Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2677 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (235 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (237 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1308 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1308 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 601 - 800 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access  
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Science and Innovative Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Student Project Reporting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Sustainable Lighting     Open Access  
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems     Open Access  
International Nano Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 130)
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
International Scientific Journal of Engineering and Technology (ISJET)     Open Access  
Inventions     Open Access  
Inventum     Open Access  
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Ionics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IPTEK The Journal for Technology and Science     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
Ironmaking & Steelmaking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription  
ISSS Journal of Micro and Smart Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IT Professional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Iteckne     Open Access  
J-ENSITEC : Journal Of Engineering and Sustainable Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Johnson Matthey Technology Review     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Joining Processes     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Journal of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Architectural and Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Architectural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Automation and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biomolecular NMR     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Central South University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of China Coal Society     Open Access  
Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cleaner Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Coastal and Riverine Flood Risk (JCRFR)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Cold Regions Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Combinatorial Designs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Design and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Computational Multiphase Flows     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Coupled Systems and Multiscale Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Dairy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Delta Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Display Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Elasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Electroceramics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Electronic Testing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Electrostatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Energy Resources Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering and Applied Science     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Engineering Research and Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Technology and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Engineering Thermophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Environmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Fire Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Flood Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fluids Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Functional Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Geovisualization and Spatial Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University     Open Access  
Journal of Hazardous Materials Advances     Open Access  
Journal of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Humanitarian Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Industrial Safety Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Inequalities and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Infrastructure Preservation and Resilience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligent Systems : Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of KONBiN     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Manufacturing Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mechanical Design and Testing     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mechatronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mega Infrastructure & Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Metallurgy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Mining Institute     Open Access  
Journal of Motor Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Multivariate Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanomanufacturing     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoscience     Open Access  
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of NanoScience, NanoEngineering & Applications     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

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ISSN (Online) 2411-5134
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 46: Incorporating Human Preferences in Decision
           Making for Dynamic Multi-Objective Optimization in Model Predictive

    • Authors: Thomas Schmitt, Matthias Hoffmann, Tobias Rodemann, Jürgen Adamy
      First page: 46
      Abstract: We present a new two-step approach for automatized a posteriori decision making in multi-objective optimization problems, i.e., selecting a solution from the Pareto front. In the first step, a knee region is determined based on the normalized Euclidean distance from a hyperplane defined by the furthest Pareto solution and the negative unit vector. The size of the knee region depends on the Pareto front’s shape and a design parameter. In the second step, preferences for all objectives formulated by the decision maker, e.g., 50–20–30 for a 3D problem, are translated into a hyperplane which is then used to choose a final solution from the knee region. This way, the decision maker’s preference can be incorporated, while its influence depends on the Pareto front’s shape and a design parameter, at the same time favorizing knee points if they exist. The proposed approach is applied in simulation for the multi-objective model predictive control (MPC) of the two-dimensional rocket car example and the energy management system of a building.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7030046
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 47: Mobile Visual Servoing Based Control of a
           Complex Autonomous System Assisting a Manufacturing Technology on a
           Mechatronics Line

    • Authors: Simion, Filipescu, Ionescu, Șolea, Cernega, Mincă, Filipescu
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The main contribution of this paper is the modeling and control for a complex autonomous system (CAS). It is equipped with a visual sensor to operate precision positioning in a technology executed on a laboratory mechatronics line. The technology allows the retrieval of workpieces which do not completely pass the quality test. Another objective of this paper is the implementation of an assisting technology for a laboratory processing/reprocessing mechatronics line (P/RML) containing four workstations, assisted by the following components: a complex autonomous system that consists of an autonomous robotic system (ARS), a wheeled mobile robot (WMR) PeopleBot, a robotic manipulator (RM) Cyton 1500 with seven degrees of freedom (7 DOF), and a mobile visual servoing system (MVS) with a Logitech camera as visual sensor used in the process of picking, transporting and placing the workpieces. The purpose of the MVS is to increase the precision of the RM by utilizing the look and move principle, since the initial and final positions of the CAS can slightly deviate from their trajectory, thus increasing the possibility of errors to appear during the process of catching and releasing the pieces. If the processed piece did not pass the quality test and has been rendered as defective, it is retrieved from the last station of the P/RML and transported to the first station for reprocessing. The control of the WMR is done using the trajectory-tracking sliding-mode control (TTSMC). The RM control is based on inverse kinematics model, and the MVS control is implemented with the image moments method.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7030047
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 48: A Novel Solution for Day-Ahead Scheduling
           Problems Using the IoT-Based Bald Eagle Search Optimization Algorithm

    • Authors: Alhasnawi, Jasim, Siano, Alhelou, Al-Hinai
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Advances in technology and population growth are two factors responsible for increasing electricity consumption, which directly increases the production of electrical energy. Additionally, due to environmental, technical and economic constraints, it is challenging to meet demand at certain hours, such as peak hours. Therefore, it is necessary to manage network consumption to modify the peak load and tackle power system constraints. One way to achieve this goal is to use a demand response program. The home energy management system (HEMS), based on advanced internet of things (IoT) technology, has attracted the special attention of engineers in the smart grid (SG) field and has the tasks of demand-side management (DSM) and helping to control equality between demand and electricity supply. The main performance of the HEMS is based on the optimal scheduling of home appliances because it manages power consumption by automatically controlling loads and transferring them from peak hours to off-peak hours. This paper presents a multi-objective version of a newly introduced metaheuristic called the bald eagle search optimization algorithm (BESOA) to discover the optimal scheduling of home appliances. Furthermore, the HEMS architecture is programmed based on MATLAB and ThingSpeak modules. The HEMS uses the BESOA algorithm to find the optimal schedule pattern to reduce daily electricity costs, reduce the PAR, and increase user comfort. The results show the suggested system’s ability to obtain optimal home energy management, decreasing the energy cost, microgrid emission cost, and PAR (peak to average ratio).
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7030048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 49: Calculation and Experimental Study of
           Low-Cycle Fatigue of Gas Turbine Engines Booster Drum

    • Authors: Arkhipov, Ravikovich, Kholobtsev, Shakhov
      First page: 49
      Abstract: A calculation-experimental study of durability of titanium booster drum of gas turbine engine (GTE) was carried out. A methodology of experimental estimation of titanium component life of GTE using structurally similar elements (SSE) has been proposed. A series of three-dimensional calculations by the finite element method of SSE cut out of the finished part was carried out to estimate the strength of the booster drum. A methodology for testing the durability of SSE in the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) area was developed, and statistical processing of the test results was performed. Tests of SSE allowed carrying out advanced-edge assessment of the durability of a full-size drum, taking into account the manufacturing technology.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7030049
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 50: Mass Transfer Effects on the Mucus Fluid
           with Pulsatile Flow Influence of the Electromagnetic Field

    • Authors: Thiyagarajan, Sathiyamoorthy, Loganathan, Makinde, Sarris
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The influence of pulsatile flow on the oscillatory motion of an incompressible conducting boundary layer mucus fluid flowing through porous media in a channel with elastic walls is investigated. The oscillatory flow is treated as a cyclical time-dependent flux. The Laplace transform method using the Womersley number is used to solve non-linear equations controlling the motion through porous media under the influence of an electromagnetic field. The theoretical pulsatile flow of two liquid phase concurrent fluid streams, one kinematic and the other viscoelastic, is investigated in this study. To extend the model for various physiological fluids, we postulate that the viscoelastic fluid has several distinct periods. We also apply our analytical findings to mucus and airflow in the airways, identifying the wavelength that increases dynamic mucus permeability. The microorganism’s thickness, velocity, energy, molecular diffusion, skin friction, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, and Hartmann number are evaluated. Discussion is also supplied in various sections to investigate the mucosal flow process.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7030050
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 32: Novel Device Used to Monitor Hand Tremors
           during Nocturnal Hypoglycemic Events

    • Authors: Abdullah F. Al-Aboosi, Rainer Fink
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Diabetes is one of the lifelong diseases that require systematic medical care to avoid life-menacing ramifications. Uncontrolled diabetes can cause severe damage to most internal body organs, probably leading to death. Particularly, nocturnal hypoglycemic that occur usually at night during sleep. Severe cases of these events can lead to seizures, fainting, loss of consciousness, and death. The current medical devices lack to give the warning to reduce the risk of acquiring nocturnal hypoglycemic events because they use only for glucose monitoring during waking times. Consequently, the main goal of this work is to design and implement a new wearable device to detect and monitor tremors, which occur when a user has hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). The device can detect a frequency range of 4–12 Hz by using the accelerometer of Arduino Nano 33 BLE. It can send a signal to the phone application (app) via Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). Once the phone receives a signal, the phone application can activate an alarm system to wake up the patient, call three selected contacts number, and universal emergency number. In case of the user is unresponsive, the app can provide the patient’s location, name, and date of birth to the emergency contacts numbers and universal emergency number. Additionally, the device cost is economically feasible and competitive compared to other medical devices.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020032
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 33: Editorial for Special Issue
           “Perspectives and Challenges in Doctoral Research—Selected
           Papers from the 9th Edition of the Scientific Conference of the Doctoral
           Schools from the “Dunărea de Jos”

    • Authors: Eugen Rusu, Gabriela Rapeanu
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This Editorial is dedicated to the 9th edition of the Scientific Conference organized by the Doctoral Schools of “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galati (SCDS-UDJG), which was organized in June 2021 in Galati (Romania) [...]
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020033
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 34: Development of a Multicolor 3D Printer Using
           a Novel Filament Shifting Mechanism

    • Authors: Van Nguyen Thi Hai, Sinh Nguyen Phu, Terence Essomba, Jiing-Yih Lai
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Three-dimensional printing has become an unchallenged method for the manufacturing of complex shape objects. Although multicolor devices in Fuse Filament Feeder category recently have shown promising developments, their number still remains limited. The present study introduces the design of a new prototype of three-dimensional printer using Fused Filament Feeder and capable of printing multicolor objects. A single-color three-dimensional printer is used as a platform and is augmented for multicolor printing by the implementation of a mechatronic device that provides two functions. First, a transmission mechanism based on planetary gears allows feeding the selected filament color toward the printing head. The second function is provided by a combination of a central cam disk and several pushing rods. It allows selecting the filament color to be fed by the transmission system. The mechatronic device has been dimensioned to manage five different filament colors and the printing head has been modified to accommodate a five-to-one diamond nozzle. The filament shifting device is integrated into the single-color three-dimensional printer and a series of validation experiments has been carried out. These tests have demonstrated the new prototype ability to print out multicolor objects and to rival with commercial three-dimensional printers in terms of dimensional accuracy. This shows the ability of the proposed design and method to be used to upgrade a standard single-color 3D printer into a multicolor one. The presented multicolor 3D printer will be available to the 3D printing community for free.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020034
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 35: Calibration Dependencies and Accuracy
           Assessment of a Silicone Rubber 3D Printer

    • Authors: Laszlo Jaksa, Dieter Pahr, Gernot Kronreif, Andrea Lorenz
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Silicone rubbers are relatively new in additive manufacturing, with only a few commercial printing services and reports on custom-built printers available. Publications and standards on calibration and accuracy assessment are especially lacking. In this study, the printhead calibration process of a custom-built silicone printer is explained, and a set of test objects is proposed and evaluated. The printer in use is based on an open-source filament printer, capable of multi-material printing with silicone rubbers and thermoplastic polymers. Three different high-viscosity single-component liquid silicone rubbers and one polylactic acid thermoplastic filament were used as printing materials. First, the calibration process of the silicone printhead was conducted, and the dependency of the dosing accuracy on silicone viscosity, nozzle diameter and extrusion speed was evaluated. Second, various test specimens were proposed and printed to characterize the accuracy and geometric limitations of this printer. These test parts contained features such as thin walls, slender towers, small holes and slots, unsupported overhangs and bridges. It was concluded that silicone viscosity strongly affects geometric inaccuracies. Design recommendations were deducted from the results, advising for wall thicknesses above 1 mm, slenderness ratios below 2, bridging lengths below 2 mm and unsupported overhang angles below 30°.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020035
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 36: IDeS (Industrial Design Structure) Method
           Applied to the Automotive Design Framework: Two Sports Cars with Shared

    • Authors: Leonardo Frizziero, Christian Leon-Cardenas, Gabriele Colasurdo, Alessandro Vicaretti, Alfredo Liverani
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The present study was set to validate two different suburban-type sportscar bodies with shared common underpinnings. The chosen method to develop this project was the Industrial Design Structure (IDeS), which characterizes the ability to use the different innovative techniques known within the industrial field, across the whole organization. This method is embodied by following a series of structured analysis tools, such as QFD (Quality Function Deployment), Benchmarking (BM), Top-Flop analysis (TFA), Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE), Prototyping, Testing, Budgeting and Planning. This project aims to study the present-day car market and to foresee deployment in the near future. This attempt was confirmed by delivering the complete styling and technical feasibility characteristics of two different sports cars, obtained by the IDeS methodology. This approach of embodying design together with phases of product development would provide a better engineered, target-oriented product, that uses state-of-the-art style and CAD environments to reduce product development time and, hence, overall Time to Market (TTM).
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020036
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 37: Thermal Performance Improvement by Rotating
           Thermosyphon Loop in Rotor of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous
           Electric Motor

    • Authors: Wu, Hsieh, Lu, Cai, Chang
      First page: 37
      Abstract: As an attempt to enable a further increase in the power-to-weight ratio of an electric motor by improving its cooling performance, rotating thermosyphon loops in a rotor of a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor are proposed. The effective thermal conductivity and airflow heat-transfer rate of the rotating thermosyphon loop and the convective heat-transfer coefficient over the annular interior surface of the air chamber are measured to permit the definition of the thermal boundary conditions for simulating the temperature fields of the electric motors. The axial heat-transfer pathway with extremely high effective thermal conductivity attributing to the phase-change activities in the rotating thermosyphon loop acts synergistically with the heat convection enhancement induced by the stirring effect of the spinning condenser bend in the air chamber to improve the heat transmission out of the rotor core. The spatially average temperature gradients in the rotor with the thermosyphon loops are considerably moderated from those without the thermosyphon loop. At rotor speeds and electrical currents in the ranges of 1200–1500 rev/min and 1000–1200 A, the maximum temperatures in the rotors with the single- and twin-end rotating thermosyphon loops are, respectively, reduced 8–14 °C and 10–22 °C from those without a rotor-cooling scheme, affirming the effectiveness of a phase-change cooling device in a rotor for thermal performance improvement of an electric motor.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020037
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 38: Patent Landscape of Composting Technology: A

    • Authors: Fatin Amanina Azis, Masrur Rijal, Hazwani Suhaimi, Pg Emeroylariffion Abas
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Organic waste management is a major global challenge. It accounts for a significant portion of waste that ends up in landfills, where it gradually decomposes and emits methane, a harmful greenhouse gas. Composting is an effective method for potentially solving the problem by converting organic waste into valuable compost. Despite many studies focusing on the composting process, no study has reviewed the technological advancements in the composting fields from the perspective of patents. This review paper begins with background information on the composting process, specifically important factors affecting the process, problems associated with it, and the available technologies to facilitate the process. Different technologies are discussed, ranging from manual to automated methods. Subsequently, 457 patents are selected, classified into different categories, and reviewed in detail, providing a patent technology landscape of composting technology. Automatic composters are more prominent than manual ones as managing organic waste at the source has become more crucial in recent years. The need for a domestic composter creates an opportunity for the development of a compact and automated system for organic waste management, which is more suitable for urbanized settings. This technology has the potential to reduce the amount of organic waste that needs to be managed at an already overburdened landfill, as well as the environmental consequences associated with it.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020038
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 39: A Fingerprint Matching Algorithm Using the
           Combination of Edge Features and Convolution Neural Networks

    • Authors: Andreea-Monica, Moldovanu, Moraru
      First page: 39
      Abstract: This study presents an algorithm for fingerprint classification using a CNN (convolutional neural network) model and making use of full images belonging to four digital databases. The main challenge that we face in fingerprint classification is dealing with the low quality of fingerprints, which can impede the identification process. To overcome these restrictions, the proposed model consists of the following steps: a preprocessing stage which deals with edge enhancement operations, data resizing, data augmentation, and finally a post-processing stage devoted to classification tasks. Primarily, the fingerprint images are enhanced using Prewitt and Laplacian of Gaussian filters. This investigation used the fingerprint verification competition with four databases (FVC2004, DB1, DB2, DB3, and DB4) which contain 240 real fingerprint images and 80 synthetic fingerprint images. The real images were collected using various sensors. The innovation of the model is in the manner in which the number of epochs is selected, which improves the performance of the classification. The number of epochs is defined as a hyper-parameter which can influence the performance of the deep learning model. The number of epochs was set to 10, 20, 30, and 50 in order to keep the training time at an acceptable value of 1.8 s/epoch, on average. Our results indicate the overfitting of the model starting with the seventh epoch. The accuracy varies from 67.6% to 98.7% for the validation set, and between 70.2% and 75.6% for the test set. The proposed method achieved a very good performance compared to the traditional hand-crafted features despite the fact that it used raw data and it does not perform any handcrafted feature extraction operations.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020039
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 40: Solution of Steady Incompressible MHD
           Problems with Quasi-Least Square Method

    • Authors: Shahid Hussain, Shams ur Rahman, Suhail Abbas, Munawwar Ali Abbas
      First page: 40
      Abstract: A quasi-least-squares (QLS) mixed finite element method (MFE) based on the L2-inner product is utilized to solve an incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. These models are associated with the three unknown terms, i.e., fluid velocity, fluid pressure, and magnetic field. For the MHD-based models, common theories and algorithms for approximation of the solutions are not always applicable because of the choice of the functional spaces during the utilization of the weak formulation. It is well known that the spaces used for the approximation of the different unknowns, e.g., the spaces for the unknowns, cannot be chosen independently for the variational formulation, and may have to satisfy strict stability conditions such as the inf-sup, or Ladyzhenskaya–Babuska–Brezzi (LBB) condition. The dependency of the selection of the spaces for the unknowns are critical and always not applicable for some pair of unknowns. Because of this, the numerical or theoretical solutions must have to face some stability issue. The proposed scheme (L2-inner product) is introduced to circumvent this deficiency of the conditions (inf-sup or LBB) and obtained a well-posed solution theoretically. The model equations are nonlinear and highly coupled with the combination of Navier–Stokes and Maxwell relations. First, these nonlinear models are made linear around a specific state wherein the modified system represents an algebraic equation in a first-order symmetric form. Secondly, a direct iteration technique is applied to solve the nonlinearities and obtain a theoretical convergent rate for a general initial guess. Theoretical results show that only a single parameter with a single initial guess is sufficient to establish the well-posedness of the solution.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020040
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 41: Blitz Vision: Development of a New
           Full-Electric Sports Sedan Using QFD, SDE and Virtual Prototyping

    • Authors: Leonardo Frizziero, Ludovico Galletti, Lorenzo Magnani, Edoardo Gaetano Meazza, Marco Freddi
      First page: 41
      Abstract: In this paper, industrial design structure (IDeS) is applied for the development of two new full-electric sports sedan car proposals that go by the names Blitz Vision AS and Retro. With a deep analysis of the trends dominating the automotive industry, a series of product requirements was identified using quality function deployment (QFD). The results of such analysis led to the definition of the technical specifications of the product via benchmarking (BM) and top-flop analysis (TFA). The product architecture was then defined by making use of a modular platform chassis capable of housing a variety of vehicle bodyworks. The structured methodology of stylistic design engineering (SDE) was used. This can be divided in six phases: (1) stylistic trends analysis; (2) sketches; (3) 2D CAD drawings; (4) 3D CAD models; (5) virtual prototyping; (6) solid stylistic model. The chassis of the CAD model was verified structurally by means of FEM analysis, whereas the drag coefficients of the two vehicle proposals were compared with one of the main competitor’s vehicles via CFD simulations. The resulting car models are both aesthetically appealing and can be further developed, leading eventually to the production stage. This proves the effectiveness of IDeS and SDE in car design.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 42: Image Moment-Based Features for Mass
           Detection in Breast US Images via Machine Learning and Neural Network
           Classification Models

    • Authors: Iulia-Nela Anghelache Nastase, Simona Moldovanu, Luminita Moraru
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Differentiating between malignant and benign masses using machine learning in the recognition of breast ultrasound (BUS) images is a technique with good accuracy and precision, which helps doctors make a correct diagnosis. The method proposed in this paper integrates Hu’s moments in the analysis of the breast tumor. The extracted features feed a k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) to classify breast tumors into benign and malignant. The raw images and the tumor masks provided as ground-truth images belong to the public digital BUS images database. Certain metrics such as accuracy, sensitivity, precision, and F1-score were used to evaluate the segmentation results and to select Hu’s moments showing the best capacity to discriminate between malignant and benign breast tissues in BUS images. Regarding the selection of Hu’s moments, the k-NN classifier reached 85% accuracy for moment M1 and 80% for moment M5 whilst RBFNN reached an accuracy of 76% for M1. The proposed method might be used to assist the clinical diagnosis of breast cancer identification by providing a good combination between segmentation and Hu’s moments.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020042
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 43: Communication and Control of an Assembly,
           Disassembly and Repair Flexible Manufacturing Technology on a Mechatronics
           Line Assisted by an Autonomous Robotic System

    • Authors: Dan Ionescu, Adrian Filipescu, Georgian Simion, Eugenia Mincă, Daniela Cernega, Răzvan Șolea, Adriana Filipescu
      First page: 43
      Abstract: This paper aims to describe modeling and control in what concerns advanced manufacturing technology running on a flexible assembly, disassembly and repair on a mechatronic line (A/D/RML) assisted by an Autonomous Robotic System (ARS), two robotic manipulators (RM) and visual servoing system (VSS). The A/D/RML consists of a six workstations (WS) mechatronics line (ML) connected to a flexible cell (FC) equipped with a 6-DOF ABB industrial robotic manipulator (IRM) and an ARS used for manipulation and transport. A hybrid communication and control based on programmable logic controller (PLC) architecture is used, which consists of two interconnected systems that feature both distributed and centralized topology, with specific tasks for all the manufacturing stages. Profinet communication link is used to interconnect and control FC and A/D/RML. The paper also discusses how to synchronize data between different field equipment used in the industry and the control systems. Synchronization signals between the master PLC and ARS is performed by means of Modbus TCP protocol and OPC UA. The structure of the ARS consists of a wheeled mobile robot (WMR) with two driving wheels and one free wheel (2DW/1FW) equipped with a 7-DOF RM. Trajectory tracking sliding-mode control (TTSMC) is used to control WMR. The end effector of the ARS RM is equipped with a mobile eye-in-hand VSS technology for the precise positioning of RM to pick and place the workparts in the desired location. Technology operates synchronously with signals from sensors and from the VSS HD camera. If the workpiece does not pass the quality test, the process handles it by transporting back from the end storage unit to the flexible cell where it will be considered for reprocessing, repair or disassembling with the recovery of the dismantled parts. The recovered or replaced components are taken over by the ARS from disassembling location and transported back to the dedicated storage warehouses to be reused in the further assembly processes.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020043
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 44: Methods for Competitiveness Improvement of
           High-Temperature Steam Turbine Power Plants

    • Authors: Andrey Rogalev, Nikolay Rogalev, Ivan Komarov, Vladimir Kindra, Sergey Osipov
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The paper is concerned with the problem of the development of high-temperature steam turbine power plants with ultra-supercritical (USC) initial parameters. One of the main disadvantages of the USC power unit’s creation is high price due to the application of expensive heat-resistant materials for boiler, live and reheat steam pipelines in turbines. To solve this problem, the following technical improvements to reduce the application of the heat-resistant materials and equipment metal consumption are proposed: horizontal boiler layout, high temperature steam turbine with a cooling system, oxy-hydrogen combustion chambers, and two-tier low-pressure turbine. The influence of the above-mentioned solutions on the high-temperature steam turbine power plant efficiency was estimated using thermodynamic analysis. The promising equipment design was developed based on the results of numerical and experimental research. The analysis of the proposed solutions’ influence upon the economic parameters of a high-temperature power facility was investigated based on the developed cost analysis model, which included the equipment metal and manufacturing expenses. The introduction of all the mentioned cost reduction methods led to a decrease in the facility’s price by RUB 10.5 billion or 15%. The discounted payback period was reduced from 27.5 to 10 years and the net present value increased by RUB 9.6 billion or 16 times.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020044
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 45: Smart Emergency EV-to-EV Portable Battery

    • Authors: Mahdi Mosayebi, Arman Fathollahi, Meysam Gheisarnejad, Hamed Farsizadeh, Mohammad Hassan Khooban
      First page: 45
      Abstract: With the increase in the number of electric vehicles (EVs) and developments in their related charging infrastructures, consumers have still some concerns about some limiting factors in the EV industry such as battery life, charging station availability, electric grid capacity, limited driving range, and slow charging of batteries. Although some solutions are proposed for these limitations, they are not sufficiently efficient and cost-effective. Moreover, charging of EVs on-the-road is still a challenging issue which requires more innovation. This paper proposes a novel battery charger, known as an Emergency EV-to-EV Portable Battery Charger (EPBC), which provides a cost-effective solution for charging EVs on-the-road in emergency mode. The suggested smart charger can charge another EV based on the state of charge (SOC), capacity, and other important technical specifications of batteries in a safe and reliable manner. The smart charger can regulate the output voltage and the injected current to the EV simultaneously. To realize these features, a model free nonlinear integral backstepping control (MF-NIBC) is adopted to regulate the output voltage of the battery charger. By utilizing the actor and critic networks, a deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) is adopted to adjust the MF-NIBC controller. Finally, real-time tests based on the OPAL-RT setup are conducted to confirm the applicability and feasibility of the proposed EV-to-EV portable battery charger.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7020045
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 9: Numerical Study on Plastic Strain
           Distributions and Mechanical Behaviour of a Tube under Bending

    • Authors: Chiemela Victor Amaechi, Emmanuel Folarin Adefuye, Abiodun Kolawole Oyetunji, Idris Ahmed Ja’e, Ibitoye Adelusi, Agbomerie Charles Odijie, Facheng Wang
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Tubular pipe structures have been used in various applications—domestic, aviation, marine, manufacturing and material testing. The applications of tubular pipes have been considered greatly in the installation of tubular pipes, marine risers and pipe bending. For the investigation of plastic strains and the mechanical behaviour of a tube under bending, considerations were made utilising an exponent model with assumptions on the plane strain. The bending moment, wall thickness effect, cross-sectional distribution, stresses during bending and neutral layer boundaries were all presented as necessary theoretical formulations on the physics of tubular pipe bending. This model was based on the analytical and numerical investigation. In principle, the application can be observed as the spooling of pipes, bending of pipes and reeling. Comparisons were made on two models developed on the finite element analysis in Simscale OpenFEA, namely the linear-elastic and the elasto-plastic models. This study presents visualization profiles using plastic strain to assess its effect on the tubular pipes. This can increase due to the limitation of plastic deformation on the composite materials selected.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010009
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 10: Review on Study Methods for Reciprocally
           Enwrapping Surfaces

    • Authors: Georgiana Alexandra Moroşanu, Nicuşor Baroiu, Virgil Gabriel Teodor, Viorel Păunoiu, Nicolae Oancea
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The processing of the piece surfaces involves the transformation of the blank into a piece, the defining characteristics of the surfaces (the form, dimensions, deviations, etc.), depending to a large extent on the parameters of the generated processes of the surfaces. Generating surfaces by enveloping represents a complex problem, this mode of generating being a constant concern of researchers due to its advantages. A very important issue is the cutting edge profiling of the future tool, which will generate the wanted profile of the piece. Throughout time, researchers have studied the problems of enveloping surfaces and stated theorems related to them, based on which practical solutions have been conceive to determine the generating and generated surfaces form. The paper presents an overview on study methods for reciprocally enwrapping surfaces, as well as methods for profiling tools for generating helical surfaces by the kinematic method and by the method of decomposing the helical movement. This review can represent a basis for future research articles and projects.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010010
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 11: Estimation of the Tower Shape Effect on the
           Stress–Strain Behavior of Wind Turbines Operating under Offshore
           Boundary Conditions

    • Authors: Alexandra Ionelia Diaconita, Gabriel Andrei, Eugen Rusu
      First page: 11
      Abstract: The metal tower, or the pylon, is one of the most important elements in the construction of a wind turbine. It has the role of supporting the entire wind turbine, and it also allows access for inspection and conducting planned maintenance and repairs. Moreover, the tower ensures support for the structure and strengthens the whole assembly. It has a particularly important role, as it has to face very severe weather conditions. The present study aims to analyze the forces and moments resulting from the action of the wind on the tower of a wind turbine. Two important load cases are considered, namely, the load under operating conditions and the ultimate load under 50 year wind conditions. For this purpose, cylindrical and conical geometric shapes of the tower were chosen. These were analyzed under the action of both normal and extreme wind speeds. Then, the behavior of the two towers under the action of the wind speed for a location in the Black Sea was analyzed. Finally, in an attempt to make the structure more economical, the thickness of the shell was reduced.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 12: DSP Processer-in-the-Loop Tests Based on
           Automatic Code Generation

    • Authors: Qi Zhang, Wenhui Pei
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The digital signal processing (DSP) processor-in-the-loop tests based on automatic code generation technology are studied. Firstly, the idea of model-based design is introduced, and the principle and method of embedded code automatic generation technology are analyzed by taking the automatic code generation of the DSP control algorithm for pulse width modulation (PWM) output as an example. Then, the control system model is established on MATLAB/Simulink. After verifying the model through simulation, the target board platform is established with DSP as the core processor, and the automatically generated code is tested by the processor-in-the-loop (PIL). The results show that the technology greatly shortens the development cycle of the project, improves the robustness and consistency of the control code, and can be widely used in the complex algorithm development process of the controller, from intelligent design and modeling to implementation.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010012
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 13: Low-Cost Inventions and Patents

    • Authors: Esther Salmerón-Manzano, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Inventions have been the technological advances of mankind [...]
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010013
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 14: Improvement of the Liquefied Natural Gas
           Vapor Utilization System Using a Gas Ejector

    • Authors: Victor Bolobov, Yana Vladimirovna Martynenko, Vladimir Voronov, Ilnur Latipov, Grigory Popov
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The production, transportation, and storage of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a promising area in the gas industry due to a number of the fuel’s advantages, such as its high energy intensity indicators, its reduced storage volume compared to natural gas in the gas-air state, and it ecological efficiency. However, LNG storage systems feature a number of disadvantages, among which is the boil-off gas (BOG) recovery from an LNG tank by flaring it or discharging it to the atmosphere. Previous attempts to boil-off gas recovery using compressors, in turn, feature such disadvantages as large capital investments and operating costs, as well as low reliability rates. The authors of this article suggest a technical solution to this problem that consists in using a gas ejector for boil-off gas recovery. Natural gas from a high-pressure gas pipeline is proposed as a working fluid entraining the boil-off gas. The implementation of this method was carried out according to the developed algorithm. The proposed technical solution reduced capital costs (by approximately 170 times), metal consumption (by approximately 100 times), and power consumption (by approximately 55 kW), and improved the reliability of the system compared to a compressor unit. The sample calculation of a gas ejector for the boil-off gas recovery from an LNG tank with a capacity of 300 m3 shows that the ejector makes it possible to increase the boil-off gas pressure in the system by up to 1.13 MPa, which makes it possible to not use the first-stage compressor unit for the compression of excess vapours.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010014
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 15: A Systematic Review of Applications of
           Machine Learning Techniques for Wildfire Management Decision Support

    • Authors: Karol Bot, José G. Borges
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Wildfires threaten and kill people, destroy urban and rural property, degrade air quality, ravage forest ecosystems, and contribute to global warming. Wildfire management decision support models are thus important for avoiding or mitigating the effects of these events. In this context, this paper aims at providing a review of recent applications of machine learning methods for wildfire management decision support. The emphasis is on providing a summary of these applications with a classification according to the case study type, machine learning method, case study location, and performance metrics. The review considers documents published in the last four years, using a sample of 135 documents (review articles and research articles). It is concluded that the adoption of machine learning methods may contribute to enhancing support in different fire management phases.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 16: Design and Simulation of a Greenhouse FSS
           Nanofiber Film for Enhancing Agricultural Productivity by Selective
           Reduction of UV and NIR

    • Authors: Abhisit Sripradit, Thorin Theeradejvanichkul
      First page: 16
      Abstract: A greenhouse covering film is an essential part of any greenhouse. Its function is to filter solar radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and the near-infrared (NIR) bands while allowing a great amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to transmit. This paper proposes a design of the greenhouse covering film based on a frequency selective surface (FSS). Aluminum is made into fibers in the nanoscale. They are laid out in an array, in-plane at equidistance from one another. This arrangement induces the wavelength selectivity of light via adjustment to the fiber sizes and spacings. The performance is evaluated by a finite element analysis (FEA) method. The results show less than 26% transmittance of UV and NIR while allowing more than 94% transmittance in the PAR regime.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 17: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Inventions in

    • Authors: Inventions Editorial Office Inventions Editorial Office
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 18: The Latest Advances in Wireless
           Communication in Aviation, Wind Turbines and Bridges

    • Authors: Romana Ewa Śliwa, Paweł Dymora, Mirosław Mazurek, Bartosz Kowal, Michał Jurek, Damian Kordos, Tomasz Rogalski, Pawel Flaszynski, Piotr Doerffer, Krzysztof Doerffer, Stephen Grigg, Runar Unnthorsson
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Present-day technologies used in SHM (Structural Health Monitoring) systems in many implementations are based on wireless sensor networks (WSN). In the context of the continuous development of these systems, the costs of the elements that form the monitoring system are decreasing. In this situation, the challenge is to select the optimal number of sensors and the network architecture, depending on the wireless system’s other parameters and requirements. It is a challenging task for WSN to provide scalability to cover a large area, fault tolerance, transmission reliability, and energy efficiency when no events are detected. In this article, fundamental issues concerning wireless communication in structural health monitoring systems (SHM) in the context of non-destructive testing sensors (NDT) were presented. Wireless technology developments in several crucial areas were also presented, and these include engineering facilities such as aviation and wind turbine systems as well as bridges and associated engineering facilities.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010018
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 19: Introducing the Living Lab Approach in the
           Coastal Area of Constanta (Romania) by Using Design Thinking

    • Authors: Catalin Anton, Angela Eliza Micu, Eugen Rusu
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Living Labs are an innovative concept that combines research, governance, and citizens, using technology and knowledge. Using design thinking techniques as a method of approach, this innovative idea builds a bridge between decision makers and stakeholders, promoting a shared vision of growth and innovation at the community level. The coastal zone is an extremely dynamic area in terms of human and natural activities. This is a particularly sensitive area to climate change, necessitating ongoing adaptation and mitigating action. This paper aims to introduce the application of the Living lab concept in the management of the coastal area of Constanta (Romania). The concept of the Living Lab means involving citizens along with public bodies and research structures. This new coastal management model will use the design thinking approach and will consider the pressures that exist between the activities that occur in the examined coastal zone. In the study, “Multi-Criteria Analysis of the Mass Tourism Management Model Related to the Impact on the Local Community in Constanța (Romania)”, published in MDPI Inventions on 28 June 2021, a coastal management model was built that took into consideration only the data given by the government. In this paper, the authors aim to expand their research by including data from independent sources, using the concept of a Living Lab.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010019
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 20: Mechanism Cleaning of the Ear Canal

    • Authors: Rocío Rodríguez, Manuel Curado, Rosario Pastor, Jesús Toribio
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The cleaning of the ear canal is very important, and it is crucial that it is performed by an otolaryngologist as it requires a high level of competence and skill. The accumulation of cerumen or earwax in the ear canal is one of the most commonly observed problems in patients, and ignoring it may cause hearing loss, irritation and discomfort. There are a number of techniques that have been utilized in the past for cleaning the ear canal, including irrigation, i.e., curettage and water pick, and syringing. There are many patients who are unable to clean their ear canal through a natural self-cleaning process. The main aim of this study is to develop a unique model for ear cleaning free of irritation or discomfort, especially for those patients who have disorders of the self-cleaning ear canal process. The tool is designed specifically considering patient safety and comfort. However, the commercialization of this tool requires research and modification for improved quality results considering primarily the patient’s health.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010020
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 21: An Analysis of the Wind Parameters in the
           Western Side of the Black Sea

    • Authors: Laura-Ionela Nedelcu, Eugen Rusu
      First page: 21
      Abstract: In the present research, an overview of the wind climate on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea basin is assessed, using a total of 6 years of data (2015–2020) provided by the National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar). It is well known that the enclosed/semi-enclosed basins are complex environments and to accurately represent the features of wind and wave are necessary high resolution spatial fields. For the Black Sea, which is an enclosed basin with complicated regional geography, the main weather parameters reported (wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, air pressure) give a more comprehensive picture of how energetic the area of interest is, and represent the features of the Black Sea’s diversified marine environment. Finally, the results obtained in this paper cover a broad range of applications in marine studies, being useful for future research in the area of wind climate in the Black Sea.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010021
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 22: A Numerical Analysis of Fluid Flow and
           Torque for Hydropower Pelton Turbine Performance Using Computational Fluid

    • Authors: Mohammed A. Qasim, Vladimir I. Velkin, Sergey E. Shcheklein, Abduljabbar O. Hanfesh, Talib Z. Farge, Fadl A. Essa
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The difficulty of delivering electrical power to rural areas motivated the researchers to explore more accessible power sources. Hydropower is considered a desirable option due to its sustainability and lower costs. Pelton turbines have been widely used in hydropower plants because of their low installation and maintenance costs. This study provides a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for Pelton turbine performance under various flow conditions. The model is based on the conservation of mass principle, Newton’s second law, and the first law of thermodynamics. It is used to predict the torque produced by a turbine at different rotational speeds. Previously published experimental results for the same turbine geometry and flow parameters were used to validate the model’s predictions. Validation revealed that the model can reproduce the experimental results. This provides the required robustness for its use as a tool for turbine design and modification.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010022
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 23: An Investigation on the Vortex Effect of a
           CALM Buoy under Water Waves Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

    • Authors: Chiemela Victor Amaechi, Jianqiao Ye
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Floating offshore structures (FOS) must be designed to be stable, to float, and to be able to support other structures for which they were designed. These FOS are needed for different transfer operations in oil terminals. However, water waves affect the motion response of floating buoys. Under normal sea states, the free-floating buoy presents stable periodic responses. However, when moored, they are kept in position. Mooring configurations used to moor buoys in single point mooring (SPM) terminals could require systems such as Catenary Anchor Leg Moorings (CALM) and Single Anchor Leg Moorings (SALM). The CALM buoys are one of the most commonly-utilised type of offshore loading terminal. Due to the wider application of CALM buoy systems, it is necessary to investigate the fluid structure interaction (FSI) and vortex effect on the buoy. In this study, a numerical investigation is presented on a CALM buoy model conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in ANSYS Fluent version R2 2020. Some hydrodynamic definitions and governing equations were presented to introduce the model. The results presented visualize and evaluate specific motion characteristics of the CALM buoy with emphasis on the vortex effect. The results of the CFD study present a better understanding of the hydrodynamic parameters, reaction characteristics and fluid-structure interaction under random waves.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010023
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 24: Engineering and Analytical Method for
           Estimating the Parametric Reliability of Products by a Low Number of Tests

    • Authors: Alexey G. Amosov, Vladislav A. Golikov, Mikhail V. Kapitonov, Fedor V. Vasilyev, Oleg K. Rozhdestvensky
      First page: 24
      Abstract: The paper provides an overview of methods for determining reliability indicators and, on the basis of the analysis, proposes a new method for assessing the parametric reliability of products based on a small number of tests. The determination of the parameters and double logistic distribution based on the test results is considered, a statistical experiment was carried out, which was based on the method of statistical modeling of Monte Carlo. An example of evaluating parametric reliability by a new method is also given, on the basis of which an engineering technique is proposed. In the conclusion, remarks are made regarding the advantages of the novel method.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010024
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 25: Assessing the Performance of a Subsurface
           Water Retention System (SWRS) Prototype: First Evaluation of Work
           Productivity and Costs

    • Authors: Luigi Pari, Walter Stefanoni, Nadia Palmieri, Francesco Latterini
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The potential to use Subsurface Water Retention Systems (SWRSs) to combat desertification and improve agriculture in arid and semiarid areas has already been investigated and proved promising. Nevertheless, a lack of specific machinery has prevented this technology from demonstrating its effectiveness on vast areas. In the present study, a specific prototype is presented along with the results obtained from a preliminary study conducted to assess effectiveness, performance and associated cost. During the test, the machinery permitted the construction of a SWRS 100 cm belowground using a 140 kW tractor. The effective field capacity (EFC) averaged at 0.19 ha h−1 whilst total cost was estimated to be as high as 4800.00 € ha−1. However, 93% of the cost was associated with the purchase cost of the removable impermeable film. A removal operation was also investigated using a 42 kW excavator for evaluating the EFC and cost which averaged at 0.2 ha h−1 and 655.79 € ha−1, respectively.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010025
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 26: Manufacturing of a Granular Fertilizer Based
           on Organic Slurry and Hardening Agent

    • Authors: Alejandro Moure Abelenda, Chiemela Victor Amaechi
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The manufacturing of a granular fertilizer based on organic slurry (OS) and sorptive materials aims to enhance the circular economy. This article describes a technology that was conceived after appraising the chemistry of the anaerobic digestate and wood ash and the synergies of combining both materials. The information available in the literature about similar materials such as cattle slurry and lime was also considered to build a better understanding of the underlying science. The processes and machinery designed were optimized from the points of view of energy and material consumption, cost of storage, transportation and land application. The system was sized to process 1 tonne of OS (97% moisture) in a 10 h batch-shift, consuming 140 kg of wood pellets and 0.55 kW of electricity for the fan blowing preheated air. The results of the market research allowed us to reach the most economically viable routes for the commercialization of granular fertilizers. Based on the financial study, an initial investment of GBP 20,000 is needed to successfully implement the value proposition and business plan. The wide adoption of the composite fertilizer improves the management of the OS and reduces the contamination of air, soil, and water derived from intensive agricultural practices.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010026
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 27: Fast Location of Table Grapes Picking Point
           Based on Infrared Tube

    • Authors: Yanjun Zhu, Tongxun Zhang, Lipeng Liu, Ping Liu, Xiang Li
      First page: 27
      Abstract: This study investigates the low mechanization level of grape picking, and the problems associated with the difficult location of grape picking points in three-dimensional space. A method for rapidly locating the picking points of table grapes based on an infrared tube was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the Otsu algorithm and the maximum connected domain were used to obtain the image of the target grape, which realized the fast recognition and segmentation of the target grape in two-dimensional space. Secondly, a location device for grape-picking points based on an infrared tube was designed, which resolved the technical problem related to the difficulty of locating picking points in three-dimensional space, and realized the accurate positioning of picking points for table grapes. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed method can quickly and accurately locate the picking points of table grapes in three-dimensional space. The average running time of the proposed algorithm is 0.61 s, and the success rate of location identification is 90.0%. It provides a feasible scheme for the mechanized picking of table grapes.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010027
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 28: Correction: Majeed, A.; Lee, S. Towards
           Privacy Paradigm Shift Due to the Pandemic: A Brief Perspective.
           Inventions 2021, 6, 24

    • Authors: Abdul Majeed, Sungchang Lee
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The authors made a mistake while publishing this paper [...]
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010028
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 29: Modification of the Leeb Impact Device for
           Measuring Hardness by the Dynamic Instrumented Indentation Method

    • Authors: Aleksander Umanskii, Kirill Gogolinskii, Vladimir Syasko, Artem Golev
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The article is devoted to modification of the impact devices of Leeb hardness testers for the implementation of the dynamic instrumented indentation method. The results obtained made it possible to construct a load–displacement curve using primary EMF signals and made it possible to determine the values of the dissipated and elastic impact body energy, the maximal load of indentation, the maximal and residual penetration depth and the geometric parameters of the indentation region, namely the contact area of the indenter with the surface and the volume of the displaced material. The listed parameters of the indentation process allow us to measure the contact and volume hardness, the elastic modulus and the yield strength of test objects with portable hardness testers.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010029
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 30: Strategic Placement of Solar Power Plant and
           Interline Power Flow Controllers for Prevention of Blackouts

    • Authors: Akanksha Mishra, Nagesh Kumar Gundavarapu Venkata, Sravana Kumar Bali, Venkateswara Rao Bathina, Uma Maheswari Ramisetty, Srikanth Gollapudi, Hady Habib Fayek, Eugen Rusu
      First page: 30
      Abstract: In these post COVID times, the world is going through a massive restructuring which India can use to its benefit by attracting foreign industrial investment. The major requirement is a reliable and ecofriendly electrical power source. Of late, renewable energy sources have increasingly become popular as alternative source of electricity. They can provide immense aid in improving the reliability of the power system, when placed properly. The alternative integrated energy sources along with FACTS devices can provide a promising future for reliable power systems. In this paper, an effective location for the solar power unit and Interline Power Flow Controller using Line Severity Index is proposed in order to avoid contingencies. An Indian 62 bus system and IEEE 57 bus system are considered for the study. The Firefly algorithm is used to tune the IPFC in the Integrated Energy Systems scenario, for a dual objective function. The effect of placement of the solar unit and the optimized IPFC is analyzed and studied in detail in this paper.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010030
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
  • Inventions, Vol. 7, Pages 31: Numerical Investigation of Winglet
           Aerodynamics and Dimple Effect of NACA 0017 Airfoil for a Freight Aircraft

    • Authors: Matthew Thomas Lewthwaite, Chiemela Victor Amaechi
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Drag reduction is an ever-present challenge within the aeronautical engineering industry. This paper presents two substantial wing modifications: the addition of a winglet of a freighter aircraft and a dimpled wing on the NACA 0017 aerofoils. Studies on nine (9) different geometries of dimpled aerofoils were performed against a control model of an aerofoil without any dimple. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using two (2) commercial CFD platforms. This paper also explored two novel solutions of aircraft optimisation to mitigate the effects of drag and leading-edge pressure, while increasing the effect of lift. The optimised performance model of a freighter aircraft increased its aerodynamic efficiency. The study found that at take-off velocity of 82 m/s, winglets decreased pressure on the wing by 16.31%, through flow redirection and better flow integration into aerofoils wake. The study also analysed the separation layer and its effect through the appropriate use of the dimple effect. Increased lift effects were observed on a NACA 0017 aerofoil. Despite the low increase in drag of 6% from the modifications, the resultant L/D ratio was highly increased. This study also faced some challenges with validating the model. Hence some validation approaches were taken, and some other approaches suggested for future studies.
      Citation: Inventions
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/inventions7010031
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2022)
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