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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2272 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (102 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1204 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (381 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1204 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 246)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Aerobiologia
  [SJR: 0.511]   [H-I: 36]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-3025 - ISSN (Online) 0393-5965
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • The relationship between birch pollen, air pollution and weather types and
           their effect on antihistamine purchase in two Swedish cities
    • Authors: Maria Grundström; Åslög Dahl; Tinghai Ou; Deliang Chen; Håkan Pleijel
      Pages: 457 - 471
      Abstract: Exposure to elevated air pollution levels can aggravate pollen allergy symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between airborne birch (Betula) pollen, urban air pollutants NO2, O3 and PM10 and their effects on antihistamine demand in Gothenburg and Malmö, Sweden, 2006–2012. Further, the influence of large-scale weather pattern on pollen-/pollution-related risk, using Lamb weather types (LWTs), was analysed. Daily LWTs were obtained by comparing the atmospheric pressure over a 16-point grid system over southern Sweden (scale ~3000 km). They include two non-directional types, cyclonic (C) and anticyclonic (A) and eight directional types depending on the wind direction (N, NE, E…). Birch pollen levels were exceptionally high under LWTs E and SE in both cities. Furthermore, LWTs with dry and moderately calm meteorological character (A, NE, E, SE) were associated with strongly elevated air pollution (NO2 and PM10) in Gothenburg. For most weather situations in both cities, simultaneously high birch pollen together with high air pollution had larger over-the-counter (OTC) sales of antihistamines than situations with high birch pollen alone. LWTs NE, E, SE and S had the highest OTC sales in both cities. In Gothenburg, the city with a higher load of both birch pollen and air pollution, the higher OTC sales were especially obvious and indicate an increased effect on allergic symptoms from air pollution. Furthermore, Gothenburg LWTs A, NE, E and SE were associated with high pollen and air pollution levels and thus classified as high-risk weather types. In Malmö, corresponding high-risk LWTs were NE, E, SE and S. Furthermore, occurrence of high pollen and air pollutants as well as OTC sales correlated strongly with vapour pressure deficit and temperature in Gothenburg (much less so in Malmö). This provides evidence that the combination of meteorological properties associated with LWTs can explain high levels of birch pollen and air pollution. Our study shows that LWTs represent a useful tool for integrated daily air quality forecasting/warning.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9478-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Olive crop-yield forecasting based on airborne pollen in a region where
           the olive groves acreage and crop system changed drastically
    • Authors: Helena Ribeiro; Ilda Abreu; Mário Cunha
      Pages: 473 - 480
      Abstract: Olive trees are one of the most economically important perennial crops in Portugal. During the last decade, the Alentejo olive-growing region has suffered a significantly change in the crop production system, with the regional pollen index (RPI) and olive fruit production registering a significant growth. The aim of this study was to ascertain the utility of this highly variable production and pollen data in crop forecasting modeling. Airborne pollen was sampled using a Cour-type trap from 1999 to 2015. A linear regression model fitted with the regional pollen index as the independent variable showed an accuracy of 87% in estimating olives fruit production in Alentejo. However, the average deviation between observed and modeled production was 32% with half of the tested years presenting deviations between 36 and 66%. The low accuracy of this model is a consequence of the great overall variation and significant upward trend observed in both the production and the RPI dataset that conceal the true association between these variables. In order to overcome this problem, a detrend procedure was applied to both time series to remove the trend observed. The regression model fitted with the fruit production and the RPI detrended data showed a lowest forecasting accuracy of 63% but the average deviation between observed and modeled production decrease to 14% with a maximum deviation value of 33%. This procedure allows focusing the analysis on the production fluctuations related to the biological response of the trees rather than with the changes in the production system.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9483-5
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1–3)-β- d -glucans as indicators of
           exposure in waste sorting plant environment
    • Authors: Anna Kozajda; Karolina Jeżak; Marcin Cyprowski; Irena Szadkowska-Stańczyk
      Pages: 481 - 491
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the levels of inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1–3)-β-d-glucans as agents harmful to the respiratory tract of workers of municipal waste sorting plants and interaction between these agents based on the measurements taken in two plants with different processing capacities. The study was conducted in summer season in two waste sorting plants (WSPs) differing in processing capacity. Samples of bioaerosol for inhalable dust (gravimetric method), endotoxins (LAL test in kinetic, chromogenic version) and (1–3)-β-d-glucans (Glucatell test in kinetic version) were collected from 42 sorting workers using individual aspirators with glass fiber filters during the work shift. Average geometric concentrations (geometric standard deviation; min–max) of inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1–3)-β-d-glucans were: WSP1: 1.7 mg m−3 (2.2; 0.6–6.9 mg m−3); 15.9 ng m−3 (2.1; 5.4–78.9 ng m−3), 55.1 ng m−3 (1.8; 20.7–188.6 ng m−3) and WSP2: 0.8 mg m−3 (2.2; 0.2–3.8 mg m−3), 9.8 ng m−3 (2.4; 1.6–29.7 ng m−3), 45.0 ng m−3 (3.2, 5.7–212.9 ng m−3), respectively. A significantly higher concentration of inhalable dust was recorded in WSP1 with bigger processing capacity compared to WSP2 (less processing capacity). Significant (p < 0.05) and very high correlations (Spearman rank R > 0.7) were found between the concentrations of all analyzed harmful agents. Processing capacity of waste sorting plants differentially affects the concentrations of inhalable dust, whereas concentrations of endotoxins and glucans are less clearly affected. This suggests that relative concentrations of endotoxin and glucan are depending on the waste sorting capacity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9484-4
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Allergenic Asteraceae in air particulate matter: quantitative DNA analysis
           of mugwort and ragweed
    • Authors: I. Müller-Germann; D. A. Pickersgill; H. Paulsen; B. Alberternst; U. Pöschl; J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky; V. R. Després
      Pages: 493 - 506
      Abstract: Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) are highly allergenic Asteraceae. They often cause pollen allergies in late summer and fall. While mugwort is native to Europe, ragweed reached Europe as a neophyte from North America about 150 years ago and continued spreading ever since. To understand possible relationships between the spread of ragweed, its abundance in air, and to judge possible health risks for the public, we quantified ragweed DNA in inhalable fine as well as in coarse air particulate matter. Mugwort was chosen for comparison, as it is closely related to ragweed and grows in similar, though mainly not identical, habitats but is native to Germany. The DNA quantification was performed on atmospheric aerosol samples collected over a period of 5 years in central Europe. The DNA concentrations were highest during the characteristic pollination periods but varied greatly between different years. In the inhalable fine particle fraction, ragweed exceeds the mugwort DNA concentration fivefold, while the coarse particle fraction, bearing intact pollen grains, contains more mugwort than ragweed DNA. The higher allergenic potential of ragweed might be linked to the humidity or long-range transport-induced bursting of ragweed pollen into smaller allergenic particles, which may reach the lower airways and cause more intense allergic reactions. Airborne ragweed DNA was detected also outside the local pollination periods, which can be explained by atmospheric long-range transport. Back-trajectory analyses indicate that the air masses containing ragweed DNA during winter had originated in regions with milder climate and large ragweed populations (Southern France, Carpathian Basin).
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9485-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of microbial aerosol emissions in an urban wastewater treatment
           plant operated with activated sludge process
    • Authors: Saied Fathi; Yaghoub Hajizadeh; Mahnaz Nikaeen; Mozhgan Gorbani
      Pages: 507 - 515
      Abstract: Wastewater that enters wastewater treatment plants contains lots of pathogenic and nonpathogenic microorganisms which can become bioaerosols during treatment processes and pose health hazard to workers and nearby residents. The emission of the bioaerosols from an urban wastewater treatment plant in spring and summer in different locations and downwind of the plant adopting an extended mechanical aeration system was investigated. Samples of bacteria and fungi were collected within 6 months at 10 selected points by an Anderson one-stage impactor. The highest concentration of bacteria (mean 1373 CFU/m3, 741–2817 CFU/m3) and fungi (mean 1384 CFU/m3, 212–1610 CFU/m3) was found in downwind of the aeration basins. Statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between concentration of bacterial bioaerosols at downwind side of the aeration basins and wind speed (p value <0.05) and temperature (p value <0.05). Also, in the spring and summer, between the number of bacteria and fungi inside the plant and outside the plant (downwind) a significant correlation was observed (p value ≤0.05). The concentrations of bacteria at a distance of 500 m downwind were much higher than those at the background (upwind) point in spring and summer. The processes of wastewater treatment especially using mechanical equipment to create turbulence can be considered as a major source of spreading airborne microorganisms to ambient air of wastewater treatment plants, and the bioaerosols can be dispersed to downwind distances affecting the nearby neighboring. Therefore, in order to decrease the bioaerosols emission, doing some course of actions such as covering the surface of aeration basins, changing the aeration methods and aeration equipment (e. g using diffuser aerator) may be effective.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9486-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Poaceae pollen in the atmosphere of Tetouan (NW Morocco): effect of
           meteorological parameters and forecast of daily pollen concentration
    • Authors: Asmae Janati; Hassan Bouziane; Maria del Mar Trigo; Mohamed Kadiri; Mohamed Kazzaz
      Pages: 517 - 528
      Abstract: The Poaceae pollen season has been characterized in Tetouan during a 7-year period, and the effect of weather conditions on daily concentrations was examined. The forecast models were produced using a stepwise multiple regression analyses. Firstly, three models were constructed to predict daily Poaceae pollen concentrations during the main pollen season, as well as the pre-peak and post-peak periods with data from 2008 to 2012 and tested on data from 2013 and 2014. Secondly, the regression models using leave-one-out cross-validation were produced with data obtained during 2008–2014 taking into account meteorological parameters and mean pollen concentrations of the same day in other years. The duration of the season ranged from 70 days in 2009 to 158 days in 2012. The highest amount of Poaceae pollen was detected in spring and the first fortnight of July. The annual sum of airborne Poaceae pollen concentrations varied between 2100 and 6251. The peak of anthesis was recorded in May in six of the other years studied. The regression models accounted for 36.3–85.7% of variance in daily Poaceae pollen concentrations. The models fitted best when the mean pollen concentration of the same day in other years was added to meteorological variables, and explained 78.4–85.7% of variance of the daily pollen changes. When the year 2014 was used for validating the models, the lowest root-mean-square errors values were found between the observed and estimated data (around 13). The reasonable predictor variables were the mean pollen concentration of the same day in other years, mean temperature, precipitations, and maximum relative humidity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9487-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Statistical modeling, forecasting and time series analysis of birch
           phenology in Montreal, Canada
    • Authors: Alain Robichaud; Paul Comtois
      Pages: 529 - 554
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse birch pollen time series observed in Montreal (Canada) in order to understand the link between inter-annual variability of phenology and environmental factors and to build predictive models for the upcoming pollen season. Modeling phenology is challenging, especially in Canada, where phenological observations are rare. Nevertheless, understanding phenology is required for scientific applications (e.g. inputs to numerical models of pollen dispersion) but also to help allergy sufferers to better prepare their medication and avoidance strategies before the start of the pollen season. We used multivariate statistical regression to analyse and predict phenology. The predictors were drawn from a large basin (over 60) of potential environmental predictors including meteorological data and global climatic indices such NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation index) and ENSO/MEI (Multivariate Enso Index). Results of this paper are summarized as follows: (1) an accurate forecast for the upcoming season starting date of the birch pollen season was obtained (showing low bias and total forecast error of about 4 days in Montreal), (2) NAO and ENSO/MEI indices were found to be well correlated (i.e. 44% of the variance explained) with birch phenology, (3) a long-term trend of 2.6 days per decade (p < 0.1) towards longer season duration was found for the length of the birch pollen season in Montreal. Finally, perturbations of the quasi-biennial cycle of birch were observed in the pollen data during the pollen season following the Great Ice Storm of 1998 which affected south-eastern Canada.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9488-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Particle size distribution of cultivable airborne microbes and inhalable
           particulate matter in a wastewater treatment plant facility
    • Authors: E. Katsivela; E. Latos; L. Raisi; V. Aleksandropoulou; M. Lazaridis
      Pages: 297 - 314
      Abstract: A field study was performed to identify the size distribution characteristics of viable, cultivable airborne microorganisms (heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, and total coliforms) at a municipal wastewater treatment facility, and their association with inhalable particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, and PM10), as well as hydrogen sulfide concentrations and ambient meteorological parameters. The highest concentrations of cultivable, airborne heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, mass and number concentration of particulate matter, as well as hydrogen sulfide were observed at the aerated grit removal chambers at the pretreatment stage (3 to 2030 times higher than the values of the background ambient air). In contrast, the mean concentrations of cultivable, airborne mesophilic fungi at the aerated grit chambers were 0.6 time lower than the background site, where fungi presented the most abundant taxonomic group in the ambient air. Although the highest concentrations of the airborne fungi were determined at aerodynamic diameters between 2.1 and 3.3 μm, a nearly equal distribution of the mean concentrations of the cultivable, airborne heterotrophic bacteria were observed in the six different size fractions at the primary settling tanks and in the ambient air. Interestingly, their size distribution profiles at the aerated grit chambers were different and showed a maximum aerodynamic diameter at the size range from 3.3 to 4.7 μm, similar to that of the cultivable, airborne total coliforms. In general, low positive or no significant linear relationships could be found between the cultivable airborne heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, or fungi at the two wastewater treatment stages and the ambient background microbial community.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-016-9470-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • An analysis of the exposure time to very high concentrations of
           Cladosporium conidia in the air of an urban site
    • Authors: Magdalena Sadyś
      Pages: 327 - 337
      Abstract: Cladosporium spp. is a ubiquitous mould present both in indoor and outdoor environments and affecting a wide array of substrates. It is considered to be the second most important fungal aeroallergen in countries of temperate climates, after Alternaria species. In order to establish the time of exposure to very high concentrations of Cladosporium conidia by sensitised individuals, a 5-year study was undertaken in the UK in a densely populated area using a volumetric air sampler. Weather data, comprised air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed were collected simultaneously. Cladosporium showed a mono-modal pattern with the majority of conidia observed between 09:30 and 19:00 as indicated by descriptive statistics and multivariate regression tree analysis. On the other hand, circular statistics showed that the maximum hourly concentrations were found within 1.5-h window before 09:30. The highest conidia concentrations were observed when dry conditions occurred (40–55%). The maximum temperature associated with peak concentrations was oscillating within the range of 20–25 °C. All findings were confirmed using Kruskal–Wallis, Friedman and sign tests.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9472-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Phenological analysis of grasses (Poaceae) as a support for the dissection
           of their pollen season in Perugia (Central Italy)
    • Authors: Sofia Ghitarrini; Carmen Galán; Giuseppe Frenguelli; Emma Tedeschini
      Pages: 339 - 349
      Abstract: Grasses (Poaceae) pollen is a major cause for allergic diseases worldwide. Pollen monitoring in the atmosphere is of primary importance for symptoms interpretation and therapy planning. Microscopic pollen identification and counts do not allow the detection at species or genus level because of the stenopalynous nature of the family. Nevertheless, the assessment of the flowering phenology of different species would be important, because not all grass allergens are cross-reacting and allergic patients could be differentially sensitized. In this work, a phenological survey was carried out in five stations located on the urban territory of Perugia (Central Italy), from April to September 2015, recording the alternation between flowering phenophases of 19 grass species and estimating their contribution to the airborne pollen load of the area through the calculation of a Phenological Index. Moreover, pollen grains of the different species were collected and observed, confirming the impossibility to make a discrimination during microscope pollen counts. The prevailing grasses in terms of contribution to the pollen detection in the studied area resulted to be Dactylis glomerata and Lolium perenne during spring and early summer, and Cynodon dactylon during late summer. Data should be validated repeating the survey in successive years and possibly using biomolecular tools, but the obtained information could be relevant for diagnosis and treatment of grass pollen allergies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9473-7
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Automated pollen monitoring system using laser optics for observing
           seasonal changes in the concentration of total airborne pollen
    • Authors: Shigeto Kawashima; Michel Thibaudon; Soken Matsuda; Toshio Fujita; Natalie Lemonis; Bernard Clot; Gilles Oliver
      Pages: 351 - 362
      Abstract: The development of a simple and automatic pollen measurement methodology is required to manage allergic problems caused by airborne pollen. We developed a device and algorithm to automatically monitor airborne pollen by using basic laser optics technology. The device measures the sideward and forward scattering intensities of laser light from each particle. Because this device provides detailed temporal variation in the pollen concentration, the dispersal dynamics of airborne pollen can be effectively analyzed. We compared the pollen counts obtained with the automated method and standard Hirst-type method. Scatter-plot graphs were constructed of the forward and sideward scattering intensities of the observed particles. An extract window methodology was used to estimate the concentrations of the major allergenic pollens. The extract window parameters were obtained for major types of allergenic pollen. The results suggest the possibility of developing a device for monitoring several types of airborne pollen simultaneously. We determined the standard extract window to be used for estimating the concentration of all types of airborne pollen together. A field experiment was performed to evaluate the automated monitoring system with the standard extract window. The estimated temporal variation pattern of the total airborne pollen concentration agreed well with the observed temporal variation pattern for the whole pollen season. The pollen monitor was able to estimate the overall features of seasonal changes in the total airborne pollen concentration.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9474-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Aeroallergens: a comparative study of two monitoring methods
    • Authors: M. P. Plaza; P. Alcázar; M. J. Velasco-Jiménez; C. Galán
      Pages: 363 - 373
      Abstract: Olive and grass pollen grains are the major causes of hay fever in the Mediterranean region. A number of samplers and methods have been developed in recent years in order to obtain reliable data regarding airborne allergen concentrations. This paper reports on a detailed comparison of two samplers—Cyclone and ChemVol—and on the parameters that could influence their efficiency. Airborne concentrations of two key olive and grass allergens, Ole e 1 and Phl p 5, respectively, were monitored over two years with different weather patterns, 2012 and 2014. Allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay, and results were compared with pollen concentrations monitored using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap over the same study periods. The influence of weather-related parameters on local airborne pollen and allergen concentrations was also analysed. Although a positive correlation was detected between results obtained using the two samplers during the pollen season, results for the cumulative annual Allergen Index varied considerably. The two samplers revealed a positive correlation between pollen concentrations and both minimum temperature during the warmer year (2012) and maximum temperature during the cooler year (2014); a negative significant correlation was observed in both cases with rainfall and relative humidity. In summary, although some differences were observed between the two samplers studied, both may be regarded as suitable for allergen detection.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9475-5
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Atmospheric pollen dispersion from herbicide-resistant horseweed ( Conyza
           canadensis L.)
    • Authors: Junming Wang; Meilan Qi; Haiyan Huang; Rongjian Ye; Xiangzhen Li; C. Neal Stewart
      Pages: 393 - 406
      Abstract: Horseweed (Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.) with evolved herbicide resistance has become an especially problematic weed in crop production across the USA and on four continents (North America, South America, Asia, and Europe). Spread of herbicide resistance can occur through pollen-mediated gene flow between resistant and susceptible horseweed populations. However, there are little knowledge, preventive guidelines, and mechanism modeling for pollen transport in this system. We need to better understand pollen dispersion and deposition in the context of atmospheric conditions, herbicide-resistant horseweed patch size, and buffer crop type, height, and field size. A mechanistic model is needed to account for these. A pollen dispersion and deposition model was calibrated and validated using 2013 experimental field data. The validated model was run for various combinations of atmospheric conditions, horseweed characteristics (source strength), and buffer species and size (pollen can be intercepted by crop plants). Large fields with crops with a high leaf area density and tall plants can effectively prevent pollen dispersion. The information will help provide guidelines for preventing herbicide resistance spread from herbicide-resistant weeds and genetically modified plants in general.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9477-3
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Modelled and observed surface soil pollen deposition distance curves for
           isolated trees of Carpinus betulus , Cedrus atlantica , Juglans nigra and
           Platanus acerifolia
    • Authors: Beverley Adams-Groom; Carsten Ambelas Skjøth; Michael Baker; Thomas E. Welch
      Pages: 407 - 416
      Abstract: Source–distance relationships for pollen deposited directly into surface soil have been rarely undertaken, particularly for a single or isolated source, rather than a forest, grove or plantation. This study aimed to determine surface soil pollen deposition patterns from single, isolated source trees and to compare the results to Gaussian model curves for the same trees. Four isolated tree pollen sources were chosen in Worcester, UK: Carpinus betulus, Cedrus atlantica, Juglans nigra and Platanus acerifolia. Surface soil samples were collected at 1, 5 and then every 10 m, up to 100 m distance from the main trunk of each source along the prevailing wind direction during flowering. A Gaussian dispersion model was used to estimate source strength using tree height and width and wind speeds on days when flowering was occurring and when the wind direction flowed along the sampling transect. This model simulated the expected concentration and deposition along the sampling transect. Modelled and observed results showed that most pollen was deposited beneath the canopy (range 63–94%) in an exponentially decreasing curve and the tailing off started from around the outer edge of the canopy in most cases. The amount of pollen deposited at 50 m was no more than 2.6% of total deposition in the samples for any tree and at 100 m no more than 0.2%. Tree height, width and wind speed during the pollination period were found to be the main parameters affecting deposition away from the source.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9479-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Phenotypic and molecular assessment of antimicrobial resistance profile of
           airborne Staphylococcus spp. isolated from flats in Kraków
    • Authors: Anna Lenart-Boroń; Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka; Katarzyna Juraszek; Andrzej Kasprowicz
      Pages: 435 - 444
      Abstract: Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from air sampled from living spaces in Kraków (Poland). In total, 55 strains belonging to the genus Staphylococcus were isolated from 45 sites, and 13 species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified. The species composition of studied airborne microbiota contains Staphylococcus species that are rarely infectious to humans. Most commonly isolated species comprised S. hominis and S. warneri. The disk-diffusion tests showed that the collected isolates were most frequently resistant to erythromycin. The PCR technique was employed to search for genes conferring the resistance in staphylococci to antibiotics from the group of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins. The analyzed Staphylococcus isolates possessed simultaneously 4 different resistance genes. The molecular analysis with the use of specific primers allowed to determine the most prevalent gene which is mphC, responsible for the resistance to macrolides and for the enzymatic inactivation of the drug by phosphotransferase. The second most often detected gene was msrA1, which confers the resistance of staphylococci to macrolides and is responsible for active pumping of antimicrobial particles out of bacterial cells.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9481-7
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Effects of wind speed and direction on monthly fluctuations of
           Cladosporium conidia concentration in the air
    • Authors: Magdalena Sadyś
      Pages: 445 - 456
      Abstract: This study determined the relationship between airborne concentration of Cladosporium spp. spores and wind speed and direction using real data (local wind measured by weather station) and modelled data (air mass flow computed with the aid of HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Trajectory model). Air samples containing fungal conidia were taken at an urban site (Worcester, UK) for a period of five consecutive years using a spore trap of the Hirst design. A threshold of ≥6000 s m−3 (double the clinical value) was applied in order to select high spore concentration days, when airborne transport of conidia at a regional scale was more likely to occur. Collected data were then examined using geospatial and statistical tools, including circular statistics. Obtained results showed that the greatest numbers of spore concentrations were detected in July and August, when C. herbarum, C. cladosporioides and C. macrocarpum sporulate. The circular correlation test was found to be more sensitive than Spearman’s rank test. The dominance of either local wind or the air mass on Cladosporium spore distributions varied between examined months. Source areas of this pathogen had an origin within the UK territory. Very high daily mean concentrations of Cladosporium spores were observed when daily mean local wind speed was v s ≤ 2.5 m s−1 indicating warm days with a light breeze.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9482-6
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Correlations between weather conditions and airborne pollen concentration
           and diversity in a Mediterranean high-altitude site disclose unexpected
           temporal patterns
    • Authors: L. Pace; L. Boccacci; M. Casilli; P. Di Carlo; S. Fattorini
      Abstract: Relationships between meteorological factors and airborne pollen concentrations at high altitudes are virtually unknown. We used cross-correlation analyses to test the relationships between daily variation in meteorological factors (i.e. temperature, humidity and wind speed) and airborne pollen concentration, diversity (number of families and Shannon and Simpson diversity indices) and evenness (Pielou index) in an Apennine high-altitude site (Gran Sasso Massif, 2117 m elevation). In contrast to patterns observed at low altitudes, the temperature had a negative correlation with pollen abundance and diversity, whereas humidity had a positive correlation. The unexpected negative correlations with temperature can be explained with the particular position of our sampling site. Wind speed was positively correlated with pollen diversity and abundance in the short term, which can be explained by the fact that higher wind speed promotes both primary emission of pollen from the anthers and subsequent re-suspension. Evenness and wind speed were negatively correlated in the short term because of the different response of different species to meteorological conditions. In the longer term, the average concentrations of the various taxa tend to reach similar values, leading to increased values of diversity. Our finding of a decrease in pollen emission with increasing temperature has important implications for the study of the impacts of global change on high-altitude plant communities. We also detected a high abundance of Cupressaceae/Taxaceae pollen, a reflection of the expansion of thermophilic species, such as Juniperus, due to climate change.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9499-x
       
  • Airborne fungi as indicators of ecosystem disturbance: an example from
           selected Tatra Mountains caves (Poland)
    • Authors: Wojciech Pusz; Maria Król; Tomasz Zwijacz-Kozica
      Abstract: We report on the determination of the spore concentration and the species composition of the airborne fungi in selected caves of the Tatra Mountains, Poland. The following caves were surveyed: Mylna, Obłazkowa, Mroźna, Zimna and Naciekowa. The sampling was carried out in July 2015 and in January 2016. The aeromycological analyses were performed with the impact method, using the Air Ideal 3P apparatus and potato dextrose agar (PDA, Biocorp) culture medium. In the course of the July 2015 analysis, 17 species of fungi were isolated and 11 species were isolated in January 2016. In Mylna and Naciekowa caves, the dominant species were Cladosporium cladosporioides and Stachybotrys cylindrospora. In Obłazkowa cave, Rhizoctonia predominated and in Zimna cave—the colonies of the yeast-like fungi, along with S. cylindrospora. In Mroźna cave, Penicillium notatum was the most abundant taxon. In the winter time, in the majority of the caves Penicillium spp. predominated, with the exception of Mroźna and Naciekowa caves where Aspergillus niger was dominant. We propose that aeromycological monitoring be performed regularly in the following caves: Mroźna, Naciekowa and Zimna.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9498-y
       
  • Recommended terminology for aerobiological studies
    • Authors: C. Galán; A. Ariatti; M. Bonini; B. Clot; B. Crouzy; A. Dahl; D. Fernandez-González; G. Frenguelli; R. Gehrig; S. Isard; E. Levetin; D. W. Li; P. Mandrioli; C. A. Rogers; M. Thibaudon; I. Sauliene; C. Skjoth; M. Smith; M. Sofiev
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9496-0
       
  • Seasonal variability in bacterial and fungal diversity and community
           composition of the near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacity
    • Authors: Ai-ling Xu; Zhi-wen Song; Xiu-lu Lang; Xiang Chen; Yan Xia
      Abstract: Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous in the near-surface atmosphere where they may impact on the surrounding environment and human health, especially in coastal megacities. However, the diversity, composition, and seasonal variations of these airborne microbes remain limited. This study investigated the airborne microbes of the near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacity Qingdao over one year. It was found that the sample in summer displayed the highest bacterial and fungal diversity, while sample in winter exhibited the lowest bacterial and fungal diversity. Proteobacteria was the dominating bacteria, and Dothideomycetes was the most dominating fungi in the near-surface atmosphere, which took up 53–76 and 49–78% relative abundance, respectively. However, the bacterial diversity and community composition had significant seasonal variations. These data suggest that a complex set of environmental factors, including landscaping ratio, solar radiation temperature, and marine microorganisms, can affect the composition of airborne microbes in the near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacity. The analysis of the pathogenic microorganisms or opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms existed in the near-surface atmosphere revealed that the relative abundance of pathogenic microorganisms in autumn was the highest. The main pathogenic microorganisms or opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms were Acinetobacter baumannii (accounting for up to 9.93% relative abundance), Staphylococcus epidermidis (accounting for up to 11.26% relative abundance), Mycobacterium smegmatis (accounting for up to 3.68% relative abundance), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (accounting for up to 5.36% relative abundance), which may be related to certain human or plant diseases in specific environments or at certain seasons. Therefore, the investigation of airborne microbial communities of near-surface atmosphere in coastal megacities is very important to both the understanding of airborne microbes and public health.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10453-017-9489-z
       
 
 
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