Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2688 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (229 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (237 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1325 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (452 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (56 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (98 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1325 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted by number of followers
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221)
IEEE Spectrum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 220)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
IEEE Communications Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 140)
IEEE Engineering Management Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 118)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114)
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 112)
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Engineering Failure Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
IEEE Microwave Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
IEEE Signal Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Transactions on Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Experimental Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Potentials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Heat Transfer Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Digital Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Flow, Turbulence and Combustion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Coastal Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
GPS Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Géotechnique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
IET Image Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IET Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Engineering Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Electrophoresis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IET Circuits, Devices & Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Experiments in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Integration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Engineering Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Energy Conversion and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Electromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Human Factors in Ergonomics & Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Heat Transfer - Asian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Fuel Cells Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Fuel Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Bridge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Discrete Optimization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Designs, Codes and Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental and Ecological Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geothermics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Fuel and Energy Abstracts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fusion Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Formal Methods in System Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Finite Fields and Their Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Powder Coatings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Engineering With Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fluid Phase Equilibria     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Graphs and Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Filtration & Separation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Grass and Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Engineering Computations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Combinatorics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Focus on Pigments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fuzzy Sets and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Historical Records of Australian Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Optoelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus : Mécanique     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Latin America Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ESAIM: Control Optimisation and Calculus of Variations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Focus on Surfactants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Foundations of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Forschung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Épités - Épitészettudomány     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dyes and Pigments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Designed Monomers and Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Catalysts     Full-text available via subscription  
ESAIM: Proceedings     Open Access  
Environmetrics     Hybrid Journal  
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

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Aerobiologia
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.673
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-3025 - ISSN (Online) 0393-5965
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Assessing allergenicity of urban parks: a case study from Aydin, Turkey

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      Abstract: Abstract Allergenic pollens produced by some tree species in urban parks, a part of the urban flora, cause pollinosis, allergic rhinitis, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and asthma. The allergenic pollen levels of four urban parks in Aydin (Turkey) were determined using the Index of Urban Green Zones Allergenicity (IUGZA). The potential allergenicity value (PAV) of each species and the crown volume of each individual belonging to the species were used in the index calculation. According to their PAV values, tree species were classified as nil (0), low (1–6), moderate (8–12), high (16–24), and very high (27–36) allergenicity. The Shannon Diversity Index (SHDI) was used to calculate the parks’ biodiversity levels. Canonical correspondence analysis, one of the ordination methods, was used to identify the species distribution among the four parks and reveal the relationship between the SHDI, number of species, tree density, and IUGZA. The ratio of allergenic tree species in the four parks examined varied between 97.90 and 100%. The PAV of 9 tree species, including the genus Cupressus in the Cupressaceae family, was determined as very high, while the PAV of 20 tress species, including the genus Prunus, was revealed to be low. While the park with the lowest IUGZA value (0.17) was Aytepe Recreation Area, the park with the highest IUGZA value (0.52) was Pinarbasi Recreation Area. The lowest Shannon Diversity Index (SHDI) value (0.70) was detected in Aytepe Recreation Area, whereas the highest value (2.90) was determined in Nevzat Bicer Park. There was no correlation between the IUGZA value and species count, tree density, and SHDI variables. Ismet Sezgin Park and Pinarbasi Recreation Area pose a risk to human health at any time of the year. The results, which focused on allergenic flora, should be used to design new parks and revitalize existing ones.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
       
  • The duration and severity of the allergenic pollen season in Istanbul, and
           the role of meteorological factors

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      Abstract: Abstract Information on the allergenic pollen season provides insight on the state of the environment of a region and facilitates allergy symptom management. We present a retrospective analysis of the duration and severity of the allergenic pollen season and the role of meteorological factors in Istanbul, Turkey. Aerobiological sampling from January 2013 to June 2016, pollen identification and counting followed current standard methodology. Pollen seasons were defined according to 95% of the Annual Pollen Integral (APIn) and the season start date was compared with the first day of 5 day consecutive non-zero records. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were created to study the effect of meteorological factors on flowering. The main pollen contributors were taxa of temperate and Mediterranean climates, and neophytic Ambrosia. Cupressaceae, Poaceae, Pinaceae, Quercus and Ambrosia had the greatest relative abundance. The pollen season defined on 95% of the APIn was adequate for our location with total APIns around 10.000 pollen*day*m−3. Woody taxa had generally shorter seasons than herbaceous taxa. In trees, we see precipitation as the main limiting factor for assimilate production prior to anthesis. A severe tree pollen season in 2016 suggests intense synchronous flowering across taxa and populations triggered by favourable water supply in the preceding year. GAM models can explain the effect of weather on pollen concentrations during anthesis. Under the climatic conditions over the study period, temperature had a negative effect on spring flowering trees, and a positive one on summer flowering weeds. Humidity, atmospheric pressure and precipitation had a negative effect on weeds. Our findings contribute to environmental and allergological knowledge in southern Europe and Turkey with relevancy in the assessment of impacts of climate change and the management of allergic disease.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • Influence of meteorological parameters and PM2.5 on the level of
           culturable airborne bacteria and fungi in Abadan, Iran

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      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, monitoring of airborne bacteria and fungi concentrations has obtained increasing universal attraction not only for influences on ecological balance but also for evaluating their public health consequences. In this study, we aimed to investigate culturable airborne bacteria and fungi levels in different sites of Abadan, and their association with meteorological parameters and PM2.5 levels. Abadan is one of the most industrialized cities in the southwest of Iran where over the current decade has experienced lots of dust storm episodes. In total, 400 air samples were collected in 6 months (autumn and winter) using a single-stage viable Andersen cascade impactor for sampling airborne bacteria and fungi and portable DustTrak Aerosol Monitor 8520 for measuring PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters. Microbial concentrations showed a significant difference between various sites over the study period with averages of 569.57 ± 312.64 and 482.73 ± 242.86 CFU/M3 for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The air temperature had a significant effect on the concentration of both airborne bacteria and fungi. A significant positive correlation between relative humidity and fungi but no correlation between relative humidity and bacteria concentrations were observed. The average airborne PM2.5 concentrations of all sites among the study period was 93.24 ± 116.72 μg/m3. The atmospheric bacterial and fungal communities were strongly positively correlated with the ambient PM2.5 level. The levels of airborne bacteria and fungi along with PM2.5 in the air of the city were relatively higher than the recommended levels. Therefore, the best course of action is needed to control emission sources. Further studies are also needed to evaluate the clinical analysis of the health effects of exposure to these pollutants.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
       
  • Microscopic fungi and other contaminants on airborne pollen grains of
           ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)

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      Abstract: Abstract Fungal particles were observed on the pollen grains of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in air samples collected in Nyíregyháza, Hungary. Microscopical observations showed the colonization of pollen grains by different fungal taxa. Concentration data were correlated with meteorological factors, day of the year (DOY), PM10, PM2.5, and spore levels. Pollen grains infected by fungi became common at the end of the pollen season. These particles correlated positively with wind speed and airborne spores, but a negative correlation was found with temperature. Pollen grains were most frequently infected with Cladosporium spp., but other fungi, such as Alternaria, Aspergillus/Penicillium, and yeasts were also found. A source of infected pollen grains was proven to be the plants’ surface, where fungi colonized pollen grains, and subsequently, they were aerosolized by wind. Our results indicate that reaerosolization events can be identified by the closer examination of fungi found on pollen grains.
      PubDate: 2022-03-19
       
  • The understanding of phytopathogens as a tool in the conservation of
           heroic viticulture areas

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      Abstract: Abstract The special characteristics of heroic viticulture combine the geographical features of the territory where particular vineyards are located and the unique production methods used in making their wines reflected in their status as special protection zones. This work sets out the results of a 2 year project in which the impact of the main cryptogamic diseases affecting vines in the Ribeira Sacra designation of origin (northwest Spain) was studied. The incidence of such diseases was assessed to develop strategies for offsetting the high costs incurred by production and the adverse impact on the environment. For this purpose, an aerobiological study of the fungal propagules during the life cycle of the red Mencía variety was carried out. The spore concentrations were correlated with the phenology, climatic conditions and the application of anti-fungal treatments. The analysis shows that greater effectiveness can be achieved in the control of phytopathogenic fungi by means of better identification of the epidemiological development of the pathogen. The determination of the right moment for the application of phytosanitary products is also considered, as well as the correct and most effective doses, and alternative measures that do not involve the use of phytosanitary products. The study contributes to the sustainability of the crop area by seeking to integrate three fundamental dimensions: the societal context, the economy and the environment.
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
       
  • Airborne bacteria and fungi in a wastewater treatment plant: type and
           characterization of bio-aerosols, emission characterization and mapping

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      Abstract: Abstract Exposure to bioaerosols causes infection, over-sensitivity, respiratory, and lung diseases. This study was conducted at Sanandaj wastewater treatment plant in three seasons of winter, spring and summer to investigate the type and density of bio-aerosols. Sampling was performed using a sampling pump with a discharge rate of 28.3 L/min at a height of 1.5 m above the ground; the samples were taken from five stations: treatment plant entrance, aeration tank, grit chamber, drying sludge bed and laboratory. At each sampling point, time, temperature, relative humidity (Soleimani et al.), wind speed and particulate matter were recorded. In order to identify the bacteria, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture-based methods were applied. It was also found that there was not a significant relationship between bacterial count and RH, wind direction, wind speed and temperature. Regarding fungi, the results showed that RH and wind direction and wind has a significant relationship with the concentration of fungi. The most predominant bacteria and fungi were as follows: Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Micrococcus, Enterococcus, Neisseria, Listeria, and Pseudomonas and Penicillium, Aspergillus flavus. The concentration of bacteria in the air was significantly correlated with < 4, < 5, < 7 and < 10 μm suspended particles. However, there was a correlation between particle number of 10 μm and fungi concentration in the air.
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-022-09740-z
       
  • Atmospheric particulate matter deposition on birch catkins and pollen
           grains before pollination

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      Abstract: Abstract Birch is the most allergenic tree species in Northern and Central Europe. Airborne birch pollen concentrations are observed to be on the rise for several decades. Health hazard due to birch pollen grains (BPGs) can worsen due to particulate air pollution. The prevalence of the intimate mixture of BPGs with atmospheric particulate matter (APM) at the single pollen grain level is still unraveled. In this study, APM transfer mechanisms to birch catkins and BPGs prior to pollination were investigated at an urban-industrial and a peri-urban site in Northern France. The surface of catkins was heavily polluted with micrometer-sized particles. Conversely, BPGs were relatively unpolluted with on average 0.1 particle.BPG−1. Differences in the chemical composition of adhered particles were observed as a function of the sampling sites. In contrast, no significant difference was found in terms of surface concentrations of APM adhered to BPGs and catkins between the two sites. Comparison of the number of particles deposited per pollen grain according to whether they were harvested from catkins or collected while airborne suggests that particulate pollution of pollen occurs preferentially after pollen shedding, either by impaction or coagulation mechanisms with other suspended APM or by pollen settling on dust-contaminated surfaces followed by resuspension.
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-022-09739-6
       
  • Evaluating inaccurate pollen concentrations caused by turbulence using
           passive sampler

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      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the atmospheric concentration of pollen (which is one of the most common vectors of allergens) is necessary to determine the atmospheric allergen level. Airborne pollen concentrations were predominantly evaluated using volumetric and gravitational particle samplers. However, no previous studies have successfully shown whether these sampling methods can be used to evaluate actual airborne pollen concentrations. In this study, the relationship between wind speed and sampling efficiency was investigated to determine whether the influence of ambient wind speed on sampling efficiency was significant. To this end, the influence of wind speed was analyzed by comparing a volumetric sampler and a gravitational sampler. The experimental results indicate that an increase in the wind speed results in an increase in the sampling efficiency of the gravitational sampler because of fluctuations in the turbulence. Our simulation shows that when pollen is entrained in the turbulence, the changes in the wind speed, turbulence amplitude, and turbulence length influence the deposition rate of pollen on the gravitational sampler. These influences can be explained by the turbulence vibration model. These results show the inadequacy of existing evaluation methods, not only for pollen deposition data, but also for all types of bioaerosol deposition data.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09728-1
       
  • Spatiotemporal distribution and the passive dispersal of fungal spores
           through HVAC systems

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      Abstract: Abstract Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are widely used to regulate indoor temperature and air quality of modern buildings. The central supply and exhaust system cause the dispersal and removal of bioaerosols. This study presents results from ex situ experiments conducted to a better understanding of the spatiotemporal distribution, passive dispersal and removal of fungal spores through HVAC systems. The study was conducted in a 50 square meters by 3 m high instrument room in a research building with HVAC systems. Plates with Aspergillus flavus colony were attached upside down on the edge of the ceiling vent to imitate the mildew growing. Fungal spores were released for 10 min, collected and counted by the settle plate method in 2 h. Results show that A. flavus spores dispersed to 3.6 m in 2 min and were evenly distributed in the room within 8 min. The concentration of spores decreased from 48 to 3–6 CFU/plate after 60 min and was lower than 1% after 120 min. Our results suggest that airborne fungal spores disperse and remove by HVAC systems efficiently. Without the external and internal source, the HVAC system could greatly reduce the fungal amount in the indoor air to the background level within one hour. This study provided the observed data of the transmission and retention of internal or external biological contaminants through HVAC system.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09730-7
       
  • Comparison of the characterization of allergenic protein 3 (Pla a3)
           released from Platanus pollen grains collected in Shanghai during the
           spring of 2019 and 2020

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      Abstract: Abstract Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, large-scale industrial production has been stagnant and reduced, the urban air quality has been greatly improved. It provided an excellent opportunity to explore the effects of air pollutants on the sensitization of pollen allergen proteins in the environment. Platanus pollen grains sampled in the spring of 2019 and 2020 were used for detailed characterization and analysis. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray spectroscopy (XPS), trypan blue staining, and western blot analysis were employed to characterize Platanus pollen protein released from pollen grains. Our data showed that the viability of the pollen grains in 2019 was lower compared that in 2020, and the pollen grains collected in 2019 had a higher absorption peak of protein functional groups. The XPS spectra assay result demonstrated that the binding energy of the high-resolution components had not variation on the surface of pollen grains, but relative content of nitrogen and peptide chain in the pollen grains sampled in 2019 were higher than in 2020. These results suggested that more protein in the pollen grains was released onto the surface of pollen grains. In addition, western blot assay showed that the expression of Pla a3 protein in pollen grains sampled in 2019 was significantly higher than that in 2020, revealing that air pollutants could enhance the expression of Pla a3 proteins in Platanus pollen.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09731-6
       
  • Environmental factors that modulate the release and transport of airborne
           urediniospores Hemileia vastatrix (Berk. & Broome) in coffee crops in
           Veracruz México

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      Abstract: Abstract The coffee leaf rust, Hemileia vastatrix, is the most destructive coffee-growing disease and the most important economically. More aggressive outbreaks of the disease were recently reported worldwide, including in Mexico, where coffee production showed a 40% decrease. This work aimed to determine the environmental conditions that favor release and air transport of the H. vastatrix urediniospores in coffee crops in Veracruz. The monitoring of airborne coffee leaf rust urediniospores was performed using three types of aerobiological traps at different heights: Hirst Spore Trap (HST, 1.5 m), Passive Spore Trap (PST 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 m), and Sedimentation Spore Sampler (SSS 1 m) from January 2014 to October 2015, in two plots in Veracruz, Mexico. The airborne urediniospores counts exhibited a bimodal distribution. Low concentrations that increase over time are evident from January to April, decreasing abruptly in May and June, only to rise again in August, reaching the highest record for airborne urediniospores during the mid-summer drought phenomenon. Dispersal of coffee rust urediniospores is mainly influenced by temperature, rain, wind, and humidity in leaves. They can reach heights in the air up to 9 m (above the canopy) in shade coffee crops. The dispersal of pathogens in the atmosphere comprises complex processes interconnected; their knowledge allows better comprehensive management of them.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-022-09738-7
       
  • Application of the HYSPLIT model for birch pollen modelling in Poland

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      Abstract: Abstract In this work, the HYSPLIT model was used to reproduce birch pollen concentrations in Poland for the years 2015 and 2016, where there was significant variation in terms of pollen concentrations and start/end dates of the pollen season. The analysis of pollen observations showed that the seasonal pollen integral (SPIn) was low in 2015 with a shorter season compared to 2016. In 2016, SPIn was unusually high. The HYSPLIT model simulation, with a one-hour temporal resolution, was conducted during the birch pollen season (from March to May) for 2015 and 2016. Meteorological data were obtained from the WRF model. The birch coverage map of the European Forest Institute was used. The emission, introduced to the model, covered Central Europe with a resolution of 0.3° × 0.3°. The results were compared to data from 11 observation stations in Poland. The measured birch pollen concentrations for 2015 were overestimated by HYSPLIT at 8 of the 11 stations (normalized mean bias/NMB from 0.13 to 2.53) and underestimated for three stations (NMB from − 0.44 to − 0.15). For 2016, the model highly underestimated the pollen concentrations, with NMB ranging from − 0.45 to − 0.93. In general, the results show that the model can resolve the main peaks of pollen concentrations, which is a step forward in the application of the HYSPLIT model for birch pollen forecasting over Poland. We suggest the application of methods that can reduce the bias of temperature such as meteorological data assimilation or bias correction, which could improve calculation of the start of emissions and consequently the start of the pollen season as well as pollen concentrations.
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09737-0
       
  • Five ways to define a pollen season: exploring congruence and disparity in
           its attributes and their long-term trends

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      Abstract: Abstract We applied five sets of criteria for pollen season (PS) definition, which are associated with the ‘clinical’, ‘grains’, ‘logistic’, ‘moving average’ and ‘percentage’ methods, on a 30-year time series of daily airborne pollen concentration values of Cupressaceae (cypress family), Oleaceae (olive family) and Poaceae (grass family), from Thessaloniki, Greece. These methods could identify a pollen season for more than 90% of the study period for all three taxa, except for the clinical that identified less than 40% for Oleaceae. The estimated values of the PS start, end, and duration varied largely, in a method-specific way. Even significant reverse patterns of change were recorded for the same attribute and taxon, as for the Poaceae PS end date that shows a significant advance earlier in the year with the moving average method and delay with the percentage. As the season peak date is method-independent and, hence, directly comparable, we recommend this attribute to be examined in airborne pollen studies. Results taken with the percentage method could be compared with those of the past for Thessaloniki, with a more than 10-year shorter time series. No climate-related change was detected for Cupressaceae PS attributes, but an earlier peak was now detected for Oleaceae and Poaceae, and a later end and a longer duration for Poaceae, suggesting an increased allergy risk for this taxon. The different criteria concurrently applied for PS definition that led to even greatly diverging results for the same PS attribute is an issue for the science and calls for efforts at standardization.
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09735-2
       
  • Bioaerosol vertical fungal spores profile in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) are involved in multiple phenomena ranging from seasonal allergies to pandemic diseases. Furthermore, PBAPs that act as ice nuclei, might interact with cloud physics affecting the formation of hail and, potentially, causing damage to agriculture. These latter dynamics are still unclear, especially due to the lack of knowledge about PBAPs concentration and emission rates. Here we characterized the fungal aerobiology of Arceburgo, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, through ground level and airborne sampling of PBAPs via a hot-air balloon. Total and cultivable fungal spores were collected using personal portable Burkard and a MAS100 sampler respectively during the summer and winter of 2019. In the latter season, daily dynamics were resolved by repeating flights and sampling in the morning and in the afternoon. Both samplers identified a core fungal community (Penicillum/Aspergillus and Cladosporium spp.) that are coupled with local meteorological dynamics and are able to undergo atmospheric transport as indicated by their survival in the night-time residual boundary layer. These results are invaluable in identifying a core set of aerobiological indicators that can be used in future works to unravel PBAPs emission rates on the area of Arceburgo and form a basis to close the gap in knowledge in the interplay between PBAPs and hail formation.
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09736-1
       
  • Seasonal pattern of Alternaria airborne spores in Santiago de Chile, Chile
           (2005–2015 period): first Alternaria spore calendar

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      Abstract: Abstract Since Alternaria is an important aeroallergen in temperate areas of the world, this study was undertaken in order to provide the first results obtained about the seasonal regimen of Alternaria airborne spores in the atmosphere of Santiago de Chile (Chile), for a period of 10 years (2005–2015), which has led to the construction of the first calendar for the city. Furthermore, the periods of maximum presence of these particles in the air were determined together with those days in which the threshold levels set up for the development of clinical symptoms were reached and/or surpassed. The annual spore integral varied between 4077 spores/m3 registered in 2013–2014 and 6824 spores/m3 in 2010–2011, with a main spore season from mid-winter (mid-July/mid-August) to the end of the autumn (June). Daily peaks were mainly detected in spring or autumn seasons but even in winter, although without surpassing 65 spores/m3 in any case.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09733-4
       
  • Microbial composition of bioaerosols in indoor wastewater treatment plants

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      Abstract: Abstract Wastewater treatment is one of the major biotechnological processes used to treat municipal and industrial sewage. All the steps involved in the removal of contaminants from wastewaters to treat municipal and industrial sewage represent a reservoir of a dynamic microbial communities with specific key players in the different process types. Aerosolized biological particles, defined as bioaerosols, can be generated during different steps of the wastewater treatment process. The goal of this study is to offer a comprehensive indoor-air microbiota description of numerous wastewater treatments plants using an amplicon-based high-throughput sequencing approach. To fill up the gap of the wastewater-bioaerosol microbial diversity literature, a site-related and seasonal variation of bioaerosol emission in eight indoor wastewater treatments plants is described targeting the 16S rRNA gene for bacterial community analyses. No significant differences were observed between summer and winter in terms of microbial diversity and composition. However, indoor pre-treatment and secondary treatment steps suggest the presence of different bacterial taxa, some of them being pathogens or opportunistic pathogens. Gut-associated flora was most abundant in the air collected during the biodegradation of organic matter of the wastewater treatment step and suggests that fecal contamination can persist in aerosols until the last steps of the process. The results suggest that wastewater workers could be exposed to pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms in aerosols released at every treatment step with a peak during degritting and degreasing. This study offers a comprehensive indoor-air microbiota description of waste water treatment plants—concluding a significant potential occupational risk.
      PubDate: 2022-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09732-5
       
  • The course of birch pollen seasons in Sosnowiec (Southern Poland) in
           1997–2020 in relation to meteorological conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract The study's main objective was to specify the extent to which weather conditions were related to the course of birch pollen seasons in the years 1997–2020. The impact of atmospheric conditions on the daily concentrations of birch pollen grains, the Annual pollen integral (APIn), and the length of pollen seasons were studied. The dependency between each meteorological condition and various features of the birch pollen season was determined using Spearman’s rho correlation, the Kruskal–Wallis test, and cluster analysis with the k-means method. It has been shown that the duration of sunshine and average air temperature occurring within 14 days preceding the season has the most significant influence on the beginning of a birch pollen season. The value of daily birch pollen concentrations in Sosnowiec showed a statistically significant positive correlation with the duration of sunlight and the average and maximum wind speed. The daily concentration also depended on the synoptic situation: the mass airflow direction, the type of air mass inflow, and the type of weather front. The near-ground temperature influenced the APIn of birch pollen grains during the period of 14 days before the beginning of the season and the meteorological conditions occurring in the summer of the preceding year such as the maximum temperature, duration of sunlight, the maximum and average wind speed, and the relative air humidity. It was concluded that the length of birch pollen seasons decreased year by year.
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09734-3
       
  • Correction to: Efficiency of bioaerosol samplers: a comparison study

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      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09716-5
       
  • Seasonal variation and size distribution in the airborne indoor microbial
           concentration of residential houses in Delhi and its impact on health

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      Abstract: Abstract Exposure of microbial agents in the air of indoor dwellings is associated with effects on respiratory and general health. The current study was conducted in the urban area of Delhi Metropolis for the seasonal quantitative assessment of viable microbial indoor air quality. Bioaerosol measurement was conducted by using Anderson six stage impactor with cut-off diameters of 7.0, 4.7, 3.3, 2.1, 1.1, and 0.65 µm) throughout the all the seasons (April 2019 to March 2020). Meteorological parameters such as temperature and relative humidity were measured to check their effect on microbial survival. Air quality index data of the sampling area were recorded by DPCC air quality monitoring system, Ashok Vihar, Delhi. The highest (1654 ± 876.87 CFU/m3) and lowest (738 ± 443.59 CFU/m3) mean bacterial concentration in houses was recorded in August and December, respectively. Similarly, the highest fungal concentration (1275 ± 645.22 CFU/m3) was found in August and the lowest in (776 ± 462.46 CFU/m3) in January. Bacterial respirable fraction shows an irregular pattern in different seasons. In the case of fungi, the respirable fraction of 2.1 and 1.1 contributes more than 60% of total culturable bioaerosols in all seasons. Bacterial genera including Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and Streptobacillus were most dominant, and Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Alternaria were the most dominant fungal genera observed indoors. The results of this study suggest that higher respirable fungal fraction might penetrate deeper into the lungs and cause various health effects. A higher concentration of bioaerosols in outdoor areas than indoor shows that the source of indoor bioaerosols is outdoor air.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09718-3
       
  • Comparison of Alternaria spore levels between two areas within the same
           city (Salamanca, Middle West Spain)

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      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study is to contribute to the knowledge about fungal spores in the atmosphere of the city of Salamanca (Middle West Spain), through the comparative study of Alternaria spore levels in two different sampling points within the same city. The study was done in terms of seasonal and hourly distribution and the possible influence of the main meteorological parameters on their atmospheric concentrations. The sampling was carried out from 17 February 2014 to 16 February 2016, both included, with two Hirst-type volumetric spore trap samplers, in two buildings in the city: one in a semi-urban environment, on the outskirts of the city, and the other in the city centre, 1.4 km apart. After the two years of sampling, the total annual values of Alternaria varied very little concerning the location of the samplers. The maximum values coincided in the two spore traps during 2014–2015 on the same day with similar amounts, whereas in 2015–2016 the difference was more noticeable both in date and amount. In the study of the seasonality of Alternaria's atmospheric distribution, there were no differences in the length of the main spore season nor the number of days with health risk levels (concentrations above 100 spores/m3). With regard to correlations, the analyses carried out between daily concentrations in both samplers obtained highly significant and positive results. The influence of meteorological parameters on spore levels, showed a positive effect of temperature and sunshine, as well as a negative one for humidity and rainfall.
      PubDate: 2021-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-021-09725-4
       
 
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