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ENGINEERING (1240 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
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Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 266)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
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Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
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Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
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Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
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Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 273)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
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Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Batteries
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [198 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 2: Towards Li-Ion Batteries Operating at 80 °C:
           Ionic Liquid versus Conventional Liquid Electrolytes

    • Authors: Gabriel Oltean, Nareerat Plylahan, Charlotte Ihrfors, Wei Wei, Chao Xu, Kristina Edström, Leif Nyholm, Patrik Johansson, Torbjörn Gustafsson
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Li-ion battery (LIB) full cells comprised of TiO2-nanotube (TiO2-nt) and LiFePO4 (LFP) electrodes and either a conventional organic solvent based liquid electrolyte or an ionic liquid based electrolyte have been cycled at 80 °C. While the cell containing the ionic liquid based electrolyte exhibited good capacity retention and rate capability during 100 cycles, rapid capacity fading was found for the corresponding cell with the organic electrolyte. Results obtained for TiO2-nt and LFP half-cells indicate an oxidative degradation of the organic electrolyte at 80 °C. In all, ionic liquid based electrolytes can be used to significantly improve the performance of LIBs operating at 80 °C.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 3: Looking Deeper into the Galaxy (Note 7)

    • Authors: Melanie Loveridge, Guillaume Remy, Nadia Kourra, Ronny Genieser, Anup Barai, Mike Lain, Yue Guo, Mark Amor-Segan, Mark Williams, Tazdin Amietszajew, Mark Ellis, Rohit Bhagat, David Greenwood
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Li-ion cell designs, component integrity, and manufacturing processes all have critical influence on the safety of Li-ion batteries. Any internal defective features that induce a short circuit, can trigger a thermal runaway: a cascade of reactions, leading to a device fire. As consumer device manufacturers push aggressively for increased battery energy, instances of field failure are increasingly reported. Notably, Samsung made a press release in 2017 following a total product recall of their Galaxy Note 7 mobile phone, confirming speculation that the events were attributable to the battery and its mode of manufacture. Recent incidences of battery swelling on the new iPhone 8 have been reported in the media, and the techniques and lessons reported herein may have future relevance. Here we look deeper into the key components of one of these cells and confirm evidence of cracking of electrode material in tightly folded areas, combined with a delamination of surface coating on the separator, which itself is an unusually thin monolayer. We report microstructural information about the electrodes, battery welding attributes, and thermal mapping of the battery whilst operational. The findings present a deeper insight into the battery’s component microstructures than previously disseminated. This points to the most probable combination of events and highlights the impact of design features, whilst providing structural considerations most likely to have led to the reported incidences relating to this phone.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2018)
  • Batteries, Vol. 4, Pages 1: Performance Comparison of Rechargeable
           Batteries for Stationary Applications (Ni/MH vs. Ni–Cd and VRLA)

    • Authors: Michael Zelinsky, John Koch, Kwo-Hsiung Young
      First page: 1
      Abstract: The stationary power market, particularly telecommunications back-up (telecom) applications, is dominated by lead-acid batteries. A large percentage of telecom powerplants are housed in outdoor enclosures where valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are commonly used because of their low-maintenance design. Batteries in these enclosures can be exposed to temperatures which can exceed 70 °C, significantly reducing battery life. Nickel–cadmium (Ni–Cd) batteries have traditionally been deployed in hotter locations as a high-temperature alternative to VRLA. This paper compares the performances of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH), Ni–Cd, and VRLA batteries in a simulated telecom environment according to published testing standards. Among these three choices, Ni/MH batteries showed the best overall performance, suggesting substantially longer operating life in high temperature stationary use.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries4010001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 29: Cell Performance Comparison between C14- and
           C15-Predomiated AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young, John Koch, Chubin Wan, Roman Denys, Volodymyr Yartys
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The performance of cylindrical cells made from negative electrode active materials of two selected AB2 metal hydride chemistries with different dominating Laves phases (C14 vs. C15) were compared. Cells made from Alloy C15 showed a higher high-rate performance and peak power with a corresponding sacrifice in capacity, low-temperature performance, charge retention, and cycle life when compared with the C14 counterpart (Alloy C14). Annealing of the Alloy C15 eliminated the ZrNi secondary phase and further improved the high-rate and peak power performance. This treatment on Alloy C15 showed the best low-temperature performance, but also contributed to a less-desirable high-temperature voltage stand and an inferior cycle stability. While the main failure mode for Alloy C14 in the sealed cell is the formation of a thick oxide layer that prevents gas recombination during overcharge and consequent venting of the cell, the failure mode for Alloy C15 is dominated by continuous pulverization related to the volumetric changes during hydride formation and hysteresis in the pressure-composition-temperature isotherm. The leached-out Mn from Alloy C15 formed a high density of oxide deposits in the separator, leading to a deterioration in charge retention performance. Large amounts of Zr were found in the positive electrode of the cycled cell containing Alloy C15, but did not appear to harm cell performance. Suggestions for further composition and process optimization for Alloy C15 are also provided.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040029
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 30: Effects of Alkaline Pre-Etching to Metal
           Hydride Alloys

    • Authors: Tiejun Meng, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Chaolan Hu, Benjamin Reichman
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The responses of one AB5, two AB2, four A2B7, and one C14-related body-centered-cubic (BCC) metal hydrides to an alkaline-etch (45% KOH at 110 °C for 2 h) were studied by internal resistance, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, inductively coupled plasma, and AC impedance measurements. Results show that while the etched rare earth–based AB5 and A2B7 alloys surfaces are covered with hydroxide/oxide (weight gain), the transition metal–based AB2 and BCC-C14 alloys surfaces are corroded and leach into electrolyte (weight loss). The C14-predominated AB2, La-only A2B7, and Sm-based A2B7 showed the most reduction in the internal resistance with the alkaline-etch process. Etched A2B7 alloys with high La-contents exhibited the lowest internal resistance and are suggested for use in the high-power application of nickel/metal hydride batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-10-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040030
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 31: Spontaneous Generation of Electromotive Force
           in Thin Film Al/Nanosilicon/Al Structures

    • Authors: Sergey Dorofeev, Nikolay Kononov, Sergei Bubenov, Pavel Kotin, Aleksandr Zolotykh, Denis Grigoriev
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Contemporary pursuits in electronics include the miniaturization as well as flexibilization of devices. Although there are a large number of different thin and flexible electrochemical batteries, only a few can boast the possibility of working in high humidity conditions. This paper reports on the fabrication of structures consisting of films of silicon nanoparticles encased between two aluminium electrodes. The value of electromotive force (emf) measured depends on the temperature of the sample and on the pressure of water vapor in the storage atmosphere and reaches approximately 1 V. Volt-ampere characteristics were investigated at different conditions to yield a model of emf generation in these structures. It was found that the reaction of water with silicon nanoparticles is the prime reason behind emf generation. Such a source may be introduced into electronic paper, and employed in the next generation of smart cards. The structure may also be manufactured directly on the surface of silicon chips, such as on the back of crystals in microschemes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040031
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 32: Statistical Characterization of the
           State-of-Health of Lithium-Ion Batteries with Weibull Distribution
           Function—A Consideration of Random Effect Model in Charge Capacity Decay

    • Authors: Chinedu Ossai, Nagarajan Raghavan
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Effective prognosis of lithium-ion batteries involves the inclusion of the influences of uncertainties that can be incorporated through random effect parameters in a nonlinear mixed effect degradation model framework. This study is geared towards the estimation of the reliability of lithium-ion batteries, using parametric effects determination involving uncertainty, using a multiphase decay patterned sigmoidal model, experimental data and the Weibull distribution function. The random effect model, which uses Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Stochastic Approximation Expectation Maximization (SAEM) algorithm to predict the parametric values, was found to estimate the remaining useful life (RUL) to an accuracy of more than 98%. The State-of-Health (SOH) of the batteries was estimated using the Weibull distribution function, which is found to be an appropriate formulation to use.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040032
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 33: Thermal Characteristics of Conversion-Type
           FeOF Cathode in Li-ion Batteries

    • Authors: Liwei Zhao, Ayuko Kitajou, Shigeto Okada
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Rutile FeOF was used as a conversion-type cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In the present study, 0.6Li, 1.4Li, and 2.7Li per mole lithiation reactions were carried out by changing the electrochemical discharge reaction depth. The thermal characteristics of the FeOF cathode were investigated by thermogravimetric mass spectrometric (TG-MS) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) systems. No remarkable HF release was detected, even up to 700 °C, which indicated a low toxic risk for the FeOF cathode. Changes in the thermal properties of the FeOF cathode via different conversion reaction depths in the associated electrolyte were studied by changing the cathode/electrolyte ratio in the mixture. LiFeOF was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 210 °C. Similar exothermic reactions were found with charged FeOF cathodes because of the irreversible Li ions. Among the products of the conversion reaction of FeOF, Li2O was found to exothermically react with the electrolyte at about 120 °C, which induced the main thermal risk of the FeOF cathode. It suggests that the oxygen-containing conversion-type cathodes have a higher thermal risk than the oxygen-free ones, but controlling the cathode/electrolyte ratio in cells successfully reduced the thermal risk. Finally, the thermal stability of the FeOF cathode was evaluated in comparison with FeF3 and LiFePO4 cathodes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040033
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 34: Comparison among Constituent Phases in
           Superlattice Metal Hydride Alloys for Battery Applications

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young, Taihei Ouchi, Jean Nei, John Koch, Yu-Ling Lien
      First page: 34
      Abstract: The effects of seven constituent phases—CeNi3, NdNi3, Nd2Ni7, Pr2Ni7, Sm5Ni19, Nd5Co19, and CaCu5—on the gaseous phase and electrochemical characteristics of a superlattice metal hydride alloy made by induction melting with a composition of Sm14La5.7Mg4.0Ni73Al3.3 were studied through a series of annealing experiments. With an increase in annealing temperature, the abundance of non-superlattice CaCu5 phase first decreases and then increases, which is opposite to the phase abundance evolution of Nd2Ni7—the phase with the best electrochemical performance. The optimal annealing condition for the composition in this study is 920 °C for 5 h. Extensive correlation studies reveal that the A2B7 phase demonstrates higher gaseous phase hydrogen storage and electrochemical discharge capacities and better battery performance in high-rate dischargeability, charge retention, and cycle life. Moreover, the hexagonal stacking structure is found to be more favorable than the rhombohedral structure.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040034
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 35: Performance Comparison between AB5 and
           Superlattice Metal Hydride Alloys in Sealed Cells

    • Authors: John Koch, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Jean Nei, Chaolan Hu, Benjamin Reichman
      First page: 35
      Abstract: High-power cylindrical nickel metal/hydride batteries using a misch metal-based Al-free superlattice alloy with a composition of La11.3Pr1.7Nd5.1Mg4.5Ni63.6Co13.6Zr0.2 were fabricated and evaluated against those using a standard AB5 metal hydride alloy. At room temperature, cells made with the superlattice alloy showed a 40% lower internal resistance and a 59% lower surface charge-transfer resistance compared to cells made with the AB5 alloy. At a low temperature (−10 °C), cells made with the superlattice alloy demonstrated an 18% lower internal resistance and a 60% lower surface charge-transfer resistance compared to cells made with the AB5 alloy. Cells made with the superlattice alloy exhibited a better charge retention at −10 °C. A cycle life comparison in a regular cell configuration indicated that the Al-free superlattice alloy contributes to a shorter cycle life as a result of the pulverization from the lattice expansion of the main phase.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040035
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 36: Effects of Boron-Incorporation in a
           V-Containing Zr-Based AB2 Metal Hydride Alloy

    • Authors: Shiuan Chang, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Taihei Ouchi, Jean Nei, Xin Wu
      First page: 36
      Abstract: In this study, boron, a metalloid element commonly used in semiconductor applications, was added in a V-containing Zr-based AB2 metal hydride alloy. In general, as the boron content in the alloy increased, the high-rate dischargeability, surface exchange current, and double-layer capacitance first decreased and then increased whereas charge-transfer resistance and dot product of charge-transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance changed in the opposite direction. Electrochemical and gaseous phase characteristics of two boron-containing alloys, with the same boron content detected by the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, showed significant variations in performances due to the difference in phase abundance of a newly formed tetragonal V3B2 phase. This new phase contributes to the increases in electrochemical high-rate dischargeability, surface exchange current, charge-transfer resistances at room, and low temperatures. However, the V3B2 phase does not contribute to the hydrogen storage capacities in either gaseous phase and electrochemical environment.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040036
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 37: Nanostructured Networks for Energy Storage:
           Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes (VACNT) as Current Collectors for
           High-Power Li4Ti5O12(LTO)//LiMn2O4(LMO) Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Fabian Pawlitzek, Holger Althues, Benjamin Schumm, Stefan Kaskel
      First page: 37
      Abstract: As a concept for electrode architecture in high power lithium ion batteries, self-supported nanoarrays enable ultra-high power densities as a result of their open pore geometry, which results in short and direct Li+-ion and electron pathways. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) on metallic current collectors with low interface resistance are used as current collectors for the chemical solution infiltration of electroactive oxides to produce vertically aligned carbon nanotubes decorated with in situ grown LiMn2O4 (LMO) and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanoparticles. The production processes steps (catalyst coating, VACNT chemical vapor deposition (CVD), infiltration, and thermal transformation) are all scalable, continuous, and suitable for niche market production to achieve high oxide loadings up to 70 wt %. Due to their unique transport structure, as-prepared nanoarrays achieve remarkably high power densities up to 2.58 kW kg−1, which is based on the total electrode mass at 80 C for LiMn2O4//Li4Ti5O12 full cells. The tailoring of LTO and LMO nanoparticle size (~20–100 nm) and VACNT length (array height: 60–200 µm) gives insights into the rate-limiting steps at high current for these kinds of nanoarray electrodes at very high C-rates of up to 200 C. The results reveal the critical structural parameters for achieving high power densities in VACNT nanoarray full cells.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040037
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 38: A Ni/MH Pouch Cell with High-Capacity Ni(OH)2

    • Authors: Shuli Yan, Tiejun Meng, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Jean Nei
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Electrochemical performances of a high-capacity and long life β-α core-shell structured Ni0.84Co0.12Al0.04(OH)2 as the positive electrode active material were tested in a pouch design and compared to those of a standard β-Ni0.91Co0.045Zn0.045(OH)2. The core-shell materials were fabricated with a continuous co-precipitation process, which created an Al-poor core and an Al-rich shell during the nucleation and particle growth stages, respectively. The Al-rich shell became α-Ni(OH)2 after electrical activation and remained intact through the cycling. Pouch cells with the high-capacity β-α core-shell positive electrode material show higher charge acceptances and discharge capacities at 0.1C, 0.2C, 0.5C, and 1C, improved self-discharge performances, and reduced internal and surface charge-transfer resistances, at both room temperature and −10 °C when compared to those with the standard positive electrode material. While the high capacity of the core-shell material can be attributed to the α phase with a multi-electron transfer capability, the improvement in high-rate capability (lower resistance) is caused by the unique surface morphology and abundant interface sites at the β-α grain boundaries. Gravimetric energy densities of pouch cells made with the high-capacity and standard positive materials are 127 and 110 Wh·kg−1, respectively. A further improvement in capacity is expected via the continued optimization of pouch design and the use of high-capacity metal hydride alloy.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040038
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 39: A Bilevel Equalizer for Large Lithium Ion

    • Authors: Ngalula Mubenga, Zachary Linkous, Thomas Stuart
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Due to variations among the cells, large lithium ion batteries (LIB) such as those in battery energy storage stations (BESS) and electric vehicles (EVs) must have an equalizer (EQU) circuit to balance the cell voltages. In spite of their significant losses and other limitations, passive equalizers (PEQ) are used in most applications because they are relatively simple and low cost. Active equalizers (AEQ) reduce these PEQ problems, but are not as widely used due to their much higher cost and complexity. A new hybrid circuit called the Bilevel EQU (BEQ) combines the PEQ and AEQ to provide much higher performance than a pure PEQ but at a much lower cost than a pure AEQ.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040039
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 40: Electron Backscatter Diffraction Studies on
           the Formation of Superlattice Metal Hydride Alloys

    • Authors: Shuli Yan, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Xin Zhao, Zhi Mei, K. Ng
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Microstructures of a series of La-Mg-Ni-based superlattice metal hydride alloys produced by a novel method of interaction of a LaNi5 alloy and Mg vapor were studied using a combination of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The conversion rate of LaNi5 increased from 86.8% into 98.2%, and the A2B7 phase abundance increased from 42.5 to 45.8 wt % and reduced to 39.2 wt % with the increase in process time from four to 32 h. During the first stage of reaction, Mg formed discrete grains with the same orientation, which was closely related to the orientation of the host LaNi5 alloy. Mg then diffused through the ab-phase of LaNi5 and formed the AB2, AB3, and A2B7 phases. Diffusion of Mg stalled at the grain boundary of the host LaNi5 alloy. Good alignments in the c-axis between the newly formed superlattice phases and LaNi5 were observed. The density of high-angle grain boundary decreased with the increase in process time and was an indication of lattice cracking.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040040
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 41: Effects of Cs2CO3 Additive in KOH Electrolyte
           Used in Ni/MH Batteries

    • Authors: Shuli Yan, Jean Nei, Peifeng Li, Kwo-Hsiung Young, K. Ng
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The effects of Cs2CO3 addition in a KOH-based electrolyte were investigated for applications in nickel/metal hydride batteries. Both MgNi-based and Laves phase-related body-centered cubic solid solution metal hydride alloys were tested as the anode active materials, and sintered β-Ni(OH)2 was used as the cathode active material. Certain amounts of Cs2CO3 additive in the KOH-based electrolyte improved the electrochemical performances compared with a conventional pure KOH electrolyte. For example, with Laves phase-related body-centered cubic alloys, the addition of Cs2CO3 to the electrolyte improved cycle stability (for all three alloys) and discharge capacity (for the Al-containing alloys); moreover, in the 0.33 M Cs2CO3 + 6.44 M KOH electrolyte, the discharge capacity of Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 increased to 132%, degradation decreased to 87%, and high-rate dischargeability stayed the same compared with the conventional 6.77 M KOH electrolyte. The effects of Cs2CO3 on the physical and chemical properties of Mg52Ni39Co3Mn6 were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results from these analyses concluded that Cs2CO3 addition changed both the alloy surface and bulk composition. A fluffy layer containing carbon was found covering the metal particle surface after cycling in the Cs2CO3-containing electrolyte, and was considered to be the main cause of the reduction in capacity degradation during cycling. Also, the Cs2CO3 additive promoted the formations of the C–O and C=O bonds on the alloy surface. The C–O and C=O bonds were believed to be active sites for proton transfer during the electrochemical process, with the C–O bond being the more effective of the two. Both bonds contributed to a higher surface catalytic ability. The addition of 0.33 M Cs2CO3 was deemed optimal in this study.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3040041
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 20: Sol-Gel Synthesized Antimony Anodes for
           Sodium-Ion Batteries: Identifying Key Parameters for Optimization

    • Authors: Nicholas Drewett, Juan Gómez-Cámer, Begoña Acebedo, Montserrat Galceran, Teófilo Rojo
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The potentially high gravimetric capacities of intermetallic anodes, coupled with the low cost and readily available materials used in sodium-ion batteries, has generated interest in antimony—an anode capable of alloying with sodium. However, presently there are few synthetic routes to antimony particles for use in sodium-ion batteries. One pot, sol-gel synthetic routes from readily available, chloride-free precursors have been developed. The resulting products have been characterized and, from this data, several key parameters’ optimization have been identified and are presented here. Finally, using this information, some initial optimization has been carried out, which resulted in minor improvements to the physical and electrochemical properties of the resulting product.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3030020
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 21: On-Line Remaining Useful Life Prediction of
           Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on the Optimized Gray Model GM(1,1)

    • Authors: Dong Zhou, Long Xue, Yijia Song, Jiayu Chen
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Lithium-ion battery on-line remaining useful life (RUL) prediction has become increasingly popular. The capacity and internal resistance are often used as the batteries’ health indicator (HI) for quantifying degradation and predicting the RUL. However, the capacity and internal resistance are too difficult to measure on-line due to the batteries’ internal state variables being inaccessible to sensors under operational conditions. In addition, measuring these variables requires accurate measurement devices, which can be expensive, and have limited applicability in practice. In this paper, a novel HI is extracted from the operating parameters of lithium-ion batteries for degradation models and RUL prediction. Moreover, the Box–Cox transformation is applied to improve the correlation between the extracted HI and the battery’s real capacity. Then, Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses are utilized to assess the similarity between the real capacity and the estimated capacity derived from the HI. An optimized gray model GM(1,1) is employed to predict the RUL based on the presented HI. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and accurate for battery degradation modeling and RUL prediction.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3030021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 22: Comparison of C14- and C15-Predomiated AB2
           Metal Hydride Alloys for Electrochemical Applications

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young, Jean Nei, Chubin Wan, Roman Denys, Volodymyr Yartys
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Herein, we present a comparison of the electrochemical hydrogen-storage characteristics of two state-of-art Laves phase-based metal hydride alloys (Zr21.5Ti12.0V10.0Cr7.5Mn8.1Co8.0Ni32.2Sn0.3Al0.4 vs. Zr25.0Ti6.5V3.9Mn22.2Fe3.8Ni38.0La0.3) prepared by induction melting and hydrogen decrepitation. The relatively high contents of lighter transition metals (V and Cr) in the first composition results in an average electron density below the C14/C15 threshold ( e / a ~ 6.9 ) and produces a C14-predominated structure, while the average electron density of the second composition is above the C14/C15 threshold and results in a C15-predominated structure. From a combination of variations in composition, main phase structure, and degree of homogeneity, the C14-predominated alloy exhibits higher storage capacities (in both the gaseous phase and electrochemical environment), a slower activation, inferior high-rate discharge, and low-temperature performances, and a better cycle stability compared to the C15-predominated alloy. The superiority in high-rate dischargeability in the C15-predominated alloy is mainly due to its larger reactive surface area. Annealing of the C15-predominated alloy eliminates the ZrNi secondary phase completely and changes the composition of the La-containing secondary phase. While the former change sacrifices the synergetic effects, and degrades the hydrogen storage performance, the latter may contribute to the unchanged surface catalytic ability, even with a reduction in total volume of metallic nickel clusters embedded in the activated surface oxide layer. In general, the C14-predominated alloy is more suitable for high-capacity and long cycle life applications, and the C15-predominated alloy can be used in areas requiring easy activation, and better high-rate and low-temperature performances.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3030022
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 23: Optimized Fuzzy-Cuckoo Controller for Active
           Power Control of Battery Energy Storage System, Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell
           and Wind Turbine in an Isolated Micro-Grid

    • Authors: Mohsen Einan, Hossein Torkaman, Mahdi Pourgholi
      First page: 23
      Abstract: This paper presents a new control strategy for isolated micro-grids including wind turbines (WT), fuel cells (FC), photo-voltaic (PV) and battery energy storage systems (BESS). FC have been used in parallel with BESSs in order to increase their lifetime and efficiency. The changes in some parameters such as wind speed, sunlight, and consumption, lead to improper performance of droop. To overcome this challenge, a new intelligent method using a combination of fuzzy controller and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA) techniques for active power controllers in isolated networks is proposed. In this paper, COA is compared with genetic algorithm (GA) and particles swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). In order to show efficiency of the proposed controller, this optimal controller has been compared with droop, optimized droop, and conventional fuzzy methods, the dynamic analysis of the island is implemented to assess the behavior of isolated generations accurately and simulation results are reported.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3030023
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 24: Reviews on Chinese Patents Regarding the
           Nickel/Metal Hydride Battery

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young, Xiaojuan Cai, Shiuan Chang
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Both the patents issued and applications filed in China regarding nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) battery technology are reviewed in the article. Selective works from 39 battery manufactures, 9 metal hydride alloy suppliers, 13 Ni(OH)2 suppliers, 20 hardware suppliers, 19 system integrators, universities, and 12 research institutes are included. China being the country that produces the most Ni/MH batteries is relatively weak in the innovation part of intellectual properties when compared to the US and Japan. However, it produces very many patents in the areas of cell structure optimization and production processes. Designs of high-capacity, high-power, and low-cost cells are compared from different manufacturers.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3030024
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 25: Reviews of European Patents on Nickel/Metal
           Hydride Batteries

    • Authors: Shiuan Chang, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Yu-Ling Lien
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Patent applications in the field of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries are reviewed to provide a solid technology background and directions for future developments. As the fourth review article in the series of investigations into intellectual properties in this area, this article focuses on 126 patent applications filed by European companies at the European Patent Office, while the earlier articles dealt with those from USA, Japan, and China. The history and current status of the key companies in the Ni/MH battery business are briefly discussed. These companies are categorized by their main roles in the industry, i.e., battery manufacturer, metal hydride alloy supplier, separator supplier, and others. While some European companies are pioneers in bringing the Ni/MH product to customers, others have made significant contributions to the development of the technology, especially in the button cell, bipolar cell, and separator areas.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3030025
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 26: Increase in the Surface Catalytic Ability by
           Addition of Palladium in C14 Metal Hydride Alloy

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young, Taihei Ouchi, Jean Nei, Shiuan Chang
      First page: 26
      Abstract: A combination of analytic tools and electrochemical testing was employed to study the contributions of Palladium (Pd) in a Zr-based AB2 metal hydride alloy (Ti12Zr22.8V10 Cr7.5Mn8.1Co7Ni32.2Al0.4). Pd enters the A-site of both the C14 and C15 Laves phases and shrinks the unit cell volumes, which results in a decrease of both gaseous phase and electrochemical hydrogen storage capacities. On the other hand, the addition of Pd benefits both the bulk transport of hydrogen and the surface electrochemical reaction. Improvements in high-rate dischargeability and low-temperature performances are solely due to an increase in surface catalytic ability. Addition of Pd also decreases the surface reactive area, but such properties can be mediated through incorporation of additional modifications with rare earth elements. A review of Pd-addition to other hydrogen storage materials is also included.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3030026
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 27: C14 Laves Phase Metal Hydride Alloys for
           Ni/MH Batteries Applications

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young, Shiuan Chang, Xinting Lin
      First page: 27
      Abstract: C14 Laves phase alloys play a significant role in improving the performance of nickel/metal hydride batteries, which currently dominate the 1.2 V consumer-type rechargeable battery market and those for hybrid electric vehicles. In the current study, the properties of C14 Laves phase based metal hydride alloys are reviewed in relation to their electrochemical applications. Various preparation methods and failure mechanisms of the C14 Laves phase based metal hydride alloys, and the influence of all elements on the electrochemical performance, are discussed. The contributions of some commonly used constituting elements are compared to performance requirements. The importance of stoichiometry and its impact on electrochemical properties is also included. At the end, a discussion section addresses historical hurdles, previous trials, and future directions for implementing C14 Laves phase based metal hydride alloys in commercial nickel/metal hydride batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3030027
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 28: Fe-Substitution for Ni in Misch Metal-Based
           Superlattice Hydrogen Absorbing Alloys—Part 2. Ni/MH Battery Performance
           and Failure Mechanisms

    • Authors: Tiejun Meng, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Jean Nei, John Koch, Shigekazu Yasuoka
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The electrochemical performance and failure mechanisms of Ni/MH batteries made with a series of the Fe-substituted A2B7 superlattice alloys as the negative electrodes were investigated. The incorporation of Fe does not lead to improved cell capacity or cycle life at either room or low temperature, although Fe promotes the formation of a favorable Ce2Ni7 phase. Fe-substitution was found to inhibit leaching of Al from the metal hydride negative electrode and promote leaching of Co, which could potentially extend the cycle life of the positive electrode. The failure mechanisms of the cycled cells with the Fe-substituted superlattice hydrogen absorbing alloys were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma analysis. The failure of cells with Fe-free and low Fe-content alloys is mainly attributed to the pulverization of the metal hydride alloy. Meanwhile, severe oxidation/corrosion of the negative electrode is observed for cells with high Fe-content alloys, resulting in increased internal cell resistance, formation of micro-shortages in the separator and eventual cell failure.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3030028
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 11: Doping LiMnPO4 with Cobalt and Nickel: A
           First Principle Study

    • Authors: Mauro Francesco Sgroi, Roberto Lazzaroni, David Beljonne, Daniele Pullini
      First page: 11
      Abstract: A density functional theory (DFT) study has been carried out on transition metal phosphates with olivine structure and formula LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) to assess their potential as cathode materials in rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on their chemical and structural stability and high theoretical capacity. The investigation focuses on LiMnPO4, which could offer an improved cell potential (4.1 V) with respect to the reference LiFePO4 compound, but it is characterized by poor lithium intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics. Substitution of cations like Co and Ni in the olivine structure of LiMnPO4 was recently reported in an attempt to improve the electrochemical performances. Here the electronic structure and lithium intercalation potential of Ni- and Co-doped LiMnPO4 were calculated in the framework of the Hubbard U density functional theory (DFT+U) method for highly correlated materials. Moreover, the diffusion process of lithium in the host structures was simulated, and the activation barriers in the doped and pristine structures were compared. Our calculation predicted that doping increases Li insertion potential while activation barriers for Li diffusion remain similar to the pristine material. Moreover, Ni and Co doping induces the formation of impurity states near the Fermi level and significantly reduces the band gap of LiMnPO4.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 12: Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit
           Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Hicham Chaoui, Sravanthi Mandalapu
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS), along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC). Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 13: High-Fidelity Battery Model for Model
           Predictive Control Implemented into a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: Nicolas Sockeel, Masood Shahverdi, Michael Mazzola, William Meadows
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Power management strategies have impacts on fuel economy, greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission, as well as effects on the durability of power-train components. This is why different off-line and real-time optimal control approaches are being developed. However, real-time control seems to be more attractive than off-line control because it can be directly implemented for managing power and energy flows inside an actual vehicle. One interesting illustration of these power management strategies is the model predictive control (MPC) based algorithm. Inside a MPC, a cost function is optimized while system constraints are validated in real time. The MPC algorithm relies on dynamic models of the vehicle and the battery. The complexity and accuracy of the battery model are usually neglected to benefit the development of new cost functions or better MPC algorithms. The contribution of this manuscript consists of developing and evaluating a high-fidelity battery model of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that has been used for MPC. Via empirical work and simulation, the impact of a high-fidelity battery model has been evaluated and compared to a simpler model in the context of MPC. It is proven that the new battery model reduces the absolute voltage, state of charge (SoC), and battery power loss error by a factor of 3.2, 1.9 and 2.1 on average respectively, compared to the simpler battery model.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 14: Experimental Analysis of Thermal Runaway in
           18650 Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells Using an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter

    • Authors: Boxia Lei, Wenjiao Zhao, Carlos Ziebert, Nils Uhlmann, Magnus Rohde, Hans Seifert
      First page: 14
      Abstract: In this work, commercial 18650 lithium-ion cells with LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2 cathodes were exposed to external heating in an accelerating rate calorimeter (es-ARC, Thermal Hazard Technology (THT), Bletchley, UK), to investigate the thermal behavior under abuse conditions. New procedures for measuring the external and internal pressure change of cells were developed. The external pressure was measured utilizing a gas-tight cylinder inside the calorimeter chamber, in order to detect the venting of the cells. For internal pressure measurements, a pressure line connected to a pressure transducer was directly inserted into the cell. During the thermal runaway experiments, three stages (low rate, medium rate, and high rate reactions) were observed. Both the pressure and temperature change indicated different stages of exothermic reactions, which produced gases or/and heat. The onset temperature of the thermal runaway was estimated according to the temperature and pressure changes. Moreover, the different activation energies for the exothermic reactions could be derived from Arrhenius plots.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 15: Developing Electrolyte for a Soluble Lead
           Redox Flow Battery by Reprocessing Spent Lead Acid Battery Electrodes

    • Authors: Keletso Orapeleng, Richard Wills, Andrew Cruden
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The archival value of this paper is the investigation of novel methods to recover lead (II) ions from spent lead acid battery electrodes to be used directly as electrolyte for a soluble lead flow battery. The methods involved heating electrodes of spent lead acid batteries in methanesulfonic acid and hydrogen peroxide to dissolve solid lead and lead dioxide out of the electrode material. The processes yielded lead methanesulfonate, which is an electrolyte for the soluble lead acid battery. The lead (II) ions in the electrolyte were identified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and their electrochemistry confirmed using cyclic voltammetry. The concentration of lead (II) ions was determined and it was found that using the higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide yielded the highest concentration of lead (II) ions. The method was therefore found to be sufficient to make electrolyte for a soluble lead cell.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 16: Influence of Using Metallic Na on the
           Interfacial and Transport Properties of Na-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Maider Zarrabeitia, Miguel Muñoz-Márquez, Francesco Nobili, Teófilo Rojo, Montse Casas-Cabanas
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Na2Ti3O7 is a promising negative electrode for rechargeable Na-ion batteries; however, its good properties in terms of insertion voltage and specific capacity are hampered by the poor capacity retention reported in the past. The interfacial and ionic/electronic properties are key factors to understanding the electrochemical performance of Na2Ti3O7. Therefore, its study is of utmost importance. In addition, although rather unexplored, the use of metallic Na in half-cell studies is another important issue due to the fact that side-reactions will be induced when metallic Na is in contact with the electrolyte. Hence, in this work the interfacial and transport properties of full Na-ion cells have been investigated and compared with half-cells upon electrochemical cycling by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (conventional XPS and Auger parameter analysis) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The half-cell has been assembled with C-coated Na2Ti3O7 against metallic Na whilst the full-cell uses C-coated Na2Ti3O7 as negative electrode and NaFePO4 as positive electrode, delivering 112 Wh/kganode+cathode in the 2nd cycle. When comparing both types of cells, it has been found that the interfacial properties, the OCV (open circuit voltage) and the electrode–-electrolyte interphase behavior are more stable in the full-cell than in the half-cell. The electronic transition from insulator to conductor previously observed in a half-cell for Na2Ti3O7 has also been detected in the full-cell impedance analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 17: Further Cost Reduction of Battery

    • Authors: Amir Asif, Rajendra Singh
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV) assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC) can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT) can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 18: Performance Analysis of Machine-Learning
           Approaches for Modeling the Charging/Discharging Profiles of Stationary
           Battery Systems with Non-Uniform Cell Aging

    • Authors: Nandha Kandasamy, Rajagopalan Badrinarayanan, Venkata Kanamarlapudi, King Tseng, Boon-Hee Soong
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The number of Stationary Battery Systems (SBS) connected to various power distribution networks across the world has increased drastically. The increase in the integration of renewable energy sources is one of the major contributors to the increase in the number of SBS. SBS are also used in other applications such as peak load management, load-shifting, voltage regulation and power quality improvement. Accurately modeling the charging/discharging characteristics of such SBS at various instances (charging/discharging profile) is vital for many applications. Capacity loss due to the aging of the batteries is an important factor to be considered for estimating the charging/discharging profile of SBS more accurately. Empirical modeling is a common approach used in the literature for estimating capacity loss, which is further used for estimating the charging/discharging profiles of SBS. However, in the case of SBS used for renewable integration and other grid related applications, machine-learning (ML) based models provide extreme flexibility and require minimal resources for implementation. The models can even leverage existing smart meter data to estimate the charging/discharging profile of SBS. In this paper, an analysis on the performance of different ML approaches that can be applied for lithium iron phosphate battery systems and vanadium redox flow battery systems used as SBS is presented for the scenarios where the aging of individual cells is non-uniform.
      PubDate: 2017-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 19: Hydrogen Storage Characteristics and
           Corrosion Behavior of Ti24V40Cr34Fe2 Alloy

    • Authors: Jimoh Mohammed Abdul, Lesley Hearth Chown, Jamiu Kolawole Odusote, Jean Nei, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Woli Taiye Olayinka
      First page: 19
      Abstract: In this work, we investigated the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure, hydrogen storage characteristics and corrosion rate of a Ti34V40Cr24Fe2 alloy. The arc melted alloy was divided into three samples, two of which were separately quartz-sealed under vacuum and heated to 1000 °C for 1 h; one of these samples was quenched and the other furnace-cooled to ambient temperature. The crystal structures of the samples were studied via X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrogenation/dehydrogenation characteristics were investigated using a Sievert apparatus. Potentiostat corrosion tests on the alloys were performed using an AutoLab® corrosion test apparatus and electrochemical cell. All samples exhibited a major body-center-cubic (BCC) and some secondary phases. An abundance of Laves phases that were found in the as-cast sample reduced with annealing and disappeared in the quenched sample. Beside suppressing Laves phase, annealing also introduced a Ti-rich phase. The corrosion rate, maximum absorption, and useful capacities increased after both heat treatments. The annealed sample had the highest absorption and reversible capacity. The plateau pressure of the as-cast alloy increased after quenching. The corrosion rate increased from 0.0004 mm/y in the as-cast sample to 0.0009 mm/y after annealing and 0.0017 mm/y after quenching.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3020019
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 1: Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic
           Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and
           Safety Shut-Down

    • Authors: Fredrik Larsson, Antti Rytinki, Istaq Ahmed, Ingvar Albinsson, Bengt-Erik Mellander
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 2: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Batteries in

    • Authors: Batteries Editorial Office
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The editors of Batteries would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. [...]
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 3: Test Method for Thermal Characterization of
           Li-Ion Cells and Verification of Cooling Concepts

    • Authors: Rouven Christen, Gerhard Rizzo, Alfred Gadola, Max Stöck
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Temperature gradients, thermal cycling and temperatures outside the optimal operation range can have a significant influence on the reliability and lifetime of Li-ion battery cells. Therefore, it is essential for the developer of large-scale battery systems to know the thermal characteristics, such as heat source location, heat capacity and thermal conductivity, of a single cell in order to design appropriate cooling measures. This paper describes an advanced test facility, which allows not only an estimation of the thermal properties of a battery cell, but also the verification of proposed cooling strategies in operation. To do this, an active measuring unit consisting of a temperature and heat flux density sensor and a Peltier element was developed. These temperature/heat flux sensing (THFS) units are uniformly arranged around a battery cell with a spatial resolution of 25 mm. Consequently, the temperature or heat flux density can be controlled individually, thus forming regions with constant temperature (cooling) or zero heat flux (insulation). This test setup covers the whole development loop from thermal characterization to the design and verification of the proposed cooling strategy.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 4: Ionic Liquid-Based Non-Aqueous Electrolytes
           for Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    • Authors: Tiejun Meng, Kwo-Hsiung Young, Diana Wong, Jean Nei
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The voltage of an alkaline electrolyte-based battery is often limited by the narrow electrochemical stability window of water (1.23 V). As an alternative to water, ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte has been shown to exhibit excellent proton conducting properties and a wide electrochemical stability window, and can be used in proton conducting batteries. In this study, we used IL/acid mixtures to replace the 30 wt % KOH aqueous electrolyte in nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries, and verified the proton conducting character of these mixtures through electrochemical charge/discharge experiments. Dilution of ILs with acetic acid was found to effectively increase proton conductivity. By using 2 M acetic acid in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, stable charge/discharge characteristics were obtained, including low charge/discharge overpotentials, a discharge voltage plateau at ~1.2 V, a specific capacity of 161.9 mAh·g−1, and a stable cycling performance for an AB5 metal hydride anode with a (Ni,Co,Zn)(OH)2 cathode.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 5: Domain Size of Phase-Separated NaxCoO2 as
           Investigated by X-Ray Microdiffraction

    • Authors: Hideharu Niwa, Takayuki Shibata, Yasuhiko Imai, Shigeru Kimura, Yutaka Moritomo
      First page: 5
      Abstract: O3-NaCoO 2 is a promising cathode material for sodium ion secondary batteries (SIBs). Na x CoO 2 shows phase separation (PS) into the O3 and O ′ 3 phases in the Na concentration range of 0.89 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.99. In order to estimate the domain size (r) in the two-phase region, we performed X-ray microdiffraction (XRMD) of thin films of Na x CoO 2 at x = 0.97 and ∼1. We found that r (≈400 nm) of the O ′ 3 domain is comparable to the particle size d (=331 ± 87 nm) in the as-grown O3-NaCoO 2 film. This observation suggests that individual particles of Na x CoO 2 are single phase to minimize the strain at the O3–O ′ 3 phase boundary.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 6: Fabrications of High-Capacity Alpha-Ni(OH)2

    • Authors: Kwo-Hsiung Young, Lixin Wang, Shuli Yan, Xingqun Liao, Tiejun Meng, Haoting Shen, William Mays
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Three different methods were used to produce α-Ni(OH)2 with higher discharge capacities than the conventional β-Ni(OH)2, specifically a batch process of co-precipitation, a continuous process of co-precipitation with a phase transformation step (initial cycling), and an overcharge at low temperature. All three methods can produce α-Ni(OH)2 or α/β mixed-Ni(OH)2 with capacities higher than that of conventional β-Ni(OH)2 and a stable cycle performance. The second method produces a special core–shell β-Ni(OH)2/α-Ni(OH)2 structure with an excellent cycle stability in the flooded half-cell configuration, is innovative and also already mass-production ready. The core–shell structure has been investigated by both scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The shell portion of the particle is composed of α-Ni(OH)2 nano-crystals embedded in a β-Ni(OH)2 matrix, which helps to reduce the stress originating from the lattice expansion in the β-α transformation. A review on the research regarding α-Ni(OH)2 is also included in the paper.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 7: Low Voltage Charge/Discharge Behavior of
           Manganese Hexacyanoferrate

    • Authors: Takayuki Shibata, Masamitsu Takachi, Yutaka Moritomo
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Recently, Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) have been reported to exhibit a low voltage charge/discharge behavior with high capacity (300–545 mAh/g) in lithium-ion secondary batteries (LIBs) [...]
      PubDate: 2017-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 8: Study on Factors for Accurate Open Circuit
           Voltage Characterizations in Mn-Type Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Natthawuth Somakettarin, Tsuyoshi Funaki
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Open circuit voltage (OCV) of lithium batteries has been of interest since the battery management system (BMS) requires an accurate knowledge of the voltage characteristics of any Li-ion batteries. This article presents an OCV characteristic for lithium manganese oxide (LMO) batteries under several experimental operating conditions, and discusses factors for accurate OCV determination. A test system is developed for OCV characterization based on the OCV pulse test method. Various factors for the OCV behavior, such as resting period, step-size of the pulse test, testing current amplitude, hysteresis phenomena, and terminal voltage relationship, are investigated and evaluated. To this end, a general OCV model based on state of charge (SOC) tracking is developed and validated with satisfactory results.
      PubDate: 2017-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 9: Towards an Ultimate Battery Thermal Management
           System: A Review

    • Authors: Mohammad Khan, Maciej Swierczynski, Søren Kær
      First page: 9
      Abstract: The prevailing standards and scientific literature offer a wide range of options for the construction of a battery thermal management system (BTMS). The design of an innovative yet well-functioning BTMS requires strict supervision, quality audit and continuous improvement of the whole process. It must address all the current quality and safety (Q&S) standards. In this review article, an effective battery thermal management is sought considering the existing battery Q&S standards and scientific literature. The article contains a broad overview of the current existing standards and literature on a generic compliant BTMS. The aim is to assist in the design of a novel compatible BTMS. Additionally, the article delivers a set of recommendations to make an effective BTMS.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
  • Batteries, Vol. 3, Pages 10: Second-Life Batteries on a Gas Turbine Power
           Plant to Provide Area Regulation Services

    • Authors: Lluc Canals Casals, Beatriz Amante García
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Batteries are used in the electricity grid to provide ancillary services. Area regulation seems to provide substantial revenues and profit, but Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle (EV) batteries are considered inappropriate for traction purposes when they reach a state of health (SoH) of 80%. The reuse of these batteries offers affordable batteries for second-life stationary applications. This study analyzes two possible scenarios where batteries may give power and energy support to a gas turbine cogeneration power plant, and how long these batteries may last under different loads.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries3010010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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