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ENGINEERING (1206 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Aerobiologia
  [SJR: 0.511]   [H-I: 36]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-3025 - ISSN (Online) 0393-5965
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Particle size distribution of cultivable airborne microbes and inhalable
           particulate matter in a wastewater treatment plant facility
    • Authors: E. Katsivela; E. Latos; L. Raisi; V. Aleksandropoulou; M. Lazaridis
      Pages: 297 - 314
      Abstract: Abstract A field study was performed to identify the size distribution characteristics of viable, cultivable airborne microorganisms (heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, and total coliforms) at a municipal wastewater treatment facility, and their association with inhalable particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, and PM10), as well as hydrogen sulfide concentrations and ambient meteorological parameters. The highest concentrations of cultivable, airborne heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, mass and number concentration of particulate matter, as well as hydrogen sulfide were observed at the aerated grit removal chambers at the pretreatment stage (3 to 2030 times higher than the values of the background ambient air). In contrast, the mean concentrations of cultivable, airborne mesophilic fungi at the aerated grit chambers were 0.6 time lower than the background site, where fungi presented the most abundant taxonomic group in the ambient air. Although the highest concentrations of the airborne fungi were determined at aerodynamic diameters between 2.1 and 3.3 μm, a nearly equal distribution of the mean concentrations of the cultivable, airborne heterotrophic bacteria were observed in the six different size fractions at the primary settling tanks and in the ambient air. Interestingly, their size distribution profiles at the aerated grit chambers were different and showed a maximum aerodynamic diameter at the size range from 3.3 to 4.7 μm, similar to that of the cultivable, airborne total coliforms. In general, low positive or no significant linear relationships could be found between the cultivable airborne heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, or fungi at the two wastewater treatment stages and the ambient background microbial community.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9470-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Source regions of ragweed pollen arriving in south-western Poland and the
           influence of meteorological data on the HYSPLIT model results
    • Authors: Daria Bilińska; Carsten Ambelas Skjøth; Małgorzata Werner; Maciej Kryza; Małgorzata Malkiewicz; Justyna Krynicka; Anetta Drzeniecka-Osiadacz
      Pages: 315 - 326
      Abstract: Abstract We have investigated the relationship between the inflow of air masses and the ragweed pollen concentration in SW Poland (Wrocław) for a 10-year period of 2005–2014. The HYSPLIT trajectory model was used to verify whether episodes of high concentrations can be related to regions outside of the main known ragweed centres in Europe, like Pannonian Plain, northern Italy and Ukraine. Furthermore, we used two different meteorological data sets (the global GDAS data set and from the WRF mesoscale model; the meteorological parameters were: U and V wind components, temperature and relative humidity) into HYSPLIT to evaluate the influence of meteorological input on calculated trajectories for high concentration ragweed episodes. The results show that the episodes of high pollen concentration (above 20 pm−3) represent a great part of total recorded ragweed pollen in Wrocław, but occur rarely and not in all years. High pollen episodes are connected with air masses coming from south and south-west Europe, which confirms the existence of expected ragweed centres but showed that other centres near Wrocław are not present. The HYSPLIT simulations with two different meteorological inputs indicated that footprint studies on ragweed benefit from a higher resolution meteorological data sets.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9471-9
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • An analysis of the exposure time to very high concentrations of
           Cladosporium conidia in the air of an urban site
    • Authors: Magdalena Sadyś
      Pages: 327 - 337
      Abstract: Abstract Cladosporium spp. is a ubiquitous mould present both in indoor and outdoor environments and affecting a wide array of substrates. It is considered to be the second most important fungal aeroallergen in countries of temperate climates, after Alternaria species. In order to establish the time of exposure to very high concentrations of Cladosporium conidia by sensitised individuals, a 5-year study was undertaken in the UK in a densely populated area using a volumetric air sampler. Weather data, comprised air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed were collected simultaneously. Cladosporium showed a mono-modal pattern with the majority of conidia observed between 09:30 and 19:00 as indicated by descriptive statistics and multivariate regression tree analysis. On the other hand, circular statistics showed that the maximum hourly concentrations were found within 1.5-h window before 09:30. The highest conidia concentrations were observed when dry conditions occurred (40–55%). The maximum temperature associated with peak concentrations was oscillating within the range of 20–25 °C. All findings were confirmed using Kruskal–Wallis, Friedman and sign tests.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9472-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Phenological analysis of grasses (Poaceae) as a support for the dissection
           of their pollen season in Perugia (Central Italy)
    • Authors: Sofia Ghitarrini; Carmen Galán; Giuseppe Frenguelli; Emma Tedeschini
      Pages: 339 - 349
      Abstract: Abstract Grasses (Poaceae) pollen is a major cause for allergic diseases worldwide. Pollen monitoring in the atmosphere is of primary importance for symptoms interpretation and therapy planning. Microscopic pollen identification and counts do not allow the detection at species or genus level because of the stenopalynous nature of the family. Nevertheless, the assessment of the flowering phenology of different species would be important, because not all grass allergens are cross-reacting and allergic patients could be differentially sensitized. In this work, a phenological survey was carried out in five stations located on the urban territory of Perugia (Central Italy), from April to September 2015, recording the alternation between flowering phenophases of 19 grass species and estimating their contribution to the airborne pollen load of the area through the calculation of a Phenological Index. Moreover, pollen grains of the different species were collected and observed, confirming the impossibility to make a discrimination during microscope pollen counts. The prevailing grasses in terms of contribution to the pollen detection in the studied area resulted to be Dactylis glomerata and Lolium perenne during spring and early summer, and Cynodon dactylon during late summer. Data should be validated repeating the survey in successive years and possibly using biomolecular tools, but the obtained information could be relevant for diagnosis and treatment of grass pollen allergies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9473-7
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Automated pollen monitoring system using laser optics for observing
           seasonal changes in the concentration of total airborne pollen
    • Authors: Shigeto Kawashima; Michel Thibaudon; Soken Matsuda; Toshio Fujita; Natalie Lemonis; Bernard Clot; Gilles Oliver
      Pages: 351 - 362
      Abstract: Abstract The development of a simple and automatic pollen measurement methodology is required to manage allergic problems caused by airborne pollen. We developed a device and algorithm to automatically monitor airborne pollen by using basic laser optics technology. The device measures the sideward and forward scattering intensities of laser light from each particle. Because this device provides detailed temporal variation in the pollen concentration, the dispersal dynamics of airborne pollen can be effectively analyzed. We compared the pollen counts obtained with the automated method and standard Hirst-type method. Scatter-plot graphs were constructed of the forward and sideward scattering intensities of the observed particles. An extract window methodology was used to estimate the concentrations of the major allergenic pollens. The extract window parameters were obtained for major types of allergenic pollen. The results suggest the possibility of developing a device for monitoring several types of airborne pollen simultaneously. We determined the standard extract window to be used for estimating the concentration of all types of airborne pollen together. A field experiment was performed to evaluate the automated monitoring system with the standard extract window. The estimated temporal variation pattern of the total airborne pollen concentration agreed well with the observed temporal variation pattern for the whole pollen season. The pollen monitor was able to estimate the overall features of seasonal changes in the total airborne pollen concentration.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9474-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Aeroallergens: a comparative study of two monitoring methods
    • Authors: M. P. Plaza; P. Alcázar; M. J. Velasco-Jiménez; C. Galán
      Pages: 363 - 373
      Abstract: Abstract Olive and grass pollen grains are the major causes of hay fever in the Mediterranean region. A number of samplers and methods have been developed in recent years in order to obtain reliable data regarding airborne allergen concentrations. This paper reports on a detailed comparison of two samplers—Cyclone and ChemVol—and on the parameters that could influence their efficiency. Airborne concentrations of two key olive and grass allergens, Ole e 1 and Phl p 5, respectively, were monitored over two years with different weather patterns, 2012 and 2014. Allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay, and results were compared with pollen concentrations monitored using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap over the same study periods. The influence of weather-related parameters on local airborne pollen and allergen concentrations was also analysed. Although a positive correlation was detected between results obtained using the two samplers during the pollen season, results for the cumulative annual Allergen Index varied considerably. The two samplers revealed a positive correlation between pollen concentrations and both minimum temperature during the warmer year (2012) and maximum temperature during the cooler year (2014); a negative significant correlation was observed in both cases with rainfall and relative humidity. In summary, although some differences were observed between the two samplers studied, both may be regarded as suitable for allergen detection.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9475-5
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Changes in the Mediterranean pine forest: pollination patterns and annual
           trends of airborne pollen
    • Authors: Concepción De Linares; Rosario Delgado; Maria Jesús Aira; Purificación Alcázar; Silvia Alonso-Pérez; Marzia Boi; Paloma Cariñanos; Emilio Cuevas; Consuelo Díaz de la Guardia; Belén Elvira-Rendueles; Delia Fernández-González; Carmen Galán; Adela Montserrat Gutiérrez-Bustillo; Rosa Pérez-Badia; Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Rajo; Luis Ruíz-Valenzuela; Rafael Tormo-Molina; Maria del Mar Trigo; Rosa M. Valencia-Barrera; Ana Valle; Jordina Belmonte
      Pages: 375 - 391
      Abstract: Abstract In some areas, forests are being affected in diverse aspects such as structure, composition and biodiversity showing an increase or a decrease in the growth rates. Pinus is one of the most dominant genera in the forests of the Northern Hemisphere. This study analyzes the pine pollination patterns in 30 locations of Spain with an average of 21-year dataset. The aim is to evaluate possible changes in flowering intensity as well as in annual pollen production trends, according to the airborne pollen patterns. Annual Pollen Indices show three threshold values: (1) over 4000 grains per year in Catalonia, the Central System Mountains and Ourense (Galicia), (2) between 4000 and 1000 grains in central-south Spain and in the Balearic Islands, and (3) under 1000 in eastern Spain, Cartagena and the Canary Islands. Airborne pollen patterns were also influenced by Pinus species: The species located in the littoral and low land areas pollinated in the first pollination phase, from February to April, and the mountain pine species did in the second one, from April to June. The statistical analyses reveal increasing significant trends in 12 sites and significant decreasing trends in two. The Pinus flowering intensity is showing an earlier start and a delay in the end of the pollination period, thus a longer period of pollen in the air. This study suggests that the aerobiological monitoring is an interesting bio-indicator of changes happening in Pinus landscapes, and therefore explains the vulnerability of this genus in Spain.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9476-4
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Atmospheric pollen dispersion from herbicide-resistant horseweed ( Conyza
           canadensis L.)
    • Authors: Junming Wang; Meilan Qi; Haiyan Huang; Rongjian Ye; Xiangzhen Li; C. Neal Stewart
      Pages: 393 - 406
      Abstract: Abstract Horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.) with evolved herbicide resistance has become an especially problematic weed in crop production across the USA and on four continents (North America, South America, Asia, and Europe). Spread of herbicide resistance can occur through pollen-mediated gene flow between resistant and susceptible horseweed populations. However, there are little knowledge, preventive guidelines, and mechanism modeling for pollen transport in this system. We need to better understand pollen dispersion and deposition in the context of atmospheric conditions, herbicide-resistant horseweed patch size, and buffer crop type, height, and field size. A mechanistic model is needed to account for these. A pollen dispersion and deposition model was calibrated and validated using 2013 experimental field data. The validated model was run for various combinations of atmospheric conditions, horseweed characteristics (source strength), and buffer species and size (pollen can be intercepted by crop plants). Large fields with crops with a high leaf area density and tall plants can effectively prevent pollen dispersion. The information will help provide guidelines for preventing herbicide resistance spread from herbicide-resistant weeds and genetically modified plants in general.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9477-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Modelled and observed surface soil pollen deposition distance curves for
           isolated trees of Carpinus betulus , Cedrus atlantica , Juglans nigra and
           Platanus acerifolia
    • Authors: Beverley Adams-Groom; Carsten Ambelas Skjøth; Michael Baker; Thomas E. Welch
      Pages: 407 - 416
      Abstract: Abstract Source–distance relationships for pollen deposited directly into surface soil have been rarely undertaken, particularly for a single or isolated source, rather than a forest, grove or plantation. This study aimed to determine surface soil pollen deposition patterns from single, isolated source trees and to compare the results to Gaussian model curves for the same trees. Four isolated tree pollen sources were chosen in Worcester, UK: Carpinus betulus, Cedrus atlantica, Juglans nigra and Platanus acerifolia. Surface soil samples were collected at 1, 5 and then every 10 m, up to 100 m distance from the main trunk of each source along the prevailing wind direction during flowering. A Gaussian dispersion model was used to estimate source strength using tree height and width and wind speeds on days when flowering was occurring and when the wind direction flowed along the sampling transect. This model simulated the expected concentration and deposition along the sampling transect. Modelled and observed results showed that most pollen was deposited beneath the canopy (range 63–94%) in an exponentially decreasing curve and the tailing off started from around the outer edge of the canopy in most cases. The amount of pollen deposited at 50 m was no more than 2.6% of total deposition in the samples for any tree and at 100 m no more than 0.2%. Tree height, width and wind speed during the pollination period were found to be the main parameters affecting deposition away from the source.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9479-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Field studies measuring the aerosolization of endotoxin during the land
           application of Class B biosolids
    • Authors: R. F. Herrmann; R. J. Grosser; D. Farrar; R. B. Brobst
      Pages: 417 - 434
      Abstract: Abstract Endotoxins are a component of Gram-negative bacteria cell walls and are known to be present in biosolids. Endotoxins have been shown to be potent stimulators of the innate immune response causing airway irritation and shortness of breath. Class B biosolids are routinely applied to agricultural lands to enhance soil properties and can be used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. This study investigated the aerosolized endotoxin dispersed during the land application of Class B biosolids on agricultural land and a concrete surface at two sites in Colorado, USA. Aerosolized endotoxin was captured using HiVol samplers fitted with glass fiber filters, polycarbonate filter cassettes (both open and closed) and BioSampler impinger air samplers. Endotoxins were also measured in the biosolids to allow for correlating bulk biosolids concentrations with aerosol emission rates. Endotoxin concentrations in biosolids, impinger solutions and filter extracts were determined using the kinetic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Aerosolized endotoxin concentration was detected from all sites with levels ranging from 0.5 to 642 EU/m3. The four types of sampling apparatus were compared, and the HiVol and open-faced cassette samplers produced higher time-weighted average (TWA) measurements (EU/m3) than the impinger and closed cassette samplers. Ambient wind speed was found to be the variable best describing the observed results with optimal wind speed for highest deposition estimated at 5 m s−1. It is argued that HiVol air samplers are a particularly reliable approach and subsequent analyses relating TWA measurements to wind speed and biosolids characteristics were based on the measurements collected with those samplers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9480-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Phenotypic and molecular assessment of antimicrobial resistance profile of
           airborne Staphylococcus spp. isolated from flats in Kraków
    • Authors: Anna Lenart-Boroń; Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka; Katarzyna Juraszek; Andrzej Kasprowicz
      Pages: 435 - 444
      Abstract: Abstract Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from air sampled from living spaces in Kraków (Poland). In total, 55 strains belonging to the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from 45 sites, and 13 species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified. The species composition of studied airborne microbiota contains Staphylococcus species that are rarely infectious to humans. Most commonly isolated species comprised S. hominis and S. warneri. The disk-diffusion tests showed that the collected isolates were most frequently resistant to erythromycin. The PCR technique was employed to search for genes conferring the resistance in staphylococci to antibiotics from the group of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins. The analyzed Staphylococcus isolates possessed simultaneously 4 different resistance genes. The molecular analysis with the use of specific primers allowed to determine the most prevalent gene which is mphC, responsible for the resistance to macrolides and for the enzymatic inactivation of the drug by phosphotransferase. The second most often detected gene was msrA1, which confers the resistance of staphylococci to macrolides and is responsible for active pumping of antimicrobial particles out of bacterial cells.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9481-7
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effects of wind speed and direction on monthly fluctuations of
           Cladosporium conidia concentration in the air
    • Authors: Magdalena Sadyś
      Pages: 445 - 456
      Abstract: Abstract This study determined the relationship between airborne concentration of Cladosporium spp. spores and wind speed and direction using real data (local wind measured by weather station) and modelled data (air mass flow computed with the aid of HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Trajectory model). Air samples containing fungal conidia were taken at an urban site (Worcester, UK) for a period of five consecutive years using a spore trap of the Hirst design. A threshold of ≥6000 s m−3 (double the clinical value) was applied in order to select high spore concentration days, when airborne transport of conidia at a regional scale was more likely to occur. Collected data were then examined using geospatial and statistical tools, including circular statistics. Obtained results showed that the greatest numbers of spore concentrations were detected in July and August, when C. herbarum, C. cladosporioides and C. macrocarpum sporulate. The circular correlation test was found to be more sensitive than Spearman’s rank test. The dominance of either local wind or the air mass on Cladosporium spore distributions varied between examined months. Source areas of this pathogen had an origin within the UK territory. Very high daily mean concentrations of Cladosporium spores were observed when daily mean local wind speed was v s ≤ 2.5 m s−1 indicating warm days with a light breeze.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9482-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
  • Recommended terminology for aerobiological studies
    • Authors: C. Galán; A. Ariatti; M. Bonini; B. Clot; B. Crouzy; A. Dahl; D. Fernandez-González; G. Frenguelli; R. Gehrig; S. Isard; E. Levetin; D. W. Li; P. Mandrioli; C. A. Rogers; M. Thibaudon; I. Sauliene; C. Skjoth; M. Smith; M. Sofiev
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9496-0
  • DNA metabarcoding of airborne pollen: new protocols for improved taxonomic
           identification of environmental samples
    • Authors: Kleopatra Leontidou; Cristiano Vernesi; Johannes De Groeve; Fabiana Cristofolini; Despoina Vokou; Antonella Cristofori
      Abstract: Abstract Metabarcoding is a promising DNA-based method for identifying airborne pollen from environmental samples with advantages over microscopic methods. Sample preparation and DNA extraction are of fundamental importance for obtaining an optimal DNA yield. Currently, there is no standard procedure for these steps, especially for gravimetric pollen samplers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop protocols for processing environmental samples for pollen DNA extraction and for metabarcoding analysis and to assess the efficacy of these protocols for the taxonomic assignment of airborne pollen collected by gravimetric (Tauber trap) and volumetric (Hirst-type trap) samplers. Protocols were tested across an increasing complexity of samples, from pure single-species pollen to environmental multi-species samples. A short fragment (about 150 base pairs) of the chloroplast trnL gene was amplified using universal primers for plants. After PCR amplification, amplicons were Sanger-sequenced and taxonomic assignment was accomplished by comparison with a custom-made reference database including chloroplast DNA sequences from most of the anemophilous taxa occurring in the study area (Trentino, northern Italy), representing 46 plant families. Using the classical morphological pollen analysis as a benchmark, we show that DNA metabarcoding is efficient and applicable even in complex samples, provided that protocols for sample preparation, DNA extraction, and metabarcoding analysis are carefully optimized.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9497-z
  • Free orbicules of Cupressaceae detected in daily aerobiological samples by
           optical and confocal microscopy
    • Authors: Franco Ruggiero; Gianni Bedini
      Abstract: Abstract Members of Cupressaceae and Taxaceae are known to release large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains into the atmosphere, which are responsible for the onset of pollinosis in many countries throughout the world. In addition to pollen grains, their pollen sacs produce orbicules, which are submicron particles reported to carry allergens and which are potentially able to reach much further down the respiratory tract than pollen grains. Previous research has postulated the presence of orbicules in the atmosphere; however, direct observations have not yet been reported. The aim of this research was to provide the first direct evidence that Cupressaceae orbicules are released into the atmosphere by detecting them in daily aerobiological samples. We observed pollen sacs, pollen grains, and orbicules of nine species of Cupressaceae using scanning electron microscope (SEM). We then used a light and confocal microscope, to examine daily aerobiological samples. Under SEM, we measured the orbicule size (0.494–0.777 µm) and detected unknown nanometric particles (130–200 nm). Under the light microscope, aerobiological samples showed clusters of stained dots surrounding the pollen grains of Cupressaceae. Under the confocal microscope, the same clusters were resolved into submicron particles with the same autofluorescence as the pollen grains. These features enabled us to identify them as orbicules. We believe that our findings help to explain the onset of pollinosis and allergic asthma related to Cupressaceae pollen grains in many countries, even before pollen grains are actually detected or after they are no longer observed in aerobiological monitoring samples.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9495-1
  • Enrichment of airborne Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica ) pollen in
           mountain ranges when passing through a front accompanying temperate low
    • Authors: Yuichi Takahashi; Shigeto Kawashima; Yusuke Suzuki; Nobuo Ohta; Seiji Kakehata
      Abstract: Abstract Values obtained by the real-time pollen monitors set up at 14 measuring points in the Tohoku region indicate that a large amount of Japanese cedar pollen was dispersed along the western region and northern flank of the Ou Mountain Range when a front accompanying the temperate low pressures passed through the west sea of northern Hokkaido. We are sure that this phenomenon is related to pollen enrichment by mountain ranges. The time at which highest concentrations of pollen grains were observed shifted from the western to the eastern side, in accordance with the path of the front. No pollen was seen after the passage of the cold front.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9494-2
  • Seasonal variability in bacterial and fungal diversity and community
           composition of the near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacity
    • Authors: Ai-ling Xu; Zhi-wen Song; Xiu-lu Lang; Xiang Chen; Yan Xia
      Abstract: Abstract Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous in the near-surface atmosphere where they may impact on the surrounding environment and human health, especially in coastal megacities. However, the diversity, composition, and seasonal variations of these airborne microbes remain limited. This study investigated the airborne microbes of the near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacity Qingdao over one year. It was found that the sample in summer displayed the highest bacterial and fungal diversity, while sample in winter exhibited the lowest bacterial and fungal diversity. Proteobacteria was the dominating bacteria, and Dothideomycetes was the most dominating fungi in the near-surface atmosphere, which took up 53–76 and 49–78% relative abundance, respectively. However, the bacterial diversity and community composition had significant seasonal variations. These data suggest that a complex set of environmental factors, including landscaping ratio, solar radiation temperature, and marine microorganisms, can affect the composition of airborne microbes in the near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacity. The analysis of the pathogenic microorganisms or opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms existed in the near-surface atmosphere revealed that the relative abundance of pathogenic microorganisms in autumn was the highest. The main pathogenic microorganisms or opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms were Acinetobacter baumannii (accounting for up to 9.93% relative abundance), Staphylococcus epidermidis (accounting for up to 11.26% relative abundance), Mycobacterium smegmatis (accounting for up to 3.68% relative abundance), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (accounting for up to 5.36% relative abundance), which may be related to certain human or plant diseases in specific environments or at certain seasons. Therefore, the investigation of airborne microbial communities of near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacities is very important to both the understanding of airborne microbes and public health.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9489-z
  • A comparative study of hourly and daily relationships between selected
           meteorological parameters and airborne fungal spore composition
    • Authors: Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń; Beata Bosiacka; Aleksandra Bednarz; Tomasz Wolski
      Abstract: Abstract Air sampling was conducted in Szczecin (Poland) throughout April–September 2013. The final data set included 177 daily and 4248 hourly samples. The total of 21 types of spores, which occurred in a number >10 in the season, were taken into account. The following meteorological parameters were analyzed: air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed. Effects of individual weather parameters on hourly and daily concentrations of different fungal spore types were examined using Spearman’s rank association test, whereas effects of complex of meteorological factors on hourly and daily compositions of spore were assessed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). Airborne fungal spore distribution patterns in relation to meteorological variables were determined by RDA, after DCA results detected a linear structure of the spore data. The RDA results obtained indicated that all the applied variables accounted for 20 and 22% of the total variance in the hourly and daily spore data, respectively. The results of stepwise forward selection of variables revealed all included hourly and daily meteorological variables were statistically significant. The largest amount of the total variance in the spore composition was explained by the air temperature in both cases (16%). Multivariate ordination did not show large differences between the hourly and daily relationships (with exception of wind speed impact), while the differences between simple hourly and daily correlations were more clear. Correlations between daily values of variables were in most cases higher than between hourly values of variables.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9493-3
  • The effects of book disinfection to the airborne microbiological community
           in a library environment
    • Authors: Anna Micheluz; Sabrina Manente; Valeria Prigione; Valeria Tigini; Giovanna Cristina Varese; Giampietro Ravagnan
      Abstract: Abstract The management of fungal contaminants inside libraries and archives has become a big challenge for librarians, restorers and scientists. Several disinfection treatments have been developed in recent years, using both chemical and physical approaches on book collections and indoor environments. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the temporal efficiency of these cleanings, especially in relation with the preservation environments. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effect of a chemical disinfection that interested a previous-contaminated book collection inside a University library. The monitoring after 6 months and 1 year from the cleaning confirmed any fungal growth on the disinfected books and the reduction of 90% of the airborne fungal load, highlighting anyway the presence of high fungal diversity. Sixty-eight different airborne fungal entities were isolated, in particular Aspergillus vitricola, Bulleromyces albus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium brevicompactum, Rodothorula mugillaginosa and Sporodiobolus pararoseus. Several fungal species were sampled from the disinfected books, in particular Aspergillus penicillioides and Penicillium chrysogenum. The presence of these fungi both as airborne and as settled particles highlights the importance to maintain clean the preservation environments in order to prevent further microbial contaminations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9492-4
  • Poaceae pollen in the atmosphere of Tetouan (NW Morocco): effect of
           meteorological parameters and forecast of daily pollen concentration
    • Authors: Asmae Janati; Hassan Bouziane; Maria del Mar Trigo; Mohamed Kadiri; Mohamed Kazzaz
      Abstract: Abstract The Poaceae pollen season has been characterized in Tetouan during a 7-year period, and the effect of weather conditions on daily concentrations was examined. The forecast models were produced using a stepwise multiple regression analyses. Firstly, three models were constructed to predict daily Poaceae pollen concentrations during the main pollen season, as well as the pre-peak and post-peak periods with data from 2008 to 2012 and tested on data from 2013 and 2014. Secondly, the regression models using leave-one-out cross-validation were produced with data obtained during 2008–2014 taking into account meteorological parameters and mean pollen concentrations of the same day in other years. The duration of the season ranged from 70 days in 2009 to 158 days in 2012. The highest amount of Poaceae pollen was detected in spring and the first fortnight of July. The annual sum of airborne Poaceae pollen concentrations varied between 2100 and 6251. The peak of anthesis was recorded in May in six of the other years studied. The regression models accounted for 36.3–85.7% of variance in daily Poaceae pollen concentrations. The models fitted best when the mean pollen concentration of the same day in other years was added to meteorological variables, and explained 78.4–85.7% of variance of the daily pollen changes. When the year 2014 was used for validating the models, the lowest root-mean-square errors values were found between the observed and estimated data (around 13). The reasonable predictor variables were the mean pollen concentration of the same day in other years, mean temperature, precipitations, and maximum relative humidity.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9487-1
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