Leonardo Frizziero, Marco Freddi, Gabriele Bucchi, Lorenzo Coltelli, Christian Leon-Cardenas
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The following case study portrays the several steps required to conceive a product from scratch. The first step involves an in-depth analysis of today’s electric bicycle market in order to obtain data and information relating to the levels of innovation and comfort required by customers. Then, we evaluate the implementation of a useful method to understand the level of innovation that the product must have to be competitive on the market. The second part studies the architecture of the product, considering the different components already sold on the market which will become part of the project. The third part concerns a comparison between different stylistic trends that the vehicle may have (in order to outline the best one). The fourth part concerns the CAD realization of the virtual model complete with all its parts, including a structural verification study of the frame. The last part studies the presentation of the product to the customer, exploring different effective ways to communicate what the strengths of the new product will be (also allowing them to customize it before its realization). The plan for the realization of the new product, starting from the concept to arrive at the final presentation to the customer, follows the methods proposed by applying a series of steps to develop a generic new product in an efficient, sensible, and methodical manner. Therefore, we will refer to quality function deployment (QFD), benchmarking (BM), design for X, until reaching the final prototyping and testing phases.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030042
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 43: An SIC-Fed Low-Profile Wideband
           Metamaterial-Based Antenna Array for 5G Wireless Cellular Networks

    • Authors: Shengjie Wang, Liguo Sun, Jean de Dieu Ntawangaheza
      First page: 43
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a metamaterial (MTM)-based low-profile wideband antenna and its array using a substrate integrated cavity (SIC) feed structure for 5G wireless cellular networks. The proposed wideband antenna consists of two sets of square mushroom-like arrays; a semi-ground plane and a microstrip line-fed bow-tie radiator. Due to the unique in-phase reflection characteristic of the mushroom-like metamaterial, the bow-tie antenna wideband performance is maintained while the distance between the bow-tie radiator and the metamaterial-based semi-ground is considerably reduced to 0.014λ0 (λ0 is the operating wavelength at 5 GHz in free space), thereby satisfying the compact size requirement desirable in many wireless communication systems. The in-phase reflection of the mushroom unit cell is applied to analyze and explain the wideband performance of the presented antenna. The proposed dielectric-filled (εr=3.55) MTM-based wideband antenna element has an overall size of 1.0λ0 × 0.8λ0 × 0.054λ0 and attains a measured ( S11 <−10 dB) bandwidth of 31.3%. Subsequently, an SIC feed structure is employed to form an array antenna, and a measured ( S11 <−10 dB) bandwidth of about 17% is obtained. Across the operating bandwidth, which partly covers the 5G wireless communication in the sub-6 GHz band and 5-GHz WLAN, the antenna array achieved an average gain of 6.6 dBi and a radiation efficiency greater than 73%.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030043
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 44: One Factor at a Time Analysis to Modify Potting
           Technique for Manufacturing of Bubble-Free High-Voltage Polyester
           Insulated Automotive Coils

    • Authors: Ahmad Nawaz, Ishaq Ahmad, Waseem Akram, Bilal Islam, Danil Yurievich Pimenov, Khaled Giasin, Muhammad Aamir
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The current study focuses on minimising the bubbles in polyester-insulated ignition coils, which were produced with a defect level of ~21–25% or 210–250 coils per 1000 batch size by using the potting method. This high-level rejection makes a substantial financial impact by increasing waste material, manufacturing, and after-sales costs. Hence, to control the bubbled problem without using expensive and maintenance-heavy techniques, the process parameters in the potting method were alternated and investigated using one factor at a time, which played a vital role in the formation/reduction of bubbles in the ignition coil insulation. Process parameters, including pre/process heating, the appropriate MEKP/cobalt naphthenate ratio, the pouring amount/increments, and the stirring speeds, reduced the bubble formation per lot from 205 ± 30 to 146 ± 25, 108 ± 21, 61 ± 17, and 10 ± 2 per 1000 lot accordingly. In addition, a comparative study was conducted in terms of performance and life cycle endurance, using Japanese and Indian standards. Furthermore, an after-sale warranty claim also supports the proposed changes in the potting technique. This modification may reduce the after-sales rejection within two years to approximately ~85%. This modification in the potting technique is extremely cost-effective in comparison to expensive processes, i.e., vacuum-pressure impregnation and vacuum impregnation, which require extensive labour and maintenance.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030044
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 45: The Effectiveness of the Role of Interior
           Design in Creating Functional and Institutional Happiness for Work
           Environments: King Faisal University as a Model

    • Authors: Amira Abouelela
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Happiness is a natural human right that all seek to achieve. The quality of people’s lives may be directly affected by the quality of their working life, which is affected by the quality of their work environment. This has become the focus of attention of work institutions in society due to its great importance and strong impact on success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the institutional work environment at King Faisal University by surveying faculty and staff members regarding their opinions on meeting their environmental and functional needs at work by improving the interior design of workspaces to create happiness in the work environment. The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between employees’ performance levels and their work environment, in addition to making happiness and quality of life major priorities and creating a stimulating work environment. The researcher used descriptive analysis to analyze the relationship between aspects of work and the levels of job satisfaction and happiness among employees of King Faisal University. The researcher used a five-point Likert scale to measure the responses to the questionnaire items, and reached several conclusions, including that the level of job happiness at King Faisal University is not affected by the variables of gender, social status, or the nature of the job, and that the university provides a work environment that helps achieve job happiness and allows for job innovation and creativity.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030045
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 46: On the Resistance to Buckling Loads of
           Idealized Hull Structures: FE Analysis on Designed-Stiffened Plates

    • Authors: Aditya Rio Prabowo, Ridwan Ridwan, Teguh Muttaqie
      First page: 46
      Abstract: In this paper, the buckling analysis on simply supported rectangular plates and stiffened panels is carried out. Three different plate thicknesses were proposed (i.e., 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm). The thickness of the longitudinal stringers and sub-stiffeners were also varied. The material that was used was marine grade steel. The load versus the displacement curve and the total energy were measured. The buckling analysis results were examined via finite element (FE) computation. To ensure that the results of the methodology for the finite element were reliable, the benchmark buckling analysis of the experimental test was reconstructed. For the selection of mesh size, the element to thickness ratio method (ELT) was used. The results revealed that the thickness of the plate increases the strength of the stiffened panel. The plate thickness of 5 mm increased by 65.7% and 20.61% compared with the 3 mm and 4 mm plate thicknesses. A change in the thickness of the sub-stiffeners does not significantly change the strength of the stiffened panels. Material S355JR-EN10210 produced a higher ultimate panel collapse load compared with S235JR-EN10025 (A) and S235JR-EN10025 (B).
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030046
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 47: Towards a Better Interior Design for the
           Academic Library at College of Education—King Faisal University

    • Authors: Amira Abouelela
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Academic libraries include college and university libraries. Interior design is an important way to bring about the required change in transforming academic libraries from a repository of books into places for research and communication. While interior design plays a major role in providing an innovative functional design in academic libraries within universities, the problem of the study lies in the importance of academic libraries and their main role in university education institutions in encouraging and supporting scientific research among students and faculty members. According to the role of interior design in designing academic libraries, the researcher finds that there are problems with interior design in the academic library at the College of Education. It needs to be re-designed to improve functionality and aesthetics and enhance the internal space for users to achieve effective use of the internal library space. The study aims to create a better design of interior environments in academic libraries in order to feature creativity and innovation. The research method is descriptive–analytical to describe and analyze the current interior design of the academic library at the College of Education at King Faisal University and collect real information about the library and the problems of interior design. Then, it was presented through the opinion poll tool to the beneficiaries to know their opinions about the current design of the library and to benefit from them in the design proposal of the academic library according to the correct design considerations. Then, the opinion poll tool was displayed again according to the design proposal to know the views of the beneficiaries again to contribute to providing an appropriate research environment for students and faculty members.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030047
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 48: The Use of the BIM Approach from the Conceptual

    • Authors: Antonio Salzano, Andrea Miano, Andrea Prota, Richard Jacobsson
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) experiment is a new purpose fixed target facility proposed for the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator to search for long-lived exotic particles associated with Hidden Sectors and Dark Matter. This paper reports on the development of BIM integrated design for the SHiP experiment, applied initially to the Decay Volume, a >2000 m3 conical steel vessel under a vacuum hosting several large particle physics detector systems. A BIM methodology is used to address all the design phases of the Decay Volume of the SHiP experiment from the conceptual planning to the constructive drawings production. This proposed workflow is a basic plan to be repeated for each sub-component of the SHiP experiment in order to have a full and overall integration of the experiment. In particular, the Decay Volume’s geometrical and structural design and the simulation of its assembly process, both in factory and on site, are proposed. Moreover, the use of collaborative platforms to speed up the ideas exchange, as the basis of a highly multidisciplinary and complex project, is discussed. The complexity, multidisciplinary nature, and size of the SHiP project severely challenge design information management. The final plan to solve this issue is to have a BIM integrated design of each experiment sub-component, such as that demonstrated in this work for the Decay Volume, in order to have a full and multidisciplinary integration of the overall project.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030048
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 49: Design Thinking Applied to Home Textiles
           Innovation: A Case Study in an Elderly Centre in Hong Kong

    • Authors: Meiyu Yao, Li Li
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The ageing society is a challenging social issue, yet it implies a growing demand for elderly goods and services. The current development of elderly textile products, however, appears to neglect everyday use. This paper used a case study to demonstrate the utilization of design thinking, a human-centric methodology, in order to design and develop a creative solution for elderly care in elderly centers, taking into account their needs and preferences with regard to textiles. Starting from empathy, complex problems were identified, and ideas were generated. As a skin-protective home textile, chitosan, a natural antibacterial material, has been suggested for development. By using iterative processes, the spinning problem was tackled; the biological and physical characteristics were studied; design, sizing, patterns and printing were created and refined to fulfill the needs; mass production of bedding, apron and handkerchief were successfully achieved; a pre-posttest trial was conducted to determine the satisfaction level and potential help of the prototypes. The feedback was generally positive and highly satisfied. Hence, this study indicates that the design thinking approach may provide an effective method of understanding empathy and discovering solutions most likely to meet the needs of the users.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030049
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 50: Analysis Phase of Lean Six Sigma Methodology
           with Scaled-Down Laboratory Experiments for an Industrial-Scale Biogas

    • Authors: Samet Cinar, Senem Önen Cinar, She Ming Ng, Kerstin Kuchta
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Although the benefits of the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology have been proven for more than 20 years, it is still underutilized in environmental science, (e.g., in anaerobic digestion and biogas production). In order to obtain a structural and data-oriented perspective for process optimization in the renewable energy sector, LSS application must be considered one of the most valuable tools. To inform this paper, the LSS analysis phase was conducted in a scaled-down environment through detailed laboratory experiments. Results showed not only the feasibility of LSS application in biogas technology, but also some useful findings such as possible root causes for low production, such as impurities, waiting time, and existing pre-treatment methods for the defined problem. The results of the experiments show that the use of old substrates can reduce the biogas production up to half of the production with fresh substrates, and that even a 10% sand content can reduce the production up to 14.2%, which shows the need for a solution to these two issues.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030050
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 51: Sustainable and Conventional Buildings

    • Authors: Marco Caniato, Federica Bettarello
      First page: 51
      Abstract: This editorial aims at summarize the scientific papers contributing to the Special Issue “Sustainable and Conventional Buildings” [...]
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030051
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 52: End-to-End Deep Reinforcement Learning Control
           for HVAC Systems in Office Buildings

    • Authors: Xuyang Zhong, Zhiang Zhang, Ruijun Zhang, Chenlu Zhang
      First page: 52
      Abstract: The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is a major energy consumer in office buildings, and its operation is critical for indoor thermal comfort. While previous studies have indicated that reinforcement learning control can improve HVAC energy efficiency, they did not provide enough information about end-to-end control (i.e., from raw observations to ready-to-implement control signals) for centralized HVAC systems in multizone buildings due to the limitations of reinforcement learning methods or the test buildings being single zones with independent HVAC systems. This study developed a model-free end-to-end dynamic HVAC control method based on a recently proposed deep reinforcement learning framework to control the centralized HVAC system of a multizone office building. By using the deep neural network, the proposed control method could directly take measurable parameters, including weather and indoor environment conditions, as inputs and control indoor temperature setpoints at a supervisory level. In some test cases, the proposed control method could successfully learn a dynamic control policy to reduce HVAC energy consumption by 12.8% compared with the baseline case using conventional control methods, without compromising thermal comfort. However, an over-fitting problem was noted, indicating that future work should first focus on the generalization of deep reinforcement learning.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030052
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 53: Advanced Thermal Management Systems for
           High-Power Lithium-Ion Capacitors: A Comprehensive Review

    • Authors: Danial Karimi, Hamidreza Behi, Joeri Van Mierlo, Maitane Berecibar
      First page: 53
      Abstract: The acceleration demand from the driver in electric vehicles (EVs) should be supported by high-power energy storage systems (ESSs). In order to satisfy the driver’s request, the employed ESS should have high power densities. On the other hand, high energy densities are required at the same time for EVs’ traction to minimize the range anxiety. In this context, a novel ESS has emerged that can provide high power and energy densities at the same time. Such technology is called lithium-ion capacitor (LiC), which employs Li-doped carbon as negative electrode and activated carbon as positive electrode. However, high heat generation in high current applications is an issue that should be managed to extend the LiCs life span. Hence, a proper thermal management system (TMS) is mandatory for such a hybrid technology. Since this ESS is novel, there are only several TMSs addressed for LiCs. In this review article, a literature study regarding the developed TMSs for LiCs is presented. Since LiCs use Li-doped carbon in their negative electrodes, lithium-titanate oxide (LTO) batteries are the most similar lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) to LiCs. Therefore, the proposed TMSs for lithium-ion batteries, especially LTO batteries, have been explained as well. The investigated TMSs are active, passive, and hybrid cooling methods The proposed TMSs have been classified in three different sections, including active methods, passive methods, and hybrid methods.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030053
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 54: Open-Source Design and Economics of Manual
           Variable-Tilt Angle DIY Wood-Based Solar Photovoltaic Racking System

    • Authors: Nicholas Vandewetering, Koami Soulemane Hayibo, Joshua M. Pearce
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Fixed-tilt mechanical racking, consisting of proprietary aluminum extrusions, can dominate the capital costs of small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Recent design research has shown that wood-racking can decrease the capital costs of small systems by more than 75% in North America. To determine if wood racking provides enough savings to enable labor to be exchanged profitably for higher solar electric output, this article develops a novel variable tilt angle open-source wood-based do-it-yourself (DIY) PV rack that can be built and adjusted at exceptionally low costs. A detailed levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) production analysis is performed after the optimal monthly tilt angles are determined for a range of latitudes. The results show the racking systems with an optimal variable seasonal tilt angle have the best lifetime energy production, with 5.2% more energy generated compared to the fixed-tilt system (or 4.8% more energy, if limited to a maximum tilt angle of 60°). Both fixed and variable wooden racking systems show similar LCOE, which is only 29% of the LCOE of commercial metal racking. The results of this study indicate that the novel variable tilt rack, whether used as a small-scale DIY project or scaled up to fulfill larger energy demands, provides both the lowest cost option even when modest labor costs are included and also may provide specific advantages for applications such as agrivoltaics.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030054
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 55: Secured Multi-Dimensional Robust Optimization
           Model for Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) Delivery Network Based
           on the SORA Standard

    • Authors: Armin Mahmoodi, Leila Hashemi, Jeremy Laliberté, Richard C. Millar
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The range of applications of RPAs in various industries indicates that their increased usage could reduce operational costs and time. Remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) can be deployed quickly and effectively in numerous distribution systems and even during a crisis by eliminating existing problems in ground transport due to their structure and flexibility. Moreover, they can also be useful in data collection in damaged areas by correctly defining the condition of flight trajectories. Hence, defining a framework and model for better regulation and management of RPAS-based systems appears necessary; a model that could accurately predict what will happen in practice through the real simulation of the circumstances of distribution systems. Therefore, this study attempts to propose a multi-objective location-routing optimization model by specifying time window constraints, simultaneous pick-up and delivery demands, and the possibility of recharging the used batteries to reduce, firstly, transport costs, secondly, delivery times, and thirdly, estimated risks. Furthermore, the delivery time of the model has been optimized to increase its accuracy based on the uncertain conditions of possible traffic scenarios. It is also imperative to note that the assessment of risk indicators was conducted based on the Specific Operations Risk Assessment (SORA) standard to define the third objective function, which was conducted in a few previous studies. Finally, it shows how the developed NSGA-II algorithm in this study performed successfully and reduced the objective function by 31%. Comparing the obtained results using an NSGA-II meta-heuristic approach, through the rigorous method GAMS, indicates that the results are valid and reliable.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030055
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 56: Pre-Transit Oriented Development Assessment
           Guidelines for Assessing Metro Station Dependent Component Area

    • Authors: Mohuiddin Jamaleddin, Hatem Ibrahim, M. Salim Ferwati, Mohd Faris Khamidi, Madhavi Indraganti
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) assessment models are commonly used to assess existing and planned metro station catchment areas. Elements like diversity, density, design, destination, distance, and demand management are considered in the 6Ds TOD assessment model. Assessment of these elements in the designing stage depends on the TOD expert’s involvement to ensure the effectiveness of the model. The aim of this research is to develop novel pre-TOD assessment guidelines that consist of Spatial Analysis, Virtual Function of Transit Station (VFTS), and Estimated Spatial Analysis, which can improve the reliability of the assessment conclusion according to the 16 planning elements. The research applies three methodologies: (1) analytical approach to evaluate the TOD concept and its assessment model; (2) development of pre-TOD assessment guidelines using the Delphi technique; and (3) conduct a case study of the Doha Exhibition and Convention Center metro station in Qatar to validate the developed model. The findings are a new concept, called the Dependent Component Area (DCA) of the metro station, and VFTS classifications of the metro station include an urban connector, suburban connector, destination, and destination connector. The newly developed pre-TOD assessment guidelines can enhance TOD assessment methods, especially in emerging cities. Moreover, these assessment guidelines will provide TOD and planning experts with more precise data and information related to the DCA.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030056
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 57: How Sustainability-Related Information Affects
           the Evaluation of Designs: A Case Study of a Locally Manufactured Mobile
           Tiny House

    • Authors: Chiara Nezzi, Laura Ruiz-Pastor, Stefania Altavilla, Aurora Berni, Yuri Borgianni
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Sustainability-related information affects people’s choices and evaluation. The literature has made significant efforts to understand the best ways of delivering this kind of information to shape consumer behavior. However, while most studies have focused on packaged products and direct information provided through eco-labels, preferences could be formed differently in other design domains. The paper investigates the effect of the perceived amount of indirect information on the evaluation of an architectural artefact. A sample of 172 participants visited a locally produced mobile tiny house, made with a considerable amount of sustainable materials. The same participants answered a questionnaire about their perceived knowledge, quality, appropriateness and sustainability of the tiny house. The general level of knowledge of the tiny house was used as a proxy of the amount of indirect information received. Although the knowledge of the tiny house was generally low, ratings regarding the other dimensions were overall extremely positive. In particular, no evident relation was found between knowledge of the tiny house and sustainability, while the latter is significantly linked to quality aspects. These outcomes deviate from the evidence from other studies; this might be due to indirect vs. direct information and the peculiarity of the study carried out in the field of buildings. The gathered demographic and background data of the participants make it possible to highlight the role played by gender and age in affecting the evaluations, but the absence of a significant impact of experience in the field, education and origin. The results are compared with findings related to the evaluation of sustainable products and green buildings in particular.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030057
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 58: Design of an Architectural Element Generating

    • Authors: Hinako Kawakami, Yasumitsu Matsuo
      First page: 58
      Abstract: As is well known, the realization of a zero-waste society is strongly desired in a sustainable society. In particular, architectural elements that provide an energy-neutral living environment are attractive. This article presents the novel environmentally friendly architectural elements that generate hydrogen energy by the photosystem II (PSII) solution extracted from waste vegetables. In the present work, as an architectural element, the window (PSII window panel) and roof (PSII roof panel) were fabricated by injecting a PSII solution into a transparent double-layer panel, and the aging properties of the power generation and the appearance of these PSII panels are investigated. It was found that the PSII roof can generate energy for 18 days under the sun shining and can actually drive the electronic device. In addition, the PSII window, for which light intensity is weaker than that for the PSII roof, can maintain power generation for 40 days. These results indicate that the PSII roof and PSII window become the architectural elements generating energy, although the lifespan depends on the total light intensity. Furthermore, as an additional advantage, the roof and window panels composed of the semitransparent PSII panel yield an interior space with the natural color of the leaf, which gradually changes over time from green to yellow. Further, it was also found that the thermal fluctuation of the PSII window is smaller than that of the typical glass window. These results indicate that the roof and window panels composed of the PSII solution extracted from waste vegetables can be used as the actual architectural elements to produce not only the electrical energy but also the beautiful, transparent natural green/yellow spaces.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030058
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 59: Getting Fit in a Sustainable Way: Design and
           Optimization of a Low-Cost Regenerative Exercise Bicycle

    • Authors: Pham, Bandaru, Bellannagari, Zaidi, Viswanathan
      First page: 59
      Abstract: With the increase in demand for more sustainable energy sources, recent researchers have been looking into harvesting energy spent by humans for various purposes. One of the available sources of such energy is exercise equipment. While a few products are available in the market to harvest the power expended during an exercise session, these products are costly, and the cost may prohibit a day-to-day user from purchasing those. Motivated by this challenge, this paper describes a long-running research project that uses a static exercise bicycle to sustainably harvest human energy. A regenerative spin bike that uses the friction between a flywheel and a BaneBots wheel was designed and deployed. For the motor mount, two methods are investigated: linear preloading and rotary preloading. A commercially available indoor static bicycle is modified to incorporate the flywheel and the motor attachment. The generated electricity is converted to DC using a three-phase rectifier. A car charger is used for charging any devices attached to the setup. The resulting configuration is very effective in operating small electronic devices. This setup, which uses only off-the-shelf components, can be considered a replacement for its expensive custom-made counterparts.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6030059
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 21: Design of Promising aza-BODIPYs for Bioimaging
           and Sensing

    • Authors: Dmitry Merkushev, Olga Vodyanova, Felix Telegin, Pavel Melnikov, Nikolay Yashtulov, Yuriy Marfin
      First page: 21
      Abstract: The obtainment of new luminophores for molecular sensorics of biosystems is becoming one of the urgent tasks in the field of chemical synthesis. The solution to each practical problem imposes its own limitations in the design of new structures with practically useful properties. The relationship between the structure and spectral properties is still to be unveiled. Three aza-BODIPY complexes with substituents of different natures were studied using time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The solvatochromic properties of aza-BODIPYs were studied with the use of a combined polyparametric approach and analysis by chemoinformatics methods for the first time. It was found that red shift of aza-BODIPY dyes was due to the increase of their structural lability. Predictive and experimental methods showed that the investigated aza-BODIPYs exhibited a positive solvatochromic effect, in contrast to classic BODIPYs (bearing C in the meso-position of the dipyrromethene core), which represents the negative solvatochromic properties. Spectral maxima in the area of the therapeutic window, low and predictable solvatochromism, and the ability to fine-tune the spectral characteristics make the investigated aza-BODIPYs promising scaffolds for the construction of bioengineering devices. Generalizations on the aza-BODIPYs’ design patterns were made in accordance with further bioimaging applications.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 22: A Framework for CO2 Emission Reduction in
           Manufacturing Industries: A Steel Industry Case

    • Authors: Panagiotis Stavropoulos, Vasiliki Christina Panagiotopoulou, Alexios Papacharalampopoulos, Panagiotis Aivaliotis, Dimitris Georgopoulos, Konstantinos Smyrniotakis
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Rising carbon emissions are linked to the increase in global temperature, because of increasing human activities and increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Since manufacturing is one of the most carbon intensive sectors, it is vital to suggest solutions that lead to carbon emission reduction in all sectors, among which is the steelmaking manufacturing sector. The present study focuses on presenting a framework for energy intensive industries introducing digitalization and energy efficient equipment in the production line. The current framework proposes different metrics, both from carbon emissions and cost viewpoints. A secondary steelmaking industry was used as a case study, showcasing the impact of digitalization and energy efficient equipment towards the reduction of carbon emissions. In addition, different metrics were calculated with energy efficient scenarios providing the lowest energy consumption metric, but their high purchasing costs make these scenarios less attractive. However, if carbon emission reduction per cost is the metric, a combination of digital tools and energy efficient equipment is the answer to the company’s needs. Applying the concepts of innovation absorption and digitalization, the number of alternatives is kept low, however, the impact on the line is quite large. The introduction of new technologies is also supported by training of the workforce, aligning the framework with current industrial trends.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 23: The Impact of COVID-19 on the Italian Footwear
           Supply Chain of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)—Evaluation
           of Two Case Studies

    • Authors: Marcello Braglia, Leonardo Marrazzini, Luca Padellini
      First page: 23
      Abstract: This paper aims to provide a case study related to two small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of the Italian footwear supply chain, comparing sales and production data from pre-pandemic years with those affected by the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Specifically, two Tuscany companies in the world of fashion footwear sector have been assisted in the analysis of their supply chains. In particular, the case research method has been employed for theory building to evaluate how companies reacted to the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic to focus on potential resilience strategies that could be adopted to deal with a disruption, such as that caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, in order to understand the dynamics of the supply chains, the standard production processes were initially studied and mapped, analyzing in detail the planning, programming, and control phase. After conducting a descriptive analysis of the data, possible resilience factors of SMEs’ fashion supply chains have been extracted, and strategies that SMEs could adopt to better cope with the disruption caused by the pandemic have been suggested. The outcomes of this study can be used by decision-makers to predict the operative and long-term impacts of epidemic outbreaks on the supply chains with some suggestions of potential resilience improvement strategies. The paper is concluded by summarizing the most important insights and outlining future research agenda.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 24: Active Power Sharing in a Micro-Grid with
           Multiple Grid Connections

    • Authors: Syed Rizvi, Ahmed Abu-Siada
      First page: 24
      Abstract: This paper presents a mechanism for active power sharing among multiple dispatchable and distributed generation units within a micro grid comprising one or multiple interconnections with the main grid. Ideally, a micro grid should act as a constant load or a constant voltage source when connected to the main grid. However, to achieve ideal operation, natural load variations and the intermittency of renewable energy sources within the microgrid need to be adequately and timely compensated for by dispatchable power sources. While several control algorithms have been reported in the literature to achieve ideal microgrid operation, the majority of the proposed methods assumed a micro grid with a single interconnection to the main grid. In the real world, micro grids may have to maintain multiple live links with the main grid for several technical and operational reasons such as reliability, power-dispatch restriction, and operational limitations requirements. Therefore, a new method of active power sharing is proposed in this paper, which is equally effective for micro grids with one or multiple grid connections. The robustness of the proposed method is examined under different microgrid operating conditions. The results reveal the flexibility of the proposed method to adapt under various real-world operating conditions.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 25: About One Approach to Using Dynamic Models to
           Build Digital Twins

    • Authors: Alexander Ivanovich Vodyaho, Nataly Alexandrovna Zhukova, Yulia Alexandrovna Shichkina, Fahem Anaam, Saddam Abbas
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The modern stage of technology development is characterized by the emergence of new paradigms for the construction of anthropogenic systems, such as cyber-physical systems, socio-cybernetic systems, etc. The task of data acquisition about the state of a multi-level system and managing the structure and behavior of a system consisting of many thousands of elements of different physical nature is a complex task. This article describes one of possible approaches to solving the problem of data acquisition and management of the structure of a large-scale heterogeneous system. The proposed approach is based on the idea of using dynamic digital twins, which are dynamic models of the observed system. This approach was used for the development of systems in various subject domains, in particular, in production management systems built on the Industry 4.0 principle, in the development of a technical support system for cable television networks and in the development of support systems for the construction of educational trajectories.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 26: Co-Designing Spaces for Public Service

    • Authors: Luisa Collina, Laura Galluzzo, Ambra Borin, Claudia Mastrantoni
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Services of public interest concern the design of spaces and services in their most systemic and transformative conception, offering access to the essential functions of everyday life, and developing open solutions for a social collective understood as a ‘public’. Public services have been changing in recent years due to a digitalisation of services and tools. At the same time as there is a great deal of discussion on these issues, involving different opinions and continuous evolutions, the space as a container for these services is less subject to reflection and not considered for any evolution in design. Through the project of the requalification of the Salone Anagrafico of the Chamber of Commerce in Milan, or the Hall of the Future project, a research experiment is described, which highlights the importance of spatial heritage, and which can be replicated in other contexts, regardless of usage.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 27: Design of Waste Management System Using
           Ensemble Neural Networks

    • Authors: Subbiah Geetha, Jayit Saha, Ishita Dasgupta, Rahul Bera, Isah A. Lawal, Seifedine Kadry
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Waste management is an essential societal issue, and the classical and manual waste auditing methods are hazardous and time-consuming. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for waste detection and classification to address the challenges of waste management. The method uses a collection of deep neural networks to allow for accurate waste detection, classification, and waste size quantification. The trained neural network model is integrated into a mobile-based application for trash geotagging based on images captured by users on their smartphones. The tagged images are then connected to the cleaners’ database, and the nearest cleaners are notified of the waste. The experimental results using publicly available datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of detection and classification accuracy. The proposed method achieved an accuracy of at least 90%, which surpasses that reported by other state-of-the-art methods on the same datasets.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 28: Defense Installation Energy Resilience for
           Changing Operational Requirements

    • Authors: Janice Mallery, Douglas L. Van Bossuyt, Anthony Pollman
      First page: 28
      Abstract: We propose a methodology to determine the impact of different potential mission scenarios upon energy resilience for mission-critical loads attached to a military base’s microgrid infrastructure. The proposed methodology applies to any installation with changing operational states that has energy-resilience requirements. The proposed methodology may be used by energy managers to account for potential mission scenarios that a base may be part of, followed by assessing the microgrid energy resilience to supply the critical loads for said mission scenarios, especially where the external grid power may be unavailable and/or damage to microgrid components may be present. In the event a microgrid design is unable to provide sufficient electrical energy, distributed energy resources and energy storage systems including renewable energy resources may be added to improve energy resilience. A case study is conducted on a fictitious representative military base, microgrid design, and changing mission demands to demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology. This article contributes a methodology for energy managers to evaluate energy resilience using microgrids by accounting for potential mission scenarios, their energy requirements, resulting energy preparedness, and recommendations for improvement, as necessary.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 29: Smart Wing Flutter Suppression

    • Authors: Reza Moosavi, Faris Elasha
      First page: 29
      Abstract: In this work, it has been shown the effect of a piezoelectric material on postponing the flutter phenomenon and even removing it completely on a regular wing. First, the system response of a smart wing with only plunge DOF and pitch DOF are presented. Using an efficient piezopatch can effectively decay the oscillations of the smart wing in a very short time. In addition, implementing one piezopatch in the plunge DOF of a regular wing with three DOF can postpone the flutter speed by 81.41%, which is a considerable increase in the flutter speed. We then present the effect of adding one more piezopatch to a smart wing in the pitch DOF to further postpone the flutter phenomenon. The flutter speed in a smart wing can be postponed by 115.96%, which is a very considerable value. Finally, adding one more piezopatch on a smart wing in the control DOF can completely remove the flutter phenomenon from the wing, which represents a great achievement in the dynamic aeroelectic behavior of a wing.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 30: Innovation Trends in Underground Works: The
           Example of the Arnotegi Tunnel in Bilbao

    • Authors: José-Manuel Baraibar, Iñigo Escobal-Marcos, Maria-Belén Prendes-Gero, Diego-José Guerrero-Miguel
      First page: 30
      Abstract: One year on from the outbreak of the global COVID-19 pandemic, EU policies have defined recovery instruments that enhance the transition towards a more circular economy, making European industries more sustainable, resilient, digital and innovative. The underground work industry is no exception and must crystallise the trends in innovation that have been developing in recent years, which will undoubtedly contribute to achieving better safety and efficiency parameters in tunnel construction, with the economic impact that this means. This work shows different innovation strategies along the design and construction of the Arnotegi tunnel, as part of the extension works of the Bilbao South Metropolitan Bypass. These strategies have been the implementation of the BIM methodology in the underground works, the use of environmental sensors and the optimisation of the shotcrete placement and the positioning of machinery inside the tunnel. The implementation of these strategies has allowed improved collaboration between agents and a time saving of 6.60% with respect to the initially planned deadline.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 31: On the Effect of Flexibility on the Dynamics of
           a Suspended Payload Carried by a Quadrotor

    • Authors: Renan S. Geronel, Ruxandra M. Botez, Douglas D. Bueno
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been gaining increased importance due to their variety of applications. In some specific tasks, UAVs require the addition of payloads and onboard components, including sensors, which require great stability to provide safe and reliable responses (related to the payload characteristics, such as the temperature, pressure, vibrations and many other factors). In contrast with the suspended payloads carried by a quadrotor aircraft with a rigid attachment, an elastic attachment is designed to assess the influence of the vibration characteristics on the quadrotor and its payload. Since the payload dynamics can alter the flight performance, sensor measurement accuracy and payload integrity, an adapted sliding mode control is used to guide the quadrotor on its desired trajectory and to compensate for the payload dynamics. To reduce the need for position sensors, a reduced-dimension observer is designed to estimate the payload trajectory, as well as the external disturbance behavior. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the flexibility influences the quadrotor’s dynamics and can create residual oscillation on its payload.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020031
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 32: Optimal Cascade Non-Integer Controller for
           Shunt Active Power Filter: Real-Time Implementation

    • Authors: Hoda Nikkhah Kashani, Reza Rouhi Ardeshiri, Meysam Gheisarnejad, Mohammad-Hassan Khooban
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Active power filters (APFs) are used to mitigate the harmonics generated by nonlinear loads in distribution networks. Therefore, due to the increase of nonlinear loads in power systems, it is necessary to reduce current harmonics. One typical method is utilizing Shunt Active Power Filters (SAPFs). This paper proposes an outstanding controller to improve the performance of the three-phase 25-kVA SAPF. This controller can reduce the current total harmonic distortion (THD), and is called fractional order PI-fractional order PD (FOPI-FOPD) cascade controller. In this study, another qualified controller was applied, called multistage fractional order PID controller, to show the superiority of the FOPI-FOPD cascade controller to the multistage FOPID controller. Both controllers were designed based on a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). The obtained results demonstrate that the steady-state response and transient characteristics achieved by the FO (PI + PD) cascade controller are superior to the ones obtained by the multistage FOPID controller. The proposed controller was able to significantly reduce the source current THD to less than 2%, which is about a 52% reduction compared to the previous work in the introduction. Finally, the studied SAPF system with the proposed cascade controller was developed in the hardware-In-the Loop (HiL) simulation for real-time examinations.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020032
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 33: Product Tests in Virtual Reality: Lessons
           Learned during Collision Avoidance Development for Drones

    • Authors: Volker Settgast, Konstantinos Kostarakos, Eva Eggeling, Manfred Hartbauer, Torsten Ullrich
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) and real-world simulations have become an important tool for product development, product design, and product tests. Product tests in VR have many advantages, such as reproducibility and shortened development time. In this paper, we investigate the virtual testing of a collision avoidance system for drones in terms of economic benefits. Our results show that virtual tests had both positive and negative effects on the development, with the positive aspects clearly predominating. In summary, the tests in VR shorten the development time and reduce risks and therefore costs. Furthermore, they offer possibilities not available in real-world tests. Nevertheless, real-world tests are still important.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020033
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 34: Technological Features of Construction and
           Reconstruction of Geotechnical Structures in the Arctic Zone

    • Authors: Taisiya V. Shepitko, Svyatoslav Ya. Lutsky, Grigory I. Nak, Alexander M. Cherkasov
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Production engineering methods and geotechnical instrumentation for the construction and reconstruction of railway beds in high temperatures in the Arctic zone are proposed. High-technology construction facilitates the development of transport infrastructure of the energy-producing industries in the Arctic. The example of the Northern Latitudinal Railway (NLR) highlights the probability of dangerous cryogenic processes and phenomena during works, such as waterlogging and the structural decline of the active soil layer, the development of taliks, and frost cracking, which lead to a decrease in bearing capacity of soil. The features of the construction and production plans used at the sites of railway embankment reconstruction with heavy-duty equipment are outlined. New process control methods have been developed based on the selection of and systematic changes in the parameters of maximum permissible construction loads depending on the results of geotechnical structure monitoring. The structural diagram of high technology for strengthening the weak subgrade soil under the conditions of talik development is substantiated. In order to regulate intensive process parameters, the vehicle fleet needs to be equipped with positioning devices and automation process control systems. The effectiveness of process control in terms of improving the reliability and accelerating roadbed consolidation is substantiated.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020034
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 35: Interior Environment Design Method for Positive
           Mental Health in Lockdown Times: Color, Textures, Objects, Furniture and

    • Authors: Lucía Martín López, Ana Belén Fernández Díaz
      First page: 35
      Abstract: In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of a COVID-19 pandemic accompanied by a series of mass lockdowns. Some of the consequences of these lockdowns were (1) psychological problems, (2) development of simultaneous activities in spaces not prepared for it, and (3) indoor spaces that generate negative emotions in people. To improve people’s mental health during times of lockdown, this research proposes a methodology to design positive interior environments through color, texture, objects, furniture, and equipment. For this, 147 qualitative surveys were carried out, the structure of which is based on research methods and tools inherited from marketing discipline (Likert Scale and Customer Satisfaction Score). Several operative graphs were created to make decisions on the design of interior environments. To avoid some of the problems caused by indoor environments during lockdowns it is recommended that users return to paying attention to the design of the interior spaces of their homes. Note that there is no standard solution to this problem, but a method to design interior environments based on people’s positive mental health such as the one presented here can help. The trends found in this work open a field of exploration towards the improvement of interior spaces through neutral colors, natural materials (cotton and wood) and objects with which emotional relationships are created, either with the objects (collections) or because they allow you to connect with other people (technology). It is considered necessary to continue with the research by expanding the sample to incorporate into the analysis the most vulnerable sectors of population during COVID-19 lockdowns.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020035
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 36: Optimized Active Control of a Smart Cantilever
           Beam Using Genetic Algorithm

    • Authors: Ali Awada, Rafic Younes, Adrian Ilinca
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Vibration is one of the most dangerous phenomena that happens to a structure. It leads to premature fatigue and eventually failure, with potentially fatal consequences. A smart structure is an excellent solution to this problem; it adds an actuator, a sensor, and an appropriate control law to the system to reduce/eliminate the vibration. This study developed a complete analytical model for a cantilever beam with a collocated PZT sensor/actuator pair. First, we used a coupling of a collocated PZT sensor and an actuator to measure and control vibration levels based on a PID control law considering the physical constraints associated with PZT operation as the voltage level of the actuator. Next, the damping coefficient of the structure was determined by using genetic algorithms best fit to satisfy specific vibration conditions. Finally, we conducted a complete optimization for sensor/actuator position and PID parameters, using genetic algorithms. Thus, this paper gives a thorough understanding of the potential vibration control of the cantilever beam.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020036
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 37: Silencer Design for the Control of Low
           Frequency Noise in Ventilation Ducts

    • Authors: Edoardo Alessio Piana, Ulf Erik Carlsson, Adriano Maria Lezzi, Diego Paderno, Susann Boij
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The control of noise propagating along ventilation system ducts has always been an important issue in the building and vehicle sectors. This problem is generally tackled by selecting noise-reducing components with a suitable transmission loss, possibly verifying their effectiveness at a later time. The aim of this article is to characterize the nature of the problem and propose a design approach focusing directly on the perceived effect, that is, on the sound pressure level downstream of the outlet. Because the nature of the noise emission depends on various generation mechanisms, different methods can be applied. Usually, it is more difficult to realize good attenuations at low frequencies because of the limits of sound absorbing materials in such frequency range. For this reason, the ability of reactive components to attenuate the noise below the cut-on frequency will be investigated. This goal is reached by applying the transfer matrix approach to a duct system, with the implementation of the transfer matrices of each single element, and then assembling a system capable of acoustically describing the source and the duct structure. The coupling between the duct system with source and receiver impedances allows one to predict the sound pressure level at a given distance from the outlet. The proposed methodology is implemented in a user-friendly calculation tool with possible academic and professional application. Predictive capability, usability, and intuitiveness of the proposed design procedure are validated against experimental results by real potential users, who express positive feedback.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020037
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 38: Energy Storage System Design in the Light of
           Multisource Solution from a Viability Analysis

    • Authors: Viviane Tavares Nascimento, Julio Romel Martinez-Bolaños, Miguel Edgar Morales Udaeta, André L. Veiga Gimenes, Victor Baiochi Riboldi, Tuo Ji
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The objective of this work is to analyze the economic viability of a replacement to the energy supplied by the grid during costly periods by infrastructure owned by the consumer. The study takes into account the costs to purchase, manage and operate the structure to set which option an affordable option. A statistical approach based on the Monte Carlo Method distributes the costs through a 25 lifecycle period, establishing the cash flow and the economic parameters for each energy source combination scenario. The scenarios are evaluated for a Brazilian consumer, and the current regulatory parameters and market values are deployed to study the viability for a Diesel Generator, and two different types of batteries as replacements during the most energy-costly periods. As a result, the work establishes the most affordable scenarios from a technical and economic approach. Batteries are still costly for the consumer, and a 48.3% reduction in the costs may enable the deployment of batteries as an alternative in the country. The results establish that multi-source energy set with a Diesel Generator is an economically viable possibility during peak hours.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020038
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 39: Design of Cyber-Physical Waste Management
           Systems Focusing on Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    • Authors: Mohammad Zaher Akkad, Sameh Haidar, Tamás Bányai
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Industry 4.0 tools, such as the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, digital twinning, and cloud computing, create a technological revolution that accelerates efforts to optimize the efficiency of cyber-physical operations and services. The waste management system requires a critical share of city logistics optimization, especially when using cyber-physical systems. Modern tools reduce the required municipal waste handling, such as loading and unloading, transportation, and warehousing, which leads to an increase in efficiency and flexibility, saving energy and time, and protecting the environment. In this paper, we present a cyber-physical waste management system solution by providing a cyber-physical model design and description, mathematical modeling, and two cases to investigate the impact on energy consumption and emissions. After an introduction and literature review, we describe the design of the cyber-physical model and tackle the first echelon. The designed system incorporates the IoT, smart bins with multi-percentage sensors, data and information analysis, vehicles’ actual routes, energy and emissions optimization, multi-echelon systems, time windows, and flexibility. Mathematical modeling equations for the optimized total energy consumption are presented. Thirty and twenty smart bins located in VIII District in Budapest are detailed as two case studies, where solutions for the optimized real routes and energy consumption are found using three metaheuristic algorithms: genetic, particle swarm, and simulated annealing optimization algorithms. The accrued emissions of CO, NMHC, CH4, NOx, and PM for the optimized solutions are calculated. Finally, the results are compared with a random traditional solution to measure the effectiveness.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6020039
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 4: Matrix of Affordable Housing Assessment: A
           Development Process

    • Authors: Afaq Hyder Chohan
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a multiracial society with diverse housing and a potential real estate market. This study focused on users’ perceptions of the designs of available and affordable private housing stock in Dubai, Sharjah, and Ajman, which are the most populated states (emirates) of the UAE. A literature review and case studies of low- to medium-rise residential buildings were used to determine the parameters defining affordable housing design, and a model was developed of 7 design segments (independent variables) with 39 dependent variables. The model consists of a matrix of 39 design variables, in which each variable is set in a survey tool with a Likert scale to evaluate user satisfaction levels with the designs of their respective buildings. Questionnaires were distributed among the inhabitants of several buildings at different locations in the emirates. This study found that 16 anomalous design factors failed to satisfy users. It is likely that the results of this study will provide a blueprint for dialogue between regional building designers and end users to improve the designs of new buildings. The resulting design assessment matrix can be used for the analysis of residential buildings in other parts of the Gulf Cooperation Council region.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 5: Photocrosslinking of Adventitial Collagen in the
           Porcine Abdominal Aorta: A Preliminary Approach to a Strategy for
           Prevention of Aneurysmal Rupture

    • Authors: Traian V. Chirila, Shuko Suzuki
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This study was aimed at generating data for designing a potential method to prevent the rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We found that the mechanical strength and stiffness of blood vessel walls was enhanced by the crosslinking of adventitial collagen through a photochemical process promoted by ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation. The experiments were carried out on samples isolated from 25 normal porcine aortas. The adventitial layer was separated from the other layers and exposed to UV radiation of 365-nm wavelength, in the presence of a riboflavin compound as the photosensitizer. Mechanical testing of 30 specimens, prior to and after exposure, indicated an increase in both strength (ultimate stress) and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of the adventitial specimens following irradiation. The crosslinking process also led to an enhanced resistance to experimental collagenolysis, as determined on six specimens. At this phase of conceptual design, we suggest that by applying this method to an aneurysmal dilated wall region, the stabilization of tunica adventitia may delay or prevent the rupture of the aneurysm and, with further investigation and refinement, can become a therapeutic strategy for arresting the progression of AAA.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 6: Design and Applications of Additive
           Manufacturing and 3D Printing

    • Authors: Mika Salmi
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM), or commonly, 3D printing, has been witnessed in various applications and purposes such as industrial applications in consumer products, energy, aerospace, medical, spare parts [...]
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 7: Biomechanical Device for Measurement of
           Adductors Strength and Aid in Self-Catheterisation of Spastic Patients

    • Authors: Maria Cruz, Vítor Maranha, Fernando Moita, Nuno Cruz, Deolinda Rasteiro, Filipe Carvalho, Jorge Lains, Luis Roseiro
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Intermittent vesical self-catheterisation is a legitimate and safe technique that has been reported since the 1970s as a solution for the treatment and prevention of vesical urinary complications resulting from spinal cord injury. This practice, using clean technology, has been asserting itself as one of the best alternatives for people with neurogenic bladder. However, adherence is not complete due to some barriers imposed to this procedure by the injured, with emphasis on positioning, agility, and visual impairment. The solutions presented today to support self-catheterisation are expensive equipment that does not allow patients with advanced levels of spasticity to have their autonomy. A biomechanical support device was developed to aid self-catheterisation, mainly aimed at women with spasticity, filling the gap in the existing products. Despite the main objective of self-catheterisation, the system’s design made it possible to quantify the strength of the adductors for the sitting position during the execution of the adduction movement, particularly relevant for spastic patients. The device’s production was entirely carried out using the FDM methodology, with 3D printers, and its design and operation were thought to overcome the physical and psychological barriers imposed by the users. The system was first tested with a group of healthy volunteers to obtain a pattern of the adductors force in a sitting position and after with a group of spastic volunteers. The obtained data allows to compare the adductor force data and optimize the system, with particular functionalities for spastic patients, with the implementation of a motorised version and a visualization camera. The system, its developments, and results obtained are present and discussed.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 8: Design and Development of Unibody Quadcopter
           Structure Using Optimization and Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    • Authors: Sagar Nvss, Balasubramanian Esakki, Lung-Jieh Yang, Chandrasekhar Udayagiri, Kameswara Sridhar Vepa
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Quadcopters represent rotary wing configuration of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with immense application potential in industrial and strategic contexts. Tradeoff between flight endurance and payload capacity renders design optimization of UAVs a critical activity with substantial impact on the application possibilities. Among the structural parts of a typical Quadcopter, the central body frame constitutes major portion of the total weight. The present study aims at reduction of the frame weight while conforming with structural integrity requirements, through an integrated approach involving topology optimization, part consolidation and design for additive manufacturing (DFAM). Commercial UAV designs consist of multiple parts and fastening elements that necessitate considerable time and effort for assembly. This study reengineers the frame as a monocoque structure with desirable outcomes of weight reduction and less assembly time. The reengineered Quadcopter structure is manufactured through Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) and characterized with reference to structural, vibrational and fatigue characteristics. Concomitant application of modal analysis, computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing reveals close match between theoretical estimates and experimental results. Assembly and field trials of the monocoque Quadcopter structure affirm betterment of operational superiority and endurance vis-a-vis commercial UAV designs.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 9: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Designs in 2021

    • Authors: Designs Editorial Office Designs Editorial Office
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 10: Optimization and Design of a Flexible
           Droop-Nose Leading-Edge Morphing Wing Based on a Novel Black Widow
           Optimization Algorithm—Part I

    • Authors: Musavir Bashir, Simon Longtin-Martel, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Tony Wong
      First page: 10
      Abstract: An aerodynamic optimization for a Droop-Nose Leading-Edge (DNLE) morphing of a well-known UAV, the UAS-S45, is proposed, using a novel Black Widow Optimization (BWO) algorithm. This approach integrates the optimization algorithm with a modified Class-Shape Transformation (CST) parameterization method to enhance aerodynamic performance by minimizing drag and maximizing aerodynamic endurance at the cruise flight condition. The CST parameterization technique is used to parameterize the reference airfoil by introducing local shape changes and provide skin flexibility to obtain various optimized morphing airfoil configurations. The optimization framework uses an in-house MATLAB algorithm, while the aerodynamic calculations use the XFoil solver with flow transition estimation criteria. These results are validated with a CFD solver utilizing the Transition (γ−Reθ) Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. Numerical studies verified the effectiveness of the optimization strategy, and the optimized airfoils have shown a significant improvement in overall aerodynamic performance by up to 12.18% drag reduction compared to the reference airfoil, and an increase in aerodynamic endurance of up to 10% for the UAS-S45 optimized airfoil configurations over its reference airfoil. These results indicate the importance of leading-edge morphing in enhancing the aerodynamic efficiency of the UAS-S45 airfoil.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 11: A Multi-Part Production Planning Framework for
           Additive Manufacturing of Unrelated Parallel Fused Filament Fabrication 3D

    • Authors: Thibaut Cadiou, Frédéric Demoly, Samuel Gomes
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Fostering the development of additive manufacturing (AM) in the context of mass production is a key factor to ensure its adoption in the industry. It should be remembered that this technology intrinsically makes it possible to produce parts with unexpected complexities in terms of shape and structure, but this comes at a price: time. To overcome this productivity barrier, AM technology providers are developing 3D printing machines with high-speed performance and mass reproduction means in a single run. Although such trends can be seen as a natural evolution of this technology with respect to current consumption patterns, it still remains a scientific issue on production planning to be tackled. The objective is to address the on-demand production planning of different AM parts in FabLabs composed of unrelated parallel 3D printers. A novel framework is introduced to consider part orientation, path planning, and part-to-printer assignment, with a specific focus on fused filament fabrication technique. By targeting a minimum production time, it exhibits reasoning algorithms implemented in a Python application. A case study with a batch of six non-identical parts and two fused filament fabrication 3D printers is introduced to illustrate the added value of the framework and its operational side.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Difference between Pavement Thickness Design
           and Pavement Life Prediction for Rigid Aircraft Pavements

    • Authors: Greg White
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Aircraft pavements are generally designed using deterministic methods and using conservatively selected input parameter values, which combine to result in a low probability of structural failure occurring during the structural design life of the pavement. In contrast, when predicting the actual time until an as-constructed pavement will reach a structural failure condition, stochastic methods are required to take into account the inherently variable nature of pavement material properties and layer thicknesses, and the best-estimate of the input parameter values must replace the conservative values that are commonly used to introduce design reliability. A case study on a rigid aircraft pavement demonstrates the difference between pavement thickness design and pavement life prediction. Using Monte Carlo simulation, it was found that 98.5% of the as-constructed pavement was stronger than the designed pavement and that the predicted fatigue life of the pavement was approximately 180 times greater than the effective design life. It was concluded that the significant difference between pavement design and pavement life prediction explains the practical observation that rigid aircraft pavement service life generally exceeds typical structural design lives.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 13: Overcoming Variability in Printed RF: A
           Statistical Method to Designing for Unpredictable Dimensionality

    • Authors: Katherine Berry, Eric M. Brown, Bradley Pothier, Samuel Fedorka, Alkim Akyurtlu, Craig Armiento, Gary F. Walsh, Corey Shemelya
      First page: 13
      Abstract: As additively manufactured radio frequency (RF) design expands towards higher frequencies, performance becomes ever more sensitive to print-induced dimensional variations. These slight deviations from design dimensions typically skew RF performance, resulting in low yields or poor device performance. In order to overcome this limitation, RF design paradigms must be developed for non-uniform process and material-specific variations. Therefore, a new generalized approach is developed to explore variation-tolerant designs for printed RF structures. This method evaluates the feature fidelity and S11 performance of micro-dispensed, X-band (8–12 GHz) patch antennas by evaluating the standard deviation in as-printed features, surface roughness, and thickness. It was found that the traditional designs based on optimal impedance matching values did not result in the most robust performance over multiple printing sessions. Rather, performance bounds determined by print deviation could be utilized to improve large-batch S11 results by up to 7 dB. This work demonstrates that establishing the average standard deviation of printed dimensions in any RF printing system and following the formulated design procedure could greatly improve performance over large datasets. As such, the method defined here can be applied to improve large-scale, printed RF yields and enable predictive performance metrics for any given printing method.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 14: A Design Synthesis Method for Robust
           Controllers of Active Vehicle Suspensions

    • Authors: Shenjin Zhu, Yuping He
      First page: 14
      Abstract: This paper presents a design synthesis method for robust controllers of active vehicle suspensions (AVSs). Various control techniques have been applied to the design of AVSs for enhancing ride comfort and handling performance of ground vehicles. However, most of these model-based controller designs show poor robustness when the vehicle models are not accurate and operating conditions vary. To address the poor robustness problem of AVSs, a new controller is designed using the H∞ loop-shaping control technique. The controller targets robustness issues on vehicle models with parametric uncertainties and unmodelled dynamics. To facilitate the robust controller design, a design synthesis method is proposed: the H∞ loop-shaping controller design is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem, the weighting functions’ parameters of the controller are treated as design variables, the expensive computing loads are handled by a parallel computing technique, and the solution of the optimization problem is the desired robust AVS controller. Simulation results demonstrate the benefits of the proposed AVS design.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Identification of Citronella Oil Fractions as
           Efficient Bio-Additive for Diesel Engine Fuel

    • Authors: Noor Fitri, Rahmat Riza, Muhammad Kurnia Akbari, Nada Khonitah, Rifaldi Lutfi Fahmi, Is Fatimah
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Escalation fuel consumption occurs in various regions of the world. However, world oil reserves decline from year to year so that it becomes scarce and causes oil prices to surge up. This problem can be solved by saving fuel consumption. One method of saving fuel is adding bio-additives from citronella oil as a sustainable resource to diesel fuels. Citronellal, citronellol and geraniol are the main components of citronella oil which can be used as fuel additives. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of citronella oil fractions as bio-additives to the performance of diesel engine. The research stages include: extraction of citronella oil, vacuum fractionation of citronella oil, physical chemical characterization of citronella oil and its fractions, formulation of bio-additive -fuel blending, characterization of blending, and evaluation of fuel efficiency. The effect of concentration of the bio-additives was examined towards three diesel fuels; dexlite, pertamina-dex, and biosolar. The results showed two main fractions of citronella oil; citronellal dominant component (FA) and citronellol-geraniol dominant components (FB). The concentration variation of bio-additives was 0.1–0.5%. Fuel consumption efficiency was tested using diesel engine at an engine speed of 2000 rpm and a load increment of 1000, 2000 and 3000 psi with 7 min running time. The fractions represented the different tendencies to enhance the fuel efficiency up to 46%, influenced by the mixture’s concentration. Generally, citronella oil and the fractions showed the potency as bio-additive to diesel fuels.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 16: Application of a Genetic Algorithm for
           Proactive Resilient Scheduling in Construction Projects

    • Authors: Martina Milat, Snježana Knezić, Jelena Sedlar
      First page: 16
      Abstract: During the execution of construction projects, uncertain events, such as delays, prolongations and disruptions of project activities, have the potential to cause a significant deviation between the planned and realized state of a project. As a result, progress on important project objectives can decrease and this leads to critical delays as well as heavy profit loss. For this reason, we propose the implementation of the customized evolutionary algorithm to generate resilient baseline schedules which include a sufficient number of time floats to absorb the negative impact of uncertainty. This way, the baseline solution is searched as a trade-off between project duration, its final profit and the overall baseline stability. The proposed algorithm is applied to real construction project data and the results of the analysis suggest improved stability for resilient baseline schedules. Application of the genetic algorithm to solve the existing multi-objective problem enables practical implementation of new technologies and methods in construction management. Resilient baseline schedules can be used in an uncertain environment to achieve more accurate predictions and support decision making in the areas of construction scheduling and costing.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 17: Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) in Mobile
           Robots over the Last Five Years: A Review

    • Authors: Gerasimos G. Samatas, Theodore P. Pachidis
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Robots and especially mobile robots have experienced rapid growth, making them part of everyday life. An inertial measurement unit (IMU), which is a set of sensors, plays an important role in mobile robots’ navigation. Data collected by the IMU sensors on a robot are properly converted and useful information is calculated concerning, i.e., position, orientation, and acceleration. With the advancement of technology, IMUs have been transformed from large and complex devices into small, flexible, and efficient ones. The main sensors included in an IMU are the gyroscope, the accelerometer, and the magnetometer. Additionally, there are other sensors such as a barometer, a temperature sensor, a pressure sensor, or even an attitude sensor. The components that an IMU consists of are many and the main differences concern the technology they integrate, the designer purpose, and the specifications set by the manufacturer. The purpose of this review is a comparative presentation of 42 IMU models from 7 different manufacturers over the last five years comparing main features such as structure details, connectivity, and communication protocols. Moreover, statistical results are quantitatively and qualitatively presented providing a future user the possibility to select the proper IMU.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 18: Design and Analysis of Current Sensor Fault
           Detection Mechanisms for PMSM Drives Based on Neural Networks

    • Authors: Kamila Jankowska, Mateusz Dybkowski
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This paper describes a vector-controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drive system with the current sensor fault detection mechanism. In general, the control structure is based on the well-known Field Oriented Control (FOC) algorithm. The structure is equipped with an additional algorithm for current sensor fault detection based on a neural network. The presented control structure is able to detect typical current sensor faults, such as lack of signal, intermittent signal, variable gain and signal noise. The application of the NN detector guarantees a faster detection of the sensor fault than classical detectors based on algorithmic methods or logical systems. This work focuses on presenting the methodology of designing detectors and their analysis, based solely on simulation analysis. The simulation results, conducted in the Matlab/Simulink environment, are presented for the above-mentioned faults in phase A and phase B for different speed conditions.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 19: A Simplified Approach for the Determination of
           Penetrant Residual Velocity for Penetration Processes

    • Authors: Abdulaziz S. Alhulaifi
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The study’s main aim was to predict the penetrant residual velocity, with it being a vital output parameter in the projectile target interaction. The ballistics have been probed on a wide spectrum of impact velocities for different applications. Determination of the residual velocity by analytical methods entails the use of the impulse momentum principle, and the process is further challenged by the necessary inclusion of various variables that directly affect the calculation of the residual velocity. These problems can be overcome by adopting a non-dimensional approach by determining the combination of variables required for the penetration process by carrying out and validating the non-dimensionalization of the pertinent variables. The process discussed in this study provides a reasonable correlation of the non-dimensional parameters, which was used to estimate and validate penetrant residual velocity. A generalized solution predicting the penetrator residual velocity for a wide range of materials for a variety of impact velocities is proposed. The result of this correlation was validated against the published data, and the method was largely in agreement, showing the robustness of the proposed finding.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Designs, Vol. 6, Pages 20: An Assembly-Oriented Design Framework for
           Additive Manufacturing

    • Authors: Germain Sossou, Frédéric Demoly, Samuel Gomes, Ghislain Montavon
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The shape complexity capability of additive manufacturing (AM) is currently the main thrust of the design for AM (DFAM) research. In order to aid designers embracing that complexity-for-free characteristics of AM, many design approaches have been put forth. However, AM does not only benefit parts’ designs: its capability can be harnessed at assembly level to design performant and innovative products. Most of the few contributions on the topic are concerned with part consolidation of existing assemblies, but other advantages such as assembly-free mechanisms, multi-material components, or even component embedding can also improve product design complexity. This paper aims to put forth a thorough DFAM framework for new product development (made of multiple parts) and which consider all the assembly-related characteristics of AM. It considers what can be called AM-based architecture minimization, which includes, among others, part consolidation and assembly-free mechanisms as well. Within context of an ‘AM-factory’, in which the most appropriate machine(s) is/are selected for easing a whole assembly manufacturing before the detailed geometric definition is committed. For the sake of completeness, a methodology based on functional flows has also been investigated for the parts’ design. A gripper as case study has been introduced to illustrate the framework.
      Citation: Designs
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/designs6010020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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